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Sample records for intravascular ultrasound analysis

  1. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate

  2. Relationship between intravascular ultrasound parameters and fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary artery stenosis of left anterior descending artery: intravascular ultrasound volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Lim, Hong-Seok; Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Choi, So-Yeon; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Jin, Xiong Jie; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters, including volumetric analysis, and fractional flow reserve (FFR). Although it is known that coronary atherosclerosis burden measured by IVUS volumetric analysis is related with clinical outcomes, its relationship with functional significance remains unknown. Both IVUS and FFR were performed in 206 cases of intermediate stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Myocardial ischemia was assessed by FFR and maximal hyperemia was induced by continuous intracoronary adenosine infusion. FFR  0.80 were associated with larger plaque volume (181.8 ± 82.3 vs. 125.9 ± 77.9 mm3, P < 0.001) and PAV (58.9 ± 5.6 vs. 53.8 ± 7.9%, P < 0.001). IVUS parameters representing severity and extent of atheromatous plaque correlated with functional significance in LAD lesions with intermediate stenosis.

  3. Angioplasty Guided by Intravascular Ultrasound: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

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    Figueiredo, José Albuquerque Neto de, E-mail: jafneto@cardiol.br; Nogueira, Iara Antonia Lustosa [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luiz, MA (Brazil); Figueiro, Mabel Fernandes; Buehler, Anna Maria; Berwanger, Otavio [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa do Hospital do Coração, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) use on stenting has shown inconclusive results. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IVUS on stenting regarding the clinical and angiographic evolution. A search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, Embase, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science databases. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the implantation of stents guided by IVUS, compared with those using angiography alone (ANGIO). The minimum follow-up duration was six months and the following outcomes were assessed: thrombosis, mortality, myocardial infarction, percutaneous and surgical revascularization, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and restenosis. The binary outcomes were presented considering the number of events in each group; the estimates were generated by a random effects model, considering Mantel-Haenszel statistics as weighting agent and magnitude of effect for the relative risk (RR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Higgins I{sup 2} test was used to quantify the consistency between the results of each study. A total of 2,689 articles were evaluated, including 8 RCTs. There was a 27% reduction in angiographic restenosis (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, I{sup 2} = 51%) and statistically significant reduction in the rates of percutaneous revascularization and overall (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53, I{sup 2} = 61%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.99, I{sup 2} = 55%), with no statistical difference in surgical revascularization (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.52-1.74, I{sup 2} = 0%) in favor of IVUS vs. ANGIO. There were no differences regarding the other outcomes in the comparison between the two strategies. Angioplasty with stenting guided by IVUS decreases the rates of restenosis and revascularization, with no impact on MACE, acute myocardial infarction, mortality or thrombosis outcomes.

  4. Angioplasty Guided by Intravascular Ultrasound: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, José Albuquerque Neto de; Nogueira, Iara Antonia Lustosa; Figueiro, Mabel Fernandes; Buehler, Anna Maria; Berwanger, Otavio

    2013-01-01

    The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) use on stenting has shown inconclusive results. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IVUS on stenting regarding the clinical and angiographic evolution. A search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, Embase, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science databases. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the implantation of stents guided by IVUS, compared with those using angiography alone (ANGIO). The minimum follow-up duration was six months and the following outcomes were assessed: thrombosis, mortality, myocardial infarction, percutaneous and surgical revascularization, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and restenosis. The binary outcomes were presented considering the number of events in each group; the estimates were generated by a random effects model, considering Mantel-Haenszel statistics as weighting agent and magnitude of effect for the relative risk (RR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Higgins I 2 test was used to quantify the consistency between the results of each study. A total of 2,689 articles were evaluated, including 8 RCTs. There was a 27% reduction in angiographic restenosis (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, I 2 = 51%) and statistically significant reduction in the rates of percutaneous revascularization and overall (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53, I 2 = 61%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.99, I 2 = 55%), with no statistical difference in surgical revascularization (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.52-1.74, I 2 = 0%) in favor of IVUS vs. ANGIO. There were no differences regarding the other outcomes in the comparison between the two strategies. Angioplasty with stenting guided by IVUS decreases the rates of restenosis and revascularization, with no impact on MACE, acute myocardial infarction, mortality or thrombosis outcomes

  5. Reproducibility of intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis (virtual histology) with a 45-MHz rotational imaging catheter in ex vivo human coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muramatsu (Takashi); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); S. Brugaletta (Salvatore); J.H. Heo (Jungho); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); R.J. Fedewa (Russell J.); A. Nair (Anuja); Y. Ozaki (Yukio); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite the frequent use of spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data (VH® IVUS) in clinical studies, the assessment for reproducibility using this with high frequency IVUS remains unexplored. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the

  6. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maresca

    Full Text Available Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with

  7. Offline fusion of co-registered intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography images for the analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Heo, Jung Ho; Radu, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images.......To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images....

  8. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, D.; Adams, S.; Maresca, B.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound

  9. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound

  10. Accuracy of electrocardiographic-gated versus nongated volumetric intravascular ultrasound measurements of coronary arterial narrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2007-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) allows precise measurements of plaque plus media (P+M) volume and neointimal hyperplasia after coronary artery stenting. Conventional IVUS volumetric analysis is performed mostly without electrocardiographically gated acquisition, and the IVUS images are selected...

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

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    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39% patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, <0.001, thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, <0.001, plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, <0.001, and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, <0.001 were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability.

  12. Regression and shift in composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by pioglitazone: insight from an intravascular ultrasound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Fabrizio; Di Luozzo, Marco; Mango, Ruggiero; Luciani, Giulio; Trivisonno, Antonio; Pizzuto, Francesco; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Mehta, Jawahar L; Romeo, Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Plaque reduction with the use of pioglitazone and statin combination therapy has been observed in carotid plaque. We sought to investigate the effect of combination therapy with statins and pioglitazone on coronary plaque regression and composition with the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH). We analysed 29 plaques in 25 diabetic patients with angiographic evidence of nonsignificant coronary lesions with IVUS-VH. Patients were treated with 80 mg of atorvastatin and 30 mg of pioglitazone daily for 6 months. After 6 months of therapy, IVUS-VH of each lesion was reacquired. Mean elastic external membrane volume was significantly reduced between baseline and follow-up (343.9 vs. 320.5 mm; P < 0.05) as was mean total atheroma volume (179.3 vs. 166.6 mm; P < 0.05). Change in total atheroma volume showed a 6.3% mean reduction. Areas of fibrous tissue, fibrolipidic tissue and calcium decreased over the 6 months of follow-up, although not significantly. On the other hand, the necrotic core increased from 9 to 14% (P < 0.05). Our data demonstrated that atorvastatin/pioglitazone association is able to induce significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis, acting on plaque composition. Our findings are preliminary results and will be confirmed in an ongoing randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial (PIPER; Pioglitazone for Prevention of Restenosis in Diabetics with Complex Lesion; trial registration: clinical trials.gov. Identifier: NCT 00376870).

  13. Intravascular Ultrasound and its Use in Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepanec, A.; Vulev, I.; Vozar, M.; Balazs, T.; Madaric, J.; Holoman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound has become in invasive vascular radiology in the last decade the important part of diagnostic and also therapeutic procedures in management of vascular diseases. The basic possibilities for the use of IVUS include diagnostic procedures in vascular pathology assessment and therapeutic indications in the field of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI). Unlike other image modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound) IVUS enables gather unique image in r eal time r ight from the vessel lumen, what helps to add important information regarding vessel wall, plate morphology, thrombi and cross-sectional vessel area. After initial use of intravascular ultrasound in coronary circulation, using IVUS is nowadays widely extended especially in aortic diseases, carotid and renal arteries and arteries of the lower extremities. This review article summarizes possibilities of intravascular ultrasound utilization in diagnostic process and therapy from peripheral vascular diseases up to thoracoabdominal aorta diseases and our experience with this new diagnostic modality. (author)

  14. Comparison of intravascular ultrasound versus angiography-guided drug-eluting stent implantation: A meta-analysis of one randomised trial and ten observational studies involving 19,619 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Yaojun); V. Farooq (Vasim); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); C.V. Bourantas (Christos); N.-L. Tian (Nai-Liang); S.-J. Dong (Sheng-Jie); M. Li (Minghui); S. Yang (Shengyun); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); S.-L. Chen (Shao-Liang)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAims: The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guided coronary drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation on clinical outcomes remains controversial. A meta-analysis of the currently available clinical trials investi-gating IVUS-guided DES implantation was undertaken. Methods and

  15. Discrimination of intravascular lumen and dissections in single intravascular ultrasound images using subtraction, conventional averaging and saline flush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); M.S. van der Heiden (M.); M.J. Post (Mark); C. Borst (Cornelius); E.J. Gussenhoven (Elma); H. Pieterman; H. van Urk (Hero); N. Bom (Klaas)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWith current 30-MHz intravascular ultrasound systems, flowing blood may cause considerable backscatter which in real-time images is characterized by dynamic speckle. However, in a single intravascular ultrasound image (still-frame) the discrimination between arterial lumen and wall may

  16. Mechanical scanning in intravascular ultrasound imaging: Artifacts and driving mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. ten Hoff (H.); E.J. Gussenhoven (Elma); C.M. Korbijn (Carin); F. Mastik (Frits); C.T. Lancée (Charles); N. Bom (Klaas)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Currently, intravascular ultrasound (US) imaging catheters are developed and produced to provide a complementary diagnostic method in the treatment of blood vessel obstructive disease. Typical catheter dimensions are a diameter of 1–2.5 mm and a length of 1–1.5 m. A real-time

  17. An Axial Array for Volumetric Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a medical imaging modality aimed at imaging blood vessel walls from within the vessel. Current commercial IVUS catheters are designed to yield two-dimensional cross-sectional images perpendicular to the vessel wall. By pulling the catheter back through the artery

  18. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  19. Intravascular ultrasound-guided drug-eluting stent implantation: An updated meta-analysis of randomized control trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvil, Arie; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Lee, Sang Yeub; Pang, Si; Waksman, Ron; Chen, Shao-Liang; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2016-08-01

    The use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance for drug-eluting stent (DES) optimization is limited by the number of adequately powered randomized control trials (RCTs). We performed an updated meta-analysis, including data from recently published RCTs and observational studies, by reviewing the literature in Medline and the Cochrane Library to identify studies that compared clinical outcomes between IVUS-guided and angiography-guided DES implantation from January 1995 to January 2016. This meta-analysis included 25 eligible studies, including 31,283 patients, of whom 3192 patients were enrolled in 7 RCTs. In an analysis of all 25 studies, the summary results for all the events analyzed were significantly in favor of IVUS-guided DES implantation [major adverse cardiac events (MACE, odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.70-0.82, PDES implantation was found only for MACE (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P=0.001), TLR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.87, P=0.006), and TVR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90, P=0.013). IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with better overall clinical outcomes than angiography-guided DES implantation. However, in a solely RCT meta-analysis, this benefit was mainly driven by reduced rates of revascularizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Front-end IC design for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaner, Yalçın Feysel; Yamaner, Yalcin Feysel; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers(cMUT) technology is a new trend for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. Large bandwidth, high sensitivity and compatibility to CMOS processes makes the cMUT a better choice compared to the conventional piezoelectric transducer. To exploit the merits of cMUT technology, an accurately designed front end circuit is required. The circuit functions as an output pulse driver for the generation of the acoustic signal and buffers the return echo. F...

  1. Does intravascular ultrasound provide clinical benefits for percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stent implantation? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodi-Junqueira Lucas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI is still controversial despite several previously published meta-analyses. A meta-analysis to evaluate the controversial role of IVUS-guided PCI with bare-metal stenting was performed and a previous published meta-analysis was re-evaluated in order to clarify the discrepancy between results of these studies. Methods A systematic review was performed by an electronic search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge databases and by a manual search of reference lists for randomized controlled trials published until April 2011, with clinical outcomes and, at least, six months of clinical follow-up. A meta-analysis based on the intention to treat was performed with the selected studies. Results Five studies and 1,754 patients were included. There were no differences in death (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.88-3.95; p = 0.10, non-fatal myocardial infarction (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.27-1.58; p = 0.35 and major adverse cardiac events (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.49-1.13; p = 0.16. An analysis of the previous published meta-analysis strongly suggested the presence of publication bias. Conclusions There is no evidence to recommend routine IVUS-guided PCI with bare-metal stent implantation. This may be explained by the paucity and heterogeneity of the studies published so far.

  2. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-06-01

    We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures.

  3. Recurring extracranial internal carotid artery vasospasm detected by intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with headache and left-sided focal signs following multiple episodes of right monocular visual impairment. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a decreased vascular image intensity due to a suspicious stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The stenosis was not demonstrated on duplex sonography as it was beyond the field of view of the investigation. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed that the outer vessel diameter was significantly reduced during stenosis, supporting the presence of vasospasm. Idiopathic recurrent extracranial ICA vasospasm was diagnosed. Recurrent vasospasms of extracranial ICA may be a distinct entity that can cause ischemic stroke.

  4. Intravascular ultrasound-guided vs angiography-guided drug-eluting stent implantation in complex coronary lesions: Meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Chirag; Sardar, Partha; Chatterjee, Saurav; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Shah, Arpit; Ather, Sameer; Lemos, Pedro A; Moreno, Pedro; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-03-01

    The relative outcomes of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with angiography-guided PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES) in complex lesions have not been established. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of IVUS-guided PCI with angiography-guided PCI in patients with complex coronary lesions treated with DES. Electronic databases were searched to identify all randomized trials comparing IVUS-guided vs angiography-guided DES implantation. We evaluated major adverse cardiac events (MACE), all-cause and cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis outcomes at the longest reported follow-up. Random-effects modeling was used to calculate pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. Eight trials comprising 3,276 patients (1,635 IVUS-guided and 1,641 angiography-guided) enrolling only patients with complex lesions were included. Mean follow-up was 1.4±0.5years. Compared with angiography-guided PCI, patients undergoing IVUS-guided PCI had significantly lower MACE (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.51-0.80, P=.0001), TLR (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.86, P=.004), and TVR (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.87, P=.007). There were no significant differences for stent thrombosis, cardiovascular death, or all-cause death. In meta-regression analysis, IVUS-guided PCI was of greatest benefit in reducing MACE in patients with acute coronary syndromes, diabetes, and long lesions. The present meta-analysis demonstrates a significant reduction in MACE, TVR, and TLR with IVUS-guided DES implantation in complex coronary lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravascular ultrasound guidance improves clinical outcomes during implantation of both first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlekar, Nitesh; Cheshire, Caitlin J; Verma, Kunal P; Ihdayhid, Abdul-Rahman; McCormick, Liam M; Cameron, James D; Bennett, Martin R; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Meredith, Ian T; Brown, Adam J

    2017-01-20

    Our aim was to assess whether intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) improves clinical outcomes during implantation of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). IVUS guidance is associated with improved clinical outcomes during DES implantation, but it is unknown whether this benefit is limited to either first- or second-generation devices. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were searched for studies comparing outcomes between IVUS- and angiography-guided PCI. Among 909 potentially relevant studies, 15 trials met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was MACE, defined as death, myocardial infarction, target vessel/lesion revascularisation (TVR/TLR) or stent thrombosis (ST). Summary estimates were obtained using Peto modelling. In total, 9,313 patients from six randomised trials and nine observational studies were included. First-generation DES were implanted in 6,156 patients (3,064 IVUS-guided and 3,092 angiography-guided) and second-generation in 3,157 patients (1,528 IVUS-guided and 1,629 angiography-guided). IVUS guidance was associated with a significant reduction in MACE (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.85, pDES (0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.77, pDES, IVUS guidance was associated with significantly lower rates of cardiac death (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.78, p=0.02), TVR (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28-0.79, p=0.006), TLR (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p=0.01) and ST (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.78, p=0.02). Cumulative meta-analysis highlighted progressive temporal benefit towards IVUS-guided PCI to reduce MACE (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.48-0.75, pDES platforms. These data support the use of IVUS guidance in contemporary revascularisation procedures using second-generation DES.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of intravascular ultrasound and angiographic morphology of culprit lesions between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Naoko; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Mizobe, Michio; Nagano, Masahide; Horio, Eiji; Sato, Koji; Nakayama, Naoki; Yoshimura, Hiromi; Yamanaga, Kenshi; Komura, Naohiro; Kojima, Sunao; Tayama, Shinji; Nakamura, Sunao; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-02-15

    Some plaques lead to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), whereas others cause non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). We used angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to investigate the difference of culprit lesion morphologies in ACS. Consecutive 158 ACS patients whose culprit lesions were imaged by preintervention IVUS were enrolled (STEMI=81; NSTEACS=77). IVUS and angiographic findings of the culprit lesions, and clinical characteristics were compared between the groups. There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics except for lower rate of statin use in patients with STEMI (20% vs 44%, p=0.001). Although angiographic complex culprit morphology (Ambrose classification) and thrombus were more common in STEMI than in NSTEACS (84% vs 62%, p=0.002; 51% vs 5%, pSYNTAX score was lower in STEMI (8.6 ± 5.4 vs 11.5 ± 7.1, p=0.01). In patients with STEMI, culprit echogenicity was more hypoechoic (64% vs 40%, p=0.01), and the incidence of plaque rupture, attenuation and "microcalcification" were significantly higher (56% vs 17%, pMorphological feature (outward vessel remodeling, plaque buildup and IVUS vulnerability of culprit lesions) might relate to clinical presentation in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intravascular ultrasound assessed incomplete stent apposition and stent fracture in stent thrombosis after bare metal versus drug-eluting stent treatment the Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Petteri; Vikman, Saila; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2013-01-01

    This prospective multicenter registry used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) to compare rates of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), stent fracture and stent expansion in patients treated with drug-eluting (DES) versus bare metal (BMS) stents. ST...

  8. Use of Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to Treat Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Banning, Adrian P

    2017-05-01

    Due to its potential prognostic implications and technical complexity, revascularisation of left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease requires careful consideration. Since publication of the results of the SYNTAX study, and more recently the EXCEL and NOBLE trials, there has been particular interest in percutaneous revascularisation of the LMCA. It is becoming clear that percutaneous revascularisation of LMCA disease requires appropriate lesion preparation and carefully optimised stenting in order to offer patients a treatment option as effective as coronary artery bypass grafting. For this reason intravascular imaging, and especially intravascular ultrasound, is becoming a key procedural step in LMCA percutaneous coronary intervention. In the current review paper we analyse the role of intravascular imaging with intravascular ultrasound in LMCA percutaneous coronary intervention, focusing on the main applications in this context from lesion assessment to stent sizing and optimisation.

  9. Quantification of iliac artery stenoses: a methodological comparative study between intravascular ultrasound, arteriography and duplex scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Skovgaard, Lene T

    1998-01-01

    Two morphological methods for quantifying the degree of stenoses in the iliac arteries, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and arteriography, were compared with duplex scanning, a method of evaluating the haemodynamic importance of the stenosis. A total of 38 patients, 20 women and 18 men, median age...... 66 y, admitted for either PTA (n=18) or femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery (n=20), were examined by IVUS, single plane arteriography and duplex scanning. The predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of IVUS were higher than the corresponding values for arteriography. Logistic...... regression analysis found that IVUS had a predictive value (p=0.0003) for diagnosing significant stenosis as defined by duplex scanning, but arteriography did not (p=0.1). However, this difference in usefulness as predictors did not reach significance. The agreement between arteriography and IVUS...

  10. Design of low noise transimpedance amplifier for intravascular ultrasound

    KAUST Repository

    Reda, Dina

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we study transimpedance amplifiers for capacitive sensing applications with a focus on Intravascular Ultra Sound (IVUS). We employ RF noise cancellation technique on capacitive feedback based transimpedance amplifiers. This technique eliminates the input-referred noise of TIAs completely and enhances the dynamic range of front-end electronics. Simulation results verify the proposed technique used in two different TIA topologies employing shunt-shunt feedback. ©2009 IEEE.

  11. Low variation and high reproducibility in plaque volume with intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Pedersen, Knud Erik

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has several advantages compared to angiography when evaluating coronary atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. METHODS: The accuracy, reproducibility, and short-time spontaneous variation in volume of vessel, plaque and lumen were studied by electrocardiog......BACKGROUND: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has several advantages compared to angiography when evaluating coronary atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. METHODS: The accuracy, reproducibility, and short-time spontaneous variation in volume of vessel, plaque and lumen were studied...... by electrocardiographic-gated three-dimensional (3D) IVUS in 20 male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). RESULTS: The study lesions were angiographically insignificant, with a length of the analysed segment on 11.4+/-5.9 mm. At baseline the mean minimal lumen diameter was 2.41+/-0.59 mm, minimal lumen area 4......=0.804; pIVUS is a highly reproducible method when applied on coronary artery...

  12. Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Jae-Youn; Lim, Yeong Min; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yang, Woo-In; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Cho, Seung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that investigated the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and the coronary artery remodeling. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of IR measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and coronary artery remodeling evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods A total of 298 consecutive patients who received percutaneous coronary interventions under IVUS guidance were retrospectively enrolled. The val...

  13. Serial intravascular ultrasound assessment of changes in coronary atherosclerotic plaque dimensions and composition: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Marc; Huisman, Jennifer; Böse, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the use of serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination of coronary atherosclerosis in recent observational studies and randomized trials that revealed the effects of cholesterol-lowering and lipid-modifying therapies and offered novel insight into plaque progression....... Finally, we report on the evaluation of true vessel remodelling in recent serial IVUS trials and discuss the future perspective of serial invasive imaging of coronary atherosclerosis....

  14. Monolithic CMUT on CMOS Integration for Intravascular Ultrasound Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter based volumetric imaging arrays where the elements need to be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT on CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT to CMOS interconnection. This CMUT to CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT on CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Experiments on a 1.6 mm diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a 15 MHz center frequency show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging CTOs located 1 cm away from the CMUT array. PMID:23443701

  15. Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F Levent

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter-based volumetric imaging arrays, for which the elements must be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom-designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT-on-CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low-temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT-to-CMOS interconnection. This CMUT-to-CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire-bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT-on-CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Ex- periments on a 1.6-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a center frequency of 15 MHz show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging chronic total occlusions located 1 cm from the CMUT array.

  16. Determinants of slow flow following stent implantation in intravascular ultrasound-guided primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Sakakura, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Yamamoto, Kei; Wada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideo; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2018-03-01

    Slow flow is a serious complication in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI may improve clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent implantation. The purpose of this study was to seek the factors of slow flow following stent implantation, including factors related to IVUS-guided primary PCI. The study population consisted of 339 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, who underwent stent deployment with IVUS. During PCI, 56 patients (16.5%) had transient or permanent slow flow. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07, P = 0.01), low attenuation plaque on IVUS (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.70-6.72, P = 0.001), initial Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 (vs. TIMI 0: OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.99, P = 0.046), and the ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter (per 0.1 increase: OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.84-3.77, P flow. A ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter of 0.71 had an 80.4% sensitivity and 56.9% specificity to predict slow flow. There was no significant difference in ischemic-driven target vessel revascularization between the modest stent expansion (ratio of stent diameter to vessel diameter flow following stent implantation in IVUS-guided primary PCI.

  17. Effects of Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided Versus Angiography-Guided New-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation: Meta-Analysis With Individual Patient-Level Data From 2,345 Randomized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-11-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from randomized trials. Published randomized trials that compare IVUS-guided versus angiography-guided new-generation DES implantation are scarce. Searches of the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed to find randomized trials that compared IVUS-guided versus angiography-guided new-generation DES implantation. A total of 2,345 patients from 3 randomized trials were identified, and all patients were treated for long lesions or chronic total occlusions. Individual patient-level data were obtained. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event, a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis. An intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis were performed. By 1 year post-procedure, major adverse cardiac events had occurred in 0.4% of the patients who underwent IVUS-guided DES implantation versus 1.2% of those who underwent angiography-guided DES implantation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 0.99; p = 0.040). For the IVUS-guided group, favorable clinical outcomes were observed for myocardial infarction (0% vs. 0.4%; HR: 0.09; p = 0.026). In addition, the clinical benefit of IVUS guidance was stronger in the per protocol analysis (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.89; p = 0.021). Compared with angiographic guidance, IVUS-guided new-generation DES implantation was associated with favorable outcomes in terms of major adverse cardiac events, the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis. These findings must be interpreted only for complex lesions, because all identified patients had long lesions or chronic total occlusions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of remodelling and reference segment plaque burden in type-2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assesses arterial remodelling by comparing the lesion external elastic membrane (EEM) with the reference segments; however, reference segments are rarely disease-free. The aim was to assess lesion and reference segment remodelling and plaque burden in patients...... with type-2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pre-intervention IVUS to study 62 de novo lesions in 43 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal...... IVUS lumen and quantitative coronary angiographic artery...

  19. Successful Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided Transradial Coronary Intervention with a 4Fr Guiding Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yasuhiro; Sadamatsu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the catheter size can reduce vascular access complications and contrast dye usage in coronary angiography. The small diameter of the 4Fr guiding catheter has limited the use of several angioplasty devices such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in the past. However, the combination of a novel IVUS catheter and a 0.010 guidewire makes it possible to perform IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a 4Fr guiding catheter. We herein report the case of a 51-year-old man with silent myocardial ischemia who underwent IVUS-guided transradial PCI with a 4Fr guiding catheter.

  20. Correlation between dual-axis rotational coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound in a coronary lesion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhi-Geng; Zhang, Zhuo-Qi; Jing, Li-Min; Wei, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jiao; Luo, Jian-Ping; Yang, Sheng-Li; Ma, Dong-Xing; Liu, Ying; Han, Wei; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hui-Liang

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) for coronary lesion assessment by directly comparing with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). From October 2014 to December 2015, 40 patients (58 lesions) who had undergone both DARCA and IVUS were included in the image analysis. The minimum lumen diameter (MLD), lesion length, reference vessel diameter (RVD) and percent diameter stenosis at the same lesion, were identified and assessed. Significant correlation with IVUS was found for DARCA in either lesion length (r = 0.90, P < 0.001) or RVD (r = 0.81, P < 0.001) comparison. DARCA had fair correlation with IVUS for both MLD (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) and diameter stenosis (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). From the Bland-Altman plots, there was a good agreement between DARCA and IVUS regarding MLD (mean difference: -0.23 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -0.96 to 0.50 mm) and RVD (mean difference: -0.15 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -0.85 to 0.55 mm), while lesser agreement was found on lesion length (mean difference: -3.39 mm, 95 % limits of agreement: -12.63 to 5.85 mm) and diameter stenosis (mean difference: 4.82 %, 95 % limits of agreement: -17.05 to 26.68 %). There is an adequate correlation and agreement between DARCA and IVUS in coronary lesion assessment.

  1. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of minimumlumen area and intimal hyperplasia in in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation. The Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vikman, Saila; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce the risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of the study was to evaluate, by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), the minimum lumen area site in the stented segment and the distribution of intimal hyperplasia in patients...

  2. Multicenter assessment of the reproducibility of volumetric radiofrequency-based intravascular ultrasound measurements in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, Jennifer; Egede, Rasmus; Rdzanek, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To assess in a multicenter design the between-center reproducibility of volumetric virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) measurements with a semi-automated, computer-assisted contour detection system in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented. To evaluate the reproducibility...

  3. Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of peri-stent remodeling and proximal and distal edge effects after sirolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Mintz, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. Serial intravascular ultrasound was used to study chronic arterial responses and edge effects after implantation of Cypher (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, Florida) or Taxus (Boston......-up. The increase in peri-stent external elastic membrane (EEM) volume was more pronounced in the Taxus group (292.4 +/- 132.6 to 309.5 +/- 146.8 mm(3)) than in the Cypher group (274.4 +/- 137.2 to 275.4 +/- 140.1 mm(3); p = 0.005). Peri-stent plaque volume increased in the Taxus group (152.5 +/- 73.7 to 166.......1 +/- 85.1 mm(3)), but was unchanged in the Cypher group (153.5 +/- 75.5 to 151.5 +/- 75.8 mm(3); p = 0.002). In proximal and distal reference segments, mean lumen area decreased within the entire 5-mm edge segment (proximal and distal) because of plaque progression (distal, 5.5 +/- 3.6 to 5.8 +/- 3.7 mm(2...

  4. Characterization of a saphenous vein graft aneurysm by intravascular ultrasound and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, B M; Zientek, D M; Ruggie, N T; Billhardt, R A; Klein, L W

    1993-04-01

    Aneurysmal dilatations in saphenous vein grafts are rare complications of coronary artery bypass surgery that mostly represent thin-wall pseudoaneurysms at anastomotic sites. We describe a case of an enlarging distal saphenous vein graft aneurysm in which intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) of the IVUS images was performed to conclusively demonstrate true aneurysm morphology. Although both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms for vein graft aneurysm formation have been previously suggested, IVUS images and 3DR of the aneurysm in this case did not reveal any of the features typical for atherosclerotic lesions. Further, the IVUS images and 3DR suggest that progressive atherosclerosis is not the likely cause of aneurysm formation in this case. This application of IVUS and 3DR provides detailed information about saphenous vein graft aneurysm structure, clues to aneurysm formation, and suggests a natural history that may differ from that of pseudoaneurysms.

  5. The use of intravascular ultrasound for intraoperative assessment during semiclosed thromboendarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the application of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for intraoperative assessment of semiclosed thromboendarterectomy (TEA), IVUS images of the iliofemoral segment in 20 patients were obtained. The configuration and size of residual atherosclerotic material were evaluated. Stenoses...... was detected in the artery by IVUS. The material was removed in five cases. The part of the iliac artery proximal to the endarterectomized segment was visualized in 14 cases and showed minor stenoses in 10 cases. After follow-up at a median of 8 months (range 1-24), occlusion had occurred in one of 20 patients...... and restenosis (> 50%) had developed in two (10%). At this point, patency cannot be related to IVUS findings. We conclude that IVUS is a feasible method for intraoperative assessment of semiclosed TEA. The rate of early failures due to residual material might be reduced by this new application of IVUS....

  6. The role of Intravascular Ultrasound in the management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamitsos Theodoros D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is an unusual but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death. Typically, SCAD presents in younger patients without conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease. It occurs more commonly in women than in men, and frequently during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there is considerable controversy regarding the optimal management of patients with SCAD-related myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic approaches include conservative medical therapy, coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. We present four cases of SCAD to illustrate specific aspects of the presentation and management of this condition, with particular reference to the importance of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to aid diagnosis and guide subsequent PCI.

  7. Comparison of angiography and intravascular ultrasound before and after balloon angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankeren, Winnifred van; Gussenhoven, Elma J.; Pieterman, Herman; Sambeek, Marc R. H. M. van; Lugt, Aad van der

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data before and after balloon angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on corresponding angiographic and IVUS levels obtained from 135 patients.Results: IVUS detected more lesions, calcified lesions, and vascular damage than angiography. Sensitivity of angiography was good for the presence of a lesion (84%), moderate for eccentric lesions (53%) and for vascular damage (52%), and poor for calcified lesions (30%). The increase in angiographic diameter stenosis was associated with a decrease in lumen area and increase in percentage area stenosis on IVUS.Conclusions: Angiography is less sensitive than IVUS for detecting lesion eccentricity, calcified lesions, and vascular damage. Presence of a lesion and amount of plaque were underestimated angiographically. Only before PTA was good agreement found between angiographic diameter stenosis and lumen size on IVUS.

  8. Perspectives on Imaging the Left Main Coronary Artery Using Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C Lowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI for significant left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis is increasingly being viewed as a viable alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG (1. This is leading to an expectation of increasing numbers of such procedures, with a consequent focus on both the ability to image both lesion severity, and assess more accurately the results of PCI. While there have been advances in physiologic assessment of left main severity using fractional flow reserve (FFR, imaging of the LMCA using Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS and more recently Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT has the specific advantage of being able to provide detailed anatomical information both pre and post PCI, such that it is timely to review briefly the current status of these two imaging technologies in the context of LMCA intervention.

  9. Intravascular ultrasound findings in the multicenter, randomized, double-blind RAVEL (RAndomized study with the sirolimus-eluting VElocity balloon- expandable stent in the treatment of patients with de novo native coronary artery Lesions) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M. Degertekin (Muzaffer); K. Tanabe (Kengo); J.E. Sousa (Eduardo); A. Colombo (Antonio); G. Guagliumi (Giulio); W. Wijns (William); W.K. Lindeboom (Wietze); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.C. Abizaid (Alexandre)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The goal of this intravascular ultrasound investigation was to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the local biological effects of the implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent compared with an uncoated stent. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the RAVEL trial, 238

  10. Segmentation of arterial walls in intravascular ultrasound cross-sectional images using extremal region selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mehdi; Cheng, Irene; Naudin, Iris; Basu, Anup

    2018-03-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is an intra-operative imaging modality that facilitates observing and appraising the vessel wall structure of the human coronary arteries. Segmentation of arterial wall boundaries from the IVUS images is not only crucial for quantitative analysis of the vessel walls and plaque characteristics, but is also necessary for generating 3D reconstructed models of the artery. The aim of this study is twofold. Firstly, we investigate the feasibility of using a recently proposed region detector, namely Extremal Region of Extremum Level (EREL) to delineate the luminal and media-adventitia borders in IVUS frames acquired by 20 MHz probes. Secondly, we propose a region selection strategy to label two ERELs as lumen and media based on the stability of their textural information. We extensively evaluated our selection strategy on the test set of a standard publicly available dataset containing 326 IVUS B-mode images. We showed that in the best case, the average Hausdorff Distances (HD) between the extracted ERELs and the actual lumen and media were 0.22  mm and 0.45 mm, respectively. The results of our experiments revealed that our selection strategy was able to segment the lumen with ⩽0.3 mm HD to the gold standard even though the images contained major artifacts such as bifurcations, shadows, and side branches. Moreover, when there was no artifact, our proposed method was able to delineate media-adventitia boundaries with 0.31 mm HD to the gold standard. Furthermore, our proposed segmentation method runs in time that is linear in the number of pixels in each frame. Based on the results of this work, by using a 20 MHz IVUS probe with controlled pullback, not only can we now analyze the internal structure of human arteries more accurately, but also segment each frame during the pullback procedure because of the low run time of our proposed segmentation method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Imaging Modulography Technique Revisited for High-Definition Intravascular Ultrasound: Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheau, Antoine; Le Floc'h, Simon; Finet, Gérard; Doyley, Marvin M; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Cloutier, Guy; Ohayon, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions remains an essential step for the detection of vulnerable plaques (VPs). Recently, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elasticity reconstruction method (iMOD) has been tested in vivo by our group. The major limitation of iMOD is the need to estimate the strain field in the entire VP despite attenuated depth penetration signals when using high-definition (HD) IVUS systems. Therefore, an extended iMOD approach (E-iMOD) was designed and applied to coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with IVUS. The E-iMOD method (i) quantified necrotic core areas with a mean absolute relative error of 3.5 ± 3.5% and (ii) identified Young's moduli of the necrotic cores and fibrous regions with mean values of 5.7 ± 0.8 kPa and 794.5 ± 22.0 kPa instead of 5 kPa and 800 kPa, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of the improved HD-IVUS modulography technique E-iMOD to characterize coronary VPs. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  12. Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R

    2009-01-01

    still the first line of defense. However, with the fidelity of 64-slice CT imaging, this technique has recently become an option when the patient presents with symptoms of reduced arterial flow. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) treadmill exercise testing is a standard non-invasive test for decreased perfusion of heart muscle, but is time consuming and not suited for emergent evaluation. Once the invasive clinical option of catherization is chosen, this provides the opportunity for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. As the probe is pulled through the artery, the diameter at different parts is measurable, and monochrome contrast in the constricted area reveals the presence of tissue with a different ultrasonic response. Also, via an optical catheter with a fiber-optic conductor, the possibly of spectroscopic analysis of arterial walls is now a reality. In this case, the optical transducer is coupled to a near-infrared spectrometer. Revealing the arterial chemical health means that plaque vulnerability and imminent risk could be assessed by the physician. The classical emergency use of catherization involves a contrast agent and dynamic X-ray imaging to locate the constriction, determine its severity, and possibly perform angioplasty, and stent placement.

  13. Resolution of spontaneous coronary artery dissection within 3 weeks detected by computed tomography angiography and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Chino, Chiharu; Komatsu, Miho; Sakai, Takahiro; Aizawa, Kazunori; Owa, Mafumi

    2017-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted with chest pain lasting about 3 h. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) was detected in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Sixteen days after onset, follow-up computed tomography angiography was performed and revealed shrinkage of the false lumen of the SCAD. On hospital day 22, IVUS image confirmed that the SCAD in the LAD was completely healed. This case shows the possibility of rapid healing of SCAD.

  14. Clinical feasibility of 3D automated coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification algorithm on coronary computed tomography angiography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung-Bok [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myongji Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Kwon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sanghoon [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Ran; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University Health System, Yonsei-Cedar Sinai Integrative Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University Health System, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Arsanjani, Reza [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kitslaar, Pieter H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Medis medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Ahn, Sung Gyun [Yonsei University Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Min, James K. [New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Institute for Cardiovascular Imaging, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo [Yonsei University Health System, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of automated coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification (QCT) by different users (expert/non-expert/automatic). One hundred fifty coronary artery segments from 142 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) were analyzed. Minimal lumen area (MLA), maximal lumen area stenosis percentage (%AS), mean plaque burden percentage (%PB), and plaque volume were measured semi-automatically by expert, non-expert, and fully automatic QCT analyses, and then compared to IVUS. Between IVUS and expert QCT analysis, the correlation coefficients (r) for the MLA, %AS, %PB, and plaque volume were excellent: 0.89 (p < 0.001), 0.84 (p < 0.001), 0.91 (p < 0.001), and 0.94 (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean parameters (all p values >0.05) except %AS (p = 0.01). The automatic QCT analysis showed comparable performance to non-expert QCT analysis, showing correlation coefficients (r) of the MLA (0.80 vs. 0.82), %AS (0.82 vs. 0.80), %PB (0.84 vs. 0.73), and plaque volume (0.84 vs. 0.79) when they were compared to IVUS, respectively. Fully automatic QCT analysis showed clinical utility compared with IVUS, as well as a compelling performance when compared with semiautomatic analyses. (orig.)

  15. Angled-focused 45 MHz PMN-PT single element transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Williams, Jay; Kang, Bong Jin; Yoon, Changhan; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Jeong, Jong Seob; Lee, Sang Goo; Shung, K Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-06-01

    A transducer with an angled and focused aperture for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. The acoustic stack for the angled-focused transducer was made of PMN-PT single crystal with one matching layer, one protective coating layer, and a highly damped backing layer. It was then press-focused to a desired focal length and inserted into a thin needle housing with an angled tip. A transducer with an angled and unfocused aperture was also made, following the same fabrication procedure, to compare the performance of the two transducers. The focused and unfocused transducers were tested to measure their center frequencies, bandwidths, and spatial resolutions. Lateral resolution of the angled-focused transducer (AFT) improved more than two times compared to that of the angled-unfocused transducer (AUT). A tissue-mimicking phantom in water and a rabbit aorta tissue sample in rabbit blood were scanned using AFT and AUT. Imaging with AFT offered improved contrast, over imaging with AUT, of the tissue-mimicking phantom and the rabbit aorta tissue sample by 23 dB and 8 dB, respectively. The results show that AFT has strong potential to provide morphological and pathological information of coronary arteries with high resolution and high contrast.

  16. Expansion in calcific lesions and overall clinical outcomes following bioresorbable scaffold implantation optimized with intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Ruparelia, Neil; Latib, Azeem; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Sato, Katsumasa; Tanaka, Akihito; Naganuma, Toru; Sticchi, Alessandro; Chieffo, Alaide; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Colombo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate clinical outcomes following bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) optimized with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and furthermore expansion of BRS in calcific lesions. Although IVUS use has contributed to improved clinical outcomes with metallic stent implantation, it is unclear if this is also true with regards to BRS, especially in calcified lesions. Between May 2012 and April 2015, 291 lesions in 198 patients were treated with BRS with IVUS use. We evaluated overall clinical outcomes at 1-year and investigated the expansion and eccentricity index of BRS amongst quadrants categorized by calcium arc (CA) every 90-degrees. The rates of major adverse cardiac events were 5.4% (at 6 months) and 10.7% (at 12 months). TLR was observed in 3.1% at 6-month and 7.5% at 12-month follow up. Although there was a significant difference among quadrants regarding to eccentricity of calcium (0°≦CA BRS expansion index [minimal scaffold area (MSA) divided by BRS area expanded at a nominal pressure] was comparable between quadrants. The use of IVUS to optimize BRS implantation results in favorable clinical outcomes even for complex lesions. Although eccentric calcium distribution resulted in asymmetric expansion of BRS, the final MSA was comparable irrespective of calcium distribution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Visualization of plaque distribution in a curved artery: three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging provides an excellent tool for evaluation of the type, morphology, extent, and severity of an atheromatous plaque. 3 D IVUS imaging offers additive information pertaining to morphology of the arterial structures and volumetric plaque distributions. A new 3 D IVUS visualization technique was developed to provide 3 D structural information of a curved artery. A virtual 3 D curved arterial phantom consisting of varying cross-sectional shapes, wall thicknesses, and acoustic intensity information was utilized to validate the nonlinear interpolation technique to create intermediary 2 D IVUS images. IVUS imaging was performed for the iliofemoral arterial segment of an atherosclerotic Yucatan miniswine model. These in-vivo IVUS data were utilized for intermediary IVUS image generation and volumetric 3 D IVUS visualization. Smooth transitional changes of cross-sectional shape, wall thickness and grayscale intensity were found between the intermediary images and the original arterial phantom slices. The 3 D IVUS imaging of the unfolded curved iliofemoral artery provided realistic 3 D luminal surface images of the arteries with physiologic grayscale intensity information. This unique 3 D IVUS imaging technique may help with assessment of 3 D plaque distribution across the curved arterial structure, and improve 3 D visualization of atheromatous components.

  18. Angiographically borderline left main coronary artery lesions: correlation of transthoracic doppler echocardiography and intravascular ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the clinical decision making could be difficult in patients with borderline lesions (visually assessed stenosis severity of 30 to 50% of the left main coronary artery (LM. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between transthoracic Doppler (TTDE peak diastolic flow velocity (PDV and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS measurements in the assessment of angiographically borderline LM lesions. Methods 27 patients (mean age 64 ± 8 years, 21 males with borderline LM stenosis referred for IVUS examination were included in the study. We performed standard IVUS with minimal lumen area (MLA and plaque burden (PB measurement and routine quantitative coronary angiography (QCA with diameter stenosis (%DS and area stenosis (%AS assessment in all. During TTDE, resting PDV was measured in the LM. Results interpretable Doppler signal could be obtained in 24 patients (88% feasibility; therefore these patients entered the final analysis. MLA was 7.1 ± 2.7 mm2. TTDE measured PDV correlated significantly with IVUS-derived MLA (r = -0.46, p 2 LM stenosis. Conclusion In angiographically borderline LM disease, resting PDV from transthoracic echocardiography is increased in presence of increased plaque burden by IVUS. TTDE evaluation might be a useful adjunct to other invasive and non-invasive methods in the assessment of borderline LM lesions. Further, large scale studies are needed to establish the exact cut-off value of PDV for routine clinical application.

  19. Impact of statins on progression of atherosclerosis: rationale and design of SATURN (Study of Coronary Atheroma by InTravascular Ultrasound: effect of Rosuvastatin versus AtorvastatiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Borgman, Marilyn; Nissen, Steven E; Raichlen, Joel S; Ballantyne, Christie; Barter, Philip; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Previous imaging studies have demonstrated that the beneficial impact of high-dose statins on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis associates with their ability to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The Study of Coronary Atheroma by InTravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin versus AtorvastatiN (SATURN, NCT00620542) aims to compare the effects of high-dose atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on disease progression. A total of 1385 subjects with established coronary artery disease (CAD) on angiography were randomized to receive rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The primary efficacy parameter will be the nominal change in percent atheroma volume (PAV), determined by analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images of matched coronary artery segments acquired at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. The effect of statin therapy on plasma lipids and inflammatory markers, and the incidence of clinical cardiovascular events will also be assessed. The study does not have the statistical power to directly compare the treatment groups with regard to clinical events. Serial IVUS has emerged as a sensitive imaging modality to assess the impact of treatments on arterial structure. In this study, IVUS will be used to determine whether high-dose statins have different effects on plaque progression.

  20. Towards a Reduced-Wire Interface for CMUT-Based Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-04-01

    Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire. We present a 40 MHz CMUT array interface SoC, which will eventually use only two wires for power delivery and transmits image data using a combination of analog-to-time conversion (ATC) and an impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link. The proof-of-concept prototype ASIC consumes only 52.8 mW and occupies 4.07 [Formula: see text] in a 0.35- [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process. A rectifier and regulator power the rest of the SoC at 3.3 V from a 10 MHz power carrier that is supplied through a 2.4 m micro-coax cable with an overall efficiency of 49.1%. Echo signals from an 8-element CMUT array are amplified by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) array and down-converted to baseband by quadrature sampling using a 40 MHz clock, derived from the power carrier. The ATC generates pulse-width-modulated (PWM) samples at 2 × 10 MS/s with 6 bit resolution, while the entire system achieved 5.1 ENOB. Preliminary images from the prototype system are presented, and alternative data transmission and possible future directions towards practical implementation are discussed.

  1. Abnormal pulmonary artery stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: in vivo study with intravascular ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund M T Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that pulmonary artery stiffness is an important determinant of right ventricular (RV afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to evaluate the mechanical properties of the elastic pulmonary arteries (PA in subjects with PAH, and assessed the effects of PAH-specific therapy on indices of arterial stiffness. METHOD: Using IVUS and simultaneous right heart catheterisation, 20 pulmonary segments in 8 PAH subjects and 12 pulmonary segments in 8 controls were studied to determine their compliance, distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness index β. PAH subjects underwent repeat IVUS examinations after 6-months of bosentan therapy. RESULTS: AT BASELINE, PAH SUBJECTS DEMONSTRATED GREATER STIFFNESS IN ALL MEASURED INDICES COMPARED TO CONTROLS: compliance (1.50±0.11×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg vs 4.49±0.43×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg, p<0.0001, distensibility (0.32±0.03%/mmHg vs 1.18±0.13%/mmHg, p<0.0001, elastic modulus (720±64 mmHg vs 198±19 mmHg, p<0.0001, and stiffness index β (15.0±1.4 vs 11.0±0.7, p = 0.046. Strong inverse exponential associations existed between mean pulmonary artery pressure and compliance (r(2 = 0.82, p<0.0001, and also between mean PAP and distensibility (r(2 = 0.79, p = 0.002. Bosentan therapy, for 6-months, was not associated with any significant changes in all indices of PA stiffness. CONCLUSION: Increased stiffness occurs in the proximal elastic PA in patients with PAH and contributes to the pathogenesis RV failure. Bosentan therapy may not be effective at improving PA stiffness.

  2. Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Klungle, David; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Decker, Jeffrey M; Langholz, David; Boyden, Thomas F; Parker, Jessica; Muller, James E

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound was performed in 57 vessels in 20 asymptomatic individuals (90% on statins) with no prior history of coronary artery disease who had a screening CACS ≥300 Agatston units. Among 268 10-mm coronary segments, near-infrared spectroscopy images were analyzed for LRP, defined as a bright yellow block on the near-infrared spectroscopy block chemogram. Lipid burden was assessed as the lipid core burden index (LCBI), and large LRP were defined as a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400. Vessel plaque volume was measured by quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Vessel-level CACS significantly correlated with plaque volume by intravascular ultrasound ( r =0.69; P infrared spectroscopy ( r =0.24; P =0.07). Despite a high CACS, no LRP was detected in 8 (40.0%) subjects. Large LRP having a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400 were infrequent, found in only 5 (25.0%) of 20 subjects and in only 5 (1.9%) of 268 10-mm coronary segments analyzed. Among individuals with a CACS ≥300 Agatston units mostly on statins, CACS correlated with total plaque volume but not LCBI. This observation may have implications on coronary risk among individuals with a high CACS considering that it is coronary LRP, rather than calcification, that underlies the majority of acute coronary events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Intravascular Ultrasound Catheter Evaluation of the Left Ventricle in Mice: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Julius M.; Siri, Francis; Kitsis, Richard N.; Leinwand, Leslie

    1996-11-01

    With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40-150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two-dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360 degrees ) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm "ringdown" catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two-dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial

  4. Natural history of intravascular ultrasound-detected edge dissections from coronary stent deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheris, S J; Canos, M R; Weissman, N J

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) performed immediately after stent deployment often reveals dissection at the stent margin that may not be appreciated by angiography. However, the natural history of these edge dissections is unknown. These intimal disruptions at the stent margins have been previously reported to occur in 5% to 23% of stent implantations. The short-term prognosis of these lesions appears to be good; however, the longer-term effect on restenosis and/or vessel remodeling is not known. We therefore studied a cohort of patients with the use of IVUS immediately after stent implantation and at 6 months to assess the incidence and prognosis of coronary edge dissections. One hundred fifty patients undergoing Palmaz-Shatz stent implantation were imaged with IVUS with the use of a motorized pullback, and the incidence of edge dissections was determined and graded according to depth and circumferential extent. Arterial and lesional morphometric parameters were assessed by digital planimetry. Six-month IVUS images were aligned with the poststent IVUS to determine the natural history of these lesions. Sixteen (10.7%) of 150 had edge tears. All were angiographically silent. Most lesions (n = 9) were superficial intimal tears. Vessel, lumen, and plaque area were similar in the nondissection and dissection groups in both the proximal and distal reference segments. Plaque eccentricity was likewise similar in both groups. At 6 months, lesions (n = 12) healed without a change in plaque burden, undergoing a "tacking down" process. Vessel area (19. 1 +/- 6.4 vs 18.4 +/- 7.1 mm(2), P = not significant), lumen area (8. 2 +/- 4.1 vs 9.2 +/- 4.0 mm(2), P = not significant), and plaque area (10.0 +/- 3.3 vs 9.8 +/- 3.3 mm(2), P = not significant) were unchanged when compared with the lesion site taken at stent deployment. Edge dissections as detected by IVUS do not necessarily proscribe an adverse prognosis at 6 months. This finding may provide reassurance to

  5. Intravascular ultrasound-guided optimized stent deployment. Immediate and 6 months clinical and angiographic results from the Multicenter Ultrasound Stenting in Coronaries Study (MUSIC Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaegere, P; Mudra, H; Figulla, H; Almagor, Y; Doucet, S; Penn, I; Colombo, A; Hamm, C; Bartorelli, A; Rothman, M; Nobuyoshi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Voudris, V; DiMario, C; Makovski, S; Hausmann, D; Rowe, S; Rabinovich, S; Sunamura, M; van Es, G A

    1998-08-01

    A study was set up to validate the safety and feasibility of intravascular ultrasound-guided stenting without subsequent anticoagulation, and its impact on the 6 months restenosis rate. The study was designed to be multicentred, prospective, and observational. One hundred and sixty-one patients with stable angina and a de novo coronary artery lesion were enrolled. In four patients, the implantation of a Palmaz-Schatz (with spiral bridge) stent had failed. One of these four patients died 3 days following bypass surgery. In two other patients, intravascular ultrasound assessment was not performed. One hundred and twenty-five of the remaining 155 patients (81%) were treated with aspirin (100 mg x day(-1)), because all three criteria for optimized stent expansion were met. Twenty-two of the remaining 38 patients (25%), in whom at least one criterion was not met were treated with aspirin and acenocoumarol (3 months, INR 2.5-3.5), while 16 patients only received aspirin. Stent thrombosis was documented in two patients (1.3%) for which repeat angioplasty was performed. During the hospital stay, there were no deaths or Q-wave myocardial infarctions. Five patients (3.2%) sustained a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period (198+/-38 days, complete for all patients, except one), one patient (0.6%) sustained a Q-wave myocardial infarction, one (0.6%) underwent bypass surgery, and repeat angioplasty was performed in nine patients (5.7%). In two of the nine patients, repeat angioplasty involved another lesion. Therefore, the target lesion revascularization rate during follow-up was 4.5% (seven patients). At quantitative coronary angiography, the minimal lumen diameter (mean+/-SD) increased from 1.12+/-0.34 mm before to 2.89+/-0.35 mm after stenting. Repeat angiography at 6 months was performed in 144 patients (92%). The minimal lumen diameter at follow-up was 2.12+/-0.67 mm. Restenosis (diameter stenosis of 50% or more) was documented in 12 patients or 8

  6. 3-D ultrasound imaging using a forward-looking CMUT ring array for intravascular/intracardiac applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, David T; Oralkan, Omer; Wygant, Ira O; O'Donnell, Matthew; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2006-06-01

    Forward-viewing ring arrays can enable new applications in intravascular and intracardiac ultrasound. This work presents compelling, full-synthetic, phased-array volumetric images from a forward-viewing capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) ring array wire bonded to a custom integrated circuit front end. The CMUT ring array has a diameter of 2 mm and 64 elements each 100 microm x 100 microm in size. In conventional mode, echo signals received from a plane reflector at 5 mm had 70% fractional bandwidth around a center frequency of 8.3 MHz. In collapse mode, 69% fractional bandwidth is measured around 19 MHz. Measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo averaged 16 times was 29 dB for conventional operation and 35 dB for collapse mode. B-scans were generated of a target consisting of steel wires 0.3 mm in diameter to determine resolution performance. The 6 dB axial and lateral resolutions for the B-scan of the wire target are 189 microm and 0.112 radians for 8 MHz, and 78 microm and 0.051 radians for 19 MHz. A reduced firing set suitable for real-time, intravascular applications was generated and shown to produce acceptable images. Rendered three-dimensional (3-D) images of a Palmaz-Schatz stent also are shown, demonstrating that the imaging quality is sufficient for practical applications.

  7. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy compared by intravascular ultrasound sonography: everolimus to mycophenolate mofetil--one single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, N-K; Jan, C-F; Chi, N-H; Lee, C-M; Wu, I-H; Huang, S-C; Chen, Y-S; Yu, H-Y; Tsao, C-I; Ko, W-J; Chu, S-H; Wang, S-S

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains one of the leading causes of late graft failure and death. Cyclosporine microemulsion Neoral (CsA) had been used in heart transplantation (HTx) recipients. Meanwhile, Everolimus (EVL; Certican, Norvatis Pharmaceuticals; Basel, Switzerland) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have been combined with CsA for maintenance treatment. We compared atherosclerosis in HTx patients showing CAV by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in two groups: the CE who received CsA, EVL, and steroid versus the CM group, who received CsA, MMF, and steroid. We explored IVUS parameters such as plaque thickness (PT), lumen circumference (LC), media adventitial circumference, lumen diameter (LD), and media adventitial diameter to characterize the atherosclerosis among CE versus CM groups. In this study, both the CE and CM groups showed increased plaque thickening in the first year posttransplantation (P data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of intravascular ultrasound and angiographic assessement of coronary reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention, the reference segment is assessed angiographically. This report described the discrepancy between angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assessment of reference segment size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preintervention IVUS was used...... was measured as plaque CSA/external elastic membrane (EEM) CSA. Using IVUS, the reference lumen diameter was 2.80 +/- 0.42 mm and the reference EEM diameter was 4.17 +/- 0.56 mm. The angiographic reference diameter was 2.63 +/- 0.36 mm. Mean difference between the IVUS EEM diameter and angiographic reference...... diameter was 1.56 +/- 0.55 mm. The mean difference between the IVUS reference lumen diameter and angiographic reference lumen diameter was 0.18 +/- 0.44 mm. Plaque burden in the reference segment correlated inversely with the difference between IVUS and quantitative coronary angiographic reference lumen...

  9. Intravascular ultrasound as a novel tool for the diagnosis and targeted treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Boniakowski, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the imaging modalities presently employed are designed to detect anatomic entrapment. We describe a novel imaging technique to aid in diagnosis in this cohort. A 22-year-old cyclist presented with exercise-limiting claudication. Magnetic resonance angiography with provocative maneuvers was nondiagnostic. Digital subtraction angiography revealed long-segment occlusion of the popliteal artery with plantar flexion; however, the specific site of compression remained unclear. Intravascular ultrasound allowed specific localization of compression and further confirmed the diagnosis. Thus, we report this as an adjunctive imaging modality to definitively diagnose functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and to assist in operative planning.

  10. The clinical importance and prediction of steal following femoro-femoral cross-over bypass: study of the donor iliac artery by intravascular ultrasound, arteriography, duplex scanning and pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, J G; Schroeder, T V

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate the clinical significance of the steal phenomenon following femoro-femoral bypass, and whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to the established examinations of the donor iliac artery can improve the prediction of patients who will develop steal.......to evaluate the clinical significance of the steal phenomenon following femoro-femoral bypass, and whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to the established examinations of the donor iliac artery can improve the prediction of patients who will develop steal....

  11. Reliability of mechanical and phased-array designs for serial intravascular ultrasound examinations--animal and clinical studies in stented and non-stented coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F; Mongrain, R; Lespérance, J; Grégoire, J; Paiement, P; Bonan, R

    2000-10-01

    Both mechanical and multi-element intravascular ultrasound designs have potential advantages and limitations that may impact on their value for clinical and research purposes. Determination of the reproducibility of measurements is critical before a given system can be used in studies such as regression of atherosclerosis trials. We performed serial intravascular ultrasound imaging with catheters using mechanical and phased-array designs in stented and non-stented coronary arteries in dogs and in patients. Both systems correlated well for areas (r > or = 0.90, p or = 0.84. p mechanical designs for measurements of area (mean difference in dogs and in patients: -0.24 and 0.96 mm2, p mechanical system (r > or = 0.96 for all measurements). The differences in absolute and relative variability between the mechanical and phased-array designs, both for reanalysis of same frames and serial pullbacks, were very small. Although multi-element and mechanical intravascular ultrasound designs are not strictly interchangeable, their similar reproducibility and the small differences in measurements demonstrate that both designs are acceptable alternatives for trials of regression of atherosclerosis. Determination of the variability for serial pullbacks of both designs was also important to assess the statistical power of such trials.

  12. Antiatherosclerotic effects of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome: insights from Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) display diffuse coronary atheroma instability and heightened risk of early and late recurrent coronary events. We compared the long-term antiatherosclerotic efficacy of high-intensity statins in patients with ACS when compared with stable disease. Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25). Long-term high-intensity statin therapy caused greater plaque regression and comparable major adverse cardiovascular events rates in

  13. Monitoring of allograft vasculopathy by intravascular ultrasound one month and one year after heart transplantation: A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedanova, Helena; Orban, Marek; Tretina, Martin; Fila, Petr; Horvath, Vladimir; Krejci, Jan; Nemec, Petr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to determine whether cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) starts progressing during the first year after heart transplantation (HTx). We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients (11 women) who received heart transplants in our center between January 2010 and September 2013 and underwent coronary angiography as well as IVUS examination one month and one year after HTx. Patients with proven calcification and fibrotic plates in the IVUS examination one month after HTx constituted a group with defined donor-transmitted atherosclerosis (DTA). In patients without DTA, measurements of maximal intimal thickening (MIT) were made in two predetermined locations. Eight of the 51 patients had DTA, while 43 did not. These were divided based on maximal intimal thickness (MIT) into a group with MIT first year after HTx significantly more frequently in patients with DTA and MIT ≥ 0.5 mm. It is essential in these patients to implement an IVUS control examination one year after transplantation. The results can lead to a change in treatment strategy to prevent further progress of the disease.

  14. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the detection of transplant vasculopathy: comparison with invasive coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Carrascosa, J.; Perrone, S.; Deviggiano, A.; Lopez, E.M.; Lev, G.; Garcia, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detection of luminal stenosis and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in comparison with coronary angiography (CA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) respectively. Material and methods: Nineteen cardiac transplant patients scheduled for follow-up CA were included. MDCT coronary angiography was performed using a 16-row CT scanner within 7-14 days after CA and IVUS. Studies were analyzed by independent readers; two observers evaluated the CT datasets for the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50% and allograft vasculopathy. Results: The sensitivity for detecting > 50% luminal stenosis was 80-88% and specificity, 98-99% and for detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the sensitivity was 91-96% and specificity, 88-91%. Conclusion: In this preliminary series, our results indicate that MDCT coronary angiography was capable of detecting both significant coronary stenosis as well as diffuse intimal proliferation. This non-invasive procedure could be an alternative to CA and IVUS in the surveillance of heart transplant patients. (authors) [es

  15. Joint learning of ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques using intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Debdoot; Karamalis, Athanasios; Eslami, Abouzar; Noël, Peter; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K; Laine, Andrew F; Carlier, Stephane G; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is a predominant imaging modality in interventional cardiology. It provides real-time cross-sectional images of arteries and assists clinicians to infer about atherosclerotic plaques composition. These plaques are heterogeneous in nature and constitute fibrous tissue, lipid deposits and calcifications. Each of these tissues backscatter ultrasonic pulses and are associated with a characteristic intensity in B-mode IVUS image. However, clinicians are challenged when colocated heterogeneous tissue backscatter mixed signals appearing as non-unique intensity patterns in B-mode IVUS image. Tissue characterization algorithms have been developed to assist clinicians to identify such heterogeneous tissues and assess plaque vulnerability. In this paper, we propose a novel technique coined as Stochastic Driven Histology (SDH) that is able to provide information about co-located heterogeneous tissues. It employs learning of tissue specific ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal from labeled data for predicting heterogeneous tissue composition in plaques. We employ a random forest for the purpose of learning such a primal using sparsely labeled and noisy samples. In clinical deployment, the posterior prediction of different lesions constituting the plaque is estimated. Folded cross-validation experiments have been performed with 53 plaques indicating high concurrence with traditional tissue histology. On the wider horizon, this framework enables learning of tissue-energy interaction statistical physics and can be leveraged for promising clinical applications requiring tissue characterization beyond the application demonstrated in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (IVUS-OCT) system for coronary plaque characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Correa, Adrian; Minami, Hataka; Jing, Joseph; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav M.; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT), two commonly used intracoronary imaging modalities, play important roles in plaque evaluation. The combined use of IVUS (to visualize the entire plaque volume) and OCT (to quantify the thickness of the plaque cap, if any) is hypothesized to increase plaque diagnostic accuracy. Our group has developed a fully-integrated dual-modality IVUS-OCT imaging system and 3.6F catheter for simultaneous IVUS-OCT imaging with a high resolution and deep penetration depth. However, the diagnostic accuracy of an integrated IVUS-OCT system has not been investigated. In this study, we imaged 175 coronary artery sites (241 regions of interest) from 20 cadavers using our previous reported integrated IVUS-OCT system. IVUS-OCT images were read by two skilled interventional cardiologists. Each region of interest was classified as either calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis. Comparing the diagnosis by cardiologists using IVUSOCT images with the diagnosis by the pathologist, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity for characterization of calcification, lipid pool or fibrosis with this integrated system. In vitro imaging of cadaver coronary specimens demonstrated the complementary nature of these two modalities for plaques classification. A higher accuracy was shown than using a single modality alone.

  17. Early characterization of atherosclerotic coronary plaques with multidetector computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome. A comparative study with intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriart, Xavier; Dos-Santos, Pierre [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 441 Atherosclerose, Bordeaux (France); Brunot, Sebastien [CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique, Pessac (France); Coste, Pierre; Leroux, Lionel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 441 Atherosclerose, Bordeaux (France); Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Montaudon, Michel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 885 F 33076, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Labeque, Jean-Noel; Jais, Catherine [Unite de Soins Intensifs Cardiologiques, Pessac (France); Laurent, Francois [Universite Bordeaux 2, Inserm U. 885 F 33076, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Hopital Cardiologique, Pessac (France)

    2007-10-15

    We compared 16-slice computed tomography (CT) with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in their ability to identify the culprit lesion, and to assess plaque characterization and vascular remodelling in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Twenty patients were prospectively studied. Coronary plaque identification and characterization were compared using 16-slice CT and 40-MHz catheter-based IVUS. Minimum lumen area (MLA), cross-sectional vessel area (CVA) and vessel remodelling were determined for each comparable lesion. One hundred and sixty-nine segments were compared and 84 plaques analysed. Sixteen-slice CT detected 95% of culprit lesions (19/20). No feature suggestive of plaque rupture was detected by 16-slice CT. Attenuation measurements within all lesions revealed different values for hypoechoic (38 {+-} 33 HU), hyperechoic (94 {+-} 44 HU), and calcified plaques (561 {+-} 216 HU), (P < 0.001). Agreement between 16-slice CT and IVUS on measuring MLA and CVA was evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Pearson and intra-class coefficient (ICC) were 0.81 and 0.70 for MLA, and 0.81 and 0.36 for CVA, for 16-slice CT and IVUS, respectively. Agreement between both techniques for vessel positive remodelling was moderate (kappa = 0.54, P < 0.001). Sixteen-slice CT has shown moderate accuracy in quantifying and characterizing coronary plaques compared with IVUS. Spatial resolution of 16-slice CT remains a major limitation, however, to accurately assess the complex lesions involved in ACS. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of carotid plaque composition using fast-kV switching dual-energy CT with gemstone detector: comparison with extracorporeal and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwata, Naoki [Tottori University Hospital, Division of Clinical Radiology, Yonago (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The present study compares the applicability of CT carotid plaque imaging using effective Z maps using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with that of conventional extracorporeal carotid ultrasound (US) and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). We assessed stenosis in 31 carotid arteries of 30 patients. All patients underwent carotid CTA using GSI (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare). US and IVUS were examined with 25 and 8 vessels, respectively. We compared the effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque with the plaque components identified by US. We defined the plaque with low or low to iso intensity on US as vulnerable plaque and the plaque with iso, iso to high, and high intensity on US as stable plaque. We also performed visual assessment of color-coded effective Z maps in comparison with VH-IVUS and compared effective Z values with plaque components generated by VH-IVUS. The effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque were significantly lower for a group with vulnerable plaque, than with stable plaque on US (p < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analysis showed that AUC of effective Z values was 0.882 concerning the differentiation of these two groups on US. The interpretation of color-coded effective Z maps was essentially compatible with that of VH-IVUS for carotid plaque in all vessels. Effective Z values at noncalcified plaque showed significant negative correlation with the areas of fibro-fatty components generated by VH-IVUS (ρ = -0.874, p < 0.05). Effective Z maps generated by GSI can detect vulnerable carotid plaque materials. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of carotid plaque composition using fast-kV switching dual-energy CT with gemstone detector: comparison with extracorporeal and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi; Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwata, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares the applicability of CT carotid plaque imaging using effective Z maps using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with that of conventional extracorporeal carotid ultrasound (US) and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). We assessed stenosis in 31 carotid arteries of 30 patients. All patients underwent carotid CTA using GSI (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare). US and IVUS were examined with 25 and 8 vessels, respectively. We compared the effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque with the plaque components identified by US. We defined the plaque with low or low to iso intensity on US as vulnerable plaque and the plaque with iso, iso to high, and high intensity on US as stable plaque. We also performed visual assessment of color-coded effective Z maps in comparison with VH-IVUS and compared effective Z values with plaque components generated by VH-IVUS. The effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque were significantly lower for a group with vulnerable plaque, than with stable plaque on US (p < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analysis showed that AUC of effective Z values was 0.882 concerning the differentiation of these two groups on US. The interpretation of color-coded effective Z maps was essentially compatible with that of VH-IVUS for carotid plaque in all vessels. Effective Z values at noncalcified plaque showed significant negative correlation with the areas of fibro-fatty components generated by VH-IVUS (ρ = -0.874, p < 0.05). Effective Z maps generated by GSI can detect vulnerable carotid plaque materials. (orig.)

  20. Safety and efficacy of intravascular ultrasound-guided inferior vena cava filter in super obese bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardys, Clark M; Stoner, Michael C; Manwaring, Mark L; Barker, Michael; Macdonald, Kenneth G; Pender, John R; Chapman, William H

    2008-01-01

    The morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m(2)) are at significant risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of death after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, approximating .5%. Because of the technical limitations with fluoroscopy and table weight limits, it has been our practice at our university-based bariatric center to offer intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) placement at Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to patients with a history of VTE, hypercoagulable state, or profound immobility. The hospital and outpatient records of all 594 patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from January 1, 2004 to October 31, 2006 were reviewed. The patients who had undergone concurrent IVUS-guided IVCF placement were selected. The co-morbidities, outcomes, and complications were recorded. Of the 594 patients, 31 (mean body mass index 71.2 +/- 2.96 kg/m(2)) had undergone concurrent IVUS-guided IVCF placement. The indications included a history of VTE (n = 5), a known hypercoagulable state (n = 2), and profound immobility (n = 25). The technical success rate was 96.8%. One filter was malpositioned in the iliac vein. No catheter site complications occurred. A ventilation/perfusion scan and computed tomography scan each detected pulmonary embolism in 2 surviving patients within 2 months postoperatively. Two patients died, 1 on postoperative day 8 and 1 on postoperative day 15 (6.4%). The mean follow-up time was 262.8 +/- 37.3 days. Autopsy excluded VTE or IVCF-related issues as the cause of death in both patients. These results suggest the efficacy of IVUS-guided IVCF placement in preventing mortality from pulmonary embolism in high-risk bariatric patients. IVUS-guided IVCF placement can be safely performed with an excellent success rate in high-risk patients who would not otherwise be candidates for intervention because of the technical limitations of fluoroscopy.

  1. A new method for real-time co-registration of 3D coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, Stéphane; Didday, Rich; Slots, Tristan; Kayaert, Peter; Sonck, Jeroen; El-Mourad, Mike; Preumont, Nicolas; Schoors, Dany; Van Camp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We present a new clinically practical method for online co-registration of 3D quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT). The workflow is based on two modified commercially available software packages. Reconstruction steps are explained and compared to previously available methods. The feasibility for different clinical scenarios is illustrated. The co-registration appears accurate, robust and induced a minimal delay on the normal cath lab activities. This new method is based on the 3D angiographic reconstruction of the catheter path and does not require operator’s identification of landmarks to establish the image synchronization

  2. Quantification of iliac artery stenoses: a methodological comparative study between intravascular ultrasound, arteriography and duplex scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Skovgaard, Lene T

    1998-01-01

    66 y, admitted for either PTA (n=18) or femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery (n=20), were examined by IVUS, single plane arteriography and duplex scanning. The predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of IVUS were higher than the corresponding values for arteriography. Logistic...... regression analysis found that IVUS had a predictive value (p=0.0003) for diagnosing significant stenosis as defined by duplex scanning, but arteriography did not (p=0.1). However, this difference in usefulness as predictors did not reach significance. The agreement between arteriography and IVUS...... was relatively good. The conclusion is that IVUS seems to be superior to single-plane arteriography in predicting hemodynamically significant stenoses as defined by duplex scanning....

  3. Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects...

  4. Absence of accelerated atherosclerotic disease progression after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction--angiographic and intravascular ultrasound--results from the TErapia Celular Aplicada al Miocardio Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roman; Villa, Adolfo; Gutiérrez, Hipólito; Sánchez, Pedro L; Gimeno, Federico; Fernández, Maria E; Gutiérrez, Oliver; Mota, Pedro; Sánchez, Ana; García-Frade, Javier; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; San Román, Jose A

    2010-06-01

    We tried to evaluate a putative negative effect on coronary atherosclerosis in patients receiving intracoronary infusion of unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) following an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or enriched CD133(+) BMMC have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis of the distal segment of the infarct related artery (IRA). Thirty-seven patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction from the TECAM pilot study underwent intracoronary infusion of autologous BMMC 9 +/- 3.1 days after onset of symptoms. We compared angiographic changes from baseline to 9 months of follow-up in the distal non-stented segment of the IRA, as well as in the contralateral coronary artery, with a matched control group. A subgroup of 15 treated patients underwent additional IVUS within the distal segment of the IRA. No difference between stem cell and control group were found regarding changes in minimum lumen diameter (0.006 +/- 0.42 vs 0.06 +/- 0.41 mm, P = ns) and the percentage of stenosis (-2.68 +/- 12.33% vs -1.78 +/- 8.75%, P = ns) at follow-up. Likewise, no differences were seen regarding changes in the contralateral artery (minimum lumen diameter -0.004 +/- 0.54 mm vs -0.06 +/- 0.35 mm, P = ns). In the intravascular ultrasound substudy, no changes were demonstrated comparing baseline versus follow-up in maximum area stenosis and plaque volume. In this pilot study, analysis of a subgroup of patients found that intracoronary injection of unfractionated BMMC in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was not associated with accelerated atherosclerosis progression at mid term. Prospective, randomised studies in large cohorts with long-term angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up are necessary to determine the safety of this therapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe thrombocytopenia induced by iodinated contrast after coronary angiography: The use of gadolinium contrast and intravascular ultrasound as an alternative to guide percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Gómez, José María; Guerrero Márquez, Francisco J; Diaz-de la-Llera, Luis; Fernández-Quero, Mónica; Guisado-Rasco, Agustín; Villa-Gil-Ortega, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Acute contrast-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare event with the use of modern low osmolarity iodinated contrast media. The pathophysiological mechanism that causes platelet counts to drop has not been identified, but an immunological mechanism is suspected due to cytotoxicity after previous exposure to contrast. We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with acute severe thrombocytopenia due to iodinated contrast media exposure. His platelet count after the procedure with the highest amount of contrast was zero, which is the lowest reported platelet count to date. Percutaneous coronary revascularization under both intravascular ultrasound and gadolinium contrast guidance was performed without complications. The most feared complication after the use of gadolinium is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, especially in patients on hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled antegrade intimal tracking with subintimal balloon inflation as a novel bailout technique for chronic total occlusion after failed intravascular ultrasound-guided parallel wire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuta; Yajima, Junji; Hosaka, Fumitaka

    Failure to cross with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In cases of CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided parallel wire technique is usually the last-resort procedure. Failure of this technique sometimes causes enlarged subintimal space, resulting in procedure failure. We present a successful second attempt at left anterior descending artery CTO PCI with no interventional collaterals. After IVUS-guided parallel wire technique failed with an enlarged subintimal space, successful antegrade wire crossing was achieved using controlled antegrade intimal tracking with balloon inflation in the subintimal space to deflect a second wire. This technique may be useful as a bailout strategy in otherwise-failed CTO PCI with an enlarged subintimal space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Circulating Microparticles and Coronary Plaque Components Assessed by Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound of the Target Lesion in Patients with Stable Angina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Ki Min

    Full Text Available High levels of microparticles (MPs circulate in the blood of patients with atherosclerotic diseases where they can serve as potential biomarkers of vascular injury and cardiovascular outcome. We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating MPs and the coronary plaque composition in patients with stable angina. We included 35 patients with stable angina (22 men, age 64 ± 9 years and a de novo target lesion. Preintervention gray-scale and VH-IVUS analysis was performed across the target lesion. Volumetric analysis was performed over a 10-mm-long segment centered at the minimum luminal site. Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery before coronary angioplasty. MPs were measured using a solid-phase capture assay from a commercial kit. We divided participants into either a low MPs group or high MPs group based on the median value of MPs. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The plaque burden and remodeling index were similar between the groups. The presence of VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma was not different between the groups. The percentage of the necrotic core (NC was significantly higher in the high MPs group than in the low MPs group, both in planar (17.0 ± 8.8% vs. 24.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.012 and volumetric analyses (17.0 ± 4.8% vs. 22.1 ± 4.3%, p = 0.002. Circulating MPs were positively correlated with the percentage of the NC area at the minimal luminal site (r = 0.491, p = 0.003 and the percentage of the NC volume (r = 0.496, p = 0.002. Elevated levels of circulating MPs were associated with the amount of NC in the target lesion in those with stable angina, suggesting a potential role of circulating MPs as a biomarker for detecting unstable plaque in patients with stable angina.

  8. [Finite Element Analysis of Intravascular Stent Based on ANSYS Software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gengqiang; Song, Xiaobing

    2015-10-01

    This paper adopted UG8.0 to bulid the stent and blood vessel models. The models were then imported into the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The simulation results of ANSYS software showed that after endothelial stent implantation, the velocity of the blood was slow and the fluctuation of velocity was small, which meant the flow was relatively stable. When blood flowed through the endothelial stent, the pressure gradually became smaller, and the range of the pressure was not wide. The endothelial shear stress basically unchanged. In general, it can be concluded that the endothelial stents have little impact on the flow of blood and can fully realize its function.

  9. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  10. Comparison of utility of blood cultures from intravascular catheters and peripheral veins: a systematic review and decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Kazantzi, Maria S; Bliziotis, Ioannis A

    2008-01-01

    Blood cultures are sometimes obtained from intravascular catheters for convenience. However, there is controversy regarding this practice. The authors compared the diagnostic test characteristics of blood cultures obtained from intravascular catheters and peripheral veins. Relevant studies for inclusion in this review were identified through PubMed (January 1970-October 2005) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies that reported clear definitions of true bacteraemia were included in the analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Six studies were included in the analysis, providing data for 2677 pairs of blood cultures obtained from an intravascular catheter and a peripheral venipuncture. A culture obtained from an intravascular catheter was found to be a diagnostic test for bacteraemia with better sensitivity (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.14-2.99, fixed effects model) and better negative predictive value (almost with statistical significance) (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 0.999-2.39, fixed effects model) but with less specificity (OR 0.33, 95 % CI 0.18-0.59, random effects model) and lower positive predictive value (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.23-0.76, random effects model) compared to a culture taken by peripheral venipuncture. In a group of 1000 patients, eight additional patients with true bacteraemia would be identified and 59 falsely diagnosed as having bacteraemia by a blood culture obtained from an intravascular catheter compared to results of the peripheral blood culture. Given the consequences of undertreating patients with bacteraemia, the authors believe that, based on the available evidence, at least one blood culture should be obtained from the intravascular catheter.

  11. A new method to quantify coronary calcification by intravascular ultrasound - the different patterns of calcification of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris and stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Lu, Chengzhi; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Xiangdong; Xia, Dasheng

    2008-11-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) enables the identification of calcification with more details and quantification of calcification, but there is not a proper method to quantify the calcification with IVUS. Previous IVUS studies used arc or length of calcium, respectively, to quantify calcification, but calcium is determined by a combination of arc and length. We devised a new method to quantify calcium as arc area (AA) in the present study, and AA is two-dimensional and irrelevant to vessel size. We selected 201 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), unstable angina pectoris (UAP), or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent IVUS imaging of a de novo native atherosclerotic lesion considered to be the culprit lesion before percutaneous coronary intervention between December 2001 and December 2007. The culprit lesion site for analysis was the 10 mm-long segment including the smallest lumen cross-sectional area. The arc of each calcium deposit in each image was measured with a protractor centered on the lumen and the length of each calcium deposit was calculated with the number of images containing the calcium deposit minus 1, then multiplying 0.5 mm (the images were 0.5 mm apart). Finally, the AA was calculated by arc (degree) multiplying length (mm). The average number of calcium deposits in the culprit lesions of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was significantly larger than patients with SAP or UAP, and the number of calcium deposits of patients with SAP or UAP was almost the same (mean +/- SD, AMI 2.21 +/- 1.98, SAP 1.15 +/- 1.01, UAP 1.20 +/- 1.15, AMI versus SAP or UAP; p < 0.0005). The average AA per calcium deposit was significantly different in culprit lesions of patients with SAP and UAP or AMI, the calcium deposits were bigger in SAP than in UAP or AMI, and there were no differences between UAP and AMI (mean +/- SD, SAP 788.6 +/- 767.0 degree x mm, UAP 136.6 +/- 189.3 degree x mm, AMI 148.4 +/- 217.1 degree x mm, SAP versus UAP or

  12. Acute myocardial infarction due to spontaneous, localized, acute dissection of the sinus of Valsalva detected by intravascular ultrasound and electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Taku; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Murai, Shunsuke; Ikehara, Noriyuki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Suda, Hisao; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of chest pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed ST-segment elevation in II, III, and a Vf with advanced heart block. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated aortic root dilatation at the sinus of Valsalva, moderate aortic regurgitation, and decreased wall motion in the inferior part of the left ventricle. Non-ECG-gated enhanced computed tomography (CT) did not reveal an aortic dissection. The patient underwent emergent coronary angiography, which revealed a severely narrowed ostium of the right coronary artery (RCA). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. IVUS images demonstrated an intimal flap extending from the aortic wall to the proximal RCA, suggesting that a periaortic hematoma in the false lumen compressed the ostium of the RCA, leading to acute myocardial infarction. To recover hemodynamic stability, the RCA ostium was stented. Subsequent ECG-gated enhanced CT clearly depicted the entry point and extension of the dissection localized within the sinus of Valsalva. The dissection likely involved the left main coronary artery and an emergent Bentall procedure was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed an intimal tear and extension of the dissection. Thus, ECG-gated CT can clearly depict the entry site and extension of a dissection occurring in the localized area that cannot be detected by conventional CT.

  13. Impact of kissing balloon inflation on the main vessel stent volume, area, and symmetry after side-branch dilation in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions: a serial volumetric intravascular ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahid; Leesar, Tara; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Effat, Mohamed; Arif, Imran; Helmy, Tarek; Leesar, Massoud A

    2013-09-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to investigate the impact of kissing balloon inflation (KBI) on the main vessel (MV) stent volume, area, and symmetry after side-branch (SB) dilation in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL). It remains controversial whether KBI would restore the MV stent area and symmetry loss after SB dilation. A total of 88 serial IVUS examinations of the MV were performed after MV angioplasty, MV stenting, SB dilation, and KBI in 22 patients with CBL. The MV stent was divided into proximal, bifurcation, and distal segments; the stent volume index (SVI), minimal stent area (MSA), stent symmetry index (SSI), and external elastic membrane (EEM) volume index were measured in 198 stent segments and compared after MV stenting, SB dilation, and KBI. In the bifurcation segment, SVI, MSA, and SSI were significantly smaller after SB dilation than after MV stenting and KBI (SVI was 6.10 ± 1.50 mm(3)/mm vs. 6.68 ± 1.60 mm(3)/mm and 6.57 ± 1.60 mm(3)/mm, respectively, p impact on the MV stent volume or symmetry. This is the first comprehensive volumetric IVUS analysis of CBL, to our knowledge, demonstrating that KBI restores the MV stent volume, area, and symmetry loss after SB dilation in the bifurcation segment, and induces asymmetric stent expansion in the proximal segment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the Randomized Diabetes and Drug-Eluting Stent (DiabeDES) Intravascular Ultrasound Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with diabetes have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation owing to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent and distribution of NIH with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after coronary artery stenting with sirolimus......-eluting (Cypher) or paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) stents in diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and thirty diabetic patients were randomized to Cypher or Taxus stent implantation. IVUS was performed at 8 month follow-up. NIH volume was significantly reduced in the Cypher group when compared...

  15. The use of intravascular ultrasound imaging to improve use of inferior vena cava filters in a high-risk bariatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardys, Clark M; Stoner, Michael C; Manwaring, Mark L; Bogey, William M; Parker, Frank M; Powell, Steve

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of death after gastric bypass procedures for obesity, approximating 0.5% to 4%. All bariatric patients, but especially the super-obese, which have a body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m(2), are at significant risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Visualization and weight limitations of fluoroscopy tables exclude most bariatric and all super-obese patients from inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement using fluoroscopy. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided IVC filter placement is the only modality that allows these high-risk patients to have an IVC filter placed. Hospital and outpatient records of the 494 patients who underwent gastric bypass procedures from January 1, 2004, to May 31, 2006, were reviewed. All patients who had concurrent IVC filter placement with the use of IVUS guidance were selected. Comorbidities, outcomes, and complications were recorded. We identified 27 patients with mean BMI of 70 +/- 3 kg/m(2); of these, 25 were super-obese (BMI >50 kg/m(2)). Procedures included five laparoscopic and 22 open gastric bypass operations. All patients underwent concurrent IVC filter placement using IVUS guidance. In addition to super-obesity, indications for IVC filter placement included history of VTE (n = 4), known hypercoagulable state (n = 2), and profound immobility (n = 21). Mean follow up was 293 +/- 40 days. Technical success rate was 96.3%. There were no catheter site complications. In one surviving patient, a nonfatal pulmonary embolism was detected by computed tomography 2 months postoperatively. Two patients died, and autopsy excluded VTE as the cause of death in both. This study suggests efficacy of IVUS-guided IVC filter placement in preventing mortality from pulmonary embolism in high-risk bariatric patients, including the super-obese. IVUS-guided IVC filter placement can be safely performed with an excellent success rate in all bariatric patients, including the super-obese, who otherwise would

  16. Analysis and compensation for the effect of the catheter position on image intensities in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is an imaging technique that is used to analyze the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Because a catheter is used during imaging, the intensities can be affected by the catheter position. This work aims to analyze the effect...... of the catheter position on IVOCT image intensities and to propose a compensation method to minimize this effect in order to improve the visualization and the automatic analysis of IVOCT images. The effect of catheter position is modeled with respect to the distance between the catheter and the arterial wall...

  17. Comparison of change in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris receiving statin therapy (from the Treatment With Statin on Atheroma Regression Evaluated by Intravascular Ultrasound With Virtual Histology [TRUTH] study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-04-01

    Although statin-induced regression in coronary atherosclerosis seems to be greater in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in those with stable coronary artery disease, no reports have examined this. The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris (AP). The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and analyzable intravascular ultrasound data were obtained from 119 patients (83 patients with stable AP and 36 with unstable AP). A significant decrease in plaque volume was observed in patients with unstable AP (-2.2%, p = 0.02) but not in patients with stable AP. A significant increase in the necrotic-core component (0.30 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.009) was observed only in patients with unstable AP. Significant positive correlations were observed between the percentage of change in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and the percentage of change in plaque volume (r = 0.346, p = 0.05) in patients with unstable AP. No significant correlations were observed in patients with stable AP. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a reduction in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly of the fibrous component (β = 0.443, p = 0.003), in patients with unstable AP. In conclusion, regression of the coronary artery plaque volume was greater, although statin therapy did not halt the increases in plaque vulnerability, in patients with unstable AP compared to those with stable AP. A reduction in the serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase level was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly the fibrous plaque volume, in patients with unstable AP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravascular blood coagulation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkevich, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of activation of intravascular blood coagulation (JVBC) at different stages after irradiation, are considered. JVBC peculiarities (disseminated intravascular syndrome (DIV) or thrombo hemorrhagic syndrome) are investigated. Literature on alterations which take place in the organism under effect of ionizing irradiation is analyzed. This analysis proves the characteristic features of thrombinogenesis activation and development of DIV syndrome not only in the early post-radiation period, but in the middle of radiation disease, as well. It is also shown that ionizing radiation activizes the hemocoagulation process and causes IVBC in the case of both local and general irradiation [ru

  19. Characterization and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque of coronary arteries: utility of electron-beam tomography to detect non-calcified plaque: a comparison with conventional coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Nobusada; Misumi, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Asano, Miki; Komuro, Issei

    2007-01-31

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) may provide useful information about characterization and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque of coronary arteries. Twenty-six subjects (20 male, 6 female) with suspected coronary heart disease had two routine (r) and one enhanced (e) EBT scans to detect non-calcified plaque (NCP) in the coronary arterial lumen, and were compared with conventional coronary angiograms (CAG) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Three had the sites, which did not have high CT values suggesting calcification in rEBT, nor which was not enhanced by contrast material in eEBT. One had the site with positive CT values that were supposed to be the proliferation intima or organized thrombus and at the corresponding site mixed plaque was observed in the IVUS image. The other two had the site with negative CT values that were supposed to be fat tissue with significant stenosis in CAG. We also made the cross-sectional images of the vessel and the morphology of the NCP, which projected into the lumen, could be evaluated. We could detect the NCP, differentiate fat tissue from soft tissue and evaluate the morphology of the plaque in EBT.

  20. Intravascular ultrasound guidance to minimize the use of iodine contrast in percutaneous coronary intervention: the MOZART (Minimizing cOntrast utiliZation With IVUS Guidance in coRonary angioplasTy) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, José; Guedes, Cristiano; Soares, Paulo; Zalc, Silvio; Campos, Carlos M; Lopes, Augusto C; Spadaro, André G; Perin, Marco A; Filho, Antonio Esteves; Takimura, Celso K; Ribeiro, Expedito; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Edelman, Elazer R; Serruys, Patrick W; Lemos, Pedro A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance on the final volume of contrast agent used in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To date, few approaches have been described to reduce the final dose of contrast agent in PCIs. We hypothesized that IVUS might serve as an alternative imaging tool to angiography in many steps during PCI, thereby reducing the use of iodine contrast. A total of 83 patients were randomized to angiography-guided PCI or IVUS-guided PCI; both groups were treated according to a pre-defined meticulous procedural strategy. The primary endpoint was the total volume contrast agent used during PCI. Patients were followed clinically for an average of 4 months. The median total volume of contrast was 64.5 ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 42.8 to 97.0 ml; minimum, 19 ml; maximum, 170 ml) in the angiography-guided group versus 20.0 ml (IQR: 12.5 to 30.0 ml; minimum, 3 ml; maximum, 54 ml) in the IVUS-guided group (p MOZART]; NCT01947335). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's ...

  2. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  3. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 μm and 550 μm, respectively, for PA and 89 μm and 420 μm for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  4. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  5. Dosimetric model for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, E.E.; Stroud, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Intravascular brachytherapy has been shown to be a prophylaxis for restenosis. Adventitial macrophages, which are extremely radiosensitive, initiate neointima formation. A model of the dose levels of the treatment range is developed, assuming that the adventitia is the target tissue. If the adventitia receives a dose of less than 10 Gy, it is assumed the treatment will be ineffective. If the dose to any part of the wall is above 30 Gy, it is assumed that the treatment could be detrimental. Hence the treatment range is between 10 and 30 Gy, with 20 Gy being the optimum dosage to the adventitia. An algorithm using numerical integration of published dose kernels calculates the dose at any point surrounding a beta ( 32 P) line source of finite length. Dose profiles were obtained to demonstrate edge effects. For long lesions, the source is often stepped along the artery. Dose changes due to separation or overlapping of sources during source stepping procedures were also determined. Isodose curves were superimposed on intravascular ultrasound images to demonstrate dose levels. For an exposure time of 60 seconds with a 200mCi source, the optimum dose of 20 Gy occurs at a distance 1.94mm from the centre of the source. The upper limit of the treatment dose range (30 Gy) occurs at 1.59mm. The lower limit of the treatment dose range (10 Gy) occurs at 2.7mm. Significant perturbations to the treatment dose range can be caused by non-centering of the source, edge effects and separation or overlapping of sources in stepping procedures. Despite these concerns, many successful procedures have been reported and this implies that the model is over simplified and requires modifications. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 66. Cosgrove DO, Eckersley RJ, Harvey CJ, Lim A. Ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. ... by: Jason Levy, MD, Northside Radiology Associates, Atlanta, GA. Also ...

  7. [Intravascular endothelioma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanĕk, J

    1978-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman developed a slowly growing lesion over the right index and the adjacent part of the metacarpus. A cell proliferation filling up the skin veins was classified as intravascular endothelioma. This rather rare oncological entity with a good prognosis should be differentiated from peculiar pattern occasionally seen in organisation of thrombi as well as malignant endothelial tumours.

  8. Intravascular (catheter) MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Hurst, G.C.; Katz, D.E.; Dverk, J.L.; Wiesen, E.J.; Czerski, L.W.; Malaya, R.; Bellon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intravascular MR probes allow excellent spatial resolution and have the potential to detect arterial wall microstructure. Ultrasonic intravascular probes suggest that detailed morphologic information can assist clinical decision making. Catheter MR probes of 2--7 mm outside diameter (OD) were built of copper wire, Teflon, and parts from standard commercial catheters. The probes were connected to the surface coil receiver input of our Picker VISTA 2055HP 1.5-T imaging system. The extant (linear) body coil was used for transmit. Phantoms were constructed of coaxial glass MR tubes, filled with doped water. Watanabe rabbit aorta and human autopsy iliac artery specimens were examined within 4 hours of excision or stored by freezing. In vivo iliac arteries in dogs under general anesthesia were imaged, with percutaneous placement of the probe. Results are presented

  9. Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G; Henriques, U V

    1988-01-01

    Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesion...... and fetal death was found, the cause of death being attributed to intrauterine asphyxia. It is concluded, that intravascular "mulberry-bodies" most likely represent artifacts due to red blood cell autolysis....

  10. Intravascular ultrasound: validation and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Lugt (Aad)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAtherogenesis is a process with an insidious onset and course. Once clinical signs and symptoms have become manifest, the obstructive lesion is usually at an advanced stage. Arteriography is the standard method for evaluation of atherosclerotic disease and has been useful in

  11. Portable bladder ultrasound: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    alternative to catheterization. An economic analysis estimating the budget-impact of BladderScan in complex continuing care facilities was completed. The analysis results indicated a $192,499 (Cdn) cost-savings per year per facility and a cost-savings of $2,887,485 (Cdn) for all 15 CCC facilities. No economic analysis was completed for long-term care and acute care facilities due to lack of data. Rapid diffusion of portable bladder ultrasound technology is expected. Recently, the IC5 project on improving continence care in Ontario's complex continuing care centres piloted portable bladder ultrasound at 12 sites. Preliminary results were promising. Many physicians and health care facilities already have portable bladder ultrasound devices. However, portable bladder ultrasound devices for PVR measurement are not in use at most health care facilities in Ontario and Canada. The Verathon Corporation (Bothell, Wisconsin, United States), which patents BladderScan, is the sole licensed manufacturer of the portable bladder ultrasound in Canada. Field monopoly may influence the rising costs of portable bladder ultrasound, particularly when faced with rapid expansion of the technology. Several thousand residents of Ontario would benefit from portable bladder ultrasound. The number of residents of Ontario that would benefit from the technology is difficult to quantify, because the incidence and prevalence of incontinence are grossly under-reported. However, long-term care and complex continuing care institutions would benefit greatly from portable bladder ultrasound, as would numerous rehabilitation units, postsurgical care units, and urology clinics. The cost of the portable bladder ultrasound devices ranges from $17,698.90 to $19,565.95 (Cdn) (total purchase price per unit as quoted by the manufacturer). Additional training packages, batteries and battery chargers, software, gel pads, and yearly warranties are additional costs. Studies indicate that portable bladder ultrasound is a

  12. A retrospective analysis of ultrasound-guided large core needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of ultrasound-guided large core needle biopsies of breast lesions at a regional public hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Objective: To assess the influence of technical variables on the diagnostic yield of breast specimens obtained by using US-LCNB, and the sensitivity of detecting ...

  13. Automated analysis of brachial ultrasound time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weidong; Browning, Roger L.; Lauer, Ronald M.; Sonka, Milan

    1998-07-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood with the accumulation of lipid in the intima of arteries to form fatty streaks, advances through adult life when occlusive vascular disease may result in coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Non-invasive B-mode ultrasound has been found useful in studying risk factors in the symptom-free population. Large amount of data is acquired from continuous imaging of the vessels in a large study population. A high quality brachial vessel diameter measurement method is necessary such that accurate diameters can be measured consistently in all frames in a sequence, across different observers. Though human expert has the advantage over automated computer methods in recognizing noise during diameter measurement, manual measurement suffers from inter- and intra-observer variability. It is also time-consuming. An automated measurement method is presented in this paper which utilizes quality assurance approaches to adapt to specific image features, to recognize and minimize the noise effect. Experimental results showed the method's potential for clinical usage in the epidemiological studies.

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Hack, C. Erik; Wuillemin, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a frequent complication of sepsis. Coagulation activation, inhibition of fibrinolysis, and consumption of coagulation inhibitors lead to a procoagulant state resulting in inadequate fibrin removal and fibrin deposition in the microvasculature. As a

  15. Ultrasound thrombolysis in stent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, T; Desmet, W; Piessens, J; Rosenschein, U

    2000-11-01

    Recent refinement in stent implantation technique and peri-procedural pharmacological treatment has lowered the incidence of stent thrombosis significantly. Still, all stent thromboses are associated with major adverse events. In previous studies it has been suggested that intravascular ultrasound fibrinolysis is safe and effective. In this report, ultrasound successfully reperfused thrombotically occluded stents. These observations suggest that ultrasound may dissolve occlusive platelet-rich thrombus effectively and safely. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 51:332-334, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  17. Intravascular photoacoustic tomography for characterization of atherosclerotic lipid and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qin, Huan; Shi, Yujiao; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a fast growing imaging technology depending on its high optical resolution of optics while taking the advantage of the high penetration depth of ultrasound. In this paper, we demonstrate the new progress in the photoacoustic imaging. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a progressive build-up of lipid in the arterial wall, which is known as plaque. Histological studies demonstrate that the primary cause of acute cardiovascular events is the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid and inflammation within the plaque are related to influence the propensity of plaques to disrupt. Photoacoustic intravascular tomography (IVPAT) holds a great advantage in providing comprehensive morphological and functional information of plaques. Lipid relative concentration maps of atherosclerotic aorta were obtained and compared with histology. Furthermore, by selectively targeting the intravascular inflammatory cytokines, IVPAT is also capable of mapping the inflamed area and determining the degree of inflammation.

  18. Determination of fish gender using fractal analysis of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan J.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne

    2009-01-01

    The gender of cod Gadus morhua can be determined by considering the complexity in their gonadal ultrasonographic appearance. The fractal dimension (DB) can be used to describe this feature in images. B-mode gonadal ultrasound images in 32 cod, where gender was known, were collected. Fractal...... by subjective analysis alone. The mean (and standard deviation) of the fractal dimension DB for male fish was 1.554 (0.073) while for female fish it was 1.468 (0.061); the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.84 indicating the value of fractal analysis in gender...... result. Fractal analysis is useful for gender determination in cod. This or a similar form of analysis may have wide application in veterinary imaging as a tool for quantification of complexity in images...

  19. Model of distribution of dose for intravascular brachytherapy; Modelo de distribucion de dosis para braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirchio, Rosana; Signoretta, Catalina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dosimetria de Radioaciones Ionizantes; Martin, Gabriela; Rivera, Elena; Bergoc, Rosa [Univeridad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica. Lab. de Radioisotopos; Guzman, Luis [Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In this work we present the radiation dose distributions for a theoretical model with Monte Carlo simulation, which was based on an experimental model developed for the study of the prevention of restenosis post-angioplasty employing intravascular brachytherapy. In the experimental model, the atherosclerotic plaques were induced in femoral arteries of male New Zealand rabbits through surgical intervention and later administration of cholesterol enriched diet. For the intravascular irradiation we employed a {sup 32} P source contained within the balloon used for the angioplasty. The radiation dose distributions were calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B according to a segment of a simulated artery. We studied the radiation dose distribution in the axial and radial directions for different thickness of the atherosclerotic plaques. The results will be correlated with the biologic effects observed by means of histological analysis of the irradiated arteries. (author)

  20. Intravascular Stenting in Microvascular Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assersen, Kristine; Sørensen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of intravascular stenting (IVaS) on microvascular anastomoses has given adverse results. For experienced microsurgeons the benefit of IVaS is doubtful. We have investigated the potential benefit of the IVaS technique for two groups of inexperienced microsurgeons with differe...

  1. Intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.; Prat, J.; Lopez, J.I.; Velilla, O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975 Dail and Liebow described the clinical and pathological characteristics of a pulmonary tumor which they dominated intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor (IVBAT). Our aim is to acquaint radiologists with the existence of this tumor by describing the radiologic findings in 2 patients with IVBAT, 1 with hepatic involvement ant the other with pulmonary osteoarthropathy. (author). 7 refs.; 2 figs

  2. Prediction of postpercutaneous coronary intervention myocardial infarction: insights from intravascular imaging, coronary flow, and biomarker evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoole, Stephen P; Hernández-Sánchez, Jules; Brown, Adam J; Giblett, Joel P; Bennett, Martin R; West, Nick E J

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention-induced myocardial infarction (PMI) has prognostic significance. Identifying patients at high risk for PMI is desirable as it may alter strategy and facilitate early preventative therapy. We therefore sought to establish whether preprocedural demographic, interventional (plaque characteristics and coronary microcirculatory function), and inflammatory, endothelial damage, and platelet-derived biomarker data could predict the risk of PMI. We performed target vessel pressure wire to assess fractional flow reserve, index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve, plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and assayed peripheral biomarkers before uncomplicated PCI in 88 patients. We then analyzed post-PCI cardiac troponin level to adjudicate PMI based on the third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Overall incidence of PMI was 27%. Women [10/15 (66%) vs. 14/73 (19%), PPMI. Preprocedural coronary flow reserve was lower in individuals with a subsequent PMI (1.8±1.2 vs. 2.1±1.3. P=0.03), and patients with higher pre-PCI IMR were more likely to sustain PMI [IMR>22: 10/23 (44%) vs. ≤22: 14/65 (22%), P=0.04], although neither was predictive after multivariate analysis. Plaque characterization by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound did not discriminate those at risk of PMI. However, peripheral venous interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-8 levels were independently negatively and positively associated with PMI, respectively. Women and those with low BMI, particularly when associated with high IL-8 and low IL-18 levels, appear to be at increased risk of PMI.

  3. Brachytherapy optimal planning with application to intravascular radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Mourtada, Firas A.; Taylor, Russell H.

    1999-01-01

    . Dose rate calculations are based on the sosimetry formulation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 43. We apply the technique to optimal planning for intravascular brachytherapy of intimal hyperplasia using ultrasound data and 192Ir seeds. The planning includes...... determination of an optimal dwell-time sequence for a train of seeds that deliver ratiation while stepping through the vessel lesion. The results illustrate the advantage of this strategy over the common approach of delivering radiation by positioning a single train of seeds along the whole lesion....

  4. Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Uterine Leiomyoma Associated with Numerous Intravascular Thrombi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH in uterine leiomyoma and associated numerous intravascular thrombi. A 29-year-old nulliparous female presented with heavy vaginal bleeding and a hematocrit of 22%. No bone marrow biopsy has been performed. She had a history of uterine leiomyomata and menorrhagia for a year. A transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the presence of a uterine leiomyoma. The patient was treated conservatively with oral contraceptive pills due to desire for fertility. However, she continued to have heavy vaginal bleeding and developed bilateral upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and multiple superficial vein thromboses after two months. An exploratory laparotomy with uterine myomectomy was performed. Gross examination of the specimen revealed a single nodular mass measuring 10.0×9.5×7.5 cm with a white-tan swirling cut surface. Microscopic examination revealed benign smooth muscle consistent with leiomyoma and numerous intravascular thrombi both with areas of EMH. Immunohistochemical stains confirmed the presence of all three benign lineages of hematopoietic cells. Occurrence of EMH in uterine leiomyoma and intravascular thrombi is very rare. It may be related to systemic hematopoietic stimulation due to severe chronic anemia and local presence of hematopoietic growth factors and/or cytokines.

  5. Quantitative Ultrasound and bone's response to exercise: a meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, O O; Forsyth, J J

    2013-03-01

    The utility of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) for assessing and monitoring changes in bone health due to exercise is limited for lack of adequate research evidence. Restrictions to bone density testing and the enduring debate over repeat dual energy absorptiometry testing spells uncertainty over clinical and non-clinical evaluation of exercise for prevention of osteoporosis. This study, via systematic review and meta-analysis, aimed to paint a portrait of current evidence regarding QUS' application to monitoring bone's adaptive response to exercise interventions. Structured and comprehensive search of databases was undertaken along with hand-searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to December 2011. Twelve articles met predetermined inclusion criteria. The effect of exercise interventions for improving bone health, as measured by QUS of the calcaneum, was examined across the age spectrum. Study outcomes for analysis: absolute (dB/MHz) or relative change (%) in broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and/or os calcis stiffness index were compared by calculating standardised mean difference (SMD) using fixed- and random-effects models. Quality of included trials varied from low to high on a scale of one to three. Four to 36months of exercise led to a significant improvement in calcaneum BUA (0.98 SMD, 95% CI 0.80, 1.16, overall effect Z-value=10.72, p=0.001) across the age spectrum. The meta-analysis attests to the sensitivity of QUS to exercise-induced changes in bone health across the age groups. QUS may be considered for use in exercise-based bone health interventions for preventing osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcaneal ultrasound analysis of Nigerian adults with type 2 diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Both male and females subjects with type 2 diabetes had superior ultrasound parameters including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) relative to controls. However, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the subjects with diabetes and ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see ...

  8. Lesion Segmentation in Automated 3D Breast Ultrasound: Volumetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Richa; Diaz, Oliver; Lladó, Xavier; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Vilanova, Joan C; Martí, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Mammography is the gold standard screening technique in breast cancer, but it has some limitations for women with dense breasts. In such cases, sonography is usually recommended as an additional imaging technique. A traditional sonogram produces a two-dimensional (2D) visualization of the breast and is highly operator dependent. Automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) has also been proposed to produce a full 3D scan of the breast automatically with reduced operator dependency, facilitating double reading and comparison with past exams. When using ABUS, lesion segmentation and tracking changes over time are challenging tasks, as the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the images makes the analysis difficult and tedious for radiologists. The goal of this work is to develop a semi-automatic framework for breast lesion segmentation in ABUS volumes which is based on the Watershed algorithm. The effect of different de-noising methods on segmentation is studied showing a significant impact ([Formula: see text]) on the performance using a dataset of 28 temporal pairs resulting in a total of 56 ABUS volumes. The volumetric analysis is also used to evaluate the performance of the developed framework. A mean Dice Similarity Coefficient of [Formula: see text] with a mean False Positive ratio [Formula: see text] has been obtained. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the segmented volumes and the corresponding ground truth volumes is [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). Similar analysis, performed on 28 temporal (prior and current) pairs, resulted in a good correlation coefficient [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) for prior and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) for current cases. The developed framework showed prospects to help radiologists to perform an assessment of ABUS lesion volumes, as well as to quantify volumetric changes during lesions diagnosis and follow-up.

  9. Quantitative Ultrasound Texture Analysis for Differentiating Preterm From Term Fetal Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, Sleiman R; Bracero, Luis A; Blitz, Matthew J; Rahman, Zara; Lesser, Martin L

    2017-07-01

    To differentiate preterm (quantitative texture analysis of ultrasound images. This study retrospectively evaluated singleton gestations with valid dating at 20 weeks' gestational age (GA) or later between January 2015 and December 2015. Images were obtained from Voluson E8 ultrasound systems (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). A region of interest was selected in each fetal lung image at the level of the 4 heart chambers from an area that appeared most representative of the overall lung tissue and had the least shadow. Ultrasonic tissue heterogeneity (heterogeneity index) based on dynamic range calculation was determined for all lung images. This quantification was performed with a custom-made software program that used a dithering technique based on the Floyd-Steinberg algorithm, in which the pixels are transformed into a binary map. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation and functional association between the heterogeneity index and GA. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal heterogeneity index cutoff point for differentiating preterm from term fetal lungs. A total of 425 fetal lung ultrasound images (313 preterm and 112 term) were analyzed. Quantitative texture analysis predicted GA with sensitivity and specificity of 87.9% and 92.0%, respectively, based on the optimal receiver operating characteristic cutoff point. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of fetal lung tissue can differentiate preterm fetal lungs from term fetal lungs. Our data suggest that decreased fetal lung heterogeneity on ultrasound imaging is associated with preterm fetuses. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Owen

    2012-07-13

    Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

  11. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis for clinical decision making support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie Ying; Beland, Michael; Konrad, Joseph; Tuomi, Adam; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    We propose a general ultrasound (US) texture-analysis and machine-learning framework for detecting the presence of disease that is suitable for clinical application across clinicians, disease types, devices, and operators. Its stages are image selection, image filtering, ROI selection, feature parameterization, and classification. Each stage is modular and can be replaced with alternate methods. Thus, this framework is adaptable to a wide range of tasks. Our two preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis and adenomyosis diagnosis. For steatosis, we collected US images from 288 patients and their pathology-determined values of steatosis (%) from biopsies. Two radiologists independently reviewed all images and identified the region of interest (ROI) most representative of the hepatic echotexture for each patient. To parameterize the images into comparable quantities, we filter the US images at multiple scales for various texture responses. For each response, we collect a histogram of pixel features within the ROI, and parameterize it as a Gaussian function using its mean, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skew to create a 36-feature vector. Our algorithm uses a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Using a threshold of 10%, we achieved 72.81% overall accuracy, 76.18% sensitivity, and 65.96% specificity in identifying steatosis with leave-ten-out cross-validation (p<0.0001). Extending this framework to adenomyosis, we identified 38 patients with MR-confirmed findings of adenomyosis and previous US studies and 50 controls. A single rater picked the best US-image and ROI for each case. Using the same processing pipeline, we obtained 76.14% accuracy, 86.00% sensitivity, and 63.16% specificity with leave-one-out cross-validation (p<0.0001).

  12. Analysis of 50 cases of traumatic retinal detachment diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound and two-dimensional ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-An Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the value of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of traumatic retinal detachment. METHODS:All 50 cases(56 eyesof suspicious traumatic retinal detachment from January to June in 2013 were enrolled in this study. All first received the two-dimensional ultrasound, then the color Doppler ultrasound, finally, these results were compared with the results of surgery. RESULTS:All 56 eyes were observed intravitreal abnormal spots by the two-dimensional ultrasound, and 39 eyes were observed color blood signal by the color Doppler ultrasound. Forty eyes were approved retinal detachment by surgery. CONCLUSION: It is better to display the intravitreal abnormal spots and color blood signal by the color Doppler ultrasound than by the two-dimensional ultrasound, so there is important clinical significance of the color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of traumatic retinal detachment.

  13. CNS Intravascular Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular lymphoma is a rare but well-described entity. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented initially with syncope followed by subacute cognitive decline that progressed to minimally conscious state. Shortly after the transfer to our tertiary center the patient died. Brain autopsy disclosed the diagnosis of B-cell intravascular lymphoma. We speculate that syncope could be the first manifestation of central nervous system intravascular lymphoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained syncope. In addition, we stress the importance of early brain biopsy in unexplained white matter disease.

  14. Wrist ultrasound analysis of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated 42 wrists using the semi-quantitative scales power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS and gray scale ultrasound (GSUS with scores ranging from 0 to 3 and correlated the results with clinical, laboratory and radiographic data. Twenty-one patients (17 women and 4 men with rheumatoid arthritis according to criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were enrolled in the study from September 2008 to July 2009 at Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. The average disease duration was 14 months. The patients were 66.6% Caucasians and 33.3% non-Caucasians, with a mean age of 42 and 41 years, respectively. A dorsal longitudinal scan was performed by ultrasound on the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints using GE LOGIQ XP-linear ultrasound and a high frequency (8-10 MHz transducer. All patients were X-rayed, and the Larsen score was determined for the joints, with grades ranging from 0 to V. This study showed significant correlations between clinical, sonographic and laboratory data: GSUS and swollen right wrist (r = 0.546, GSUS of right wrist and swelling of left wrist (r = 0.511, PDUS of right wrist and pain in left wrist (r = 0.436, PDUS of right wrist and C-reactive protein (r = 0.466. Ultrasound can be considered a useful tool in the diagnosis of synovitis in early rheumatoid arthritis mainly when the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor are negative, and can lead to an early change in the therapeutic decision.

  15. Texture Based Quality Analysis of Simulated Synthetic Ultrasound Images Using Local Binary Patterns †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modeling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.

  16. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of fetal lungs to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-Carne, E; Palacio, M; Cobo, T; Perez-Moreno, A; Lopez, M; Piraquive, J P; Ramirez, J C; Botet, F; Marques, F; Gratacos, E

    2015-04-01

    To develop and evaluate the performance of a novel method for predicting neonatal respiratory morbidity based on quantitative analysis of the fetal lung by ultrasound. More than 13,000 non-clinical images and 900 fetal lung images were used to develop a computerized method based on texture analysis and machine learning algorithms, trained to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity risk on fetal lung ultrasound images. The method, termed 'quantitative ultrasound fetal lung maturity analysis' (quantusFLM™), was then validated blindly in 144 neonates, delivered at 28 + 0 to 39 + 0 weeks' gestation. Lung ultrasound images in DICOM format were obtained within 48 h of delivery and the ability of the software to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity, defined as either respiratory distress syndrome or transient tachypnea of the newborn, was determined. Mean (SD) gestational age at delivery was 36 + 1 (3 + 3) weeks. Among the 144 neonates, there were 29 (20.1%) cases of neonatal respiratory morbidity. Quantitative texture analysis predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 86.2%, 87.0%, 62.5% and 96.2%, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound fetal lung maturity analysis predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with an accuracy comparable to that of current tests using amniotic fluid. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intravascular lipoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Doyle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign neoplasms composed of adipocytes encased in a fibrous capsule. Intravascular lipomas are rare and almost always incidental findings. In the published literature, the majority are described within the inferior vena cava (IVC and less frequently reported in the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, internal jugular vein, external iliac vein and common femoral vein. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with a symptomatic ureteral calculus and was found to have an intravascular lipoma of the right renal vein with extension into the IVC. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report of an intravascular lipoma in the renal vein. We discuss the imaging characteristics of intravascular lipomas and the differential diagnosis that should be considered.

  18. Intravascular Myopericytoma in the Heel: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, José; Salcini, José L.; Gordillo, Luis; Gallart, José; González, David; Deus, Javier; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intravascular myopericytoma (IVMP), regarded as a variant of myopericytoma, is a rare tumor. Very few cases have been described, none in the foot. The first case of IVMP located in the heel of the foot is described in this article. A literature review is reported of all cases of IVMP published in the English literature. A 48-year-old man possessed an IVMP on the heel of the right foot. The physical examination and histopathological and ultrasound studies are described. The literature review yielded 5 cases of IVMP, 2 of which were in the thigh and 1 each in the oral mucosa, the periorbital region, and the leg. The possibility that these lesions may be malignant suggests that the histopathological study of vascular tumors should include immunohistochemical tests. PMID:25789958

  19. Hemi-Intravascular Stenting for Supermicrosurgical Anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Tashiro, MD; Shuji Yamashita, MD; Mitsunaga Narushima, MD; Isao Koshima, MD; Shimpei Miyamoto, MD

    2017-01-01

    Background:. Although supermicrosurgical anastomosis is a widely known reconstructive microsurgical technique, it is difficult to perform. To expand the clinical use of supermicrosurgery, we used hemi-intravascular stenting (hemi-IVaS), which is performed by inserting an intravascular stent into one side of the vessel. We conducted lymphaticovenular anastomosis, free perforator flap transfer, and fingertip replantation with supermicrosurgical anastomosis using hemi-IVaS technique and examined...

  20. Histomorphometrical analysis on the effects of two therapeutic ultrasound intensities on fracture healing in aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Rafael Skau

    Full Text Available Introduction Experimental studies conducted in young animals show that therapeutic ultrasound (TUS has been successfully used to shorten the healing time of bone fractures. However, they were not found in the literature, studies comparing the effect of different intensities of UST in aged animals. Objective To test the efficacy of intensity 1.0 W/cm2 and of 0.5 W/cm2 in the consolidation of experimental fracture of the tibia from aged Wistar rats. Materials and methods Three groups of 15 month old rats were submitted to a midshaft osteotomy of the tibia and then, the hind member was immobilized with a metal splint and plaster of Paris, wrapping the knee and ankle joint. One group (L, received ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm2; the other group (I, were exposed to ultrasound at 1.0 W/cm2. One control group (C, did not receive the ultrasound. Fifteen animals (five from each group were euthanatized at the end of the first week and fifteen (five from each group at the end of the third week. The progress of the fracture healing was performed for each group by morphometric analysis of histological sections of the fracture region. Results and conclusion The results showed that fractures treated with ultrasound at 1.0 W/cm2 healed significantly faster than did the fractures treated with ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm2 and the control.

  1. Dosimetric calculus in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho; Stabin, Michael Gregory [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment). Known as Intravascular Brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several radionuclides. Two stent sources employing {sup 32}P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the radionuclides and source geometries are discussed and the dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients. (author)

  2. Coagulación intravascular diseminada = Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango Barrientos, Marcos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La coagulación intravascular diseminada (CID es una entidad clínica frecuente que se presenta como fenómeno secundario a diversas enfermedades entre las cuales se destacan las infecciones graves, las neoplasias y las catástrofes obstétricas. Se caracteriza por una activación difusa y simultánea de los sistemas endógenos de la coagulación y la fibrinólisis. El depósito de pequeños trombos en la circulación conduce finalmente a disfunción orgánica múltiple y en algunos casos a la muerte. Las manifestaciones clínicas pueden incluir fenómenos trombóticos y hemorrágicos. Se ha propuesto un puntaje de fácil aplicación para simplificar el diagnóstico de la entidad. El tratamiento incluye el control específico de la causa subyacente que favorece la aparición de la CID, el soporte con hemoderivados en pacientes con manifestaciones de sangrado y la anticoagulación terapéutica en pacientes con trombosis mayores. El desarrollo de CID es un factor pronóstico adverso que aumenta significativamente la tasa de mortalidad. En este artículo de revisión se incluyen los siguientes aspectos de la CID: historia, epidemiología, clasificación, entidades asociadas, fisiopatología, clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico.

  3. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing {sup 32} P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  6. Fractal dimension analysis of malignant and benign endobronchial ultrasound nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiz, José Antonio; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Andreo, Felipe; Auteri, Santiago José; Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Bonet, Gloria; Castellà, Eva; Manzano, Juan Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) has been applied as a routine procedure for the diagnostic of hiliar and mediastinal nodes. The authors assessed the relationship between the echographic appearance of mediastinal nodes, based on endobronchial ultrasound images, and the likelihood of malignancy. The images of twelve malignant and eleven benign nodes were evaluated. A previous processing method was applied to improve the quality of the images and to enhance the details. Texture and morphology parameters analyzed were: the image texture of the echographies and a fractal dimension that expressed the relationship between area and perimeter of the structures that appear in the image, and characterizes the convoluted inner structure of the hiliar and mediastinal nodes. Processed images showed that relationship between log perimeter and log area of hilar nodes was lineal (i.e. perimeter vs. area follow a power law). Fractal dimension was lower in the malignant nodes compared with non-malignant nodes (1.47(0.09), 1.53(0.10) mean(SD), Mann–Whitney U test p < 0.05)). Fractal dimension of ultrasonographic images of mediastinal nodes obtained through endobronchial ultrasound differ in malignant nodes from non-malignant. This parameter could differentiate malignat and non-malignat mediastinic and hiliar nodes

  7. Logistic discriminant analysis of breast cancer using ultrasound measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmaleki, P.; Mokhtari Dizaji, M.; Vahead, M.R.; Gity, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Logistic discriminant method was applied to differentiate malignant from benign in a group of patients with proved breast lesions of the basis of ultrasonic parameters. Materials and methods: Our database include 273 patients' ultrasonographic pictures consisting of 14 quantitative variables. The measured variables were ultrasound propagation velocity, acoustic impedance and attenuation coefficient at 10 MHz in breast lesions at 20, 25, 30 and 35 d ig c temperature, physical density and age. This database was randomly divided into the estimation of 201 and validation of 72 samples. The estimation samples were used to build the logistic discriminant model, and validation samples were used to validate the performance. Finally important criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that the logistic discriminant method was able to classify correctly 67 out of 72 cases presented in the validation sample. The results indicate a remarkable diagnostic accuracy of 93%. Conclusion: A logistic discriminator approach is capable of predicting the probability of malignancy of breast cancer. Features from ultrasonic measurement on ultrasound imaging is used in this approach

  8. Prediction of outcome after femoropopliteal balloon angioplasty by intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Just, S; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall

    1997-01-01

    limbs) undergoing PTA of the superficial femoral or popliteal artery. The degree of stenosis, the diameter and area of the lumen and the morphological changes in the plaque were related to the short-term patency of the intervention, as evaluated by duplex scan and ankle branchial index. RESULTS: Fifteen...... arteries remained patent. Two occlusions and two stenoses developed during the first 3 months after the intervention and one occlusion occurred after 1 year. The following IVUS parameters were related to a favourable patency: presence of calcification; dissection or plaque rupture and residual stenosis...

  9. Intravascular ultrasound for iliac artery imaging. Clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K G; Schroeder, T V

    2001-01-01

    IVUS is able to produce trans-sectional images of the iliac arteries at a high resolution. The three layered appearance of the arterial wall can be visualized. In the atherosclerotic diseased artery calcified plaques can be discerned from non-calcified plaques, and the distribution of the plaque......-eccentric or concentric-can be determined. IVUS seems to be superior to arteriography in quantifying the degree of stenosis, being able to relate the luminal area to the mediabounded area at the same site of the artery. The discrepancy between IVUS and arteriography is even greater when evaluating residualstenosis after...

  10. Data fusion of ultrasound and GPR signals for analysis of historic walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A; Gosalbez, J; Safont, G; Vergara, L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an application of ultrasounds and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for analysis of historic walls. The objectives are to characterize the deformation of a historic wall under different levels of load weights and to obtain an enhanced image of the wall. A new method that fuses data from ultrasound and GPR traces is proposed which is based on order statistics digital filters. Application results are presented for non destructive testing (NDT) of two replicates of historic ashlars' masonry walls: the first one homogeneous and the second one containing controlled defects such as cracks and nooks. The walls are measured separately using ultrasounds and GPR at different load steps. Time and frequency parameters extracted from the signals and different B-Scans for each of the NDT techniques are obtained. After this, a new fused representation is obtained, which results demonstrate the improvement of characterization and defect detection in historic walls using data fusion.

  11. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided…

  12. No change in impedance upon intravascular injection of D5W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, James; Tsui, Ban C H

    2010-06-01

    Electrical impedance increases following test injections of non-conducting solutions around nerves; however, this increase should diminish rapidly with intravascular needle placement, wherein the systemic circulation will dissipate the solution. For this observational study, we hypothesized that the impedance increases significantly at the perineural space after an injection of 5% dextrose in water (D5W), but that it does not increase correspondingly at the intravascular location After Ethics Research Board approval, electrical impedance was measured by a nerve stimulator displaying resistance, Stimuplex HNS 12, before and during (30 sec) an injection of D5W 3 mL: 1) during intravenous cannula placement using an insulated stimulating needle sheathed in its plastic cannula, MultiSet NanoLine with 18G needle; and 2) during needle placement (Pajunk 22G insulated) for an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block in patients undergoing hand surgery. The impedance changes at each location were analyzed and compared. Data were collected from 16 patients. Baseline impedance was lower intravascularly (mean 16.5 +/- standard deviation 7.2 kOmega) compared with perineurally (23.5 +/- 8.3 kOmega) (P = 0.037). Peak impedance after intravascular D5W injection was 20.1 +/- 6.8 kOmega, which was not a significant change (P = 0.15). In contrast, peak impedance after perineural D5W injection was 58.6 +/- 29.1 kOmega, an increase of 35.1 +/- 26.4 kOmega (155 +/- 117%), and then it reached a plateau of 36.7 +/- 19.6 kOmega. The increase in impedance was significantly greater at the perineural location (P < 0.0001). The absence of a significant increase in impedance upon injection of D5W prior to injection of local anesthetic may provide useful information to warn of intravascular injection.

  13. Fluorescent Method for Observing Intravascular Bonghan Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Cheon Lee

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation of intra-vascular threadlike structures in the blood vessels of rats is reported with the images by differential interference contrast microscope, and fluorescence inverted microscope of the acridine-orange stained samples. The confocal microscope image and the hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed the distinctive pattern of nuclei distribution that clearly discerned the threadlike structure from fibrin, capillary, small venule, arteriole, or lymph vessel. Physiological function of the intra-vascular thread in connection with acupuncture is discussed. Especially, this threadlike duct can be a circulation path for herb-liquid flow, which may provide the scientific mechanism for therapeutic effect of herbal acupuncture.

  14. Long-term safety and feasibility of three-vessel multimodality intravascular imaging in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI in the s...

  15. Ultrasound guidance for difficult peripheral venous access: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Grace; Healy, Donagh; O'Neill, Heidi; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Grace, Pierce A; Walsh, Stewart R

    2013-07-01

    Establishing intravenous access is often vital in an acute hospital setting but can be difficult. Ultrasound-guided cannulation increases success rates in prospective studies. However, these studies have often lacked a comparative group. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of Ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous cannulation compared with the standard technique in patients known to have difficult access. Electronic abstract databases, trial registries, article reference lists and internet repositories were searched using the following search terms: 'peripheral venous cannulation', 'peripheral venous access'. Studies meeting the following criteria were included: randomised controlled trial patients of all ages who required peripheral intravenous access; interventions were Ultrasound-guided versus standard cannulation technique; patients were identified as having difficult venous access; inclusion of at least one defined outcome (procedural success time to cannula placement; number of attempts). 7 trials were identified (289 participants). Ultrasound guidance increases the likelihood of successful cannulation (pooled OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.68; p=0.008). There were no differences in time to successful cannulation, or number of percutaneous skin punctures. Ultrasound guidance increases the likelihood of successful peripheral cannulation in difficult access patients. We recommend its use in patients who have difficult venous access, and have failed venous cannulation by standard methods. Further randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with larger sample sizes would be of benefit to investigate if Ultrasound has any additional advantages in terms of reducing the procedure time and the number of skin punctures required for successful venous cannulation.

  16. Intravascular leiomyomatosis: an exceptional entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, I; Iacoponi, S; Hernandez, A; Diestro, M D; De Santiago, J; Zapardiel, I

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare benign condition characterized by the proliferation of smooth muscle cells originating from either the uterine venous wall or a uterine myoma. This leiomyomatosis extends most frequently to pelvic vessels, but also occasionally into the inferior vena cava and right cardiac chambers. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and it should be suspected in the presence of cardiac or pelvic masses in women who have undergone hysterectomy or myomectomy previously. The treatment is hysterectomy, normally associated with a bilateral oophorectomy and removing the mass or metastasis if any. The post-surgical follow-up should be performed at long-term and include exploration and imaging, either ultrasound or MRI. The association of antiestrogenic drugs can be useful for disease control, especially in cases where oophorectomy is not performed and the tumor cannot be removed completely.

  17. Neutrophils Cause an Intravascular Traffic Jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minns, Martin S; Pearlman, Eric

    2018-01-10

    Neutrophil swarming is defined by large numbers of cells simultaneously and rapidly migrating to a site of injury or infection. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2018) demonstrate that intravascular swarming of neutrophils occurs in response to Candida albicans infection and causes vascular occlusion and pathological sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemi-Intravascular Stenting for Supermicrosurgical Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro, MD

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions:. Hemi-IVaS could be a useful alternative to conventional intravascular stenting techniques and is also effective for supermicrosurgical perforator-to-perforator anastomosis. Further studies are needed to improve the success rate and to explore its other possible utilizations in supermicrosurgery.

  19. Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a devastating disorder with an often poor prognosis. The occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important factors determining outcome in

  20. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Following Induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disseminated Intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) has been reported following use of Misoprostol which is an old drug with new indications in Obstetrics and. Gynecology. Its effectiveness, low cost, stability in tropical conditions and ease of administration as well as side effects like gastrointestinal effect, uterine ...

  1. Assessing mechanical properties with intravascular or endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouche, G.; Azarnoush, H.; Vergnole, S.; Pazos, V.; Bisaillon, C.-E.; Debergue, P.; Boulet, B.; Diraddo, R.

    2011-03-01

    We explore the potential of intravascular or endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to extract relevant mechanical properties of a tissue deformed by an inflating balloon. Tubular OCT phantoms with different mechanical properties are fabricated. The phantoms are deformed by an inflating balloon, and the deformation is monitored with OCT. A quantitative description of the phantom deformation is obtained by segmenting the OCT images. Two strategies to extract the mechanical properties from this quantitative data are presented: by comparing to a finite-element simulation and by performing a mechanical analysis.

  2. Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyao; Shan, Quanyuan; Tian, Wenshuo; Wang, Zhu; Liang, Jinyu; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the accuracy of various ultrasound findings for excluding a diagnosis of biliary atresia. We searched MEDLINE and the Web of Science databases for the period from January 1990 to May 2015. To be included, studies had to satisfy two criteria. First, the data needed to include 2 × 2 contingency data on the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in identifying biliary atresia in at least 10 patients with and 10 patients without disease. Second, the study needed to use surgery or biopsy for biliary atresia and surgery, biopsy, clinical follow-up, or some combination of the three as the reference standard for the exclusion of biliary atresia. The methodologic quality of each study was assessed with version 2 of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of each ultrasound characteristic were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-three studies published during 1998-2015 were included. Summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.81-0.97), respectively, for gallbladder abnormalities in 19 studies; 0.74 (95% CI, 0.61-0.84) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.99), respectively, for triangular cord sign in 20 studies; and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.70-0.99) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-0.94), respectively, for the combination of the triangular cord sign and gallbladder abnormalities in five studies. Subgroup analysis of an absent gallbladder in 10 studies yielded a summary specificity of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.93-1.00). The triangular cord sign and gallbladder abnormalities are the two most accurate and widely accepted ultrasound characteristics for diagnosing or excluding biliary atresia. Other ultrasound characteristics are less valuable for diagnosis or exclusion of biliary atresia.

  3. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Using Ultrasound Decorrelation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Groen, Jan; Boevé, Egbert R; de Korte, Chris L; Idzenga, Tim; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2016-08-01

    We developed a noninvasive method to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction. An ultrasound based decorrelation method was applied in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. In 60 patients ultrasound data were acquired transperineally while they were voiding while sitting. Each patient also underwent a standard invasive pressure flow study. High frequent sequential ultrasound images were successfully recorded during voiding in 45 patients. The decorrelation (decrease in correlation) between subsequent ultrasound images was higher in patients with bladder outlet obstruction than in unobstructed patients and healthy volunteers. ROC analysis resulted in an AUC of 0.96, 95% specificity and 88% sensitivity. A linear relationship was fitted to the decorrelation values as a function of the degree of obstruction represented by the bladder outlet obstruction index, measured in the separate pressure flow studies. It is possible to noninvasively diagnose bladder outlet obstruction using the ultrasound decorrelation technique. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Texture Analysis in Ultrasound Images of Carotid Plaque Components of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Loizou , Christos ,; Pantziaris , Marios; Theofilou , Marilena; Kasparis , Takis; Kyriakou , Efthivoulos

    2013-01-01

    Part 8: Third Workshop on Artificial Intelligence Applications in Biomedicine (AIAB 2013); International audience; There are indications that the texture of certain components of atherosclerotic carotid plaques in the common carotid artery (CCA), obtained by high resolution ultrasound imaging, may have additional prognostic implication for the risk of stroke. The objective of this study was to perform texture analysis of the middle component of atherosclerotic carotid plaques in 230 CCA plaqu...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  6. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  7. Neural analysis of bovine ovaries ultrasound images in the identification process of the corpus luteum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górna, K.; Jaśkowski, B. M.; Okoń, P.; Czechlowski, M.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Idziaszek, P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to shown the neural image analysis as a method useful for identifying the development stage of the domestic bovine corpus luteum on digital USG (UltraSonoGraphy) images. Corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland that develops after ovulation from the follicle secretory cells. The aim of CL is the production of progesterone, which regulates many reproductive functions. In the presented studies, identification of the corpus luteum was carried out on the basis of information contained in ultrasound digital images. Development stage of the corpus luteum was considered in two aspects: just before and middle of domination phase and luteolysis and degradation phase. Prior to the classification, the ultrasound images have been processed using a GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix). To generate a classification model, a Neural Networks module implemented in the STATISTICA was used. Five representative parameters describing the ultrasound image were used as learner variables. On the output of the artificial neural network was generated information about the development stage of the corpus luteum. Results of this study indicate that neural image analysis combined with GLCM texture analysis may be a useful tool for identifying the bovine corpus luteum in the context of its development phase. Best-generated artificial neural network model was the structure of MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) 5:5-17-1:1.

  8. FD-OCT and IVUS intravascular imaging modalities in peripheral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, S; Kitrou, P; Katsanos, K; Karnabatidis, D

    2017-02-01

    Intra-Vascular Ultra-Sound (IVUS) and Frequency Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT), in vivo, intra-vascular, imaging modalities, widely used in the field of coronary disease, have been recently implemented in peripheral endovascular procedures, for procedural assessment, plaque characterization and determination of predictors of treatment outcomes. Their unique characteristics have also been used in order to provide additional features and improve the performance of re-entry devices and atherotomes. Areas covered: Present review focuses on available literature regarding these two promising imaging technologies in the peripheral vasculature, highlighting the added value produced by their use in endovascular therapy, their limitations and their utilization in new endovascular devices. Authors also provide their future perspective and the possible benefits in understanding vascular behavior and lesion characterization in peripheral endovascular interventions. Expert commentary: By providing both quantitative but also qualitative data on vessel and lesion morphology, intravascular imaging modalities offer a valid solution for endovascular treatment evaluation and outcome presentation homogeneity.

  9. Optical fiber laser ultrasound transmitter with electrospun composite for minimally invasive medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduval, Radhika; Noimark, Sacha; Colchester, Richard; Macdonald, Tom; Parkin, Ivan; Desjardins, Adrien; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    We report an optical fiber ultrasound transmitter with electrospun MWCNT-polymer composite, generating high-amplitude broadband ultrasound. They produced pressures in the range of conventional intravascular imaging transducers, and can be incorporated into catheters/needles for keyhole surgery

  10. Cintilografia do miocárdio com tecnécio 99m-MIBI e administração de adenosina em portadores de doença arterial coronária: correlação dos resultados com a angiografia coronária e o ultra-som intracoronário Adenosine myocardial perfusion SPECT with Tc-99m-MIBI in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease: correlation between quantitative coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Mastrocolla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a correlação da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio (CPM com Tecnécio 99m-MIBI (MIBI e injeção de adenosina, empregando a angiografia coronária quantitativa (ACQ e o ultra-som intracoronário (UIC como comparação. MÉTODOS: Estudo de 70 pacientes com doença arterial coronária (DAC, encaminhados à CPM com MIBI e adenosina. As manifestações clínicas, do eletrocardiograma (ECG e os resultados das imagens foram correlacionadas às variáveis da análise visual e quantitativa da angiografia, bem como ao UIC. RESULTADOS: A média de idades foi de 60,6 anos, com 39 pacientes do sexo masculino. A angiografia coronária evidenciou estenose do diâmetro da luz (E% de 49,94% em 105 artérias, com reavaliação à ACQ em 83 artérias (79% e média de 44,20%, pOBJECTIVE: To correlate myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS with Tc-99m-MIBI and adenosine infusion using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. METHODS: Seventy patients with coronary artery disease (CAD referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS with MIBI and adenosine were studied. Clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG, and scintigraphic findings were correlated with variables of visual and quantitative angiographic analysis, as well as to those of IVUS. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 60.6 years, and 39 were male. Coronary angiography showed percentage of diameter stenosis (% DS of 49.94% in 105 arteries, 83 of which were re-evaluated by QCA (79%, mean of 44.20%, p<0.05. ST-segment depression during adenosine infusion was associated with higher degrees of % DS (55.0% vs. 47.8%, p<0.05. Scintigraphic ischemia was correlated with greater cross-sectional area of lumen obstruction by IVUS (% CSA. Clinical, ECG, and IVUS findings were considered together and expressed as global ischemic versus non-ischemic responses. Ischemia was associated with lower values of minimal lumen diameter (MLD and minimal lumen area

  11. Analysis of contact stiffness in ultrasound atomic force microscopy: three-dimensional time-dependent ultrasound modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piras, D.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound atomic force microscopy (US-AFM) has been used for subsurface imaging of nanostructures. The contact stiffness variations have been suggested as the origin of the image contrast. Therefore, to analyze the image contrast, the local changes in the contact stiffness due to the presence of

  12. Ultrasound assisted direct transesterification of algae for biodiesel production : Analysis of emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Manickam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the algae-for-fuel concept has gained renewed interest with energy prices fluctuating widely. Due to some restrictions over the oil extraction from algae, direct transesterification may be considered as a good alternative. In this study, to improve the performance of direct transesterification, ultrasound induction was carried out. A sonicator probe was used to induce the direct transesterification of Cladophora fracta, a freshwater macro alga, which contains 14% lipid on dry biomass basis. Due to ultrasonication about 25% increased biodiesel yields were obtained and the biodiesel thus prepared was analyzed for emission characteristics. The analysis results showed that Cladophora biodiesel emits 18 mg/L of CO whereas petroleum diesel emits 50 mg/L. Similarly, the emission of NOx and particulate matter also were reduced to a considerable level. The Cladophora is a suitable source of biodiesel by ultrasound assisted direct transesterification in industrial level in the future.

  13. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of ... What are the limitations of Obstetrical Ultrasound Imaging? Obstetric ultrasound cannot identify all fetal abnormalities. Consequently, when ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  18. INTRAVASCULAR ENDOTHELIOMA (ENDOTHELIOMA IN SITU, SYSTEMIC ENDOTHELIOMATOSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    HABER, H; HARRIS-JONES, J N; WELLS, A L

    1964-11-01

    A woman aged 48 years was found to be suffering from intravascular endothelioma. The initial clinical presentation was the presence of red, painless swellings in the skin of the lower limbs. The other clinical features, and the histological changes in skin biopsies, are described and compared with those in the two previously reported patients. It is suggested that the condition is analogous to the pre-invasive carcinomatous states.

  19. Correlation of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography with Pathological Analysis in a Xenografic Tumour Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elyas, Eli; Papaevangelou, Efthymia; Alles, Erwin J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential value of ultrasound (US) shear wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the relative change in elastic modulus in colorectal adenocarcinoma xenograft models in vivo and investigate any correlation with histological analysis. We sought to test...... = 0.37, p = 0.008). Irinotecan administration caused significant delay in the tumour growth (p = 0.02) when compared to control, but no significant difference in elastic modulus was detected. Histological analysis revealed a significant correlation between tumour necrosis and elastic modulus (r = -0...

  20. A Two-Step Segmentation Method for Breast Ultrasound Masses Based on Multi-resolution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael; Braz, Rui; Pereira, Manuela; Moutinho, José; Pinheiro, Antonio M G

    2015-06-01

    Breast ultrasound images have several attractive properties that make them an interesting tool in breast cancer detection. However, their intrinsic high noise rate and low contrast turn mass detection and segmentation into a challenging task. In this article, a fully automated two-stage breast mass segmentation approach is proposed. In the initial stage, ultrasound images are segmented using support vector machine or discriminant analysis pixel classification with a multiresolution pixel descriptor. The features are extracted using non-linear diffusion, bandpass filtering and scale-variant mean curvature measures. A set of heuristic rules complement the initial segmentation stage, selecting the region of interest in a fully automated manner. In the second segmentation stage, refined segmentation of the area retrieved in the first stage is attempted, using two different techniques. The AdaBoost algorithm uses a descriptor based on scale-variant curvature measures and non-linear diffusion of the original image at lower scales, to improve the spatial accuracy of the ROI. Active contours use the segmentation results from the first stage as initial contours. Results for both proposed segmentation paths were promising, with normalized Dice similarity coefficients of 0.824 for AdaBoost and 0.813 for active contours. Recall rates were 79.6% for AdaBoost and 77.8% for active contours, whereas the precision rate was 89.3% for both methods. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility and reproducibility of fetal lung texture analysis by Automatic Quantitative Ultrasound Analysis and correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Teresa; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Martínez-Terrón, Mónica; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Elías, Núria; Luque, Jordi; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Palacio, Montse

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal lung texture analysis using a novel automatic quantitative ultrasound analysis and to assess its correlation with gestational age. Prospective cross-sectional observational study. To evaluate texture features, 957 left and right lung images in a 2D four-cardiac-chamber view plane were previously delineated from fetuses between 20 and 41 weeks of gestation. Quantification of lung texture was performed by the Automatic Quantitative Ultrasound Analysis (AQUA) software to extract image features. A standard learning approach composed of feature transformation and a regression model was used to evaluate the association between texture features and gestational age. The association between weeks of gestation and fetal lung texture quantified by the AQUA software presented a Pearson correlation of 0.97. The association was not influenced by delineation parameters such as region of interest (ROI) localization, ROI size, right/left lung selected or sonographic parameters such as ultrasound equipment or transducer used. Fetal lung texture analysis measured by the AQUA software demonstrated a strong correlation with gestational age. This supports further research to explore the use of this technology to the noninvasive prediction of fetal lung maturity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ultrasound for Drug and Gene Delivery to the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hynynen, Kullervo

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive, transient, and local image-guided blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) has been demonstrated with focused ultrasound exposure in animal models. Most studies have combined low pressure amplitude and low time average acoustic power burst sonications with intra-vascular injection of pre-formed micro-bubbles to produce BBBD without damage to the neurons. The BBB has been shown to be healed within a few hours after the exposure. The combination of focused ultrasound beams with MR ima...

  3. Membrane design of an all-optical ultrasound receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinders, S.M.; Dongen, K.W.A. van; Jong, N. de; Verweij, M.D.; Westerveld, W.J.; Urbach, H.P.; Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Pozo Torres, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound sensors such as piezoelectric transducers and CMUTs are successfully used for medical imaging. However, especially wiring of individual elements is difficult in the fabrication of small piezoelectric arrays, used in, e.g. the field of intravascular imaging. As an alternative, we designed

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Cervical Texture by Ultrasound and Correlation with Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Núria; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Migliorelli, Federico; Triginer, Laura; Cobo, Teresa; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard; Palacio, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative texture analysis has been proposed to extract robust features from the ultrasound image to detect subtle changes in the textures of the images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative cervical texture analysis to assess cervical tissue changes throughout pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study including singleton pregnancies between 20.0 and 41.6 weeks of gestation from women who delivered at term. Cervical length was measured, and a selected region of interest in the cervix was delineated. A model to predict gestational age based on features extracted from cervical images was developed following three steps: data splitting, feature transformation, and regression model computation. Seven hundred images, 30 per gestational week, were included for analysis. There was a strong correlation between the gestational age at which the images were obtained and the estimated gestational age by quantitative analysis of the cervical texture (R = 0.88). This study provides evidence that quantitative analysis of cervical texture can extract features from cervical ultrasound images which correlate with gestational age. Further research is needed to evaluate its applicability as a biomarker of the risk of spontaneous preterm birth, as well as its role in cervical assessment in other clinical situations in which cervical evaluation might be relevant. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Diaphragm and Lung Ultrasound to Predict Weaning Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Álvarez, Ana M; Tenza-Lozano, Eva M; Latour-Pérez, Jaime

    2017-12-01

    Deciding the optimal timing for extubation in patients who are mechanically ventilated can be challenging, and traditional weaning predictor tools are not very accurate. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of lung and diaphragm ultrasound for predicting weaning outcomes in critically ill adults. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, Teseo, Tesis Doctorales en Red, and OpenGrey were searched, and the bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed. Two researchers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and assessed study quality in accordance with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The summary receiver-operating characteristic curve and pooled diagnostic OR (DOR) were estimated by using a bivariate random effects analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by using predefined subgroup analyses and bivariate meta-regression. Nineteen studies involving 1,071 people were included in the study. For diaphragm thickening fraction, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.87, and DOR was 21 (95% CI, 11-40). Regarding diaphragmatic excursion, pooled sensitivity was 75% (95% CI, 65-85); pooled specificity, 75% (95% CI, 60-85); and DOR, 10 (95% CI, 4-24). For lung ultrasound, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.77, and DOR was 38 (95% CI, 7-198). Based on bivariate meta-regression analysis, a significantly higher specificity for diaphragm thickening fraction and higher sensitivity for diaphragmatic excursion was detected in studies with applicability concerns. Lung and diaphragm ultrasound can help predict weaning outcome, but its accuracy may vary depending on the patient subpopulation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoparticles for intravascular applications: physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Baumgartner, Jens; Zaloga, Jan; Juenet, Maya; da Silva, Acarília Eduardo; Franke, Danielle; Almer, Gunter; Texier, Isabelle; Faivre, Damien; Metselaar, Josbert M; Navarro, Fabrice P; Chauvierre, Cédric; Prassl, Ruth; Dézsi, László; Urbanics, Rudolf; Alexiou, Christoph; Mangge, Harald; Szebeni, János; Letourneur, Didier; Cicha, Iwona

    2016-03-01

    We report the physicochemical analysis of nanosystems intended for cardiovascular applications and their toxicological characterization in static and dynamic cell culture conditions. Size, polydispersity and ζ-potential were determined in 10 nanoparticle systems including liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, polymeric and iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle effects on primary human endothelial cell viability were monitored using real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy in static conditions, and in a flow model of arterial bifurcations. The majority of tested nanosystems were well tolerated by endothelial cells up to the concentration of 100 μg/ml in static, and up to 400 μg/ml in dynamic conditions. Pilot experiments in a pig model showed that intravenous administration of liposomal nanoparticles did not evoke the hypersensitivity reaction. These findings are of importance for future clinical use of nanosystems intended for intravascular applications.

  7. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas

    2004-05-01

    Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.

  8. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  9. Hemi-Intravascular Stenting for Supermicrosurgical Anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Koshima, Isao; Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although supermicrosurgical anastomosis is a widely known reconstructive microsurgical technique, it is difficult to perform. To expand the clinical use of supermicrosurgery, we used hemi-intravascular stenting (hemi-IVaS), which is performed by inserting an intravascular stent into one side of the vessel. We conducted lymphaticovenular anastomosis, free perforator flap transfer, and fingertip replantation with supermicrosurgical anastomosis using hemi-IVaS technique and examined its usefulness. Methods: Between January 2013 and February 2015, 11 anastomoses in 11 cases of lymphaticovenular anastomosis for lymphedema patients, 14 anastomoses in 7 cases of free perforator flap transfer with supermicrosurgical perforator-to-perforator anastomosis, and 9 anastomoses in 5 cases of fingertip replantation were performed using hemi-IVaS. Time required for anastomosis and complications were examined. Flap survival rate was also examined in free perforator flap transfer cases and fingertip replantation cases. Results: In all cases, anastomoses were performed without complications such as inadvertent catching of the back wall of the vessel during the procedure or the need for reanastomoses. The average time required to complete the anastomosis was 16.4 ± 3.20 minutes using the hemi IVaS technique. All flaps survived in the supermicrosurgical perforator-to-perforator anastomosis as well as fingertip replantation cases. Conclusions: Hemi-IVaS could be a useful alternative to conventional intravascular stenting techniques and is also effective for supermicrosurgical perforator-to-perforator anastomosis. Further studies are needed to improve the success rate and to explore its other possible utilizations in supermicrosurgery. PMID:29263952

  10. Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Versus Computerized Tomography in Fat Graft Volumetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshear, Charles Philip; Rector, Michael Anthony; Chung, Natalie Narie; Irizarry, Dre Michael; Flacco, John Stephen; Brett, Elizabeth Anne; Momeni, Arash; Lee, Gordon Kwanlyp; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2018-03-01

    Studies evaluating fat grafting in mice have frequently used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as an accurate radiographic tool to measure longitudinal volume retention without killing the animal. Over the past decade, however, microultrasonography has emerged as an equally powerful preclinical imaging tool. Given their respective strengths in 3-dimensional reconstruction, there is no study to our knowledge that directly compares micro-CT with microultrasound in volumetric analysis. In this study, we compared the performance of micro-CT with microultrasound in the evaluation of adipose tissue graft volume in a murine model. Fifteen immunodeficient mice were given 200 μL of adipose tissue grafts. In vivo volumetric analysis of the grafts by micro-CT and microultrasound was conducted at discrete time points up to postoperative day 105. Three mice were killed at multiple time points, and explanted grafts were reimaged by CT and ultrasound, as mentioned previously. Analysis revealed that in vivo graft volumes measured by micro-CT do not differ significantly from those of microultrasound. Furthermore, both micro-CT and microultrasound were capable of accurately measuring fat grafts as in vivo volumes closely correlated with explanted volumes. Finally, ultrasound was found to yield improved soft tissue contrast compared with micro-CT. Therefore, either modality may be used, depending on experimental needs.

  11. Intravascular haemolysis: a potential missed diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David; Briston, Philip; Rutland, Emma

    2002-01-01

    Raised serum bilirubin is a common finding as part of a routine "liver function test" profile. This case describes a patient with a raised serum bilirubin that was eventually found to be caused by intravascular haemolysis. The tests that confirmed the cause were instigated by clinical biochemistry staff but not before the patient had undergone unnecessary invasive procedures and had the diagnosis delayed by some time. The case is a reminder to biochemistry and haematology laboratories and clinical staff to investigate the possibility of haemolysis as well as hepatitis and Gilbert's disease as a cause of an isolated raised bilirubin.

  12. Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Fritz, Shannon G.; Bujenovic, L. Steven; Xu, Tong

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm3 volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 µCi cm-3 activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm-2 were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360° circumference. Spatial resolution was 0

  13. Prehospital Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a commonly used diagnostic tool in clinical conditions. With recent developments in technology, use of portable ultrasound devices has become feasible in prehospital settings. Many studies also proved the feasibility and accuracy of prehospital ultrasound. In this article, we focus on the use of prehospital ultrasound, with emphasis on trauma and chest ultrasound.

  14. Percutaneous cryoablation of prostate cancer guided by rectal ultrasound: a retrospectively analysis of 42 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Wenge; Guo Zhi; Wang Haitao; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo; Yu Haipeng; Li Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rectal ultrasound-guided agon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation in treatment of patients with median and or late-stage prostate cancer patients. Methods: Retrospectively analysis of 42 cases of with stage C and D prostate cancer patients treated by rectal ultrasound-guided argon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation during the follow-up of 1-12 months. The prostate specific antigen (PSA), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), PSA objective response, transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TRUS), TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate, the maximum urinary flow rate(MFR), MRI examination at before, and 3,6,12 months after cryoablation were recorded and evaluated. The results were statistically evaluated by using variance analysis. Results: The PSA value at before and 3,6, 12 months after cryoablation were (4.48±1.35), (3.54±1.67), (3.18±1.76), (2.87±1.89) μg/L, respectively; TRUS-measured prostate volumes at before and 3, 6,12 months after cryoablation were (59.7± 8.2), (46.9±8.3), (26.2±3.9), (25.9±3.7) mm 3 , respectively; MFR before and 3, 6,12 months after cryoablation were (10.4±0.8), (14.3±1.2), (18.3±1.3), (18.9±1.3) ml/s, respectively; Compared with before cryoablation, the differences between before and after cryoablation was statistically significant (F= 53.93,747.92,3843.03, respectively, P<0.01). The bPFS rates in 3 months,6 months and 12 months were 95.2% (40/42), 95.2% (40/42), and 90.5% (38/42), respectively. According to the PSA response, the total effective rate (CR 16 cases, PR 15 cases) at 12 months was 73.8%, and SD was 16.7% (7/42), PD was 9.5% (4/42). Complications included temporary incontinence 2.4% (1/42), Penile tingling/numbness 2.4% (1/42), pelvic pain 4.9% (2/41) and Scrotum Edema 2.4% (1/42). There was no case with severe complications such as severe infection or urethrorectal fistula, etc. Conclusions: Rectal ultrasound-guided agon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation showed

  15. Role of informed consent for intravascular contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Tyler, H.N. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of different degrees of informed consent for intravascular contrast media, the authors divided 100 patients into four groups: (1) informed consent with no information on intravascular contrast media, (2) simple written informed consent that detailed common risks, (3) detailed written informed consent that detailed all known risks, and (4) MD informed consent, during which a radiologist discussed all known risks of intravascular contrast media. Physician counseling time for group 4 averaged 11.4 minutes. On a postprocedure test about the common complications and risk factors of intravascular contrast media, the average scores were: group 1, 38.4%; group 2, 68.2%; group 3, 63.2%; and group 4, 69.8%. There was no statistical difference between groups 2-4 on the postprocedure test. If informed consent is to be used prior to intravascular contrast media administration, a simple written consent detailing the common risks and risk factors appears to be the best method

  16. Precision analysis of a multi-slice ultrasound sensor for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Abdullah; Lambert, Andrew J; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, J M; Smith, P N

    2012-01-01

    Currently the standard clinical practice for measuring the motion of bones in a knee joint with sufficient precision involves implanting tantalum beads into the bones to act as fiducial markers prior to imaging using X-ray equipment. This procedure is invasive in nature and exposure to ionizing radiation imposes a cancer risk and the patient's movements are confined to a narrow field of view. In this paper, an ultrasound based system for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of knee joints is proposed. The results of an initial analysis show that this system can provide the precision required for non-invasive motion analysis while the patient performs normal physical activities.

  17. Consistency Analysis of Ultrasound Echoes within a Dual Symmetric Path Inspection Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE, C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive ultrasound inspection of metallic structures is a perpetual high-interest area of research because of its well-known benefits in industrial applications, especially from an economic point of view, where detection and localisation of defects in their most initial stages can help maintain high production capabilities for any enterprise. This paper is aimed at providing further validation regarding a new technique for detecting and localising defects in metals, the Matched Filter-based Dual Symmetric Path Inspection (MF-DSPI. This validation consists in demonstrating the consistency of the useful ultrasound echoes, within the framework of the MF-DSPI. A description of the MF-DSPI method and the related work of the authors with it are presented in this paper, along with an experimental setup used to obtain the data with which the useful echo consistency was studied. The four proposed methods are: signal envelope analysis, L2-norm criterion, correlation coefficient criterion and sliding bounding rectangle analysis. The aim of this paper is to verify the useful echo consistency (with the help of these four approaches, as the MF-DSPI method strongly relies on this feature. The results and their implications are discussed in the latter portion of this study.

  18. Ultrasound-Based Characterization of Prostate Cancer Using Joint Independent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Farhad; Ramezani, Mahdi; Nouranian, Saman; Gibson, Eli; Khojaste, Amir; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gomez, Jose A; Romagnoli, Cesare; Leveridge, Michael; Chang, Silvia; Fenster, Aaron; Siemens, D Robert; Ward, Aaron D; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a new approach for selection of RF time series features based on joint independent component analysis for in vivo characterization of prostate cancer. We project three sets of RF time series features extracted from the spectrum, fractal dimension, and the wavelet transform of the ultrasound RF data on a space spanned by five joint independent components. Then, we demonstrate that the obtained mixing coefficients from a group of patients can be used to train a classifier, which can be applied to characterize cancerous regions of a test patient. In a leave-one-patient-out cross validation, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93 and classification accuracy of 84% are achieved. Ultrasound RF time series can be used to accurately characterize prostate cancer, in vivo without the need for exhaustive search in the feature space. We use joint independent component analysis for systematic fusion of multiple sets of RF time series features, within a machine learning framework, to characterize PCa in an in vivo study.

  19. Three-dimensional ultrasound-based texture analysis of the effect of atorvastatin on carotid atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Joseph; Krasinski, Adam; Spence, David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is the major cause of ischemic stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. This is driving the development of image analysis methods to quantitatively evaluate local arterial effects of potential treatments of carotid disease. Here we investigate the use of novel texture analysis tools to detect potential changes in the carotid arteries after statin therapy. Three-dimensional (3D) carotid ultrasound images were acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of 35 subjects (16 treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and 19 treated with placebo) at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Two-hundred and seventy texture features were extracted from 3D ultrasound carotid artery images. These images previously had their vessel walls (VW) manually segmented. Highly ranked individual texture features were selected and compared to the VW volume (VWV) change using 3 measures: distance between classes, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and accuracy of the classifiers. Six classifiers were used. Using texture feature (L7R7) increases the average accuracy and area under the ROC curve to 74.4% and 0.72 respectively compared to 57.2% and 0.61 using VWV change. Thus, the results demonstrate that texture features are more sensitive in detecting drug effects on the carotid vessel wall than VWV change.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.

    2015-01-01

    Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505

  1. Ultrasound and PET-CT Correlation in Shoulder Pathology: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R; Adler, Ronald S; Babb, James S; Sanger, Joseph; Ponzo, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    To correlate shoulder ultrasound and radiography with F-FDG PET-CT to establish FDG uptake and therefore range of metabolic activity, as defined by SUV analysis, in various symptomatic shoulder pathologies. Retrospective database query was performed for shoulder ultrasound and PET-CT scans between January 2012 and January 2017. Patients who had both studies within 1 year were included. Age- and sex-matched control patients with PET-CT scans only were also included. Retrospective image review determined shoulder pathology, and F-FDG SUVmax was measured using regions of interest placed at the glenohumeral joint, rotator cuff/bursa, and bicipital groove. Glenohumeral and acromioclavicular osteoarthrosis was assessed by radiography using the Kellgren-Lawrence classification system. Thirty-three patients had both imaging studies within 1 year. Ten patients (11 cases) were included, ranging in age from 56 to 90 years (mean, 67.9 years). Control subjects were selected among patients receiving PET-CT within 1 week of symptomatic patients. Glenohumeral osteoarthrosis was mild in 3 (27%), moderate in 2 (18%), and severe in 2 (18%). Six full-thickness rotator cuff tears (55%) were identified. SUVmax means were compared between the pathologic and control groups and were significantly higher in the former: glenohumeral joint (1.96 vs 1.32; P = 0.016), rotator cuff/bursa (2.80 vs 2.0; P = 0.005), and bicipital groove (2.19 vs 1.48; P = 0.007). The highest values were seen in full-thickness rotator cuff tear and severe biceps tenosynovitis. Increased metabolic activity about the shoulder is associated with a spectrum of rotator cuff, glenohumeral joint, and other soft tissue pathology that can be correlated with diagnostic ultrasound findings.

  2. Error analysis for determination of accuracy of an ultrasound navigation system for head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Krysztoforski, K; Kroll, T; Helbig, S; Helbig, M

    2009-01-01

    The use of conventional CT- or MRI-based navigation systems for head and neck surgery is unsatisfactory due to tissue shift. Moreover, changes occurring during surgical procedures cannot be visualized. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a novel ultrasound-guided navigation system for head and neck surgery. A comprehensive error analysis was undertaken to determine the accuracy of this new system. The evaluation of the system accuracy was essentially based on the method of error definition for well-established fiducial marker registration methods (point-pair matching) as used in, for example, CT- or MRI-based navigation. This method was modified in accordance with the specific requirements of ultrasound-guided navigation. The Fiducial Localization Error (FLE), Fiducial Registration Error (FRE) and Target Registration Error (TRE) were determined. In our navigation system, the real error (the TRE actually measured) did not exceed a volume of 1.58 mm(3) with a probability of 0.9. A mean value of 0.8 mm (standard deviation: 0.25 mm) was found for the FRE. The quality of the coordinate tracking system (Polaris localizer) could be defined with an FLE of 0.4 +/- 0.11 mm (mean +/- standard deviation). The quality of the coordinates of the crosshairs of the phantom was determined with a deviation of 0.5 mm (standard deviation: 0.07 mm). The results demonstrate that our newly developed ultrasound-guided navigation system shows only very small system deviations and therefore provides very accurate data for practical applications.

  3. [Computer-aided analysis of transrectal ultrasound images of the prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ferrer, A; Arlandis, S

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy. Nevertheless, suspicious images are frequently not found. Imaging analysis studies aim to identify ultrasound patterns characteristic of apparently hidden conditions. We digitally recorded 288 TRUS ultrasound guided transrectal biopsies and extracted 3 static images from the puncture-biopsy area. The extraction of the texture characteristics were obtained by "simple mapping" on a gray scale and spatial gray level dependence matrices (SGLDM), also known as Haralick's co-occurrence matrices, which study the relationship of each pixel and its neighbors. A pattern recognition software system was developed with two different classification methods: nearest neighbor (k-NN) and Markov's hidden models. Finally, a virtual experiment was carried out in which four urologists compared their diagnostic accuracy for prostate cancer with our system in 408 TRUS images, not in real time. The diagnostic capacity (R.O.C. curve) with the simple gray map study was 59.7% with nearest-neighbor classification and 61.6% with Markov's hidden models classification. The co-occurrence matrices showed an area under R.O.C. curve of 60.1% and 60.0% with k-NN and Markov's hidden models classification, respectively. The virtual experiment was conducted with a simple gray map study and k-NN classification. The images processed by our system showed the following diagnostic accuracy: 63.3, 67, 64.3 and 63.7% compared to 61.7, 60.5, 66.2 and 60.7% with the original image. Our pattern recognition system for prostate cancer TRUS images has a limited, yet stable, accuracy. Copyright © 2010 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost Analysis of Following Up Incomplete Low-Risk Fetal Anatomy Ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen; Shainker, Scott A; Modest, Anna M; Spiel, Melissa H; Resetkova, Nina; Shah, Neel; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-03-01

    To examine the clinical utility and cost of follow-up ultrasounds performed as a result of suboptimal views at the time of initial second-trimester ultrasound in a cohort of low-risk pregnant women. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women at low risk for fetal structural anomalies who had second-trimester ultrasounds at 16 to less than 24 weeks of gestation from 2011 to 2013. We determined the probability of women having follow-up ultrasounds as a result of suboptimal views at the time of the initial second-trimester ultrasound, and calculated the probability of detecting an anomaly on follow-up ultrasound. These probabilities were used to estimate the national cost of our current ultrasound practice, and the cost to identify one fetal anomaly on follow-up ultrasound. During the study period, 1,752 women met inclusion criteria. Four fetuses (0.23% [95% CI 0.06-0.58]) were found to have anomalies at the initial ultrasound. Because of suboptimal views, 205 women (11.7%) returned for a follow-up ultrasound, and one (0.49% [95% CI 0.01-2.7]) anomaly was detected. Two women (0.11%) still had suboptimal views and returned for an additional follow-up ultrasound, with no anomalies detected. When the incidence of incomplete ultrasounds was applied to a similar low-risk national cohort, the annual cost of these follow-up scans was estimated at $85,457,160. In our cohort, the cost to detect an anomaly on follow-up ultrasound was approximately $55,000. The clinical yield of performing follow-up ultrasounds because of suboptimal views on low-risk second-trimester ultrasounds is low. Since so few fetal abnormalities were identified on follow-up scans, this added cost and patient burden may not be warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries fallopian tubes bladder Pelvic ultrasound exams ... to view the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) and the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins ... development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is ... in front of the rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently ... pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... a pelvic ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: ...

  15. Image analysis for beef quality prediction from serial scan ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui L.; Wilson, Doyle E.; Rouse, Gene H.; Izquierdo, Mercedes M.

    1995-01-01

    The prediction of intramuscular fat (or marbling) of live beef animals using serially scanned ultrasound images was studied in this paper. Image analysis, both in gray scale intensity domain and in frequency spectrum domain, were used to extract image features of tissue characters to get useful parameters for prediction models. One, 2 and 3 order multi-variable prediction models were developed from randomly selected data sets and tested using the remained data sets. The comparisons of prediction results between using serially scanned images and only final scanned ones showed good improvement of prediction accuracy. The correlation of predicted percent fat and actual percent fat increase from .68 to .80 and from .72 to .76 separately for two groups of data, the R squares increase from .65 to .68 and from .68 to .72, and the root of mean square errors decrease from 1.70 to 1.52 and from 1.22 to 1.12 separately. This study indicates that serially obtained ultrasound images from live beef animals have good potential for improving the prediction accuracy of percent fat.

  16. Ultrasound Signal Analysis Applied to Determine the Optimal Contrast Dose for Echographic Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRANCHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the understanding of the behaviour of currently available ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles encapsulated in elastic shells, has significantly improved thanks to “ad hoc” designed “in vitro” studies. However, in several studies there has been a tendency to use high UCA concentrations, potentially reducing the safety of microbubbles in clinical applications. In this study we investigated a possible strategy to improve microbubble safety by reducing the injection dose and employing low ultrasound intensities. We measured the achievable contrast enhancement insonifying microbubbles at different low concentrations (range 0.01-0.10 µL/mL using a very low mechanical index (MI=0.08. Our results, based on the use of advanced techniques for signal processing and spectrum analysis, showed that UCA backscatter strongly depends on microbubble concentration also in the considered low range, providing useful indications towards the definition of an optimal low contrast dose, effectively employable at low MIs.

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Medical Ultrasound Imaging Using the Effective Aperture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Behar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective aperture approach is used as a tool for analysis and parameter optimization of mostly known ultrasound imaging systems - phased array systems, compounding systems and synthetic aperture imaging systems. Both characteristics of an imaging system , the effective aperture function and the corresponding two-way radiation pattern, provide information about two the most important parameters of images produced by an ultrasound system - lateral resolution and contrast. Therefore, in the design, optimization of the effective aperture function leads to optimal choice of such parameters of an imaging systems that influence on lateral resolution and contrast of images produced by this imaging system. The numerical results show that Hamming apodization gives the best compromise between the contrast of images and the lateral resolution produced by a conventional phased array imaging system. In compound imaging, the number of transducers and its spatial separation should be chosen in result of optimization of the effective aperture function of a system. It is shown that the effective aperture approach can be also used for optimization of a sparse synthetic transmit aperture (STA imaging system. A new two-stage algorithm is proposed for optimization of both the positions of the transmit elements and the weights of the receive elements. The proposed system employs a 64- element array with only four active elements used during transmit.

  18. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  19. Texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images to stage hepatic lipidosis in the dairy cow: A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Fiore, Enrico; Morgante, Massimo; Manuali, Elisabetta; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is the most diffused hepatic disease in the lactating cow. A new methodology to estimate the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver in lactating cows by means of texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images is proposed. B-mode ultrasonography of the liver was performed in 48 Holstein Friesian cows using standardized ultrasound parameters. Liver biopsies to determine the triacylglycerol content of the liver (TAGqa) were obtained from each animal. A large number of texture parameters were calculated on the ultrasound images by means of a free software. Based on the TAGqa content of the liver, 29 samples were classified as mild (TAGqa100mg/g) and 13 as severe (TAG>100mg/g) in steatosis. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to predict the TAGqa content of the liver (TAGpred) from the texture parameters calculated on the ultrasound images. A five-variable model was used to predict the TAG content from the ultrasound images. The regression model explained 83.4% of the variance. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.949 was calculated for 50mg/g of TAGqa; using an optimal cut-off value of 72mg/g TAGpred had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 84.2%. An AUC of 0.978 for 100mg/g of TAGqa was calculated; using an optimal cut-off value of 89mg/g, TAGpred sensitivity was 92.3% and specificity was 88.6%. Texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images may therefore be used to accurately predict the TAG content of the liver in lactating cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) endoscope with 2.2-mm diameter catheter for medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nhat Quang; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Oh, Yun-Ok; Fan, Xiao Feng; Lee, Yong Wook; Nam, Seung Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is extremely important for detection and characterization of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been used to differentiate the composition of biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The combination of these imaging techniques could provide morphological information and molecular screening to characterize abnormal tissues, which would help physicians to ensure vital therapeutic value and prognostic significance for patients before commencing therapy. In this study, integration of a high-frequency IVUS imaging catheter (45MHz, single-element, unfocused, 0.7mm in diameter) with a multi-mode optical fiber (0.6mm in core diameter, 0.22 NA), an integrated intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) imaging catheter, was developed to provide spatial and functional information on light distribution in a turbid sample. Simultaneously, IVUS imaging was co-registered to IVPA imaging to construct 3D volumetric sample images. In a phantom study, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tissue-mimicking arterial vessel phantom with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) inclusion was used to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the biological dyes, which are used in cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics. For the ex vivo study, an excised sample of pig intestine with ICG was utilized to target the biomarkers present in the gastrointestinal tumors or the atherosclerotic plaques with the proposed hybrid technique. The results indicated that IVUP endoscope with the 2.2-mm diameter catheter could be a useful tool for medical imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caifeng; Du Jing; Fang Hua; Li Fenghua; Wang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Methods: Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3–5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Results: Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (p z1 ), 0.768 (A z2 ) and 0.926(A z3 ) respectively. The values of A z1 and A z3 were significantly higher than that for A z2 (p = 0.024 and p = 0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A z1 and A z3 (p = 0.625). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound B-mode images of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: correlation with visual classification and histological examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wiebe, Brit

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three types of information available for 52 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy: subjective classification of the ultrasound images obtained during scanning before operation, first- and second-order statistical features extracted from...... regions of the plaque in still ultrasound images from three orthogonal scan planes and finally a histological analysis of the surgically removed plaque. The quantitative comparison was made with the linear model and with separation of the available data into training and test sets. The comparison...... of subjective classification with features from still ultrasound images revealed an overall agreement of 60 % for classification of echogenicity and 70 % for classification of structure. Comparison of the histologically determined relative volume of soft materials with features from the still images revealed...

  3. Non-atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection revascularized by intravascular ultrasonography-guided fenestration with cutting balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Shintani, Yasuhiro; Ichihashi, Taku; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A 46-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to chest pain. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation suggesting acute myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography showed diffuse narrowing and occlusion in the middle to distal left anterior descending artery (LAD). To investigate the cause of occlusion, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination was performed and we diagnosed spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) as the cause of occlusion. After a cutting balloon was dilated at the distal LAD, coronary flow recovered. IVUS-guided angioplasty with cutting balloon could be a choice of treatment in SCAD patients who need revascularization.

  4. Intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Harshal; Bosch, Wendelyn; Thompson, Kristine M; Hellinger, Walter C

    2013-07-01

    Intravascular catheters required for the care of many hospitalized patients can give rise to bloodstream infection, a complication of care that has occurred most frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) has guided development of effective diagnostic, management, and prevention strategies. When CRBSIs occur in the ICU, physicians must be prepared to recognize and treat them. Prevention of these infections requires careful attention to optimal catheter selection, insertion and maintenance, and to removal of catheters when they are no longer needed. This review provides a succinct summary of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of CRBSIs and a review of current guidance for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these infections.

  5. Death following intravascular administration of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehadi, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media preceding death and the autopsy findings in 44 patients are presented. There is a wide scatter of the age distribution of fatal reactions. The highest incidence is in the 50-70 year age group. Similar observations were obtained from the 405 deaths due to contrast media reported to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. In the same age group the number of reactions is highest, likewise the autopsy findings. The predominant autopsy findings are pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage; arteriosclerosis, both general and coronary. In the younger age group the autopsy findings are limited mostly to the respiratory tract. Fatal reactions to contrast media occur often without warning and most deaths occur within 15 min to 6 hours. Reactions to contrast media occur without relation to sex or age. (orig.)

  6. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  7. Chronic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abul Kalam Azad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In health there is a balance between the coagulation and anti-coagulation systems, but in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC the coagulation mechanism is activated inappropriately and in a diffuse way. This may lead to thrombosis, but more often haemorrhage occurs when the clotting factors are exhausted. DIC may present as acute, subacute, and rarely chronic form. Here we present a case of chronic DIC following pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a consequence of repeated menstruation regulation (MR. We treated her with fresh frozen plasma, fresh blood, doxycycline with significant clinical improvement.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v1i1.3696 BSMMU J 2008; 1(1: 33-34

  8. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  9. Analysis of 107 breast lesions with automated 3D ultrasound and comparison with mammography and manual ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos-Hermle, D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: dorothea.hermle@med.uni-muenchen.de; Hiltawsky, K.M. [General Electric, Global Research, Garching (Germany); Wirth, S.; Fischer, T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany); Friese, K. [Department of Gynaecology, University of Munich (Germany); Reiser, M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic potential of an automated ultrasound (US) breast scanner prototype and compare it with manual US and mammography. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with a total of 107 breast lesions had mammograms, manual US and an automated breast US scan. Multiplanar reconstructions in coronal, axial and the sagittal view were reconstructed from the automated dataset and visualized. After biopsy, all lesions were confirmed histologically. The data were evaluated according to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) classification. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. Results: The BIRADS criterion 'margin' was significantly related to the overall BIRADS classification, independently of the US method being used. The sensitivity of mammography was significantly lower than of each US method (Fisher's exact test with p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the US methods. Conclusions: The reconstructed third (axial) image plane of the whole breast, which corresponds to a craniocaudal mammogram, can give additional information about both, site and differential diagnosis of a lesion. Although image quality was sufficient, automated US is not good enough to replace manual US at this time.

  10. Analysis of 107 breast lesions with automated 3D ultrasound and comparison with mammography and manual ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsianos-Hermle, D; Hiltawsky, K M; Wirth, S; Fischer, T; Friese, K; Reiser, M

    2009-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic potential of an automated ultrasound (US) breast scanner prototype and compare it with manual US and mammography. Ninety-seven patients with a total of 107 breast lesions had mammograms, manual US and an automated breast US scan. Multiplanar reconstructions in coronal, axial and the sagittal view were reconstructed from the automated dataset and visualized. After biopsy, all lesions were confirmed histologically. The data were evaluated according to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) classification. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. The BIRADS criterion "margin" was significantly related to the overall BIRADS classification, independently of the US method being used. The sensitivity of mammography was significantly lower than of each US method (Fisher's exact test with p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the US methods. The reconstructed third (axial) image plane of the whole breast, which corresponds to a craniocaudal mammogram, can give additional information about both, site and differential diagnosis of a lesion. Although image quality was sufficient, automated US is not good enough to replace manual US at this time.

  11. Psychomotor skills in medical ultrasound imaging: an analysis of the core skill set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon

    2014-08-01

    Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Semi-automatic motion compensation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound images from abdominal organs for perfusion analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schafer, S.; Nylund, K.; Saevik, F.; Engjom, T.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan; Dimcevski, G.; Gilja, O.H.; Tönnies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, AUG 1 (2015), s. 229-237 ISSN 0010-4825 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ultrasonography * motion analysis * motion compensation * registration * CEUS * contrast-enhanced ultrasound * perfusion * perfusion modeling Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2015

  13. The accuracy of frozen section analysis in ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Andreas H; Sagmeister, Thomas; Kremer, Jolanta; Riss, Paul; Brustmann, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Limited data are available to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section analysis and ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy of the breast. In a retrospective analysis data of 120 consecutive handheldultrasound- guided 14- gauge automated core needle biopsies (CNB) in 109 consecutive patients with breast lesions between 2006 and 2007 were evaluated. In our outpatient clinic120 CNB were performed. In 59/120 (49.2%) cases we compared histological diagnosis on frozen sections with those on paraffin sections of CNB and finally with the result of open biopsy. Of the cases 42/59 (71.2%) were proved to be malignant and 17/59 (28.8%) to be benign in the definitive histology. 2/59 (3.3%) biopsies had a false negative frozen section result. No false positive results of the intraoperative frozen section analysis were obtained, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity and positive predicting value (PPV) and negative predicting value (NPV) of 95%, 100%, 100% and 90%, respectively. Histological and morphobiological parameters did not show up relevance for correct frozen section analysis. In cases of malignancy time between diagnosis and definitive treatment could not be reduced due to frozen section analysis. The frozen section analysis of suspect breast lesions performed by CNB displays good sensitivity/specificity characteristics. Immediate investigations of CNB is an accurate diagnostic tool and an important step in reducing psychological strain by minimizing the period of uncertainty in patients with breast tumor

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women, a pelvic ultrasound exam can help identify: kidney stones bladder tumors other disorders of the urinary bladder ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  17. A lesson from intravascular imaging: insights for recognizing a spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Dario; Milazzo, Diego; Geraci, Salvatore; Vaccaro, Giovanni; Caramanno, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is still today an underdiagnosed disease due to the absence of angiographic hallmarks in more than 70% of cases. In several cases, an intravascular imaging is a sole tool for recognizing a dissection. Particularly, optical coherence tomography analysis (OCT) could represent the gold standard technique of easy interpretation and prompt diagnosis. Here we present a rare case of multivessel spontaneous coronary artery disease (SCAD) with atypical collateral circulation.

  18. Education and Propagation of Intravascular Surgery in Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakuni, T.; Hyodo, A.; Shingaki, T.; Kugai, M.; Kinjyo, T.; Kinjyo, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Sugimoto, K.; Yoshii, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Okinawa is an island located on the southwest edge of the Japanese Islands in which about 1,300,000 people live, and is an area where self-conclusion type medical treatment is desired. In this area, intravascular surgery was only performed for several cases per year until 1998. From May 1999, intravascular surgery started being performed in earnest, and 140 or more cases of intravascular surgery per year were performed in 2002. In the meantime, various measures for the propagation and development of intravascular surgery that we undertook led to the increase in the number of cases. As a result, the choice of medical treatment has increased by propagating these medical treatments, and it seems that this has contributed to the welfare of the people of Okinawa. PMID:20587285

  19. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  20. Analysis on Developmental Factors of the Liver Diseases in Ultrasound Diagnosis of Healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Yeon [Dept. of Radiology of Healthcare Center Kyobo Life Insurance Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hong Ryang; Lim, Chang Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The study found out developmental factors of the liver diseases in 29, 531 cases of the healthy adults who were diagnosed by using ultrasound at domestic healthcare centers in 6 cities. The results are as follows. Based on the result of the study, the liver diseases diagnosed by using ultrasound was revealed to show 43.1% of prevalence, and the occurrence was significantly higher in male (23.3%) than in female (19.8%). The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the BMI was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in obese group (BMI 25) by recording 44.3%. Smoking contributed to the high prevalence of all liver diseases. Although the fatty liver was the most frequently occurred form of liver diseases by recording the prevalence of 49.1% (22.2% in male, 26.9% in female), the significant difference was found only in female (p < 0.05), but male group did not show significant difference (p > 0.05). The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the hypertension was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in hypertension group by recording 67.7%. The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the diabetes was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in diabetes group by recording 66.2%. The high prevalence of all hepatic diseases was related to diabetes mellitus with statistical significance (p < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis for the related factors which affect the prevalence of the liver diseases showed the higher prevalence by age. Sex, obesity and diabetes mellitus were positively related to the prevalence (p < 0.05) while hypertension and smoking showed no significant relationship to the prevalence of the disease (p > 0.05).

  1. Correlation between Parameters of Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound and Hip Structural Analysis in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS, which is used in the evaluation of osteoporosis, is believed to be intimately associated with the characteristics of the proximal femur. However, the specific associations of calcaneal QUS with characteristics of the hip sub-regions remain unclear.A cross-sectional assessment of 53 osteoporotic patients was performed for the skeletal status of the heel and hip.We prospectively enrolled 53 female osteoporotic patients with femoral fractures. Calcaneal QUS, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and hip structural analysis (HSA were performed for each patient. Femoral heads were obtained during the surgery, and principal compressive trabeculae (PCT were extracted by a three-dimensional printing technique-assisted method. Pearson's correlation between QUS measurement with DXA, HSA-derived parameters and Young's modulus were calculated in order to evaluate the specific association of QUS with the parameters for the hip sub-regions, including the femoral neck, trochanteric and Ward's areas, and the femoral shaft, respectively.Significant correlations were found between estimated BMD (Est.BMD and BMD of different sub-regions of proximal femur. However, the correlation coefficient of trochanteric area (r = 0.356, p = 0.009 was higher than that of the neck area (r = 0.297, p = 0.031 and total proximal femur (r = 0.291, p = 0.034. Furthermore, the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI was significantly correlated with the HSA-derived parameters of the trochanteric area (r value: 0.315-0.356, all p<0.05 as well as with the Young's modulus of PCT from the femoral head (r = 0.589, p<0.001.The calcaneal bone had an intimate association with the trochanteric cancellous bone. To a certain extent, the parameters of the calcaneal QUS can reflect the characteristics of the trochanteric area of the proximal hip, although not specifically reflective of those of the femoral neck or shaft.

  2. Intravascular versus surface cooling for targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Guy W; Thomas, Richard M; Vamvakas, George

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and may be achieved using a variety of cooling devices. This study was conducted to explore the performance and outcomes for intravascular versus surface devices for targeted temperature management after...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of data from the Targeted Temperature Management trial. N = 934. A total of 240 patients (26%) managed with intravascular versus 694 (74%) with surface devices. Devices were assessed for speed and precision during the induction......, maintenance and rewarming phases in addition to adverse events. All-cause mortality, as well as a composite of poor neurological function or death, as evaluated by the Cerebral Performance Category and modified Rankin scale were analysed. RESULTS: For patients managed at 33 °C there was no difference between...

  3. Optimized use of Hough transform in an ultrasound measurement system for human signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Sona, A.

    2013-05-01

    Human motion analysis is a task of increasing importance in several modern application fields, such as in medicine, avionics, security, and disaster recovery. In this paper, the use of Hough transform is considered and discussed in the scenario of human motion analysis. In particular, the influence of some transform parameters is investigated with the aim of improving Hough transform set-up when used in a measurement approach for human motion analysis. To this purpose, Hough transform has been applied to a set of results obtained by exploiting a suitable measurement system developed by the same authors, in the specific case of ultrasound waves. Such results have been obtained by using some reference images in the form of spectrograms achieved by using the system along with a purposely developed reference target emulating some human body movements. The results show that the considered measurement system, and more generally the human motion analysis and detection system, can be optimized by a proper set-up and use of Hough transform algorithm.

  4. Comparison analysis between conventional ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography of thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuzhen, Cong, E-mail: cinufzu@163.com [People' s Hospital of Guangdong Province, Department of Ultrasound, Guangdong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of conventional ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodular diseases. Methods: 244 patients with 291 thyroid nodules were examined by ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography respectively; the examination results were compared against pathological findings to determine the effectiveness of these two examination methods. Results: The sensitivity and positive predictive value of conventional ultrasonography is higher than those of ultrasound elastography, but its specificity, accuracy, and negative predictive value is lower than those of the later. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is superior to conventional ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, ultrasonography is the basis of examination; only on this basis, an additional ultrasound elastography examination could greatly improve the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodular diseases.

  5. Use of Lymph Node Ultrasound Prior to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 384 Patients with Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, D; Brotons-Seguí, M; Del Toro, C; González, M; Requena, C; Traves, V; Pla, A; Bolumar, I; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Nagore, E

    2017-12-01

    Locoregional lymph node ultrasound is not typically included in guidelines as part of the staging process prior to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The objective of the present study was to make a clinical and economic analysis of lymph node ultrasound prior to SLNB. We performed a retrospective study of 384 patients with clinical stage I-II primary melanoma who underwent locorregional lymph node ultrasound (with or without ultrasound-guided biopsy) prior to SLNB between 2004 and 2015. We evaluated the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the strategy. Use of locorregional lymph node ultrasound avoided SLNB in 23 patients (6%). Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 76% for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes that were not clinically palpable. False negatives were significantly more common in patients aged over 60 years and in tumors with a thickness of less than 2mm. The staging process using SLNB and ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy produced an increase of €16.30 in the unit price. Our cost-effectiveness analysis identified the staging protocol with ultrasound and SLNB as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio than the alternative, consisting of SLNB alone (8,095.24 vs. €28,605.00). Ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnostic staging of melanoma prior to SLNB is a useful and cost-effective tool. This procedure does not substitute SLNB, though it does allow to avoid SLNB in a not insignificant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Khan MD, FACP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation . A 69-year-old Hispanic male, with a past history of diabetes and coronary disease, was admitted for fever, diarrhea, and confusion of 4 weeks duration. Physical examination showed a disoriented patient with multiple ecchymoses, possible ascites, and bilateral scrotal swelling. Hemoglobin was 6.7, prothrombin time (PT 21.4 seconds with international normalized ratio 2.1, partial thromboplastin time (PTT 55.6 seconds, fibrin split 10 µg/L, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH 1231 IU/L. Except for a positive DNA test for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection, extensive diagnostic workup for infections, malignancy, or a neurological cause was negative. Mixing studies revealed a nonspecific inhibitor of PT and PTT but Factor VIII levels were normal. The patient was empirically treated with antibiotics but developed hypotension and died on day 27 of admission. At autopsy, patient was found to have intravascular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving skin, testes, lung, and muscles. The malignant cells were positive for CD20, CD791, Mum-1, and Pax-5 and negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD30, and Bcl-6. The malignant cells were 100% positive for Ki-67. Discussion . Intravascular large cell B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is rare form of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and tends to proliferate within small blood vessels, particularly capillaries and postcapillary venules. The cause of its affinity for vascular bed remains unknown. In many reports, IVLBCL was associated with HIV, HHV8, and EBV infections. The fact that our case showed evidence of EBV infection lends support to the association of this diagnosis to viral illness. The available literature on this subject is scant, and in many cases, the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. The typical presentation of this disorder is with B symptoms, progressive neurologic deficits, and skin findings. Bone marrow, spleen, and liver are involved in a minority of patients. Nearly all patients have elevated LDH

  7. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S.; Weijers, G.; Zelst, J.C.M. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Mann, R.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  8. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S., E-mail: aisha.vandenabeelen@radboudumc.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, MIRA-Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weijers, G. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Zelst, J.C.M. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Thijssen, J.M. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mann, R.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Korte, C.L. de [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  9. Three-Year Analysis of Value and Utilization After Development of an Ultrasound-Based Orthopedic Injection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Chase; Melton, Thomas; Turner, Eric; Jackson, Andrew; Grassbaugh, Jason; Slevin, John; Arrington, Edward D; Eichinger, Josef K

    2017-09-01

    Sonography is an effective method of diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal conditions, and the use of ultrasound has been shown to improve the accuracy, safety, and efficacy of both therapeutic and diagnostic injections. In 2012, we established an injection clinic at our institution to address our growing need for diagnostic and therapeutic injections. We performed an analysis of value and utilization following the development of an orthopedic injection clinic. This included an evaluation of the cost of materials, equipment, and training required to develop and run the clinic, and an analysis of the services rendered and relative value units (RVUs) generated over 3 fiscal years (FYs). The cost to develop the clinic was $42,498.30. The cost to run the clinic thereafter was $16.90 to $21.60 per injection. By the end of FY 2012, 60% of providers performed at least 1 injection under ultrasound guidance. Every successive year thereafter, 100% of providers were using ultrasound guidance. In FY 2012, we performed 738 injections, 5.4% used ultrasound guidance and generated a total of 1,786.36 RVUs. In FY 2013, we performed 1,814 injections, 17.6% used ultrasound guidance, and generated a total of 7,224.5 RVUs. In FY 2014, we performed 2,821 injections, 25.2% used ultrasound guidance, and generated 13,786.82 RVUs. RVUs generated solely from ultrasound guided injections were 463.2 (2012), 3,694 (2013), 8,221.8 (2014). Injection accuracy was at least 98%. Average time until injection was 0 days. The cost to start an injection clinic is modest, with the potential for large annual growth and early return on investment, and can generate significant revenue by recapturing RVUs that would otherwise be lost to outside referrals. Furthermore, it helps to increase clinic throughput, maximize services rendered during a single patient visit improving the overall quality of their encounter, expands the clinical practice of our midlevel providers, offloads clinical time for surgical

  10. An experimental method for detecting blood splatter from retractable phlebotomy and intravascular devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiduven, Donna; Applegarth, Shawn; Shroff, Miloni

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety of retractable intravascular devices in terms of their potential to produce blood splatter. A method for measuring this blood splatter designed by the research team was used to evaluate 3 specific intravascular devices. Scientific filters were positioned around the retraction mechanisms of the devices and weighed with an analytical scale, both before and after activation, in a simulated vein containing mock venous blood. The difference in filter mass was used as the primary unit of analysis to detect blood splatter. In addition, the filters were visually inspected for the presence or absence of blood. A paired t-test revealed significant differences in the prefilter and postfilter groups for 2 of the 3 devices tested (P blood was detected on 23% to 40% of the scientific filters for 2 of the devices. Our findings indicate a potential for bloodborne pathogen exposure with the use of intravascular devices with a retractable mechanism. This experiment may serve as a model in the design and implementation of future sharps device evaluation protocols to validate the threat of bloodborne pathogen exposure.

  11. [Intravascular lymphomatosis. A report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Calderón, M J; Seguí Riesco, M E; Argüelles, M; Nuño Mateo, J

    2005-01-01

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare malignancy characterized by a proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells occluding small blood vessels (venules, capillaries and small arteries). The symptoms are caused by embolisms due to massive proliferation. Nervous system and skin are the most common sites of involvement but all organs may be involved, although it is typified by the absence of malignant cells in lymphoid tissues. We describe three cases of IVL: first patient was a 57 years old man with rapidly progressive dementia and neurological involvements and second case of a 69 years old man hospitalised with predominant symptoms in the lung (cough, dyspnea and fever), and a woman presenting as fever of unknown origin (FUO) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In all cases that we reported have been diagnosed post-mortem because of rapid progression of a multisystem disease and the absence of pathognomonic clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be made using biopsy of one of the involved organs. In conclusion, we propose that IVL should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute confusional state, dementia or other unexplained neurological manifestations, fever of unknown origin, vasculitis, occult neoplasia or infections with signs of a systemic disease and marked elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  13. Ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for Morton neuroma: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignotti, Bianca; Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genoa, Radiology Department, Genoa, Genova (Italy); Signori, Alessio; Sormani, Maria Pia [University of Genoa, Institute of Statistics, Department of Health Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Molfetta, Luigi [University of Genoa, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Tagliafico, Alberto [University of Genoa, Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    To compare ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of US and MRI for Morton's neuroma were retrieved from major medical libraries independently by two reviewers up to 1 April 2014. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were adopted. 277 studies were initially found, and the meta-analysis was conducted on 14 studies. US sensitivity was studied in five studies, MRI sensitivity in three studies, and both in six studies. All studies used surgery as the reference standard. A high sensitivity (SE) of diagnostic testing was observed for both US (SE (95 % CI) = 0.91 (0.83-0.96)) and MRI (SE (95 % CI) = 0.90 (0.82-0.96)) with no significant differences between the two modalities in diagnosis (Q test p = 0.88). For MRI, specificity of test was 1.00 with a pooled estimation of 1.00 (0.73-1.00), while the pooled specificity was 0.854 (95 % CI: 0.41-1.00) for US. No differences were observed between US and MRI in study design (p = 0.76). This meta-analysis shows that the SE of US (0.91) is equal to (p = 0.88) that of MRI (0.90) for identification of Morton's neuroma. (orig.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Detection of Crohn's Disease Activity: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Kłopocka, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Reports on imaging of active Crohn's disease (aCD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are encouraging. However, the statistical power of most published papers is limited due to the small size of the patient groups included. This study was performed to verify the diagnostic value of CEUS in detecting aCD. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers for articles on the test characteristics of CEUS for the identification of aCD. The quality of the analysed studies was evaluated using a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Pooling was performed using a diagnostic random-effect model and bivariate analysis. Eight articles were included in the final analysis, with a total of 332 patients. There was no significant publication bias. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding CEUS methodology and sonographic definitions of aCD. In a bivariate analysis, pooled sensitivity was 0.94 (95% CI 0.87-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.88). Spearman correlation statistics presented no significant diagnostic threshold effect (r = 0.12, p > 0.9). Subgroup analysis showed that relative intestine wall enhancement had the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve 94%), while the presence of enhancement and analysis of the slope were less useful (area under the curve 91 and 90%, respectively). CEUS presents good sensitivity and moderate specificity in the detection of the aCD. Large-scale randomized trials with quantitative evaluation of CEUS images are necessary to promote this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries fallopian tubes bladder Pelvic ultrasound exams are also used to ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the ... vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam may be part of ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... your knees toward your chest. To obtain high-quality images, an ultrasound transducer – a plastic cylinder about ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries ... page How is the procedure performed? Transabdominal: For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) and the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... right in front of the rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ... ultrasound to clean out the bowel. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... depth investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries ... with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with infertility. In ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound ... patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in which the transducer ... in the sperm or urine following the procedure. After an ultrasound examination, you should be able to ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... obtain high-quality images, an ultrasound transducer – a plastic cylinder about the size of a finger – is ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also help identify: ... fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ... pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ... show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... help to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most ... child's favorite channel. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Transvaginal ultrasound is performed very much like a gynecologic exam and involves the insertion of the transducer ... with your feet in stirrups similar to a gynecologic exam. Transrectal: For a transrectal ultrasound, a protective ...

  8. Quantitative analysis of the cervical texture by ultrasound in the mid-pregnancy is associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Núria; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Julià, Carla; Murillo-Bravo, Clara; Coronado, David; Gratacos, Eduard; Deprest, Jan; Palacio, Montse

    2017-05-15

    New tools are required to identify women at increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Quantitative texture analysis by ultrasound has been used to extract robust features from the ultrasound image of a given tissue to detect subtle changes in its microstructure. This may also be applied to the cervix. We aimed to determine if there is an association between quantitative analysis of the cervical texture (CTx) by ultrasound in the mid-trimester of pregnancy and sPTB quantitative analysis of the CTx. A learning algorithm was developed to obtain the best combination of cervical textures features associated with sPTB based on feature transformation and discriminant analysis-regression. The ability of the learning algorithm to predict sPTB was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation technique, obtaining a CTx-based score for each individual. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the optimal cut-off based on the ROC curve. The results were compared to those obtained with the CL. At all points the investigators studying the images were blinded to pregnancy outcome. Images of 310 women (27 cases and 283 controls) were of sufficient quality and included in the study. Median CTx-based score (-1.01 vs -0.07, p = Quantitative analysis of the cervical texture is able to extract information from the ultrasound images related to sPTB and generate a CTx-based score which is independently associated to sPTB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mass-transfer behavior in a bioreactor for hairy root culture. II. Analysis of ultrasound-intensified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Recently, cichoric acid production from hairy roots of Echinacea purpurea was significantly improved by ultrasound stimulation in an airlift bioreactor. In this article, the possible mechanism on ultrasound-intensified hairy root culture of E. purpurea in the bioreactor was elucidated with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, membrane permeability detection, dissolved oxygen concentration detection, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) observation, and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) activity analysis. The CFD model developed in Part I was used to simulate the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in hairy root bioreactor culture stimulated by ultrasound. A dynamic mesh model combined with a changing Schmidt number method was used for the simulation of the ultrasound field. Simulation results and experimental data illustrated that ultrasound intensified oxygen mass transfer in the hairy root clump, which subsequently stimulated root growth and cichoric acid biosynthesis. Ultrasound increased the hairy root membrane permeability, and a high root membrane permeability of 0.359 h(-1) was observed at the bottom region in the bioreactor. LSM observation showed that the change in the membrane permeability recovered to normal in the further culture after ultrasound stimulation. PAL activity in the hairy roots was stimulated by ultrasound increase and was correlated well to cichoric acid accumulation in the hairy roots of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Blood and Wall Signal Simulator for Doppler Ultrasound Signal Analysis Algorithm Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fish, P

    2001-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound instruments, used for the detection and monitoring of vascular disease, require a means of separating the large, low frequency Doppler signal from the vessel wall from the signal...

  11. Comparison and evaluation of indicator dilution models for bolus of ultrasound contrast agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harabis, V.; Kolář, R.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 151-162 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : perfusion model * ultrasound * contrast agent * intravascular perfusion * tissue phantom Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2013

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Face and Neck Skin Tightening by Microfocused Ultrasound With Visualization in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chang, Ya-Ching

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies of microfocused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V) on facial and neck laxity were largely based on masked physician assessments, histological analysis, and safety profile. More quantitative studies are needed. To evaluate the 800 treatment lines of MFU-V on skin tightening effect of face and neck in Asians using 2 quantitative analysis systems at 0, 90, and 180 days after treatment. Total 25 subjects were recruited in this prospective study. Subjects were treated with MFU-V to the face and neck using 2 different transducers: 4 MHz, 4.5-mm focal depth and 7 MHz, 3.0-mm focal depth with total 800 lines. The subjects were evaluated by skin complexion analysis and 3-dimensional imaging system at 0, 90, and 180 days. Mean brow height lift and submental lift were calculated. All 25 subjects completed treatment and received the follow-up examinations at 90 and 180 days. Two of the 25 subjects were male. Mean patient age was 53.3 years (range: 39.8-61.1 years). Wrinkles, texture, and pores were 3 variables relevant to analysis of skin laxity. Only mean wrinkles score reduction at 90 days was statistically significant (p = .0222). There was a mean 0.47 mm brow lift at 90 days (p = .0165), but there was a 0.12 mm decrease in brow height compared to baseline at 180 days (p = .6494). At 90 days, a mean 26.44 mm submental lift was noted (p = .0217). And at 180 days, a mean 13.76 mm submental lift was noted (p = .243). This study showed that the most prominent change after the 800-line MFU-V treatments in Asians was the significant submental lift at 90 days. Other noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment modalities can be considered to combine with MFU-V for the optimal treatment response. Additional MFU-V treatments can be considered 3 months after the first treatment.

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning may be able to give a ...

  16. The efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound for rotator cuff tendinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmeules, François; Boudreault, Jennifer; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Dionne, Clermont; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C

    2015-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound (US) in adults suffering from rotator cuff tendinopathy. A literature search was conducted in four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCT) published until 12/2013, comparing the efficacy of US to any other interventions in adults suffering from rotator cuff tendinopathy. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies. Data were summarized qualitatively or quantitatively. Eleven RCTs with a low mean methodological score (50.0% ± 15.6%) were included. Therapeutic US did not provide greater benefits than a placebo intervention or advice in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement. When provided in conjunction with exercise, US therapy is not superior to exercise alone in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement (pooled mean difference of the Constant-Murley score: -0.26 with 95% confidence interval of -3.84 to 3.32). Laser therapy was found superior to therapeutic US in terms of pain reduction. Based on low to moderate level evidence, therapeutic US does not provide any benefit compared to a placebo or advice, to laser therapy or when combined to exercise. More methodologically sound studies on the efficacy of therapeutic US are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ... Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ... children or adults). For visualizing internal structure of bones or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface of bony structures and not what lies within (except in infants ...

  1. A new method for analysis of non-pregnant uterine peristalsis using transvaginal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirzon, D; Jaffa, A J; Gordon, Z; Elad, D

    2011-08-01

    To develop an objective method for analysis of uterine peristalsis using transvaginal sonography (TVS). We performed computerized analysis of 2-5-min video recordings of TVS imaging of a midsagittal cross-section of the uterus during the proliferative and early secretory phases of 18 healthy volunteers aged 28-41 years. The contours of the fluid-endometrial interface (FEI) and the endometrium-myometrium interface (EMI) were detected in each frame, and the data from all frames were used to explore the dynamic motility characteristics of these interfaces at fixed distances from the fundus. The mean ± SD dominant frequency of peristalsis of the EMI along the midsagittal cross-section was 0.049 ± 0.01 Hz and that of the cavity center was 0.043 ± 0.02 Hz. The maximal amplitudes of the EMI were about 1 ± 0.25 mm, located between 7 and 17 mm from the fundus. The amplitudes of the FEI were in the range 0.05-0.2 mm. The amplitude of the cavity centerline movement was 0.94 ± 0.34 mm, located at the extremes of the unperturbed curve. This study provides a simple tool for analysis of uterine peristalsis characteristics using ultrasound data. This is possible at the EMI even when the FEI is invisible or incomplete, such as during the luteal phase, when an intrauterine contraceptive device is in place, and during diagnostic or medical intervention. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Ultrasound and Carcass Measurement Traits in a Regional Hanwoo Steer Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Mi Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF, longissimus muscle area (ULMA and marbling score (UMS and carcass measurements of carcass weight (CW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (MS on 7,044 Hanwoo steers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data from Hanwoo steers that were raised, finished in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do (province and shipped to slaughter houses during the period from October 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated. Ultrasound measurements were taken at approximately three months before slaughter by an experienced operator using a B-mode real-time ultrasound device (HS-2000, FHK Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan with a 3.5 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning was on the left side between 13th rib and the first lumbar vertebrae. All slaughtering processes and carcass evaluations were performed in accordance with the guidelines of beef grading system of Korea. To estimate genetic parameters, multiple trait animal models were applied. Fixed effects included in the models were: the effects of farm, contemporary group effects (year-season at the time of ultrasound scanning in the models for UBF, ULMA, and UMS, and year-season at slaughter in the models for CW, BF, LMA, and MS, the effects of ultrasound technicians as class variables and the effects of the age in days at ultrasound scanning or at slaughtering as linear covariates, respectively for ultrasound and carcass measures. Heritability estimates obtained from our analyses were 0.37 for UBF, 0.13 for ULMA, 0.27 for UMS, 0.44 for CW, 0.33 for BF, 0.36 for LMA and 0.54 MS, respectively. Genetic correlations were strongly positive between corresponding traits of ultrasound and carcass measures. Genetic correlation coefficient between UBF and BF estimate was 0.938, between ULMA and LMA was 0.767 and between UMS and MS was 0.925. These results suggest that ultrasound measurement traits are genetically similar to carcass measurement traits.

  3. Fulminant intravascular lymphomatosis mimicking acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, D; Sicurelli, F; Cerase, A; Tripodi, S; Cintorino, M; Lazzi, S; Federico, A

    2012-09-15

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, usually of B cell lineage, characterized by massive angiotropic growth. The clinical presentation of IVL may include changes in mental status, non-localizing neurological deficits, seizures, fever of unknown origin and skin changes. Because of its rarity and the absence of specific diagnostic procedures except for cerebral biopsy, diagnosis is often postmortem. Brain MRI usually shows non-specific abnormalities. The purpose of this case report is to increase the knowledge of clinical and neuroimaging features of IVL by describing the findings observed in a 71-year-old patient. A 71-year-old male was admitted for right hemiparesis, acute cognitive impairment and febricula. A bone marrow biopsy resulted normal. He then developed a rapid progressive impairment of his mental status and left hemisoma motor seizures. Brain CT and MRI were interpreted as consistent with acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (AHLE), including multiple areas of restricted diffusion without gadolinium enhancement and a small focal area of gadolinium enhancement in the left temporal lobe white matter. The patient died within a few days and the autopsy led to the diagnosis of IVL. IVL may present with a variety of clinical signs and symptoms, including stroke and hemiparesis. IVL may mimic AHLE at brain MRI. However, the evidence of multiple areas of restricted diffusion without gadolinium enhancement and of a small area of gadolinium enhancement could have led to the correct diagnosis. IVL should be added to the differential diagnosis of AHLE at brain MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic ultrasound imaging—A multivariate approach for the analysis and comparison of time-dependent musculoskeletal movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfstedt Tommy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle functions are generally assumed to affect a wide variety of conditions and activities, including pain, ischemic and neurological disorders, exercise and injury. It is therefore very desirable to obtain more information on musculoskeletal contributions to and activity during clinical processes such as the treatment of muscle injuries, post-surgery evaluations, and the monitoring of progressive degeneration in neuromuscular disorders. The spatial image resolution achievable with ultrasound systems has improved tremendously in the last few years and it is nowadays possible to study skeletal muscles in real-time during activity. However, ultrasound imaging has an inherent problem that makes it difficult to compare different measurement series or image sequences from two or more subjects. Due to physiological differences between different subjects, the ultrasound sequences will be visually different – partly because of variation in probe placement and partly because of the difficulty of perfectly reproducing any given movement. Methods Ultrasound images of the biceps and calf of a single subject were transformed to achieve congruence and then efficiently compressed and stacked to facilitate analysis using a multivariate method known as O2PLS. O2PLS identifies related and unrelated variation in and between two sets of data such that different phases of the studied movements can be analysed. The methodology was used to study the dynamics of the Achilles tendon and the calf and also the Biceps brachii and upper arm. The movements of these parts of the body are both of interest in clinical orthopaedic research. Results This study extends the novel method of multivariate analysis of congruent images (MACI to facilitate comparisons between two series of ultrasound images. This increases its potential range of medical applications and its utility for detecting, visualising and quantifying the dynamics and functions of skeletal

  5. The Clinical Atlas of Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography for iPad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radu, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive educational tool devoted exclusively to intravascular OCT is now available from PCR publishing.......The first comprehensive educational tool devoted exclusively to intravascular OCT is now available from PCR publishing....

  6. Low molecular weight heparin attenuates multiple organ failure in a murine model of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Sjoukje H.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Buurman, Wim A.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; ten Cate, Hugo; Spek, C. Arnold

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial sepsis causes widespread vascular inflammation that frequently leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although intravascular coagulation contributes to organ failure, it is often debated whether anticoagulant therapy produces any beneficial effects in patients

  7. Real-Time Ultrasound Segmentation, Analysis and Visualisation of Deep Cervical Muscle Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ryan J; Harding, Peter J; Loram, Ian D

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread availability of ultrasound and a need for personalised muscle diagnosis (neck/back pain-injury, work related disorder, myopathies, neuropathies), robust, online segmentation of muscles within complex groups remains unsolved by existing methods. For example, Cervical Dystonia (CD) is a prevalent neurological condition causing painful spasticity in one or multiple muscles in the cervical muscle system. Clinicians currently have no method for targeting/monitoring treatment of deep muscles. Automated methods of muscle segmentation would enable clinicians to study, target, and monitor the deep cervical muscles via ultrasound. We have developed a method for segmenting five bilateral cervical muscles and the spine via ultrasound alone, in real-time. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultrasound data were collected from 22 participants (age: 29.0±6.6, male: 12). To acquire ultrasound muscle segment labels, a novel multimodal registration method was developed, involving MRI image annotation, and shape registration to MRI-matched ultrasound images, via approximation of the tissue deformation. We then applied polynomial regression to transform our annotations and textures into a mean space, before using shape statistics to generate a texture-to-shape dictionary. For segmentation, test images were compared to dictionary textures giving an initial segmentation, and then we used a customized Active Shape Model to refine the fit. Using ultrasound alone, on unseen participants, our technique currently segments a single image in [Formula: see text] to over 86% accuracy (Jaccard index). We propose this approach is applicable generally to segment, extrapolate and visualise deep muscle structure, and analyse statistical features online.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for rotator cuff tears in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.O., E-mail: toby.smith@uea.ac.uk [Department of Physiotherapy, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Back, T. [Department of Physiotherapy, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Toms, A.P. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hing, C.B. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St George' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound to detect partial and complete thickness rotator cuff tears based on all available clinical trials. Materials and methods: An electronic search of databases registering published and unpublished literature was conducted. All diagnostic accuracy studies that directly compared the accuracy of ultrasound (the index test) to either arthroscopic or open surgical findings (the reference test) for rotator cuff tear were included. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the QUADAS form. When appropriate, pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis was conducted, with an assessment of the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each analysis. Results: Sixty-two studies assessing 6007 patients and 6066 shoulders were included. Ultrasonography had good sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of partial thickness (sensitivity 0.84; specificity 0.89), and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.93). However, the literature poorly described population characteristics, assessor blinding, and was based on limited sample sizes. The literature assessing transducer frequency was particularly small in size. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is an appropriate radiological technique for the assessment of rotator cuff tears with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound is superior for the detection of full-thickness compared to partial-thickness cuff tears. Further study assessing the effect of transducer frequency is warranted.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for rotator cuff tears in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.O.; Back, T.; Toms, A.P.; Hing, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound to detect partial and complete thickness rotator cuff tears based on all available clinical trials. Materials and methods: An electronic search of databases registering published and unpublished literature was conducted. All diagnostic accuracy studies that directly compared the accuracy of ultrasound (the index test) to either arthroscopic or open surgical findings (the reference test) for rotator cuff tear were included. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the QUADAS form. When appropriate, pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis was conducted, with an assessment of the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each analysis. Results: Sixty-two studies assessing 6007 patients and 6066 shoulders were included. Ultrasonography had good sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of partial thickness (sensitivity 0.84; specificity 0.89), and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.93). However, the literature poorly described population characteristics, assessor blinding, and was based on limited sample sizes. The literature assessing transducer frequency was particularly small in size. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is an appropriate radiological technique for the assessment of rotator cuff tears with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound is superior for the detection of full-thickness compared to partial-thickness cuff tears. Further study assessing the effect of transducer frequency is warranted.

  10. Failure analysis for ultrasound machines in a radiology department after implementation of predictive maintenance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to perform quantitative failure and fault analysis to the diagnostic ultrasound (US scanners in a radiology department after the implementation of the predictive maintenance (PdM method; to study the reduction trend of machine failure; to understand machine operating parameters affecting the failure; to further optimize the method to maximize the machine clinically service time. Materials and Methods: The PdM method has been implemented to the 5 US machines since 2013. Log books were used to record machine failures and their root causes together with the time spent on repair, all of which were retrieved, categorized, and analyzed for the period between 2013 and 2016. Results: There were a total of 108 cases of failure occurred in these 5 US machines during the 4-year study period. The average number of failure per month for all these machines was 2.4. Failure analysis showed that there were 33 cases (30.5% due to software, 44 cases (40.7% due to hardware, and 31 cases (28.7% due to US probe. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the time spent on regular quality assurance (QA by hospital physicists with the time spent on faulty parts replacement over the study period (P = 0.007. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between regular QA time and total yearly breakdown case (P = 0.12, although there has been a decreasing trend observed in the yearly total breakdown. Conclusion: There has been a significant improvement on the machine failure of US machines attributed to the concerted effort of sonographers and physicists in our department to practice the PdM method, in that system component repair time has been reduced, and a decreasing trend in the number of system breakdown has been observed.

  11. Quantitative Ultrasound Assessment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using Edge Detection Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppaka, Sisir; Shklyar, Irina; Rutkove, Seward B; Darras, Basil T; Anthony, Brian W; Zaidman, Craig M; Wu, Jim S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of quantitative ultrasound (US) using edge detection analysis to assess patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). After Institutional Review Board approval, US examinations with fixed technical parameters were performed unilaterally in 6 muscles (biceps, deltoid, wrist flexors, quadriceps, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior) in 19 boys with DMD and 21 age-matched control participants. The muscles of interest were outlined by a tracing tool, and the upper third of the muscle was used for analysis. Edge detection values for each muscle were quantified by the Canny edge detection algorithm and then normalized to the number of edge pixels in the muscle region. The edge detection values were extracted at multiple sensitivity thresholds (0.01-0.99) to determine the optimal threshold for distinguishing DMD from normal. Area under the receiver operating curve values were generated for each muscle and averaged across the 6 muscles. The average age in the DMD group was 8.8 years (range, 3.0-14.3 years), and the average age in the control group was 8.7 years (range, 3.4-13.5 years). For edge detection, a Canny threshold of 0.05 provided the best discrimination between DMD and normal (area under the curve, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00). According to a Mann-Whitney test, edge detection values were significantly different between DMD and controls (P imaging using edge detection can distinguish patients with DMD from healthy controls at low Canny thresholds, at which discrimination of small structures is best. Edge detection by itself or in combination with other tests can potentially serve as a useful biomarker of disease progression and effectiveness of therapy in muscle disorders.

  12. Emergency treatment by intravascular embolization in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Sun Zengtao; Liu Zuoqin; Liu Yanjun; Li Fengxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method of intervenfional intravascular treatment in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) and the significance of clinical application in emergency. Methods: In 297 eases of TCCF, 36 cases were treated by interventional intravascular embolization by detachable balloon, embolization orificium or occlusion in one side of carotid artery. In the 36 cases, serious epistaxis occurred in 22 eases, cortical vein inflow in 9 cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases, aggravation of eyesight in 3 cases, and limb dysfunction in 2 cases. Results: Fistula was successfully embolized and internal carotid artery remained patent in 19 cases. Complete embolization of orificium or internal carotid artery was achieved in 17 eases. The serious epistaxias in 22 cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases stopped. Eyesight recovered in 2 eases and improved in 1 case. Limb dysfunction improved evidently in 2 cases. Conclusion: Intravascular embolization treatment is the first therapeutic choice for TCCF, especially in emergency. It is necessary, safe and effective. (authors)

  13. Brain Surface Heating After Exposure to Ultrasound: An Analysis Using Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michal E; Lombardo, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice to monitor brain pathologies in neonates after complicated deliveries. Animal studies have indicated that ultrasound may cause heating of brain tissues. To date, no study has explored brain surface heating by ultrasound during clinically relevant exposure. Hence, we investigated heating effects of B-mode and pulsed Doppler (PD) mode on ex vivo lamb brains using thermography. Five brains were scanned for 5 min in B-mode or for 3 min, 1 min, 30 s or 15 s in PD mode. Brain surface temperature was measured pre- and post-exposure using thermography. The highest mean temperature increase was recorded by B-mode (3.82 ± 0.43°C). All five PD exposure protocols were associated with surface temperature increases of 2.1-2.7°C. These outcomes highlight for the first time that B-mode ultrasound can contribute to brain surface heating during a routine cranial scan. Scan duration should be minimised whenever possible. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-07-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  15. 21 CFR 880.5970 - Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular... and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5970 Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter is a device that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion... Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5965 Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification. A subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and...

  17. Finite element analysis of laser-generated ultrasound for characterizing surface-breaking cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo

    2005-01-01

    A finite element method was used to simulate the wave propagation of laser-generated ultrasound and its interaction with surface breaking cracks in an elastic material. Thermoelastic laser line source on the material surface was approximated as a shear dipole and loaded as nodal forces in the plane-strain Finite Element (FE) model. The shear dipole-FE model was tested for the generation of ultrasound on the surface with no defect. The model was found to generate the Rayleigh surface wave. The model was then extended to examine the interaction of laser generated ultrasound with surface-breaking cracks of various depths. The crack-scattered waves were monitored to size the crack depth. The proposed model clearly reproduced the experimentally observed features that can be used to characterize the presence of surface-breaking cracks

  18. Analysis of hospital infection control awareness of ultrasound room office personnel in Busan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, JJung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo

    2015-01-01

    146 people working in the ultrasound room in Busan were surveyed, and their perception of hospital infection was analyzed. According to the results of the survey, academic background showed the highest number in terms of awareness and performance of personal hygiene management and hand washing management, and the group with experience of infection education showed the highest number in terms of awareness of ultrasound equipment hygiene, and the group with less than college education showed the highest number in terms of performance of ultrasound equipment hygiene. The difference was statistically significant. Based on the results of this study, performance was lower than awareness in general. This result indicates that the degree of performance is inadequate. Therefore, it can be concluded that individuals need to change their perception of personal hygiene and take interest in it through infection education

  19. The 100 Most-Cited Articles Focused on Ultrasound Imaging: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J Y; Yun, E J; Yoon, D Y; Choi, C S; Seo, Y L; Cho, Y K; Lim, K J; Baek, S; Hong, S J; Yoon, S J

    2017-06-01

    Purpose  The number of citations that an article has received reflects its impact on a particular research area. The aim of this study was to identify the 100 most-cited articles focused on ultrasound (US) imaging and to analyze the characteristics of these articles. Methods  We determined the 100 most-cited articles on US imaging via the Web of Science database, using the search term. The following parameters were used to analyze the characteristics of the 100 most-cited articles: publication year, journal, journal impact factor, number of citations and annual citations, authors, department, institution, country, type of article, and topic. Results  The number of citations for the 100 most-cited articles ranged from 1849 to 341 (median: 442.0) and the number of annual citations ranged from 108.0 to 8.1 (median: 22.1). The majority of articles were published in 1990 - 1999 (39 %), published in radiology journals (20 %), originated in the United States (45 %), were clinical observation studies (67 %), and dealt with the vessels (35 %). The Department of Internal Medicine at the University of California and the Research Institute of Public Health at the University of Kuopio (n = 4 each) were the leading institutions and Salonen JT and Salonen R (n = 4 each) were the most prolific authors. Conclusion  Our study presents a detailed list and analysis of the 100 most-cited US articles, which provides a unique insight into the historical development in this field. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs: A retrospective analysis of doppler ultrasound findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Khaladkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT of lower limbs is one of the most common cause for the majority of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. Most venous thrombi are clinically silent. B-mode and color Doppler imaging is needed for early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and sequalae of DVT. Aim and Objectives: The objectives of the following study were to evaluate the role of Doppler as an imaging modality in diagnosing DVT of lower limbs, to study the spectrum of findings on Doppler ultrasound in patients with DVT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective descriptive analysis of 78 patients of DVT diagnosed on Doppler. Results: Nearly 74% of the patients were males and 26% were females with majority belonging to fifth decade (26%. 75 (96.1% cases showed unilateral while 3 (3.9% cases showed bilateral lower limb involvement. In our study, predominant distribution of thrombus was found to be in above knee region with 69/78 (88.5% patients having thrombus in the superficial femoral vein. Popliteal vein was involved in 54/78 (69.2% patients. Complete thrombosis was observed in 54/78 (69% cases, while partial thrombosis was observed in 24/78 (31% cases. Subacute stage was seen in 42 cases (53.8%, acute stage in 23 cases (29.5% while chronic stage in 13 cases (16.7%. 71 cases (91% had multiple contiguous segmental involvement, whereas 7 cases (9% had isolated vein involvement. Conclusion: Color Doppler is useful in diagnosing DVT in symptomatic and at risk patients and provides a non-invasive method of investigation. It is also helpful in evaluating the site, extent and stage of thrombus.

  1. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S S; Salama, M M A; Kamel, M; El-Saadany, E F; Rizkalla, K; Chin, J

    2005-08-07

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yielding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN.

  2. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, S S [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Salama, M M A [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kamel, M [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); El-Saadany, E F [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizkalla, K [University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, Suite 2, London, Ontario N6A 5B8 (Canada); Chin, J [University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, Suite 2, London, Ontario N6A 5B8 (Canada)

    2005-08-07

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN. (note)

  3. NOTE: Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. S.; Salama, M. M. A.; Kamel, M.; El-Saadany, E. F.; Rizkalla, K.; Chin, J.

    2005-08-01

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN.

  4. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S S; Salama, M M A; Kamel, M; El-Saadany, E F; Rizkalla, K; Chin, J

    2005-01-01

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN. (note)

  5. Ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery using intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerkowski Hans-Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, manipulations on the beating heart can lead to transient interruptions of myocardial oxygen supply, which can generate an accumulation of oxygen-dependent metabolites in coronary venous blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy as a monitoring method to detect possible ischemic events in off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures. Methods In 15 elective patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization, intravascular near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of coronary venous blood was performed. NIR signals were transferred through a fiberoptic catheter for signal emission and collection. For data analysis and processing, a miniature spectrophotometer with multivariate statistical package was used. Signal acquisition and analysis were performed before and after revascularization. Spectroscopic data were compared with hemodynamic parameters, electrocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory findings. Results A conversion to extracorporeal circulation was not necessary. The mean number of grafts per patient was 3.1 ± 0.6. An intraoperative myocardial ischemia was not evident, as indicated by electrocardiogram and transesophageal echocardiography. Continuous spectroscopic analysis showed reproducible absorption spectra of coronary sinus blood. Due to uneventful intraoperative courses, clear ischemia-related changes could be detected in none of the patients. Conclusion Our initial results show that intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy can reliably be used for an online intraoperative ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. However, the method has to be further evaluated and standardized to determine the role of spectroscopy in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

  6. Comparison of block matching and differential methods for motion analysis of the carotid artery wall from ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, John S; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Dimopoulos, Alexandros C; Koropouli, Vassiliki; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2012-09-01

    Motion of the carotid artery wall is important for the quantification of arterial elasticity and contractility and can be estimated with a number of techniques. In this paper, a framework for quantitative evaluation of motion analysis techniques from B-mode ultrasound images is introduced. Six synthetic sequences were produced using 1) a real image corrupted by Gaussian and speckle noise of 25 and 15 dB, and 2) the ultrasound simulation package Field II. In both cases, a mathematical model was used, which simulated the motion of the arterial wall layers and the surrounding tissue, in the radial and longitudinal directions. The performance of four techniques, namely optical flow (OF (HS)), weighted least-squares optical flow (OF (LK(WLS))), block matching (BM), and affine block motion model (ABMM), was investigated in the context of this framework. The average warping indices were lowest for OF (LK(WLS)) (1.75 pixels), slightly higher for ABMM (2.01 pixels), and highest for BM (6.57 pixels) and OF (HS) (11.57 pixels). Due to its superior performance, OF (LK(WLS)) was used to quantify motion of selected regions of the arterial wall in real ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery. Preliminary results indicate that OF (LK(WLS)) is promising, because it efficiently quantified radial, longitudinal, and shear strains in healthy adults and diseased subjects.

  7. Ultrasound, Echocardiography, MRI, and Genetic Analysis of a Fetus with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Partial 11q Trisomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Fernández-Perea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH is a serious birth defect with a significant mortality and morbidity. The current and constant progress in ultrasound techniques has led to the improvement of the prenatal diagnosis of this malformation. CDH is a developmental defect whose etiology is heterogeneous and takes place when the pleuroperitoneal folds and septum transversum fail to converge and fuse. Survival depends on the extent of pulmonary hypoplasia and the disease may be potentially worsened by the presence of added congenital defects. 40% of CDH cases are associated with at least one additional anomaly. The ultrasound diagnosis is established with essential signs: loss of uniform echogenicity of lungs and marked mediastinal shift. We report the case of a fetus with isolated CDH diagnosed at 21 weeks of gestation by ultrasound and confirmed by RMI, whose genetic analysis of amniotic fluid cells identified a de novo partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 11. Different genetic causes have been associated with CDH. Moreover, it is expectable that the use of new techniques for prenatal diagnosis will reveal novel CNVs associated with CDH and will help us to estimate the recurrence risk for this defect as well as for other associated anomalies.

  8. The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, F J; Bonati, F; Gementi, P; Nicolini, U

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of serial intravascular transfusions on RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion by measuring multiple hematological/biochemical blood variables. Thirty-one singleton pregnancies were referred for management of RhD alloimmunization. Seven fetuses had hydrops on presentation and were transfused immediately. The remainder underwent weekly ultrasound examinations, and fetal blood sampling and transfusion were performed on development of ascites. In the 104 samples collected overall from the 31 fetuses, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), creatine kinase, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and compared with a reference range for non-anemic fetuses. The median gestational age at first transfusion was 26 (range, 18-34) weeks. There were three fetal losses after the first transfusion, two of which were due to procedure-related complications; one further loss occurred. At the first transfusion fetal hematocrit, pO2, total protein, PCHE, creatinine and urea concentrations were significantly decreased compared to reference data, while total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, amylase, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations were increased. In all surviving fetuses ascites/hydrops had disappeared by the second transfusion. Fetal pO2, total protein, AST, ALT and PCHE concentrations had normalized by the third transfusion. Correction of fetal anemia did not affect the other variables. RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion had a survival rate of 87%. Alterations of several biochemical fetal blood indices are present at the first sampling/transfusion, but most variables normalize with intravascular transfusions. Copyright 2005 ISUOG.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablordeppey, Enyo A; Drewry, Anne M; Beyer, Alexander B; Theodoro, Daniel L; Fowler, Susan A; Fuller, Brian M; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed. Primary outcomes included the accuracy of confirming catheter positioning and detecting a pneumothorax. Secondary outcomes included feasibility, interrater reliability, and efficiency to complete bedside ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter position. Investigators abstracted study details including research design and sonographic imaging technique to detect catheter malposition and procedure-related pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy measures included pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio. Fifteen studies with 1,553 central venous catheter placements were identified with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of catheter malposition by ultrasound of 0.82 (0.77-0.86) and 0.98 (0.97-0.99), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios of catheter malposition by ultrasound were 31.12 (14.72-65.78) and 0.25 (0.13-0.47). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for pneumothorax detection was nearly 100% in the participating studies. Bedside ultrasound reduced mean central venous catheter confirmation time by 58.3 minutes. Risk of bias and clinical heterogeneity in the studies were high. Bedside ultrasound is faster than radiography at identifying pneumothorax after central venous catheter insertion. When a central venous catheter malposition exists, bedside ultrasound will identify four out of every five earlier than

  10. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2017-11-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5440 - Intravascular administration set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular administration set. 880.5440 Section 880.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  13. Intravascular catheter related infections in children admitted on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peripheral venous intravascular catheters uncoated with no antibiotic or antiseptic, was done. Social demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical examination including the catheter site were determined at enrollment. The children had their blood, catheter tip and hub samples taken off for culture and sensitivity as ...

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC. Keywords: Cerebral malaria, cytokine storm, DIC, heparin ...

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  16. Intravascular catheter sepsis | Mer | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravascular devices are an integral component of modern-day medical practice. They are used to administer intravenous fluids, medications, blood products and parenteral nutrition. In addition, they serve as a valuable monitor of the haemodynamic status of critically ill patients.

  17. Accuracy of prenatal ultrasound in detecting jejunal and ileal atresia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, C; D'antonio, F; Khalil, A; Jonh, R; Manzoli, L; Giuliani, S

    2015-05-01

    The accuracy of prenatal ultrasound examination in detecting jejunal and ileal atresia has been reported in the literature to be highly variable, at 25-90%. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the accuracy of prenatal ultrasound in detecting non-duodenal small bowel atresia (ND-SBA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, including The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), were searched electronically. The overall detection rate of jejunal or ileal atresia using ultrasound was reported. The accuracy of using polyhydramnios and dilated loops of bowel as diagnostic signs was also explored. Sixteen studies involving 640 fetuses were included in this review. The detection rate of ND-SBA by prenatal ultrasound was highly variable, with values ranging from 10 to 100%, with an overall prediction of 50.6% (95% CI, 38.0-63.2%). When analyzed separately, the detection rates of jejunal and ileal atresia were 66.3%, (95% CI, 33.9-91.8%) and 25.9% (95% CI, 4.0-58.0%), respectively. Both dilated loops of bowel and polyhydramnios as diagnostic signs for ND-SBA provided a low overall detection rate. The diagnostic performance of prenatal ultrasound in identifying ND-SBA is extremely variable. Large studies are needed in order to identify objective and combined criteria for the diagnosis of these anomalies. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  20. Non-destructive estimation of the intramuscular fat content of the longissimus muscle of pigs by means of spectral analysis of ultrasound echo signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörlein, D; Rosner, F; Brand, S; Jenderka, K-V; Wicke, M

    2005-02-01

    The eating quality of porcine meat is supposed to increase with increasing intramuscular fat content (IMF). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of acoustic parameters obtained by spectral analysis of ultrasound echo signals to non-destructively predict intramuscular fat content of porcine longissimus muscle. Ultrasound is regarded as a promising non-destructive technique to characterize tissue. Ultrasound data acquisition was performed at slaughter with a clinical B-mode device equipped with a 3.5 MHz center-frequency transducer on 115 warm carcasses about 45 min postmortem. Acoustic parameters quantifying attenuation, backscattering and cepstral structure were calculated off-line from the recorded primary raw ultrasound echo signals. Their relationship to IMF content was investigated. IMF level significantly influenced powerspectrum amplitudes and backscatter parameters. With partial least-squares regression (PLS), the IMF content could be predicted with root mean standard error of prediction RMSEP of 0.36% IMF. The ultrasound parameters were able to correctly classify nearly 80% of the carcasses into HIGH and LOW level class, respectively. Results indicate the potential use of ultrasound spectral analysis for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of pig carcasses in order to estimate the IMF content.

  1. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  2. VR-based training and assessment in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: from error analysis to system design.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    If VR-based medical training and assessment is to improve patient care and safety (i.e. a genuine health gain), it has to be based on clinically relevant measurement of performance. Metrics on errors are particularly useful for capturing and correcting undesired behaviors before they occur in the operating room. However, translating clinically relevant metrics and errors into meaningful system design is a challenging process. This paper discusses how an existing task and error analysis was translated into the system design of a VR-based training and assessment environment for Ultrasound Guided Regional Anesthesia (UGRA).

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the ... is specialized and is best performed by a technologist and physician with experience in vascular ultrasound imaging. top of page Additional Information and Resources ...

  9. Volumetric analysis of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harary, Maya; Essayed, Walid I; Valdes, Pablo A; McDannold, Nathan; Cosgrove, G Rees

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy was recently approved for use in the treatment of medication-refractory essential tremor (ET). Previous work has described lesion appearance and volume on MRI up to 6 months after treatment. Here, the authors report on the volumetric segmentation of the thalamotomy lesion and associated edema in the immediate postoperative period and 1 year following treatment, and relate these radiographic characteristics with clinical outcome. METHODS Seven patients with medication-refractory ET underwent MRgFUS thalamotomy at Brigham and Women's Hospital and were monitored clinically for 1 year posttreatment. Treatment effect was measured using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST). MRI was performed immediately postoperatively, 24 hours posttreatment, and at 1 year. Lesion location and the volumes of the necrotic core (zone I) and surrounding edema (cytotoxic, zone II; vasogenic, zone III) were measured on thin-slice T2-weighted images using Slicer 3D software. RESULTS Patients had significant improvement in overall CRST scores (baseline 51.4 ± 10.8 to 24.9 ± 11.0 at 1 year, p = 0.001). The most common adverse events (AEs) in the 1-month posttreatment period were transient gait disturbance (6 patients) and paresthesia (3 patients). The center of zone I immediately posttreatment was 5.61 ± 0.9 mm anterior to the posterior commissure, 14.6 ± 0.8 mm lateral to midline, and 11.0 ± 0.5 mm lateral to the border of the third ventricle on the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane. Zone I, II, and III volumes immediately posttreatment were 0.01 ± 0.01, 0.05 ± 0.02, and 0.33 ± 0.21 cm 3 , respectively. These volumes increased significantly over the first 24 hours following surgery. The edema did not spread evenly, with more notable expansion in the superoinferior and lateral directions. The spread of edema inferiorly was associated with the incidence of gait disturbance. At 1 year, the

  10. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.G.; Doherty, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound was used as early as 1950 in attempts to detect malignant tumors within the human breast and brain. In the years following, however, little attention was paid to this method of imaging by the radiologic community. Extensive work with this technique was not begun until the 1960s, when bistable ultrasound enabled sonographers to display organ outlines for the first time. Prior to the development of bistable ultrasound, sonographic images were limited to A-mode displays, which were merely a series of amplitude spikes on a graph. Over the past 20 or so years, major advances in ultrasound technology have gradually taken us from the simple graphic A-mode display, through bistable organ outlines, to gray-scale images with excellent parenchymal detail, and finally to real-time ultrasound

  11. Ultrasound Perfusion Analysis Combining Bolus-Tracking and Burst-Replenishment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřík, Radovan; Nylund, K.; Gilja, O.H.; Mézl, M.; Harabis, V.; Kolář, R.; Standara, M.; Taxt, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 310-319 ISSN 0885-3010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : contrast-enhaced ultrasound * myocardial blood-flow * cerebral perfusion Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.503, year: 2013

  12. A Numerical Analysis of Phononic-Assisted Control of Ultrasound Waves in Acoustofluidic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and streaming has received much attention, since it relies solely on mechanical properties such as particle size and contrast in density and compressibility. We present a theoretical study of phononic-assisted control of ultrasound waves in acoustofluidic devices. We propose the use of phononic crystal...... can be made configurable, by embedding the diffractors, all working at the same excitation frequency but with different resulting diffraction patterns, in exchangeable membranes on top of the device....

  13. Texture Feature Analysis for Different Resolution Level of Kidney Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuddin, Wan Nur Hafsha Wan; Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan

    2017-08-01

    Image feature extraction is a technique to identify the characteristic of the image. The objective of this work is to discover the texture features that best describe a tissue characteristic of a healthy kidney from ultrasound (US) image. Three ultrasound machines that have different specifications are used in order to get a different quality (different resolution) of the image. Initially, the acquired images are pre-processed to de-noise the speckle to ensure the image preserve the pixels in a region of interest (ROI) for further extraction. Gaussian Low- pass Filter is chosen as the filtering method in this work. 150 of enhanced images then are segmented by creating a foreground and background of image where the mask is created to eliminate some unwanted intensity values. Statistical based texture features method is used namely Intensity Histogram (IH), Gray-Level Co-Occurance Matrix (GLCM) and Gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM).This method is depends on the spatial distribution of intensity values or gray levels in the kidney region. By using One-Way ANOVA in SPSS, the result indicated that three features (Contrast, Difference Variance and Inverse Difference Moment Normalized) from GLCM are not statistically significant; this concludes that these three features describe a healthy kidney characteristics regardless of the ultrasound image quality.

  14. Analysis of ultrasound pulse-echo images for characterization of muscle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Sidney; Heckmatt, John Z.

    1996-04-01

    This study aims to extract quantifiable indices characterizing ultrasound propagation and scattering in skeletal muscle, from data acquired using a real-time linear array scanner in a paediatric muscle clinic, in order to establish early diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in young children, as well as to chart the progressive severity of the disease. Approximately 40 patients with gait disorders, aged between 1 and 11 years, were scanned with a real-time linear array ultrasound scanner, at 5 MHz. A control group consisted of approximately 50 boys, in the same age range, with no evidence or history of muscle disease. Results show that ultrasound quantitative methods can provide a tight clustering of normal data, and also provide a basis for charting the degree of change in diseased muscle. The most significant (quantitative) parameters derive from the frequency of the attenuation and the muscle echogenicity. The approach provides a discrimination method that is more sensitive than visual assessment of the corresponding image by even an experienced observer. There are also indications that the need for traumatic muscle biopsy may be obviated in some cases.

  15. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into the body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then gently presses the transducer against ... performed on an infant, a nurse or radiologic technologist may assist with keeping the ... procedure? Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most ...

  16. Trauma Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intravascular pulmonary lymphoma with good response to treatment. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Felizardo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular lymphoma is a very rare form of large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterised by the presence of lymphoma cells in the lumina of small vessels only, particulary in the capillaries. We report a 54 year-old female non-smoker, admitted to hospital for further examination of a four month long clinical condition involving high fever, night sweats, unqualified weight loss and progressive dyspnea. Patient's temperature was 38.5 °C, pulse 100/min and respiratory 22 cycles/min.Patient's haemoglobin was 9.4 g/dL, she had leukocytosis, elevated LDH and arterial blood gas analysis with moderate hypoxaemia (FiO2 1l/m: PaO2-63.6 mm Hg. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse interstitial changes. All the possible causes of unknown origin fever were excluded.Diagnosis was made through lung biopsy and treatment with combined chemotherapy and rituximab was prescribed leading to a 48 hours clinical remission. We present this case to show how difficult this diagnosis can be and how a good response to therapy is possible. Resumo: O linfoma intravascular é uma forma muito rara de linfoma não Hodgkin de células grandes B. Caracteriza-se pela proliferação celular tumoral de linfócitos limitada aos pequenos vasos, particularmente nos capilares. Apresentamos o caso de uma doente de 54 anos, não fumadora, que foi admitida no nosso hospital para investigação de um quadro com quatro meses de evolução de febre, sudorese nocturna, ema-grecimento não quantificado e dispneia progressiva. Ao exame objectivo apresentava-se febril, taquicárdica e polipneica. Analiticamente, destacava-se anemia, leucocitose e LDH elevada. Gasometria arterial - FiO2 1 l/m: PaO2-63,6 mm Hg. A telerradiografia de tórax revelava infiltado intersticial difuso. Foram excluídas todas as causas de febre de origem indeterminada. O diagnóstico foi realizado por biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica e foi prescrita terapêutica citostática combinada e rituximab com boa resposta cl

  18. Retrospective analysis of cytopathology using gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm for thyroid malignant nodules in the ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Ju; Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study evaluated the applicability of computer-aided diagnosis by retrospective analysis of GLCM algorithm based on cytopathological diagnosis of normal and malignant nodules in thyroid ultrasound images. In the experiment, the recognition rate and ROC curve of thyroid malignant nodule were analyzed using 6 parameters of GLCM algorithm. Experimental results showed 97% energy, 93% contrast, 92% correlation, 92% homogeneity, 100% entropy and 100% variance. Statistical analysis showed that the area under the curve of each parameter was more than 0.947 (p = 0 .001) in t he ROC curve, which was s ignificant in the recognition of thyroid malignant nodules. In the GLCM, the cut-off value of each parameter can be used to predict the disease through analysis of quantitative computer-aided diagnosis.

  19. Comparative study of contrast-enhanced ultrasound qualitative and quantitative analysis for identifying benign and malignant breast tumor lumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Gao, Yun-Hua; Li, Ding-Dong; Gao, Yan-Chun; Hou, Ling-Mi; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    To compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) qualitative and quantitative analysis in the identification of breast tumor lumps. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of CEUS for 73 cases of breast tumor lumps were retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate approaches. Logistic regression was applied and ROC curves were drawn for evaluation and comparison. The CEUS qualitative indicator-generated regression equation contained three indicators, namely enhanced homogeneity, diameter line expansion and peak intensity grading, which demonstrated prediction accuracy for benign and malignant breast tumor lumps of 91.8%; the quantitative indicator-generated regression equation only contained one indicator, namely the relative peak intensity, and its prediction accuracy was 61.5%. The corresponding areas under the ROC curve for qualitative and quantitative analyses were 91.3% and 75.7%, respectively, which exhibited a statistically significant difference by the Z test (Pqualitative analysis to identify breast tumor lumps is better than with quantitative analysis.

  20. Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, C C; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    limited data on the volume required to establish a maximal SV before the start of surgery. Therefore, we estimated the occurrence and size of the potential functional intravascular volume deficit in surgical patients. METHODS: Patients scheduled for mastectomy (n=20), open radical prostatectomy (n=20......BACKGROUND: Stroke volume (SV) maximization with a colloid infusion, referred to as individualized goal-directed therapy, improves outcome in high-risk surgery. The fraction of patients who need intravascular volume to establish a maximal SV has, however, not been evaluated, and there are only...... deficit. RESULTS: Forty-two (70%) of the patients needed volume to establish a maximal SV. For the patients needing volume, the required amount was median 200 ml (range 200-600 ml), with no significant difference between the three groups of patients. The required volume was >or=400 ml in nine patients (15...

  1. Newer techniques for intravascular and intraoperative neurointerventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, R.T.; Halbach, V.V.; Hieshima, G.B.; Yang, P.

    1987-01-01

    A videotape demonstrating newer techniques used in intravascular and intraoperative embolization procedures will be presented. The authors discuss the use of some of the newer embolic agents, real-time digital subtraction angiography, roadmapping techniques, and the use of microcatheters and steerable micro guide wires, which has greatly facilitated neurovascullar embolization procedures and enhanced patient safety. A number of actual intraoperative and intravascular cases will be shown demonstrating treatment of vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord, carotid cavernous sinus fistulas, aneurysms and dural arteriovenous malformations. The indications for treatment, patient selection, technical preparation and newer methodologies and approaches to complex vascular lesions of the brain and spinal cord are discussed in detail

  2. Clinical value analysis of routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography in judging ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Mei Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical value of routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography in judging ulcerative colitis. Methods: A total of 60 cases of patients with ulcerative colitis were collected as observation group of research and 60 cases of healthy volunteers were collected as control group of research. Intestinal wall thickness was detected by white light endoscopy, abdominal intestinal ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasonography; TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 contents were detected by Elisa kit; Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry. Results: (1 intestinal wall thickness: intestinal wall thickness of both active UC patients and quiescent UC patients was significantly higher than that of control group, intestinal wall thickness of active UC patients was significantly higher than that of quiescent UC patients and the higher the degree of activity, the higher the intestinal wall thickness; (2 inflammatory mediators: TNF-α and IL-1β contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were higher than those of quiescent UC patients and positively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; IL-4 and IL-10 contents were lower than those of quiescent UC patients and negatively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; (3 T cell contents: Th1 and Th17 cell contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were higher than those of quiescent UC patients and positively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; Th2 and Treg cell contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were lower than those of quiescent UC patients and negatively correlated with intestinal wall thickness. Conclusion: Routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography can accurately determine the severity of ulcerative colitis; measured intestinal wall thickness is closely correlated with the degree of inflammation and abnormal immune response.

  3. Non- invasive in vivo analysis of a murine aortic graft using high resolution ultrasound microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowinska, Zuzanna; Zander, Simone; Zernecke, Alma; Jacobs, Michael; Langer, Stephan; Weber, Christian; Merx, Marc W.; Koeppel, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As yet, murine aortic grafts have merely been monitored histopathologically. The aim of our study was to examine how these grafts can be monitored in vivo and non-invasively by using high-resolution ultrasound microimaging to evaluate function and morphology. A further aim was to prove if this in vivo monitoring can be correlated to immunohistological data that indicates graft integrity. Methods: Murine infrarenal aortic isografts were orthotopically transplanted into 14 female mice (C57BL/6-Background) whereas a group of sham-operated animals (n = 10) served as controls. To assess the graft morphology and hemodynamics, we examined the mice over a post-operative period of 8 weeks with a sophisticated ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visual Sonics). Results: The non-invasive graft monitoring was feasible in all transplanted mice. We could demonstrate a regular post-transplant graft function and morphology, such as anterior/posterior wall displacement and wall thickness. Mild alterations of anterior wall motion dynamics could only be observed at the site of distal graft anastomosis (8 weeks after grafting (transplant vs. sham mice: 0.02 mm ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 mm ± 0.01, p < 0.05). However, the integrity of the entire graft wall could be confirmed by histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Conclusions: With regard to graft patency, function and morphology, high resolution ultrasound microimaging has proven to be a valuable tool for longitudinal, non-invasive, in vivo graft monitoring in this murine aortic transplantation model. Consequently, this experimental animal model provides an excellent basis for molecular and pharmacological studies using genetically engineered mice.

  4. Photoacoustic Image Analysis for Cancer Detection and Building a Novel Ultrasound Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saugata

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging non-invasive soft tissue imaging modality which has the potential to detect tissue abnormality at early stage. Photoacoustic images map the spatially varying optical absorption property of tissue. In multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging, the soft tissue is imaged with different wavelengths, tuned to the absorption peaks of the specific light absorbing tissue constituents or chromophores to obtain images with different contrasts of the same tissue sample. From those images, spatially varying concentration of the chromophores can be recovered. As multiwavelength PA images can provide important physiological information related to function and molecular composition of the tissue, so they can be used for diagnosis of cancer lesions and differentiation of malignant tumors from benign tumors. In this research, a number of parameters have been extracted from multiwavelength 3D PA images of freshly excised human prostate and thyroid specimens, imaged at five different wavelengths. Using marked histology slides as ground truths, region of interests (ROI) corresponding to cancer, benign and normal regions have been identified in the PA images. The extracted parameters belong to different categories namely chromophore concentration, frequency parameters and PA image pixels and they represent different physiological and optical properties of the tissue specimens. Statistical analysis has been performed to test whether the extracted parameters are significantly different between cancer, benign and normal regions. A multidimensional [29 dimensional] feature set, built with the extracted parameters from the 3D PA images, has been divided randomly into training and testing sets. The training set has been used to train support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN) classifiers while the performance of the classifiers in differentiating different tissue pathologies have been determined by the testing dataset. Using the NN

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes ... As the sound waves bounce off internal organs, fluids and tissues, the sensitive receiver in the transducer ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes ... As the sound waves bounce off internal organs, fluids and tissues, the sensitive receiver in the transducer ...

  7. Transvaginal ultrasound

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    ... bleeding and menstrual problems Certain types of infertility Ectopic pregnancy Pelvic pain Transvaginal ultrasound is also used during ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the ... tumors other disorders of the urinary bladder In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... patient consultation. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's ( ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that ... the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is enlarged. Ultrasound ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test ... that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the abdomen, ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more ...

  16. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... tip of the transducer is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A ... both sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... performed to detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine ... tumors other disorders of the urinary bladder In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. After you are positioned on ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is inserted into an opening of the body may produce minimal discomfort. If no biopsy is ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... a more in-depth investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

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    Full Text Available ... such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In ... ask for your child's favorite channel. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image ... based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite channel. top ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown ... I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable ... biopsy is planned. An enema may be taken two to four hours before the ultrasound to clean ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... These exams are frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and ... identify and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries in planes that ... a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be tilted ... you at the conclusion of your examination. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  7. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Thyroid Tests Read more Ultrasound ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... to investigate a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is ... a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically requires insertion of an ultrasound probe into ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, ... the sensitive receiver in the transducer records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is sometimes seen in infections top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... sheath and lubricated before insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... and lubricated with a gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ... detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... to the child prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to ... the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. You may be asked to drink water prior to the examination to fill your bladder. ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  14. Breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as: Cysts, which are, fluid-filled sacs Fibroadenomas , which are, noncancerous solid growths Lipomas, which are, noncancerous fatty lumps that can occur anywhere in the body, including the breasts Breast cancers can also be seen with ultrasound. ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  1. Influencing factors and kinetics analysis on the leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap with ultrasound-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xing, Pengfei; Du, Xinghong; Gao, Shuaibo; Chen, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap was investigated and the optimization of different influencing factors had also been performed. The factors investigated were acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency. The leaching of iron with conventional method at various temperatures was also performed. The results show the maximum iron leaching ratios are 87.4%, 94.5% for 80min-leaching with conventional method and 50min-leaching with ultrasound assistance, respectively. The leaching of waste-scrap with conventional method fits the chemical reaction-controlled model. The leaching with ultrasound assistance fits chemical reaction-controlled model, diffusion-controlled model for the first stage and second stage, respectively. The assistance of ultrasound can greatly improve the iron leaching ratio, accelerate the leaching rate, shorten leaching time and lower the residual iron, comparing with conventional method. The advantages of ultrasound-assisted leaching were also confirmed by the SEM-EDS analysis and elemental analysis of the raw material and leached solid samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute renal failure related to oxaliplatin-induced intravascular hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusakarya, Ayhan; Misra, Srimanta; Haydar, Mazen; Habert, Hélène; Castagne, Vincent; Gumus, Yusuf; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Machover, David

    2010-12-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. Rare cases of renal failure and hemolytic reactions have been reported as separate side effects of oxaliplatin. Here we present a clinical picture of immune-related intravascular hemolysis and acute tubular necrosis in a patient receiving this drug. This case suggests a mechanistic explanation of renal failure in patients treated with oxaliplatin.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions with 22 versus 25 Gauge needles: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Stasi, Elisa; Di Maso, Marianna; Serviddio, Gaetano; Ali Hussein, Mohammed Salah; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2017-10-01

    Robust data in favour of a clear superiority of 22 versus 25 Gauge needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration are still lacking. We aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and safety of these two needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic lesions. A computerized bibliographic search was restricted to randomized controlled trials only. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effects model and expressed in terms of risk ratio and 95% confidence interval. We analysed seven trials with 689 patients and 732 lesions (295 sampled with 22 Gauge needle, 309 with 25 Gauge needle, and 128 with both needles). A non-significant superiority of 25 Gauge in terms of pooled sensitivity (risk ratio: 0.93, 0.91-0.95 versus 0.89, 0.85-0.94 of 22 Gauge needle; p  = 0.13) and no difference in terms of specificity (1.00, 0.98-1.00 in both groups; p  = 0.85) were observed. Sample adequacy was similar between the two devices (risk ratio: 1.03, 0.99-1.06; p  = 0.15). Very few adverse events were observed and did not impact on patient outcomes. Our meta-analysis reveals non-superiority of 25 Gauge over 22 Gauge; hence no definitive recommendations over the use of one particular device can be made.

  4. To analysis and identify various kinds of strong echo signal of ocular-perforating injury by B-scan ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Juan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analysis the diagnostic value of B-scan on various kinds of strong echo signal of ocular-perforating injury.METHODS: Totally 176 patients(176 eyeswith ocular-perforating injury underwent B-scan ultrasound examination. We observed the B-scan imaging findings of the lens, vitreous cavity, eyeball wall and retrobulbar space.RESULTS: All 176 patients(176 eyesunderwent B-scan ultrasound examination had strong echo. Vitreous hemorrhage was found in 146 cases, dislocation of lens in 4 cases, intraocular foreign body in 105 cases, intravitreous bubble in 1 case, retinal detachment in 34 cases, choroidal detachment in 23 cases, posterior scleral rupture in 9 cases. Every patient had two or more signs above, and had strong echo signal. All kinds of strong echo signal of the cases were summarized as follows: thick vitreous hemorrhage; intraocular foreign body; dislocation of the lens; intravitreous bubble.CONCLUSION: Because of anterior chamber hemorrhage, cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, eyelid swelling and noncooperation of patients, we couldn't examine the posterior segment. So B-scan provides a great help to the ophthalmologist. It is very sensitive and has specific images on the detachment of retina, intraocular foreign body, posterior scleral laceration, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment. Complex perforating injury of eyeball often appears some confusing strong echo signals, but B-scan can identify those images. Thus, it is irreplaceable by other examinations.

  5. Intramuscular Perfusion Response in Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): A Quantitative Analysis with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Marion; Heiss, Rafael; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Freiwald, Jürgen; Grim, Casper; Nagel, Armin; Uder, Michael; Wildner, Dane; Hotfiel, Thilo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse intramuscular perfusion response in ultrastructural muscle lesions, by applying contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model. Results of this analysis were compared to high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI T2-weighted sequences. 14 healthy participants were recruited. Average perfusion parameters, represented as Peak enhancement (contrast agent inflow) and wash-in area under curve (WiAUC) of the gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscle (SM) were assessed before (baseline) and 60 h after inducing DOMS by eccentric exercise. Additionally, conventional ultrasound, high-resolution 3T MRI, creatine kinase level, range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint, calf circumference and muscle soreness data were collected. Perfusion quantification revealed a statistically significant increase of intramuscular perfusion, corresponding to an increase in peak enhancement of 129.6% (p=0.0031) and in WiAUC of 115.2% (p=0.0107) in the gastrocnemius muscle at post-intervention. At follow-up, the MRI investigations showed intramuscular oedema for GM in all participants corresponding to a significant rise in T2 signal intensity (p=0.001) and in T2 time value (p=0.005). CEUS seems to be able to detect intramuscular perfusion changes and therefore may contribute to gaining deeper insight into the histopathology, inflammatory reactions and regeneration processes of ultrastructural muscle lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Asian-variant intravascular lymphoma in the African race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Geyer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is an exceptionally rare form of non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL distinguished by the preferential growth of neoplastic cells within blood vessel lumen. Challenging to detect and deemed disseminated at diagnosis, this condition is characterized by a highly aggressive, inconspicuous course with a high mortality rate. We describe the case of a 48 year-old African-American female presenting with a two month history of low-grade fevers and malaise. Laboratory data was notable for anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver function tests, and hematuria. An extensive workup for infectious, rheumatologic and malignant causes was negative. Her symptoms progressed and within two weeks, she was admitted for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Her course was complicated by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and ultimately, care was withdrawn. Autopsy identified widespread CD-20 positive intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with significant hepatosplenic involvement, characteristic of the Asian variant IVLBCL. This case uniquely highlights development of the Asian variant IVLBVL in a previously undescribed race. Identified by its intraluminal vascular growth pattern, IVLBCL generally spares lymphatic channels. Diagnosis and differentiation of this condition from other hematological malignancies via skin, visceral and bone marrow biopsy is imperative as anthracycline-containing chemotherapies may significantly improve clinical outcomes. This article outlines the common presentation, natural course, and treatment options of IVLBCL, along with the histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and chromosomal aberrations common to this condition.

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and massive obstetric hemorrhage. Management dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaim, Lulu A; Mustafa, Mohamed S; Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to reflect on our experience on an optimal management for major postpartum hemorrhage, which would prevent the occurrence and complications of disseminated intravascular coagulation and minimize maternal mortality and morbidity. Ten cases out of the 30,000 of total deliveries of severe obstetric hemorrhage associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation were studied. This study was carried out over a 7 year period, October 1988 through to September 1995, at the Obstetric Unit, King Khalid University Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All of the 10 women received packed red blood cells, 8 had fresh frozen plasma, and 6 received platelet transfusion. The 10 cases developed disseminated intravascular coagulation following medical and surgical management, all women needed hysterectomy, 4 subtotal, 6 total, and 5 women had relaparotomy and pelvic packing. Two had bladder injuries. There was no maternal death. An early resort to hysterectomy when conservative measures fail, will minimize maternal morbidity and mortality. In case of continuous bleeding after hysterectomy, pelvic packing proved to be effective.

  8. Comparison between ultrasound guided technique and digital palpation technique for radial artery cannulation in adult patients: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sulagna; Maitra, Souvik; Baidya, Dalim K

    2018-03-22

    Possible advantages and risks associated with ultrasound guided radial artery cannulation in-comparison to digital palpation guided method in adult patients are not fully known. We have compared ultrasound guided radial artery cannulation with digital palpation technique in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Trials conducted in operating room, emergency department, cardiac catheterization laboratory. PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched (from 1946 to 20th November 2017) to identify prospective randomized controlled trials in adult patients. Two-dimensional ultrasound guided radial artery catheterization versus digital palpation guided radial artery cannulation. Overall cannulation success rate, first attempt success rate, time to cannulation and mean number of attempts to successful cannulation. Odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Data of 1895 patients from 10 studies have been included in this meta- analysis. Overall cannulation success rate was similar between ultrasound guided technique and digital palpation [OR (95% CI) 2.01 (1.00, 4.06); p = 0.05]. Ultrasound guided radial artery cannulation is associated with higher first attempt success rate of radial artery cannulation in comparison to digital palpation [OR (95% CI) 2.76 (186, 4.10); p guided technique with palpation technique. Radial artery cannulation by ultrasound guidance may increase the first attempt success rate but not the overall cannulation success when compared to digital palpation technique. However, results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due presence of heterogeneity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Pressure-Flow Experimental Performance of New Intravascular Blood Pump Designs for Fontan Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopski, Steven G; Fox, Carson S; Riddle, Michelle L; McKenna, Kelli L; Patel, Jay P; Rozolis, John T; Throckmorton, Amy L

    2016-03-01

    An intravascular axial flow pump is being developed as a mechanical cavopulmonary assist device for adolescent and adult patients with dysfunctional Fontan physiology. Coupling computational modeling with experimental evaluation of prototypic designs, this study examined the hydraulic performance of 11 impeller prototypes with blade stagger or twist angles varying from 100 to 600 degrees. A refined range of twisted blade angles between 300 and 400 degrees with 20-degree increments was then selected, and four additional geometries were constructed and hydraulically evaluated. The prototypes met performance expectations and produced 3-31 mm Hg for flow rates of 1-5 L/min for 6000-8000 rpm. A regression analysis was completed with all characteristic coefficients contributing significantly (P designs. The findings of the numerical model for 300-degree twisted case and the experimental results deviated within approximately 20%. In an effort to simplify the impeller geometry, this work advanced the design of this intravascular cavopulmonary assist device closer to preclinical animal testing. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis on Developmental Factors of the Liver Diseases in Ultrasound Diagnosis of Healthcare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Yeon; Jung, Hong Ryang; Lim, Chang Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The study found out developmental factors of the liver diseases in 29, 531 cases of the healthy adults who were diagnosed by using ultrasound at domestic healthcare centers in 6 cities. The results are as follows. Based on the result of the study, the liver diseases diagnosed by using ultrasound was revealed to show 43.1% of prevalence, and the occurrence was significantly higher in male (23.3%) than in female (19.8%). The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the BMI was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in obese group (BMI 25) by recording 44.3%. Smoking contributed to the high prevalence of all liver diseases. Although the fatty liver was the most frequently occurred form of liver diseases by recording the prevalence of 49.1% (22.2% in male, 26.9% in female), the significant difference was found only in female (p 0.05). The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the hypertension was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in hypertension group by recording 67.7%. The prevalence of hepatic diseases related to the diabetes was revealed to show highest prevalence of the fatty liver in diabetes group by recording 66.2%. The high prevalence of all hepatic diseases was related to diabetes mellitus with statistical significance (p 0.05).

  11. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  12. Comparison of longitudinal excursion of a nerve-phantom model using quantitative ultrasound imaging and motion analysis system methods: A convergent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; El Khamlichi, Youssef; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative ultrasound imaging is gaining popularity in research and clinical settings to measure the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves such as their capability to glide in response to body segment movement. Increasing evidence suggests that impaired median nerve longitudinal excursion is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. To date, psychometric properties of longitudinal nerve excursion measurements using quantitative ultrasound imaging have not been extensively investigated. This study investigates the convergent validity of the longitudinal nerve excursion by comparing measures obtained using quantitative ultrasound imaging with those determined with a motion analysis system. A 38-cm long rigid nerve-phantom model was used to assess the longitudinal excursion in a laboratory environment. The nerve-phantom model, immersed in a 20-cm deep container filled with a gelatin-based solution, was moved 20 times using a linear forward and backward motion. Three light-emitting diodes were used to record nerve-phantom excursion with a motion analysis system, while a 5-cm linear transducer allowed simultaneous recording via ultrasound imaging. Both measurement techniques yielded excellent association ( r  = 0.99) and agreement (mean absolute difference between methods = 0.85 mm; mean relative difference between methods = 7.48 %). Small discrepancies were largely found when larger excursions (i.e. > 10 mm) were performed, revealing slight underestimation of the excursion by the ultrasound imaging analysis software. Quantitative ultrasound imaging is an accurate method to assess the longitudinal excursion of an in vitro nerve-phantom model and appears relevant for future research protocols investigating the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  17. A Numerical Analysis of Phononic-Assisted Control of Ultrasound Waves in Acoustofluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Bruus, Henrik

    The ability to precisely sort individual microparticles/cells/droplets in suspension is important for various chemical and biological applications such as cancer cell detection, drug screening etc. The past decade, label- free particle handling of particle suspensions by ultrasonic radiation forces and streaming has received much attention, since it relies solely on mechanical properties such as particle size and contrast in density and compressibility. We present a theoretical study of phononic-assisted control of ultrasound waves in acoustofluidic devices. We propose the use of phononic crystal diffractors, which can be introduced in acoustofluidic structures. These diffractors can be applied in the design of efficient resonant cavities, directional sound waves for new types of particle sorting methods, or acoustically controlled deterministic lateral displacement. The PnC-diffractor-based devices can be made configurable, by embedding the diffractors, all working at the same excitation frequency but with different resulting diffraction patterns, in exchangeable membranes on top of the device.

  18. Optimization of a Breast Mass Classifier for Computer-Aided Ultrasound Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrè, M. P.; Galperin, M.; Contro, G.; Omid, N.; Olson, L.

    The goal of this research was to optimize performance of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic system to identify, analyze and compare breast masses based on parameters measured in the ultrasound image. We compared case-based reasoning using Relative Similarity to an Artificial Neural Network in order to implement an objective form of the ACR BIRADS scheme to describe and score breast masses. The image feature set was reduced to nine including margins, shape, echogenicity, echo texture, orientation and posterior acoustic attenuation. Both classifiers performed well with a high ROC AZ although RS performed significantly better than the ANN in Specificity, PPV and achieved the goal of very high Specificity without a reduction in Sensitivity. Compared to a preliminary version of the RS classifier this optimized version of RS has significantly higher AZ (0.96 vs. 0.93)

  19. ΤND: a thyroid nodule detection system for analysis of ultrasound images and videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Eystratios G; Maroulis, Dimitris; Iakovidis, Dimitris K

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system prototype, named TND (Thyroid Nodule Detector), for the detection of nodular tissue in ultrasound (US) thyroid images and videos acquired during thyroid US examinations. The proposed system incorporates an original methodology that involves a novel algorithm for automatic definition of the boundaries of the thyroid gland, and a novel approach for the extraction of noise resilient image features effectively representing the textural and the echogenic properties of the thyroid tissue. Through extensive experimental evaluation on real thyroid US data, its accuracy in thyroid nodule detection has been estimated to exceed 95%. These results attest to the feasibility of the clinical application of TND, for the provision of a second more objective opinion to the radiologists by exploiting image evidences.

  20. Reproducibility of Image Analysis for Breast Ultrasound Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, M.; Andre, M. P.; Barker, C. H.; Olson, L. K.; O'Boyle, M.; Richman, K.; Mantrawadi, L.

    We employ a Case-Based Reasoning approach to analyze breast masses in ultrasound and to classify them for level of suspicion for cancer following the ACR BI-RADS® protocol. Our computer-aided imaging system (Breast Companion®, BC) measures numeric features of the mass, determines Relative Similarity (RS) between the mass of interest and images in a database of masses with known findings and outcomes, then retrieves and displays the images of the most similar known masses instantaneously for the radiologist to review during interpretation. This study tested BC for reproducibility of performance in comparison to that of three radiologists under a variety of operating conditions. The long-term goal is to standardize diagnosis, reduce radiologist variability and reduce false positives.

  1. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  2. Ultrasound detection of abdominal lymph nodes in chronic liver diseases. A retrospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soresi, M.; Bonfissuto, G.; Magliarisi, C.; Riili, A.; Terranova, A.; Di Giovanni, G.; Bascone, F.; Carroccio, A.; Tripi, S.; Montalto, G. E-mail: gmontal@unipa.it

    2003-05-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of lymph nodes of the hepato-duodenal ligament in a group of patients with chronic liver disease of various aetiologies and to investigate what clinical, aetiological and laboratory data may lead to their appearance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand and three patients (554 men, 449 women) were studied, including 557 with chronic hepatitis and 446 with liver cirrhosis. The presence of lymph nodes near the trunk of the portal vein, hepatic artery, celiac axis, superior mesenteric vein and pancreas head was investigated using ultrasound. RESULTS: Lymph nodes were detected in 394 out of the 1003 study patients (39.3%); their number ranged from one to four, with a diameter ranging between 0.8 and 4 cm. The highest prevalence was in the subgroup of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (87.5%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV; 42%), patients with HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV; 41.3%), autoimmune hepatitis (40%), and HBV alone (21.2%). In the alcoholic and idiopathic subgroups prevalence was 9.5%, while in the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and haemochromatosis subgroups it was 0%. HCV RNA was present in 97 out of 103 lymph node-positive patients and in 141 out of 168 lymph node-negative HCV-negative patients (p<0.003). Lymphadenopathy frequency increased as the liver disease worsened ({chi}{sup 2} MH=74.3; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of a retrospective study, our data indicate a high prevalence of lymphadenopathy in liver disease patients; ultrasound evidence of lymph nodes of the hepato-duodenal ligament in a given liver disease may most likely suggest a HCV or an autoimmune aetiology and a more severe histological picture.

  3. A Machine-Learning Algorithm Toward Color Analysis for Chronic Liver Disease Classification, Employing Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to employ a computer-aided diagnosis system that classifies chronic liver disease (CLD) using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging, with a stiffness value-clustering and machine-learning algorithm. A clinical data set of 126 patients (56 healthy controls, 70 with CLD) was analyzed. First, an RGB-to-stiffness inverse mapping technique was employed. A five-cluster segmentation was then performed associating corresponding different-color regions with certain stiffness value ranges acquired from the SWE manufacturer-provided color bar. Subsequently, 35 features (7 for each cluster), indicative of physical characteristics existing within the SWE image, were extracted. A stepwise regression analysis toward feature reduction was used to derive a reduced feature subset that was fed into the support vector machine classification algorithm to classify CLD from healthy cases. The highest accuracy in classification of healthy to CLD subject discrimination from the support vector machine model was 87.3% with sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 81.2%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.87 (confidence interval: 0.77-0.92). A machine-learning algorithm that quantifies color information in terms of stiffness values from SWE images and discriminates CLD from healthy cases is introduced. New objective parameters and criteria for CLD diagnosis employing SWE images provided by the present study can be considered an important step toward color-based interpretation, and could assist radiologists' diagnostic performance on a daily basis after being installed in a PC and employed retrospectively, immediately after the examination. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Gafchromic registered film in the dosimetry of an intravascular brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haijun; Roa, D. Eduardo; Yue Ning; D'Errico, Francesco; Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    The methodology of brachytherapy source dosimetry with Gafchromic registered MD 55-2 film (ISP Technologies, Inc.) is examined with an emphasis on the nonlinearity of the optical density-dose relation within the dynamic dose range, the radial distance-dependent measurement uncertainty, and the format of data presentation. The specific source chosen for this study was a Checkmate trade mark sign (Cordis Corporation) intravascular brachytherapy system. The two-dimensional dose distribution around the source was characterized by a comprehensive analysis of measurement uncertainties. A comparative analysis of the dosimetric data from the vendor and from the scientific literature showed a substantial consistency of the information available for the Checkmate trade mark sign source. Our two-dimensional dosimetric data for the Checkmate trade mark sign source trains is presented in the form of measured along and away dose tables

  5. Is preoperative MRCP necessary for patients with gallstones? An analysis of the factors related to missed diagnosis of choledocholithiasis by preoperative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Yang, Zhengpeng; Li, Zhituo; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2015-11-14

    The diagnosis of associated choledocholithiasis prior to cholecystectomy for patients with gallstones is important for the surgical decision and treatment efficacy. However, whether ultrasound is sufficient for preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis remains controversial, with different opinions on whether routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is needed to detect the possible presence of common bile duct (CBD) stones. In this study, a total of 413 patients with gallstones who were admitted to the Department of General Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University in China for a period of 3 years and underwent both ultrasound and MRCP examinations were retrospectively analysed. After reviewing and screening these cases according to the literature, 11 indicators including gender, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, γ-aminotransferase, CBD diameter, and concurrent acute cholecystitis were selected and comparatively analysed. Among the 413 patients, a total of 109 cases showed concurrent gallstones and choledocholithiasis, accounting for 26.39 % of all cases. Among them, 60 cases of choledocholithiasis were revealed by ultrasound examination, accounting for 55.05 %, while 49 cases of choledocholithiasis were not detected by ultrasound examination but were confirmed by MRCP instead (the missed diagnosis rate of ultrasound was 44.95 %). The results of statistical analysis suggested that alanine aminotransferase, acute cholecystitis, and CBD diameter were the three most relevant factors for missed diagnosis by ultrasound. The accuracy of preoperative ultrasonography for the diagnosis of associated CBD stones for patients with gallstones is not high. However, elevated alanine aminotransferase, concurrent acute cholecystitis, and CBD diameter were identified as key factors that may affect the accuracy of the diagnosis. Thus

  6. Surgical Workflow Analysis: Ideal Application of Navigated Linear Array Ultrasound in Low-Grade Glioma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothes, Thomas Ernst; Siekmann, Max; König, Ralph Werner; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Background  Intraoperative imaging in low-grade glioma (LGG) surgery can facilitate residual tumor control and improve surgical outcome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ideal application and typical interactions of intraoperative MRI (iMRI), conventional low-frequency intraoperative ultrasound (cioUS), and high-frequency linear array intraoperative ultrasound (lioUS) to optimize surgical workflow. Methods  Prospectively, we included 11 patients with an LGG. Typical procedural workflow in the iMRI suite was recorded with a compatible software. We took notes of duration, frequency of application, the surgeon's evaluation of image quality, and the respective benefit of lioUS (15 MHz), cioUS (7 MHz), and iMRI (1.5 T). With the help of the workflow software, we meticulously analyzed ∼ 55 hours of surgery. Results  During the interventions, lioUS was used more often (76.3%) than cioUS (23.7%) and showed a better mean image quality (1 = best to 6 = worst) of 2.08 versus 3.26 with cioUS. The benefit of the lioUS application was rated with an average of 2.27, whereas the cioUS probe only reached a mean value of 3.83. The most common application of lioUS was resection control (42.6%); cioUS was used mainly for orientation (63.2%). Overall, lioUS was used more often and was rated better for both the purposes just described regarding image quality and benefit. Estimated residual tumor based on lioUS alone was lower than the final residual tumor detected with iMRI (7.5% versus 14.5%). The latter technique was rated as the best imaging modality for resection control in all cases followed by lioUS. Conclusion  We provide proof of principle for workflow assessment in cranial neurosurgery. Although iMRI remains the imaging method of choice, lioUS has shown to be beneficial in a combined setup. Evaluation of lioUS was significantly superior to cioUS in most indications except for subcortical lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions with 22 versus 25 Gauge needles: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Elisa; Di Maso, Marianna; Serviddio, Gaetano; Ali Hussein, Mohammed Salah; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Robust data in favour of a clear superiority of 22 versus 25 Gauge needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration are still lacking. Objective We aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and safety of these two needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic lesions. Methods A computerized bibliographic search was restricted to randomized controlled trials only. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effects model and expressed in terms of risk ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results We analysed seven trials with 689 patients and 732 lesions (295 sampled with 22 Gauge needle, 309 with 25 Gauge needle, and 128 with both needles). A non-significant superiority of 25 Gauge in terms of pooled sensitivity (risk ratio: 0.93, 0.91–0.95 versus 0.89, 0.85–0.94 of 22 Gauge needle; p = 0.13) and no difference in terms of specificity (1.00, 0.98–1.00 in both groups; p = 0.85) were observed. Sample adequacy was similar between the two devices (risk ratio: 1.03, 0.99–1.06; p = 0.15). Very few adverse events were observed and did not impact on patient outcomes. Conclusion Our meta-analysis reveals non-superiority of 25 Gauge over 22 Gauge; hence no definitive recommendations over the use of one particular device can be made. PMID:29026598

  8. Finite element modeling and intravascular ultrasound elastography of vulnerable plaques: parameter variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldewsing, R.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Schaar, J.A.; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND GOAL: More than 60% of all myocardial infarction is caused by rupture of a vulnerable plaque. A vulnerable plaque can be described as a large, soft lipid pool covered by a thin fibrous cap. Plaque material composition, geometry, and inflammation caused by infiltration of macrophages

  9. Intravascular ultrasound-guided stenting of left main stem dissection after medtronic corevalve implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTranscatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) implies the introduction, positioning, and deployment of a stented bioprosthesis in the (calcified) native aortic valve. We report an at first glance uneventful TAVI with the Medtronic Corevalve System, which was followed by transient

  10. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Using Ultrasound Decorrelation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arif, Muhammad; Groen, Jan; Boevé, Egbert R.; de Korte, Chris L.; Idzenga, Tim; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We developed a noninvasive method to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction. An ultrasound based decorrelation method was applied in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. In 60 patients ultrasound data were acquired transperineally while they were voiding while sitting. Each patient also

  11. Histamine release and endothelial leakage from an intravascular contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raininko, R.

    1981-04-01

    The endothelial injury produced by meglumine iodamide was studied in the rat aorta. A mixture of blood and contrast medium was more toxic to the endothelium than the pure contrast agent. This difference disappeared after premedication with antihistamine, which did not affect the injury produced by the pure contrast agent. Meglumine iodamide appears to cause a release of histamine from blood but not from the aortic endothelium nor from surrounding tissues in amounts demonstrable by this method. Leucocytes are a source of histamine after intravascular contrast medium administration.

  12. Retinal and choroidal intravascular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Qiang; Cordtz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    on longitudinal scans and a figure-of-eight configuration on cross-sectional scans. Intravascular reflectivity decreased with increasingly oblique angles of observation and was absent when blood flow was parallel to the line of sight. The high blood flow in the choroidal vessels in healthy subjects and the low......-OCT profile of the blood column in retinal vessels with normal blood flow. Both structure and total reflectivity faded when blood flow was lower or higher than normal or at oblique angles to the line of sight. In conclusion, SD-OCT scans of the vessels in the posterior pole of the eye may assist the clinical...

  13. Why Have So Many Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Devices Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John L; Rice, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    Secondary to the inherent limitations of both point-of-care and central laboratory glucose technologies, continuous glucose measurement has recently enjoyed a high level of investment. Because of the perceived advantages by some of measuring in the intravascular space compared to the subcutaneous tissue, a number of technologies have been developed. In this review, we evaluate nine systems that have shown promise, although only one of these has been cleared for sale in the United States. The detection methodology, regulatory status, technical issues, and company circumstance surrounding each technology are examined. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special preparation. You may be asked to drink water prior to the examination to fill your bladder. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and organs in the lower abdomen and pelvis. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  7. Hip Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child and make the time ... back or side. Almost all of the ultrasound studies of infants and ... studied. The gel will help the transducer make secure contact with the body ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please help us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in which needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. ... not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  14. Miniaturized fiber-optic ultrasound probes for endoscopic tissue analysis by micro-opto-mechanical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannacci, E; Belsito, L; Mancarella, F; Ferri, M; Veronese, G P; Roncaglia, A; Biagi, E

    2014-06-01

    A new Micro-Opto-Mechanical System (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of optoacoustic probes on optical fiber is presented. The technology is based on the thermoelastic emission of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films for generation and on extrinsic polymer Fabry-Perot acousto-optical transducers for detection, both fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the ultrasonic transducers on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the fabrication process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the MOMS devices, demonstrating fiber-optic emitters and detectors with minimum diameter around 350 and 250 μm respectively. A thorough functional testing of the ultrasound emitters mounted on 200 and 600 μm diameter optical fibers is presented, in which the fiber-optic emitter with a diameter of 200 μm shows generated acoustic pressures with peak-to-peak value up to 2.8 MPa with rather flat emission spectra extended beyond 150 MHz. The possibility to use the presented optoacoustic sources in conjunction with the fiber-optic acousto-optical detectors within a minimally invasive probe is also demonstrated by successfully measuring the ultrasonic echo reflected from a rigid surface immersed in water with various concentration of scatterers. The resulting spectra highlight the possibility to discriminate the effects due to frequency selective attenuation in a very wide range of frequencies within a biological medium using the presented fiber-optic probes.

  15. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method

  16. A comparative analysis of multi-pulse techniques in contrast-enhanced ultrasound medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, M; Palmese, M; Sciallero, C; Trucco, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the important issues in the field of ultrasound medical imaging using contrast agents is the development of techniques able to separate the response of the contrast media from that of the biological tissues. In the literature, one can find various solutions involving the use of multiple transmitted signals and the combination of related echoes. However, the quality of these techniques may be reduced due to some undesired effects that are seldom considered, despite the fact that they are always present in real systems. These effects are the signal distortions introduced by the hardware equipment, the thermal noise in the electronic circuitry, and body motion between successive pulses. In this paper we propose a simulation tool that will allow the calculation of the backscattered echo from a population of contrast agents immersed in a biological tissue, considering all the mentioned effects. With this tool, an assessment of the comparative robustness of three well-known multi-pulse techniques has been carried out under realistic working conditions and the performance of the three techniques has been evaluated in terms of contrast-to-tissue ratio and signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that the undesired effects have a strong impact on these techniques and that there are notable differences in their robustness. Finally, some suggestions on the choice of the particular technique to be applied are provided on the basis of the specific work conditions.

  17. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.

  18. An improved method and data analysis for ultrasound acoustic emissions and xylem vulnerability in conifer wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkerstorfer, Silviya V; Rosner, Sabine; Hietz, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The vulnerability of the xylem to cavitation is an important trait in plant drought resistance and has been quantified by several methods. We present a modified method for the simultaneous measurement of cavitations, recorded as ultrasound acoustic emissions (UAEs), and the water potential, measured with a thermocouple psychrometer, in small samples of conifer wood. Analyzing the amplitude of the individual signals showed that a first phase, during which the mean amplitude increased, was followed by a second phase with distinctly lower signal amplitudes. We provide a method to separate the two groups of signals and show that for many samples plausible vulnerability curves require rejecting late low-energy UAEs. These very likely do not result from cavitations. This method was used to analyze the differences between juvenile wood, and early and late mature wood in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Juvenile earlywood was more resistant to cavitation than mature earlywood or latewood, which we relate to the tracheid anatomy of the samples. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  19. How does the blood leave the brain? A systematic ultrasound analysis of cerebral venous drainage patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J.; Muenster, Thomas von; Rademacher, Joerg; Valdueza, Jose M.; Klingebiel, Randolf

    2004-01-01

    The internal jugular veins are considered to be the main pathways of cerebral blood drainage. However, angiographic and anatomical studies show a wide anatomical variability and varying degrees of jugular and non-jugular venous drainage. The study systematically analyses the types and prevalence of human cerebral venous outflow patterns by ultrasound and MRI. Fifty healthy volunteers (21 females; 29 males; mean age 27±7 years) were studied by color-coded duplex sonography. Venous blood volume flow was measured in both internal jugular and vertebral veins in the supine position. Furthermore, the global arterial cerebral blood volume flow was calculated as the sum of volume flows in both internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Three types of venous drainage patterns were defined: a total jugular volume flow of more than 2/3 (type 1), between 1/3 and 2/3 (type 2) and less than 1/3 (type 3) of the global arterial blood flow. 2D TOF MR-venography was performed exemplarily in one subject with type-1 and in two subjects with type-3 drainage. Type-1 drainage was present in 36 subjects (72%), type 2 in 11 subjects (22%) and type 3 in 3 subjects (6%). In the majority of subjects in our study population, the internal jugular veins were indeed the main drainage vessels in the supine body position. However, a predominantly non-jugular drainage pattern was found in approximately 6% of subjects. (orig.)

  20. Method for aortic wall strain measurement with three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking and fitted finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatolios, Konstantinos; Wittek, Andreas; Nwe, Thet Htar; Bihari, Peter; Shelke, Amit; Josef, Dennis; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Geks, Josef; Maisch, Bernhard; Blase, Christopher; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian

    2013-11-01

    Aortic wall strains are indicators of biomechanical changes of the aorta due to aging or progressing pathologies such as aortic aneurysm. We investigated the potential of time-resolved three-dimensional ultrasonography coupled with speckle-tracking algorithms and finite element analysis as a novel method for noninvasive in vivo assessment of aortic wall strain. Three-dimensional volume datasets of 6 subjects without cardiovascular risk factors and 2 abdominal aortic aneurysms were acquired with a commercial real time three-dimensional echocardiography system. Longitudinal and circumferential strains were computed offline with high spatial resolution using a customized commercial speckle-tracking software and finite element analysis. Indices for spatial heterogeneity and systolic dyssynchrony were determined for healthy abdominal aortas and abdominal aneurysms. All examined aortic wall segments exhibited considerable heterogenous in-plane strain distributions. Higher spatial resolution of strain imaging resulted in the detection of significantly higher local peak strains (p ≤ 0.01). In comparison with healthy abdominal aortas, aneurysms showed reduced mean strains and increased spatial heterogeneity and more pronounced temporal dyssynchrony as well as delayed systole. Three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking enables the analysis of spatially highly resolved strain fields of the aortic wall and offers the potential to detect local aortic wall motion deformations and abnormalities. These data allow the definition of new indices by which the different biomechanical properties of healthy aortas and aortic aneurysms can be characterized. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.