WorldWideScience

Sample records for intravascular radiation therapy

  1. Radianttrademark Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-01

    RADIANTtrademark is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid β-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid β-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO 4 ), Rhenium-188 is primarily a β-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the β-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Championtrademark over-the-wire, and TNTtrademark rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors

  2. Brachytherapy optimal planning with application to intravascular radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Mourtada, Firas A.; Taylor, Russell H.

    1999-01-01

    . Dose rate calculations are based on the sosimetry formulation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 43. We apply the technique to optimal planning for intravascular brachytherapy of intimal hyperplasia using ultrasound data and 192Ir seeds. The planning includes...... determination of an optimal dwell-time sequence for a train of seeds that deliver ratiation while stepping through the vessel lesion. The results illustrate the advantage of this strategy over the common approach of delivering radiation by positioning a single train of seeds along the whole lesion....

  3. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  4. Brachytherapy optimal planning with application to intravascular radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Mourtada, Firas A.; Taylor, Russell H.

    1999-01-01

    determination of an optimal dwell-time sequence for a train of seeds that deliver ratiation while stepping through the vessel lesion. The results illustrate the advantage of this strategy over the common approach of delivering radiation by positioning a single train of seeds along the whole lesion....

  5. Intravascular placement of metallic coils as lung tumor markers for CyberKnife stereotactic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Kutlay; Dokdok, A. Murat; Karadeniz, Okatay; Ceylan, Cemile; Engin, Kayihan [Anadolu Medical Center, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    To present our experience with placing endovascular coils in pulmonary arteries used as a fiducial marker for CyberKnife therapy and to describe the technical details and complications of the procedure. Between June 2005 and September 2013, 163 patients with primary or secondary lung malignancies, referred for fiducial placement for stereotactic radiosurgery, were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age, 70 years) with a history of pneumonectomy (n = 3), lobectomy (n = 3) or with severe cardiopulmonary co-morbidity (n = 8) underwent coil (fiducial marker) placement. Pushable or detachable platinum micro coils (n = 49) 2-3 mm in size were inserted through coaxial microcatheters into a small distal pulmonary artery in the vicinity of the tumor under biplane angiography/fluoroscopy guidance. Forty nine coils with a median number of 3 coils per tumor were placed with a mean tumor-coil distance of 2.7 cm. Forty three (87.7%) of 49 coils were successfully used as fiducial markers. Two coils could not be used due to a larger tumor-coil distance (> 50 mm). Four coils were in an acceptable position but their non-coiling shape precluded tumor tracking for CyberKnife treatment. No major complications needing further medication other than nominal therapy, hospitalization more than one night or permanent adverse sequale were observed. Endovascular placement of coil as a fiducial marker is safe and feasible during CyberKnife therapy, and might be an option for the patients in which percutaneous transthoracic fiducial placement might be risky.

  6. Intravascular placement of metallic coils as lung tumor markers for CyberKnife stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, Kutlay; Dokdok, A. Murat; Karadeniz, Okatay; Ceylan, Cemile; Engin, Kayihan

    2015-01-01

    To present our experience with placing endovascular coils in pulmonary arteries used as a fiducial marker for CyberKnife therapy and to describe the technical details and complications of the procedure. Between June 2005 and September 2013, 163 patients with primary or secondary lung malignancies, referred for fiducial placement for stereotactic radiosurgery, were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age, 70 years) with a history of pneumonectomy (n = 3), lobectomy (n = 3) or with severe cardiopulmonary co-morbidity (n = 8) underwent coil (fiducial marker) placement. Pushable or detachable platinum micro coils (n = 49) 2-3 mm in size were inserted through coaxial microcatheters into a small distal pulmonary artery in the vicinity of the tumor under biplane angiography/fluoroscopy guidance. Forty nine coils with a median number of 3 coils per tumor were placed with a mean tumor-coil distance of 2.7 cm. Forty three (87.7%) of 49 coils were successfully used as fiducial markers. Two coils could not be used due to a larger tumor-coil distance (> 50 mm). Four coils were in an acceptable position but their non-coiling shape precluded tumor tracking for CyberKnife treatment. No major complications needing further medication other than nominal therapy, hospitalization more than one night or permanent adverse sequale were observed. Endovascular placement of coil as a fiducial marker is safe and feasible during CyberKnife therapy, and might be an option for the patients in which percutaneous transthoracic fiducial placement might be risky.

  7. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  8. Development of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources for intravascular irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, H; Iwamoto, S; Iwata, K; Kawauchi, Y; Nagata, Y; Sorita, T; Suzuki, K

    2003-01-01

    Intravascular brachytherapy is a novel therapy for preventing the restenosis of coronary artery by use of low-dose irradiation. JAERI and Kyoto University have been developing sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources by the cooperative research project entitled as 'The research on safety and effectiveness of the intravascular brachytherapy for preventing restenosis of the coronary artery disease' since 1998. The radiation source was introduced into the stenosis through a catheter (a guide-tube to insert directly into vascular) to irradiate the diseased part. Ten sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir seed sources (phi 0.4 mm x 2.5 mm) were positioned between nylon spacers (phi 0.3 mm x 1.0 mm) in a flexible covering tube and the tube was plugged with a core-wire; the tube was shrunk to fix the inside materials and the size is 0.46 mm in diameter and 3 m in length. The physically optimal design was determined to insert the radiation source easily into vascular and to get the dose uniformity in the diseased part. The production me...

  9. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... material placed in the body near cancer cells ( internal radiation therapy , also called brachytherapy ). Systemic radiation therapy uses radioactive ... material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, more commonly called brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses ...

  11. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features on ... should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. Causes External radiation therapy uses high-powered x- ...

  12. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kill any cancer cells that remain. Lifetime Dose Limits There is a limit to the amount of radiation an area of ... total dose of radiation more quickly or to limit damage to healthy cells. Different ways of delivering ...

  13. Intravascular CNS lymphoma: Successful therapy using high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebir Sied

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravascular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma limited to the CNS (cIVL is a very rare malignant disorder characterized by a selective accumulation of neoplastic lymphocytes (usually B cells within the lumen of CNS blood vessels but not in the brain parenchyma. In the past, treatment of cIVL with anthracycline-based regimens was unsatisfactory with very short survival times. In the case of cIVL presented here, high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy according to the Bonn protocol plus rituximab therapy was successful and led to a complete clinical and MRI remission which is ongoing 29 months after diagnosis.

  14. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  15. Radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomottogoo, G.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation therapy experienced at the hospital are classified into two sections:palliative and radically. A radically therapy can be done before or after surgery. Therapy after surgery is done when the results of the surgery have certain limits. The radiation therapy is accomplished within 2-3 weeks and 6 weeks at latest. A conclusion:1.To improving and increasing of radically radiation therapy method is necessary in the present time. 2.Monitoring, management and supervision capacity of the cancer radiation therapy for the nearest and future results should be strengthened

  16. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Low-Level Laser Therapy Along With Intravascular Laser in Deep Pressure Ulcer Resistant to Conventional Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemikhoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pressure ulcer is a common and troublesome complication in patients with spinal cord injury (SPI. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of chronic pressure ulcer in a patient with SPI using low-level laser therapy (LLLT. Case Presentation The patient was a 45-year-old male with T8 complete paraplegia; he had developed severe pressure ulcer. The authors used LLLT as a complementary treatment. They used 980 nm, continuous 6 J/cm2 for margins and 655 nm, continuous 1.8 J/cm2 for bed of the ulcer, along with intravascular laser therapy. After 24 sessions of LLLT and z-plasty surgery, the ulcer healed completely. Conclusions LLLT is effective in tissue regeneration and increasing blood flow; this gives faster healing process of the wounds and faster cell proliferation. This treatment may be effective even in deep pressure ulcers.

  18. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  19. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ability ...

  20. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive drugs ... intravenous). This type of treatment is called systemic radiation therapy because the medicine goes to the entire body. ...

  1. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  2. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  3. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  4. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  5. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes funny ... melanoma.org Skin Cancer Foundation www.skincancer.org Radiation Therapy Answers www.rtanswers.org LEARNING ABOUT CLINICAL TRIALS ...

  6. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Paliwal, Bhudatt; Tewatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are ma...

  7. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  8. [Cardiac effects of radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohinen, Suvi; Turpeinen, Anu; Skyttä, Tanja; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Because of increased life-expentancy cancer patients having undergone radiation therapy nowadays live longer, and late-appearing adverse effects are therefore playing a more significant role. Radiation therapy given to the chest is known to approximately double the risk of heart disease, the cumulative total radiation dose being the most important risk-increasing factor. The most significant adverse effects appear only years after the treatment. The mortality from late manifestations reduces the total benefit of radiation therapy. Patients with radiation therapy due to a cancer of the left breast or Hodgkin's lymphoma are particularly susceptible to cardiac effects. A safe radiation dose is not known.

  9. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  10. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  11. Technical advances in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sause, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in radiation therapy. Many of these advances can be applied in most radiation therapy departments without expensive improvements in equipment. Changes in radiation fractionation, chemotherapeutic sensitization, intraoperative radiation, and interstitial implants can be performed with experience and improved physician training in most medium-sized departments. Advances that require investments in expensive equipment such as particle radiation and hyperthermia will need to be evaluated at designated treatment centers. 106 references

  12. [Radiation therapy for malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shumei; Konishi, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, with consideration to minimize harmful damages to health tissues. About 30% of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may be internal or external. In brachytheraphy as the internal radiation therapy the radioisotope is implanted into or near the tumor by tubes as the container. And it is often used for patients with the tongue cancer. External radiation, the type most often used, comes from a machine outside the body. It is usually used for shrinking tumors with bony invasions such as gingival cancer and improving the pain in patients with bony metastasis. For the primary bone tumor the radiation therapy is not always used because the radiosensitivity of the almost primary bone tumor is low.

  13. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  14. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Delivery of Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy by Intravascular Limb Infusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, Alisha M; Flotte, Terence R

    2015-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) can be delivered to the skeletal muscle of the limb (pelvic or thoracic) by means of regional intravascular delivery. This review summarizes the evolution of this technique to deliver rAAV either via the arterial blood supply or via the peripheral venous circulation. The focus of this review is on applications in large animal models, including preclinical studies. Based on this overview of past research, we aim to inform the design of preclinical and clinical studies.

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: Fatal outcome following strontium-89 therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, C.; McKenzie, R.; Coupland, D.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    A patient with metastatic prostate cancer was found to have low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He had significant bone pain despite external-beam radiotherapy and was given {sup 89}Sr with subsequent thrombocytopenia and epistaxis. The patient died from generalized hemorrhage 36 days postinjection. Although it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between {sup 89}Sr and DIC, practitioners should be alert to complications associated with the primary disorder which might occur at a time to raise concern about the intervention. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurements of radiation beam characteristics and do other safety tests on a regular basis. Therapeutic medical physicists have doctorates or master's degrees and have completed four years of college, two to four years of graduate school and typically one to two years of clinical ...

  18. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  19. Basic physics of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selman, J.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following chapter headings: simple mathematics gradiation therapy; matter and energy; the nature of radiation;reactions between radiation and matter; x-ray production and control; high-energy therapy units and particle accelerators; quantity of x rays and γ rays; x-ray quality; dosage in x-ray and γ-ray therapy; therapy planning; radioactivity and nuclear physics; implant therapy with radium, radon, and artificial radionuclides; surface therapy with β particles; medical use of radionuclides; radiobiology; radiotherapy with heavy particles; and protection in radiotherapy-health physics

  20. Radiation therapy in palliative care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Hitoshi; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2005-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a valuable treatment for palliation of local symptoms with consistently high response rates in the relief and control of bone pain, neurological symptom, obstructive symptoms, and tumor hemorrhage. Over than 80% of patients who developed bone metastasis and superior vena cava syndrome obtained symptom relief by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also well established as an effective treatment for brain metastasis, improving symptoms and preventing progressive neurological deficits, and recently stereotactic irradiation had became a alternative treatment of surgery for small metastatic brain tumors. Both radiation therapy and surgery are effective in the initial treatment of malignant spinal cord compression syndrome, and no advantages of surgery over radiation therapy has been demonstrated in published series when patients have a previously conformed diagnosis of malignant disease and no evidence of vertebral collapse. The outcome of treatment depends primarily upon the speed of diagnosis and neurological status at initiation of treatment. It is very important to start radiation therapy before patient become non-ambulant. Low irradiation dose and short treatment period of palliative radiation therapy can minimize disruption and acute morbidity for the patients with advanced cancer with enabling control of symptoms and palliative radiation therapy is applicable to the patient even in poor general condition. (author)

  1. Optimization of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsubo, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy, dose optimization is to give adequate dose uniformly over target volume and minimize the dose to normal and adjacent critical organs. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze dose distribution in detail. This paper presents a method for quantitatively assessing treatment planning by analysis of dose distribution. For this purpose, several parameters were introduced, such as D T, min (minimum target absorbed dose), NUF (nonuniformity factor), volume rate of damaged lung and spinal cord, R T/T (ratio of target volume to treatment volume), LE (local efficiency), integral dose, etc. And some criteria were made using these parameters, and were applied to evaluate various plans in external beam radiation therapy for lung and esophagus cancer. In these parameters, NUF was especially useful to obtain three-dimensional dose information of target volume, and value of NUF was in agreement with the information provided by dose volume histogram. AP-PA parallel opposed fields technique was inferior in D T,min and NUF. In lung cancer, there was no spinal cord injury in oblique parallel opposed fields technique, and this technique is particularly useful when target volume is in posterior. In these two techniques, R T/T was small and hot spots were frequently observed. R T/T was largest in oblique wedged two-fields technique, but this technique was inferior in D T, min and NUF. About D T, min and NUF, four fields technique was the best, but in this technique spinal cord complication often occurred in case that target volume was in the middle. In moving beam technique (360deg rotation or arc), integral dose is large, and the more target volume is in posterior, the more often spinal cord complication occurs. In esophageal cancer, three fields technique was the best to avoid spinal cord injury. It seems that this method is very useful for optimization in radiation treatment planning. (author)

  2. Radiation therapy in the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littman, P.; D'Angio, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used in the management of children with cancer, but neonatal neoplasms are rare. Newborns represent 1.5% of the children with malignant diseases in the Tumor Registry at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia over the last 30 years. Thus, occasionally the pediatrics radiation therapist must consider treating the very young infant. The specific radiation effects on growth and development must be weighed in reaching a therapeutic decision. All children are vulnerable to the late effects of radiation therapy, but the neonates may be more susceptible because of the immaturity of important organs such as the brain, lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In general, radiation therapy, should be avoided during the first several weeks of life because of the potential increased sensitivity of the liver and kidneys during that period. If radiation therapy is used at all during infancy, the benefits must be weighed against the possibility of significant late effects. Increasing knowledge of pediatric neoplasms has shown that some tumors (such as mesoblastic nephroma) require no treatment except for surgical excision; and other tumors, such as Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, may require very little treatment. In those tumors that require radiation therapy, the use of chemotherapy may allow reduction of the radiation dose. Furthermore, alterations of time-dose-fractionation schemes and careful attention to tumor volume with the use of special techniques, such as ''shrinking fields,'' may decrease the late adverse effects of treatment

  3. Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with some form of gynecologic cancer this year. Cancers of the uterus and cervix are most common gynecologic cancers treated ... detected or removed by surgery. Radiation therapy kills ... of the uterus and cervix, called a hysterectomy. The surgeon may ...

  4. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, J; Mintzer, D; Warhol, M J

    1994-10-01

    Studies of the growing population of long-term survivors of cancer have led to increased recognition of the neoplastic complications of therapy. The causes of secondary malignancies are probably multifactorial, but radiation therapy and chemotherapy have certainly been implicated in the development of posttherapy neoplasia. A case of pleural mesothelioma after successful radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease is described with a review of radiation-associated mesotheliomas reported in the literature. In Hodgkin's disease, patients may receive radiation, chemotherapy, or combined treatment; the most common secondary malignancy is acute nonlymphocytic leukemia while sarcomas are the second most common solid tumors. Although mesothelioma is an uncommon sarcoma, its occurrence has been documented numerous times after exposure to diagnostic or therapeutic radiation.

  5. Intravascular blood coagulation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkevich, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of activation of intravascular blood coagulation (JVBC) at different stages after irradiation, are considered. JVBC peculiarities (disseminated intravascular syndrome (DIV) or thrombo hemorrhagic syndrome) are investigated. Literature on alterations which take place in the organism under effect of ionizing irradiation is analyzed. This analysis proves the characteristic features of thrombinogenesis activation and development of DIV syndrome not only in the early post-radiation period, but in the middle of radiation disease, as well. It is also shown that ionizing radiation activizes the hemocoagulation process and causes IVBC in the case of both local and general irradiation [ru

  6. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of the breast - partial radiation therapy; Partial external beam radiation - breast; Intensity-modulated radiation therapy - breast cancer; IMRT - breast cancer WBRT; Adjuvant partial breast - IMRT; APBI - IMRT; ...

  7. Dosimetric calculus in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho; Stabin, Michael Gregory [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment). Known as Intravascular Brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several radionuclides. Two stent sources employing {sup 32}P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the radionuclides and source geometries are discussed and the dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients. (author)

  8. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  9. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong

    1989-01-01

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients

  10. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliwal Bhudatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed.

  11. Radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y. J.; Cho, J. G.; Ahn, S. D.; Choi, E. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, O. C.; Chang, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the results of radiation therapy and prognostic factors influencing the results in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From October 1989 to May 1996, 56 patients were treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Department of Radiation Oncology. According to stage, patients were distributed as follows: stage I (2), II (13), III (11), IV (30). Twenty-eight patients were treated with radiation therapy and weekly CDDP. After external beam radiotherapy of 60Gy, 46 patients received boost dose with intracavitary radiation and 9 patients with 3D conformal therapy. One patient received boost dose with 2 dimensional photon beam therapy. The tumor dose ranged from 69.4Gy to 86.2Gy with median dose of 74.4Gy. The follow-up period ranged from 5 months to 92 months with a median of 34 months. Forty-seven patients achieved complete response and 8 patients showed partial response. One patient showed minimal response. Patterns of failure were as follows: locoregional recurrence (8) and distant metastasis (18). Among these patients, 2 patients failed locoregionally and distantly, The sites of distant metastasis were bone (8), lung (8) and liver (4). Five years survival rate was 67.2% and 5 years disease-free survival rate was 53.6%. KPS (P=0.005) and response of radiation therapy (P=0.0001) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. KPS (P=0.02) and response of radiation therapy (P=0.005) were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. This retrospective study showed that distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of relapse in nasopharyngeal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or weekly CDDP did not influence the distant metastasis-free survival. For advanced T stage, 3D conformal therapy provided an improved dose coverage compared to ICR. But further follow-up was needed in patients with 3D conformal therapy to assess the efficacy of this therapy. Development of techniques of radiation therapy to improve locoregional

  12. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K. [Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India). Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiodiagnosis and Haematology

    1998-11-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a `pseudotumour` or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 14 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a 'pseudotumour' or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy; Calculos dosimetricos em braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing {sup 32} P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy and herpes zoster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo; Moriya, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between herpes zoster and radiation therapy was discussed and the combination of herpes zoster with malignancies was observed. Reported were five cases of herpes zoster (four breast and one lung carcinoma) out of 317 cases of malignancies which were irradiated in our clinic and include considerations about the etiologic relationship. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation dosimetry for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Hee

    2001-01-01

    The radionuclide therapy is a protocol for tumor control by administering radionuclides as the cytotoxic agents. Radionuclides concentrated at the site of cancerous lesion are expected to kill the cancerous cells with minimal injury to the normal tissue. The efficacy of every radionuclide treatment can be evaluated by examining the toxicity to the lesion differentiated from that to the normal tissue. Radiation dosimerty is the procedure of quantitating the energy absorbed by target volumes of interest. Dosimetric information plays an indicator of the expected radiation damage and thus the therapeutic efficacy. This paper summarizes the dosimetric aspects in radionuclide therapy in terms of radionuclides of use, radionuclides of use, radiation dosimetry methodology and considerations for each treatment in practical use

  17. Radiation therapy - questions to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about radiation therapy ... National Cancer Institute website. Radiation therapy and you: support for people with cancer. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/radiationttherapy.pdf . Updated May 2007. Accessed December ...

  18. Radiation Therapy and Hearing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Jackson, Andrew; Eisbruch, Avraham; Pan, Charlie C.; Flickinger, John C.; Antonelli, Patrick; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-01-01

    A review of literature on the development of sensorineural hearing loss after high-dose radiation therapy for head-and-neck tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma is presented. Because of the small volume of the cochlea a dose-volume analysis is not feasible. Instead, the current literature on the effect of the mean dose received by the cochlea and other treatment- and patient-related factors on outcome are evaluated. Based on the data, a specific threshold dose to cochlea for sensorineural hearing loss cannot be determined; therefore, dose-prescription limits are suggested. A standard for evaluating radiation therapy-associated ototoxicity as well as a detailed approach for scoring toxicity is presented.

  19. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  20. Radiation therapy of gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of three parts: General Principles; Clinical Applications; and Special Topics. Some of the papers are: Introduction to Basic Radiobiology; Staging and Work-up Procedures for Patients with Gynecological Cancers; Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Cancer of the Cervix; Role of Interstitial Implantation in Gynecological Cancer; Role of Radiocolloids in Gynecological Cancer; Radiosensitizers and Protectors; and Management of Lymphoma Associated with Pregnancy

  1. Treatment charts in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia, M.; De Blas, R.; Monfa, C.; Bonet, A.; Rubio, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiotherapy treatment chart (dose prescription, set-up parameters, dose computation and daily dose recording form) represents an important working tool in radiotherapy, not only as a compilation of data, but also as a method of communication among physicians, physicists and technicians. In addition to administrative and medical data, physical and simulation data that are indispensable for the daily accurate reproduction of the therapy procedures should be recorded, as well as accurate daily entries of the fractional and cumulative absorbed doses. Moreover, any radiation therapy quality assurance programme must rely on the accessibility of the radiation treatment history and a correct record of the therapy protocol in order to be verifiable. We have analysed the treatment charts of 92 European Departments of Radiation Oncology, with the aim of identifying their salient characteristics and data recorded. The study shows strong differences among the charts analysed, not only in the amount of information recorded, but also in the kind of data and concepts used. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig

  2. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  3. Late complications of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Norie [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  4. Late complications of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Norie

    1998-01-01

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  5. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  6. Development of local radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed

  7. Applications of Machine Learning for Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamoto, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been highly advanced as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) by making advantage of image engineering technologies. Recently, novel frameworks based on image engineering technologies as well as machine learning technologies have been studied for sophisticating the radiation therapy. In this review paper, the author introduces several researches of applications of machine learning for radiation therapy. For examples, a method to determine the threshold values for standardized uptake value (SUV) for estimation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in positron emission tomography (PET) images, an approach to estimate the multileaf collimator (MLC) position errors between treatment plans and radiation delivery time, and prediction frameworks for esophageal stenosis and radiation pneumonitis risk after radiation therapy are described. Finally, the author introduces seven issues that one should consider when applying machine learning models to radiation therapy.

  8. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  9. Radiation therapy of the uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Cervical and endometrial cancer of the uterus, and ovarian cancer are three major malignant diseases in gynecology in Japan. These diagnosis and therapy are almost established. In uterine cervical cancer, radiation therapy and surgery of these diseases are two main treatment methods, and both treatment results are almost the same. And radiation therapy is also used as postoperative treatment to patients with high risk factors. In endometrial cancer, surgery is main therapy. Radiation therapy is undergone only to medically inoperable cases preoperative radiation is widely carried out in Europe and America, but almost none in Japan. Postoperative irradiation is adapted to the cases with high risk factors. But recent advance of chemotherapy changes the importance of radiation therapy in such patients. I review the literatures of radiation therapy of uterine cervical cancer and of endometrial cancer. (author)

  10. Low-Level Laser Therapy Along With Intravascular Laser in Deep Pressure Ulcer Resistant to Conventional Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemikhoo; Rahbar; Akrami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pressure ulcer is a common and troublesome complication in patients with spinal cord injury (SPI). The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of chronic pressure ulcer in a patient with SPI using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Case Presentation The patient was a 45-year-old male with T8 complete paraplegia; he had developed severe pressure ulcer. The authors used LLLT as a complementary treatment. ...

  11. Radiation therapy system and its accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuzuru

    1990-01-01

    Three prerequisites for increasing accuracy of radiation therapy are considered. Firstly, every irradiation must be performed without errors according to irradiation conditions. Secondly, accurate quality assurance of equipments for radiation, diagnosis, radiation planning, and dosimetry must be maintained. Thirdly, new radiation planning system and treatment equipments with the introduction of computers are required. The purpose of this report is to discuss accuracy of radiation therapy, focusing on (I) the current status of radiation therapy system developed at the National Institute of Radiation Sciences (NIRS) in Japan and on (II) basic items and quality assurance for increasing accuracy of radiation therapy. Fast neutron therapy has been started with the NIRS cyclotron collimator in November 1975. The advent of X-ray CT has contributed to radiation therapy planning, in that it visualizes the inside structure of the patient stereoscopically. An optical positioning apparatus with CT scanner and a dedicated CT simulator have been developed, allowing the realization of more accurate conformation radiotherapy. Error or uncertainty poses a problem in radiation therapy and treatment system. The ICRU Report 24 describes that standard errors for biological changes in tolerance radiation doses should be within ±5%. The AAPM Report 13 describes that uncertainty for dosimetry with phantoms or dose distribution computation must be less than 2.5% and 4.2%, respectively. It is recommended that quality assurance program be introduced to decrease errors in radiation therapy. (N.K.)

  12. DNA repair related to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.

    1979-01-01

    The DNA excision repair capacity of peripheral human lymphocytes after radiation therapy has been analyzed. Different forms of application of the radiation during the therapy have been taken into account. No inhibition of repair was found if cells were allowed a certain amount of accomodation to radiation, either by using lower doses or longer application times. (G.G.)

  13. Radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRue, S.M.; Gillette, S.M.; Poulson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, radiotherapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors in animals has been limited. However, the availability of computerized tomography and other imaging techniques to aid in determining the extent of tumor, an increase in knowledge of dose tolerance of regional organs, the availability of isocentrically mounted megavoltage machines, and the willingness of patients to pursue more aggressive treatment is making radiation therapy of tumors in these regions far more common. Tumor remission has been reported after radiation therapy of thymomas. Radiation therapy has been used to treat mediastinal lymphoma refractory to chemotherapy, and may be beneficial as part of the initial treatment regimen for this disease. Chemodectomas are responsive to radiation therapy in human patients, and favorable response has also been reported in dogs. Although primary lung tumors in dogs are rare, in some cases radiation therapy could be a useful primary or adjunctive therapy. Lung is the dose-limiting organ in the thorax. Bladder and urethral tumors in dogs have been treated using intraoperative and external-beam radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. These tumors are difficult to control locally with surgery alone, although the optimal method of combining treatment modalities has not been established. Local control of malignant perianal tumors is also difficult to achieve with surgery alone, and radiation therapy should be used. Intraoperative radiation therapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy has been used for the management of metastatic carcinoma to the sublumbar lymph nodes. Tolerance of retroperitoneal tissues may be decreased by disease or surgical manipulation

  14. Radiation therapy for operable rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, G.V.; Semikoz, N.G.; Bashejev, V.Kh.; Borota, O.V.; Bondarenko, M.V.; Kiyashko, O.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a review of the literature on modern tendencies of radiation therapy application to treatment of operable rectal cancer. Many randomized control studies compared the efficacy of combination of radiation therapy (pre-operative or post-operative) and surgery versus surgery only demonstrating various results. Meta-analysis of the data on efficacy of combination of radiation therapy and standard surgery revealed 22 randomized control studies (14 with pre-operative radiation therapy and 8 with post-operative radiation therapy) with total number of 8507 patients (Colorectal Cancer Collaborative Group, 2000). The use of combination treatment reduced the number of isolated locoregional relapses both with pre-operative (22.5 - 12.5 %; p < 0.00001) and post-operative radiation therapy (25.8 - 16.7 %; p - 0.00001). The influence on total survival was not significant (62 % vs. 63 %; p - 0.06).

  15. Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Radiation Therapy and You: Support for People With Cancer Radiation ... Copy This booklet covers: Questions and Answers About Radiation Therapy. Answers common questions, such as what radiation therapy ...

  16. Radiation therapy of peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, G.; Recht, A.

    1986-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of peritoneal mesotheliomas remains ill-defined despite its association with the few long-term survivals reported for this disease. The rationale for local therapy is clear as the disease most often is confined to the peritoneal cavity at the time of initial diagnosis and remains there for much of the subsequent course. Effective local treatment of this intra-abdominal disease would likely improve survival. The absence of randomized studies has made analysis of the various treatments of the disease and the few reported success difficult. Nonetheless, scrutiny of the available data may offer insights and guide future clinical trials, as well as the clinician responsible for the treatment of current patients with peritoneal mesothelioma. The radiotherapeutic approach to oncology stresses anatomic considerations in an attempt to understand the patterns of spread of the primary tumor. The observed location and bulk of disease by clinical examination, radiologic study, surgical exploration, and autopsy suggest mechanisms of metastases (direct extension, lymphatic or hematogenous). This dictates the administration of radiation that best achieves a successful outcome

  17. Missed Radiation Therapy and Cancer Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who miss radiation therapy sessions during cancer treatment have an increased risk of their disease returning, even if they eventually complete their course of radiation treatment, according to a new study.

  18. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combined with the components of adequate RT: localis- ing systems (computed tomography (CT) scanners and simulators), planning equipment, radiation machines for both teletherapy and brachytherapy, skilled therapy radiographers, physicists and radiation therapists. A survey was undertaken to determine the adequacy.

  19. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  20. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  1. Outcome of radiation therapy for patients with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Furuta, Masaya; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Kato, Shingo; Nozaki, Miwako; Saito, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Hideo

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The efficacy of radiation therapy for Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, which is characterized by a huge hemangioma with consumption coagulopathy, remains controversial. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the treatment outcome of radiation therapy for seven neonates with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Methods and Materials: During the past 25 years we have seen seven children with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome who were treated with radiation therapy. Their ages ranged from 1 day to 5 months, with a median age of 1 month. The hemangioma was located in the extremities in four of seven children. Tumor sizes ranged from 70 cm to more than 150 cm in greatest diameter. Initial platelet counts were all less than 40,000/mm 3 except for one patient. In principle, the total dose applied to the hemangioma was 8-10 Gy, with a daily dose of 1 Gy five times a week. Results: Four of seven hemangiomas responded dramatically, with a concomitant rise of the platelet count to radiation therapy. Although the remaining three hemangiomas, all of which were ill circumscribed by widespread overlying shiny, dusky purple skin, became less tense during radiation therapy. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was not improved, but they have responded favorably to two or three courses of radiation therapy with an extended radiation field by 1.5 years of age. As a result, all seven patients are now surviving with no evidence of hemangioma or hematological abnormalities. Shortening of the extremity was observed in three patients who received multiple courses of radiation therapy. Conclusions: Radiation therapy appears to be one of the effective treatment options for Kasabach-Merritt syndrome despite the risk of growth delay and malignancy

  2. Radiation therapy sources, equipment and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The safety code for Telegamma Therapy Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-1) and safety code for Brachytherapy Sources, Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-3) were issued by AERB in 1986 and 1988 respectively. These codes specified mandatory requirements for radiation therapy facilities, covering the entire spectrum of operations ranging from the setting up of a facility to its ultimate decommissioning, including procedures to be followed during emergency situations. The codes also stipulated requirements of personnel and their responsibilities. With the advent of new techniques and equipment such as 3D-conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, treatment planning system, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, portal imaging, integrated brachytherapy and endovascular brachytherapy during the last two decades, AERB desires that these codes be revised and merged into a single code titled Radiation Therapy Sources, Equipment, and Installations

  3. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-05-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia.

  4. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia

  5. The carcinogenicity of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarello, D.J.; Roses, D.F.; Newall, J.; Barish, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Ionizing radiation as used for therapy for cancer is probably weakly carcinogenic at worst. The probability that cancers will be induced at a distance from the treatment volume is so small that it can only be inferred from experiences with large populations exposed to much higher radiation doses. The risk of cancer in and adjacent to the treatment volume also appears to be small, especially in adults. Intensive radiotherapy or radiotherapy of children 20 to 30 years ago appears to have induced secondary cancers in about 3 to 4 per cent of those treated, but modern practice has every expectation of reducing this incidence. No precise risk factor can be offered, but it seems likely that less than 3 to 4 per cent is a reasonable projection. The reason for the low carcinogenicity in the treatment volume probably lies in the fact that the irradiation dose is high and many cells are killed rather than transformed. The frequency of the induction of radiogenic cancer adjacent to or near the treatment volume is expected to vary according to the tissue exposed. It is not estimated to exceed a few per cent in the worst instances (for example, breast and thyroid gland) and is much less than 1 per cent in most tissues

  6. Targeted drugs in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.; Hennequin, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2004-01-01

    New drugs aiming at the development of targeted therapies have been assayed in combination with ionizing radiation over the past few years. The rationale of this concept comes from the fact that the cytotoxic potential of targeted drugs is limited, thus requiring concomitant association with a cytotoxic agent for the eradication of tumor cells. Conversely a low level of cumulative toxicity is expected from targeted drugs. Most targeted drugs act through inhibition of post-translational modifications of proteins, such as dimerization of growth factor receptors, prenylation reactions, or phosphorylation of tyrosine or serine-threonine residues. Many systems involving the proteasome, neo-angiogenesis promoters, TGF-β, cyclooxygenase or the transcription factor NF-κB, are currently under investigation in hopes they will allow a control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. A few drugs have demonstrated an antitumor potential in particular phenotypes. In most instances, however, radiation-drug interactions proved to be strictly additive in terms of cell growth inhibition or induced cell death. Strong potentiation of the response to radiotherapy is expected to require interaction with DNA repair mechanisms. (authors)

  7. Job satisfaction among radiation therapy educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swafford, Larry G; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    Job satisfaction is one of the most consistent variables related to employee retention and is especially relevant considering the shortage of radiation therapists and radiation therapy educators in the United States. To investigate job satisfaction levels among radiation therapy educators certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and employed in programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. The long form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was mailed to 158 radiation therapy educators to measure job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction and subscales were calculated based on MSQ methodology. A total of 90 usable surveys were returned for a 56.9% response rate. With a "general satisfaction" score of 69.64, radiation therapy educators ranked in the lowest 25th percentile of the nondisabled norm scale for job satisfaction. Respondents reported higher degrees of job satisfaction on the moral values, social service and achievement subscales. Lower job satisfaction levels were associated with the company policies and practices, advancement and compensation subscales. Radiation therapy educators report low job satisfaction. Educational institutions must tailor recruitment and retention efforts to better reflect the positive aspects of being a radiation therapy educator. Furthermore, improving retention and recruitment efforts might help offset the current shortages of radiation therapy educators and, ultimately, clinical radiation therapists.

  8. Nonsurgical treatment for cancer using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The number of people who are dying from cancer has been increasing in association with population aging. Radiation therapy is now one of the three major cancer treatment methods, along with surgery and chemotherapy. People used to consider radiation therapy only as a ''noninvasive cancer treatment''; however, with the ceaseless effort by medical experts and corporations, different radiation therapy types and techniques including the latest technical advances have come out one after another, and the improvements in radiation therapies have provided treatments that are not only less traumatizing to patients but also as effective and therapeutic as surgery in certain body regions. The importance of radiation therapy has become and will become even greater in the society with more elderly cancer patients who do not have the physical strength to undergo surgery. In this article, the history of radiation therapy, rapidly developed high-precision radiation therapy techniques, and unsolved issues are discussed, and then, ''MHI vero4DRT'', which is the high-precision image-guided radiation therapy equipment developed for solving such issues, is introduced. (author)

  9. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  10. Low molecular weight heparin attenuates multiple organ failure in a murine model of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Sjoukje H.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Buurman, Wim A.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; ten Cate, Hugo; Spek, C. Arnold

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial sepsis causes widespread vascular inflammation that frequently leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although intravascular coagulation contributes to organ failure, it is often debated whether anticoagulant therapy produces any beneficial effects in patients

  11. nano-particles in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billotey, Claire; Bourhis, Jean; Levy, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    After a recall of the history of radiation therapy this article outlines that the presence of a high electronic density material within a tumour can artificially and locally increase the radiation absorption. It outlines the benefit of the elaboration of nano-particles from such a material for the case of external radiation therapy (increase of material density and bioavailability of nano-particles) where nano-particles can even be introduced by intravenous injection. It describes the various possibility of using nano-particles in the case of internal radiation therapy or Curie therapy. It allows a much less invasive process, the possibility of direct injection into a tumour or a cavity, and the possibility of an increase of the dose received by cells. Other topics are briefly evoked: subcellular targeting by high atomic number nano-particles, and the radiation therapy approach by Nanobiotix

  12. Internal radiation dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Lim, Sang Moo

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been continued for treatment of incurable diseases for past decades. Relevant evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide therapy in important to predict treatment output and essential for making treatment planning to prevent unexpected radiation toxicity. Many scientists in the field related with nuclear medicine have made effort to evolve concept and technique for internal radiation dosimetry. In this review, basic concept of internal radiation dosimetry if described and recent progress in method for dosimetry is introduced

  13. Chemotherapy and molecular target therapy combined with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been established as standard treatment approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer and so on through randomized clinical trials. However, radiation-related morbidity such as acute toxicity also increased as treatment intensity has increased. In underlining mechanism for enhancement of normal tissue reaction in chemo-radiation therapy, chemotherapy enhanced radiosensitivity of normal tissues in addition to cancer cells. Molecular target-based drugs combined with radiation therapy have been expected as promising approach that makes it possible to achieve cancer-specific enhancement of radiosensitivity, and clinical trials using combined modalities have been performed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In order to obtain maximum radiotherapeutic gain, a detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying the interaction between radiation and Molecular target-based drugs is indispensable. Among molecular target-based drugs, inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its signal transduction pathways have been vigorously investigated, and mechanisms regarding the radiosensitizing effect have been getting clear. In addition, the results of randomized clinical trials demonstrated that radiation therapy combined with cetuximab resulted in improvement of overall and disease-specific survival rate compared with radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. In this review, clinical usefulness of chemo-radiation therapy and potential molecular targets for potentiation of radiation-induced cell killing are summarized. (author)

  14. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  15. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT

  16. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose A.G.; Leiva, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic mediastinal irradiation can induce heart disease with variable degree of cardiac engagement. Heart disease manifestations depend on the grade of involvement of the different cardiac structures. During the first two years following irradiation, pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion is the most common manifestation of toxicity related to radiation therapy. Later on, after a latency period of five to ten years, a constrictive pericarditis may develop. Other type of late cardiac toxicities due to irradiation are restrictive cardiomyopathy, multiple valvular disease, coronary artery disease and different atrioventricular conduction disturbances. The therapeutic approach to this kind of heart disease has to be focused on its progressive course and in the possibility of a global involvement of all the cardiac structures. Pericardiectomy is strongly recommended for recurrent pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Cardiac surgery for myocardial revascularization or valvular disease can be performed with variable results; the presence of myocardial fibrosis can significantly affect perioperative management and long-term results. Cardiac transplantation is a promissory option for those patients with end-stage cardiac failure. Immunosuppressive regimens are not associated with recurrence of malignancy. (author) [es

  18. Extramammary Paget's disease: role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, M.; Back, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Extra mammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an uncommon premalignant skin condition that has been traditionally managed with surgery. A report of long-standing Paget's disease with transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma definitively managed with radiation therapy is presented. A review of cases of extramammary Paget's disease treated with radiation therapy is discussed. The use of radiation therapy should be considered in selected cases, as these studies demonstrate acceptable rates of local control when used as an adjunct to surgery, or as a definitive treatment modality. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Antiatherosclerotic effects of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome: insights from Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) display diffuse coronary atheroma instability and heightened risk of early and late recurrent coronary events. We compared the long-term antiatherosclerotic efficacy of high-intensity statins in patients with ACS when compared with stable disease. Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25). Long-term high-intensity statin therapy caused greater plaque regression and comparable major adverse cardiovascular events rates in

  20. Radiation therapy in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, M.; Santini, A.; Mara, C.

    2004-01-01

    Elderly patients, or those individuals over 65 or 70 depending on the different authors, represent the majority of cancer patients who treated with radiation therapy (RT), however there are very few publications that we provide information needed to evaluate the use of RT in the treatment elders regarding: indication of dose, tissue tolerance, toxicity and association with other therapeutic modalities. In the treatment process must take into account RT radiobiology Clinical applied to each patient and is more relevant in the elderly in which often are comorbid conditions and functional limitations normal tissues increases with age and disease coexisting vascular and connective influencing RT treatment. Chronological age does not correlate with the biological age for tolerance normal tissue, however frequently refers to healthy tissue in the elderly are less tolerant than healthy tissue RT adults young but no data in the literature to support it and perhaps those claims probably based on the presence of comorbid conditions or diseases associated or previous surgeries that influence the risk of tissue damage healthy. Studies conducted by the EORTC not show differences in toxicity acute and late age-related. Elderly patients tolerate RT like younger patients with comparable side effects. In the case of concurrent chronic diseases should take into account a possible modification of the dose and volume irradiated to prevent the risk develop permanent damage or sector body lest un irradiated able to compensate for the loss of function of the irradiated tissue; but we should always note that the dose reduction while reducing the risk of complications also decreases the chance of cure

  1. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank ... Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) ...

  2. Preoperative breast radiation therapy: Indications and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightowlers, S V; Boersma, L J; Fourquet, A

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative breast radiation therapy (RT) is not a new concept, but older studies failed to change practice. More recently, there has been interest in revisiting preoperative RT using modern techniques. This current perspective discusses the indications, summarises the published literature...

  3. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim

    2014-01-01

    on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy...... optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than...... (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG...

  4. Pediatric radiation therapy. A Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Nagata, Yasushi; Hirokawa, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    A national survey on the current status of pediatric radiation therapy was performed in October 2004. We sent questionnaires to 638 radiotherapy facilities in Japan (except for Kansai area) and 245 responses were analyzed. According to the database of committee of Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO), the number of pediatric patients who received radiation therapy during 2003 in Japan was 1,101. The most frequent pediatric malignancy was brain tumor, followed by leukemia and lymphoma. The total effort of radiation therapy for children was two to six times larger than that for adult patients. An additional fee seems to be necessary for the highly technical and laborious radiation therapy required for children. (author)

  5. Effect of radiation therapy against intracranial hemangiopericytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Shozaburo; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro; Yoshioka, Susumu; Kochi, Masato; Ushio, Yukitaka; Nakahara, Tadashi; Kishida, Katsuaki.

    1992-01-01

    Seven cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma were studied retrospectively to investigate the efficacy of radiation therapy. Tumor response evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was obvious after 20-30 Gy irradiation. The total reduction rate was 80-90% and continued as long as 5-7 months after treatment. In five patients receiving radiation therapy before radical removal, the tumors were easily removed without massive hemorrhage. Histological inspection of specimens after irradiation showed a significant disappearance of tumor cells. Pyknosis frequently occurred in endothelial cells, and proliferating vessels with hyalinoid degeneration were also seen. Reticulin fibers between tumor cells were fewer, split, or absent. Preoperative radiation therapy is useful in the treatment of hemangiopericytoma involving considerable surgical risk. Postoperative radiation therapy should be given even if removal is complete. (author)

  6. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim

    2015-01-01

    , either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.......Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment...

  7. Care of the patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasko, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    External radiation therapy, or teletherapy, is the use of ionizing radiation to destroy cancer cells. Clinical use of ionizing radiation as treatment for cancer began with the discovery of x-rays in 1895, the identification of natural radioactivity (radium) in 1896, and the first reported cure of cancer, a basal cell epithelioma, induced by radiation in 1899. Initially, radiation was administered as a single large dose and produced severe, life-threatening side effects. The basis for the use of ionizing radiation in daily increments for a period of weeks was provided by Regaud in 1922; ten years later, Coutard clinically developed the method of dose fractionation, which remains in use today. Although the use of ionizing radiation as a treatment is over eighty years old, only in recent years have advancements in its clinical application been based on research related to the biologic effect of radiation on human cells. To effectively care for the patient prior to, during, and at the completion of external radiation therapy, the nurse must know the physical and biologic basis of external radiation therapy and its clinical application.

  8. Care of the patient receiving radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasko, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    External radiation therapy, or teletherapy, is the use of ionizing radiation to destroy cancer cells. Clinical use of ionizing radiation as treatment for cancer began with the discovery of x-rays in 1895, the identification of natural radioactivity (radium) in 1896, and the first reported cure of cancer, a basal cell epithelioma, induced by radiation in 1899. Initially, radiation was administered as a single large dose and produced severe, life-threatening side effects. The basis for the use of ionizing radiation in daily increments for a period of weeks was provided by Regaud in 1922; ten years later, Coutard clinically developed the method of dose fractionation, which remains in use today. Although the use of ionizing radiation as a treatment is over eighty years old, only in recent years have advancements in its clinical application been based on research related to the biologic effect of radiation on human cells. To effectively care for the patient prior to, during, and at the completion of external radiation therapy, the nurse must know the physical and biologic basis of external radiation therapy and its clinical application

  9. Nursing care update: Internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Internal radiation therapy has been used in treating gynecological cancers for over 100 years. A variety of radioactive sources are currently used alone and in combination with other cancer treatments. Nurses need to be able to provide safe, comprehensive care to patients receiving internal radiation therapy while using precautions to keep the risks of exposure to a minimum. This article discusses current trends and issues related to such treatment for gynecological cancers.20 references

  10. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  11. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  12. Evolution of radiation therapy: technology of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.; Mishra, Shagun

    2013-01-01

    The three well established arms of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The management of cancer is multidisciplinary; Radiation Oncologists along with Surgical Oncologists and Medical Oncologists are responsible for cancer therapeutics. They all work in close collaboration with Pathologists and Radiologists for cancer diagnosis and staging and rely on Oncology Nurses, Physiotherapists, Occupational Therapists, Nutritionists and Social Workers for optimal treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients. Therefore cancer management is a team work for getting the best results. Radiation therapy is one of the most effective methods of treating cancer

  13. Protective prostheses during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, T.S.; Flaxman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

  14. Radiation Complications Following Breast Conserving Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima; Takegawa; Yasuda; Makimoto; Matsuzaki; Kashihara; Ueno; Sasa; Morimoto; Nishitani

    1998-10-25

    BACKGROUND: Breast conserving therapy is being established as a standard therapeutic procedure for early breast cancer in Japan. However, the indications of radiotherapy and a standardized therapeutic procedure have not been established yet. In this study, complications following radiotherapy were evaluated in patients who had previously undergone breast conserving therapy at Tokushima University Hospital. METHODS From October 1989 to March 1996, 60 women with stage I or II breast cancer underwent radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, and all patients were followed-up for a median of 27 months. Radiation morbidity scoring of the breast and adjacent organs was performed using the toxity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and European Organization for Research andTreatment of Cancer (EORTC). RESULTS: Only 1 patient developed local recurrence, and no distant metastasisor death was observed. The cause of recurrence in 1 case was considered to be due to extended intraductal component. Although transient dermal reaction was induced by irradiation of the breast, no side effects that may cause cosmetic problems were found. No serious radiation complications were found in the lungs, ribs, heart or other adjacent organs. CONCLUSION: The adverse reactions caused by irradiation does not reduce the merit of combined use of radiation therapy in breast conserving therapy, and therefore, are not the hesitation factor in application of radiotherapy.

  15. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Akio; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Taniguchi, Shuji; Sakai, Kazuaki

    2000-01-01

    The results of radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors were evaluated in terms of pain relief, improvement of neurological impairment, and survival. Between 1986 and 1995, 52 symptomatic patients with metastatic spinal tumors treated with radiation therapy were evaluated. The patients all received irradiation of megavoltage energy. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in terms of pain relief and improvement of neurological impairment. Pain relief was observed in 29 (61.7%) of 47 patients with pain. Therapy was effective for 17 (70.8%) of 24 patients without neurological impairment, and efficacy was detected in 12 (52.2%) of 23 patients with neurological impairment. Improvement of neurological symptoms was obtained in seven (25.0%) of 28 patients with neurological impairment. Radiation therapy was effective for pain relief in patients with metastatic spinal tumors. In patients with neurological impairment, less pain relief was observed than in those without impairment. Improvement of neurological impairment was restricted, but radiation therapy was thought to be effective in some cases in the early stage of neurological deterioration. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors contraindicated for surgery was considered effective for improvement of patients' activities of daily living. (author)

  16. Evaluation of {sup 90}Y-DTPA and {sup 90}Y-DOTA for potential application in intra-vascular radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Mukherjee, Archana; Sarma, H.D.; Das, Tapas; Pillai, M.R.A.; Venkatesh, Meera. E-mail: meerav@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2002-09-01

    {sup 90}Y-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid ({sup 90}Y-DOTA) and {sup 90}Y-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 90}Y-DTPA) complexes were studied for possible use in intra-vascular radionuclide therapy (IVRNT). {sup 90}Y was obtained from a {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generator based on supported liquid membrane technique. The {sup 90}Y-DOTA and {sup 90}Y-DTPA complexes were prepared under optimised conditions. Bio-distribution of the complexes in Swiss mice showed that nearly 90% of {sup 90}Y complexes of both the ligands were excreted via urine within 1 h post-injection with negligible localisation in vital organs. Probenecid inhibition studies showed that both complexes are excreted by glomerular filtration. The predominant and quick excretion of {sup 90}Y-DOTA and {sup 90}Y-DTPA through the kidneys suggest that both these complexes could be explored for use in IVRNT.

  17. Radiation therapy for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileikowsky, C.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for irradiating a patient comprising: a source of a radiation beam directed along a radiation axis; means mounting the source for pivotal movement about a first horizontal axis which intersects the source, is stationary with respect to the apparatus, and extends in a direction substantially normal to the radiation axis, whereby the beam is capable of an angular scan in a vertical plane; table means adapted to support a patient to be irradiated; and suspension means mounted the table means for arcuate movement to any positions angularly spaced about the first horizontal axis and for pivoting movement about a second horizontal axis displacement from and substantially parallel to the first horizontal axis. The suspension means maintain the second horizontal axis in substantially intersecting relation to the radiation axis in each of the positions while maintaining a fixed angular position of the table means with respect to the environment

  18. Radiation therapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order, S.E.; Donaldson, S.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on the evaluation and treatment of benign disease. The text begins with a chapter concerning standards of practice by an eminent malpractice lawyer, thereby clarifying the medical-legal implications of the radiation treatment of benign disease. The text then lists, in alphabetic order, those benign diseases which have been or are currently treated with radiotherapy for each disease entity. A feature is the survey of current radiation practice in the United States

  19. Impact of radiation therapy on sexual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, T.; Gabelle Flandin, I.; Habold, D.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy on sexual life. The analysis was based on a Pubmed literature review. The keywords used for this research were 'sexual, radiation, oncology, and cancer'. After a brief reminder on the anatomy and physiology, we explained the main complications of radiation oncology and their impact on sexual life. Preventive measures and therapeutic possibilities were discussed. Radiation therapy entails local, systematic and psychological after-effects. For women, vaginal stenosis and dyspareunia represent the most frequent side effects. For men, radiation therapy leads to erectile disorders for 25 to 75% of the patients. These complications have an echo often mattering on the patient quality of life of and on their sexual life post-treatment reconstruction. The knowledge of the indications and the various techniques of irradiation allow reducing its potential sexual morbidity. The information and the education of patients are essential, although often neglected. In conclusion, radiation therapy impacts in variable degrees on the sexual life of the patients. Currently, there are not enough preventive and therapeutic means. Patient information and the early screening of the sexual complications are at stake in the support of patients in the reconstruction of their sexual life. (authors)

  20. Cancer of the larynx: radiation therapy. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for a T1 and T2 tumor with normal cord mobility and/or an exophytic lesion. It not only provides excellent control of the disease, but also preserves a good, useful voice in approximately 90 percent of the irradiated patients. For a T2 lesion with impaired cord mobility and/or moderate ulceration, a trial course of radiotherapy is initially given. If the tumor shows good regression and/or a return of normal cord mobility after a dose of 4000 rads, radiation therapy may be continued to a curative dose level, about 6500 rads. Surgery is reserved for treating residual disease six to eight weeks after radiation therapy or for recurrence. A T3 lesion with complete cord fixation and/or deep ulceration with nodes does not respond favorably to radiation therapy, and a planned combination of irradiation and laryngectomy is advised. Disease that extends beyond the larynx, T4, is rarely curable by radiation therapy alone. If the lesion is still operable, a combined approach of radiation and surgery is preferred; if not, palliative radiation therapy is given. Lymph node metastases from laryngeal carcinoma indicate advanced disease and is managed by preoperative irradiation and radical neck dissection. Under a program of therapeutic individualization, two-thirds to three-quarters of patients with cancer of the larynx can be cured by irradiation with preservation of a good, useful voice. In the remainder, the larynx must be sacrificed to save the patient's life. The ultimate control of laryngeal cancer lies in eradicating the extensive primary lesion and metastatic nodes, a common problem in the management of squamous cell carcinoma elsewhere in the body

  1. Radiation therapy of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shogo

    1980-01-01

    A total of 136 cases with gastric cancer was treated with radiation and some anti-cancer drugs. The tumor responded markedly to radiation in 37% of 92 cases, irradiated more than 5000 rad and regressed completely in only 5% of them. Out of them, the permanent cure was achieved in 3% of T2-4 M0 cases. Serious complications, such as hemorrhagic gastritis, massive bleeding, chronic ulcer of the stomach and perforation, were also observed in a few per cent of them. It was suggested that in the treatment of inoperable gastric cancer, the combination treatment of radiation and chemotherapy should be chosen as a valuable therapeutic procedure to get a good palliation. (author)

  2. Results of radiation therapy in periarthritis humeroscapularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.; Schlichting, G.; Galalae, R.; Kimmig, B.; Koltze, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: radiation therapy is applied in painful degenerative shoulder diseases. Aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of radiation therapy to symptomatic improvement in periarthritis humeroscapularis. Methods: ninety-four patients with periarthritis humeroscapularis were treated in two institutions. Mean age was 68 years, sex distribution were 32 men and 62 women. In 58 cases the right side was affected, left in 36 cases. At single doses of 0,75 Gy once a week a total dose of 6 Gy was applied The treatment effect was evaluated by the standardized von Pannewitz-score at the end of the treatment up to 6 months thereafter. Results: the treatment results of all the 94 patients were documentated at the end of therapy. Seventy-one patients were followed at least for further 4 months. Radiogenic side-effects were not noticed. The symptoms of 54 patients (57.4%) were improved or vanished, in 40 cases the symptoms were not significantly affected (42.6%). Four months after therapy 42 of 71 patients were improved (59.2%), 29 unchanged (40.8%). The treatment effect occured typically up to 2 months after therapy, there were no age-related differences. Also in recurrent radiation therapies the symptoms improved, in 80 percent after one preceding therapy, however only in 31.2 percent after multiple prior radiotherapies. (orig.)

  3. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  4. Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.

  5. Radiation Therapy of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors treated by megavoltage external beam irradiation between Feb. 1979 and Dec. 1985. Follow-up period of survivors was 30 to 91 months. Histologic diagnosis was obtained before radiation therapy in 10 patients (9 germinomas and 1 mixed). Five patients were treated without histologic verification. In 9 patients with biopsy-proven germinomas radiation therapy was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 6, to the whole brain in 3. In 5 patients with mixed germ cell tumor or elevated tumor marker, irradiation was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 2, to the whole brain in 2, and to the primary site only in 1. Total doses ranged from 5,000 to 5,500 cGy to the primary site, 3,000 to 4,400 cGy to the whole brain, and 1,300 to 3,000 cGy to the spine. In these 14, local tumor was controlled and primary or spinal failure was not observed. One patient without elevated tumor marker was treated to the whole brain, The tumor was not controlled and he had spinal recurrence. It is proven that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for suprasellar germ cell tumors. The neuroendocrinologic presentation, tumor marker status, early response to radiation measured on CT seem to be useful means for selecting patients for radiation therapy when tissue diagnosis is not available

  6. Radiation therapy for resistant sternal hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulger, S.; Barut, H.; Tunc, M.; Aydinkarahaliloglu, E.; Aydin, E.; Karaoglanoglu, N.; Gokcek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infectious disease for which there are known treatment procedures and effective antibiotics; however, there are resistant cases that do not respond to medication or surgery. We report a case diagnosed as hydatid disease of the chest wall and treated with radiation therapy (RT) after medical and surgical therapy had failed. In conclusion, RT represents an alternative treatment modality in resistant cases. (orig.)

  7. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  8. 21 CFR 892.5300 - Medical neutron radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical neutron radiation therapy system. 892.5300... therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical neutron radiation therapy system is a device intended to generate high-energy neutrons for radiation therapy. This generic type of device may include signal...

  9. Postoperative radiation therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Shikama, Naoto; Gomi, Koutarou; Shinoda, Atsunori; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Arakawa, Kazukiyo; Sasaki, Shigeru; Takei, Kazuyoshi; Sone, Syusuke

    2000-01-01

    The authors retrospectively assessed the usefulness of postoperative radiation therapy after local resection of adenoid cystic carcinoma, with emphasis on organ-conserving treatment and the cosmetic results. Between 1985 and 1995, 32 patients underwent local resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy with curative and organ-conserving intent. None of patients received any form of chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment. Radiation therapy was carried out by techniques that were appropriate for the site and extension of each tumor. The 5-year local control, disease-free, and overall survival rates of all patients were 76%, 68%, and 86%, respectively. The 5-year local control rate and disease-free survival rate of patients with microscopically positive margins were 89% and 75%, respectively, and higher than in patients with macroscopically residual disease, but no significant difference in 5-year overall survival rate was observed. The postoperative cosmetic results in 29 patients with head and neck lesions were evaluated. No difference was documented between the cosmetic results postoperatively setting and after postoperative radiotherapy, and no significant differences in cosmetic results were observed according to radiation dose. The combination of local resection with organ-conserving intent and postoperative radiation therapy provided good cosmetic results in patients with T1 or T2 lesions. Postoperative radiation therapy with smaller fractions is useful, because good local control can be achieved in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma having microscopically positive margins without inducing any late adverse reactions. However, the number of patients was too small and the follow-up period was too short to draw any definite conclusion in regard to fraction size. A much longer follow-up study with a larger number patients will be required to accurately determine the optimal treatment intensity and duration of treatment. (K.H.)

  10. Bullous pemphigoid after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duschet, P.; Schwarz, T.; Gschnait, F.

    1988-02-01

    Electron beam therapy applied to a lymph node metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma was followed by the development of histologically and immunologically typical bullous pemphigoid, the lesions being initially strictly confined to the irradiation area. This observation suggests that the bullous pemphigoid antigen may be altered or unmasked by electron beam radiotherapy, leading subsequently to the production of autoantibodies. The disease in this case effectively responded to the administration of tetracycline and niacinamide, a therapeutic regimen described recently.

  11. Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Kyu; Kim, Jae Choel [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma who were treated with radiation was performed to assess the results of treatment and patterns of failure, and to identify the factors that might influence survival. Methods and Materials : From March 1985 through June 1993, 53 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma were treated with either radiation therapy alone or combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University Hospital. Patients' ages ranged from 31 to 73 years with a median age of 54 years. There were 47 men and 6 women. Forty-two patients (79.2%) had squamous cell carcinoma, 10 patients (18.9%) had undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 patient (1.9%) had adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were 2 patients with stage I 12 patients with stage II, 12 patients with stage III and 27 patients with stage IV. According to the TNM classification, patients were distributed as follows: T1 7, T2 2, T3 10, T4 7, TX 1, and N0 17, N1 13, N2 21, N3 2. The primary tumor sites were tonsillar region in 36 patients (67.9%) base of the tongue in 12 patients (22.6%), and soft palate in 5 patients (9.4%). Twenty-five patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and twenty-eight patients were treated with one to three courses of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Chemotherapeutic regimens used were either CF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) or CVB (cisplatin, vincristine and bleomycin), Radiation therapy was delivered 180-200 cGy daily,five times a week using 6 MV X-ray with or without 8-10 MeV electron beams. A tumor dose ranged from 4500 cGy to 7740 cGy with a median dose of 7100 cGy. The follow-up time ranged from 4months to 99 months with a median of 21 months. Results : Thrity-seven patients (69.8%) achieved a CR (complete response) and PR (partial response) in 16 patients (30.2%) after radiation therapy. The overall survival rates were 47% at 2 years and 42% at

  12. PET/CT in Radiation Therapy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important component of the management of lymphoma patients. Most lymphomas are metabolically active and accumulate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Positron emission tomography with computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging using FDG is used routinely in staging and treatment...

  13. Electron beams in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinvis, I.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical electron beams in interaction with beam flattening and collimating devices are studied, in order to obtain the means for adequate electron therapy. A treatment planning method for arbitrary field shapes is developed that takes the properties of the collimated electron beams into account. An electron multiple-scattering model is extended to incorporate a model for the loss of electrons with depth, in order to improve electron beam dose planning. A study of ionisation measurements in two different phantom materials yields correction factors for electron beam dosimetry. (Auth.)

  14. Radiation therapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Masashi; Matayoshi, Yoshinobu; Masaki, Norie

    1992-01-01

    From 1977 through 1989, 149 patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with external irradiation (EI) with or without high-dose rate intraluminal irradiation (HDRII) using remote afterloading system. Concerning complete response group EI alone showed higher local control rate than EI + HDRII, especially in ulcerative type. Another problem is the EI field. Fourteen of 22 patients who were salvaged by surgery due to local recurrence after EI showed marginal or out-field metastasis of the lymph node. These preliminary results suggest that HDRII is not effective for the local control of the ulcerative lesion as a boost therapy, EI should be given for the entire regional lymph nodes. (author)

  15. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Francis X; Buscombe, John R

    2017-10-01

    Primary and secondary liver malignancies are common and associated with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, many patients have unresectable disease. In these cases, several liver directed therapies are available, including selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). SIRT is a multidisciplinary treatment involving nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and oncology. High doses of localised internal radiation are selectively delivered to liver tumour tissues, with relative sparing of adjacent normal liver parenchyma. Side effects are minimal and radiation protection measures following treatment are straightforward. In patients who have progressed following chemotherapy, clinical trials demonstrate prolonged liver progression-free survival. SIRT is offered at 10 centres in England via the NHS England Commissioning through Evaluation programme and is approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for certain liver malignancies. SIRT holds unique promise for personalised treatment of liver tumours. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug delivery system and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the review of radiation therapy, neutron capture therapy (NCT) and drug delivery system for the latter. In cancer radiation therapy, there are problems of body movement like breathing, needless irradiation of normal tissues, difficulty to decide the correct irradiation position and tumor morphology. NCT has advantages to overcome these, and since boron has a big cross section for thermal neutron, NPT uses the reaction 10 B(n, α) 7 Li in the target cancer which previously incorporated the boron-containing drug. During the period 1966-1996, 246 patients were treated with this in Japan and the treatment has been continued thereafter. The tasks for NCT are developments of drug delivery system efficient to deliver the drug into the tumor and of convenient neutron source like the accelerator. (S.I.)

  17. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature data and clinical of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%) [ru

  18. Radiation therapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Koga, Sukehiko; Anno, Hirofumi; Komai, Satoshi (Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    During the decade from 1978 to 1987, 20 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with irradiation of 2000 cGy to the orbital tissue. We examined the effects of the therapy on 17 such patients. Exophthalmos tended to decrease. When the degree of deviation of the exophthalmic eye was small, the effect of therapy tended to be better than when it was large. Two cases that showed an increase in retrobulbar fatty tissue without thickening of the extraocular muscles did not respond as well as those that had thickening of the extraocular muscles. Diplopia tended to improve both subjectively and objectively. Ocular movement improved in 11 of the 17 patients. There were no serious radiation injuries after the radiation therapy, except for some transient swelling of the eyelid. (author).

  19. Computer models for optimizing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duechting, W.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to outline how methods of system analysis, control therapy and modelling can be applied to simulate normal and malignant cell growth and to optimize cancer treatment as for instance radiation therapy. Based on biological observations and cell kinetic data, several types of models have been developed describing the growth of tumor spheroids and the cell renewal of normal tissue. The irradiation model is represented by the so-called linear-quadratic model describing the survival fraction as a function of the dose. Based thereon, numerous simulation runs for different treatment schemes can be performed. Thus, it is possible to study the radiation effect on tumor and normal tissue separately. Finally, this method enables a computer-assisted recommendation for an optimal patient-specific treatment schedule prior to clinical therapy. (orig.) [de

  20. Database for radiation therapy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, S.; Cosby, S.; Leszczynski, K.; Chu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a database for images acquired during simulation and verification of radiation treatments. Simulation images originate as planning films that are digitized with a video camera, or through direct digitization of fluoroscopic images. Verification images may also be digitized from portal films or acquired with an on-line portal imaging system. Images are classified by the patient, the fraction, the field direction, static or dynamic (movie) sequences, and the type of processing applied. Additional parameters indicate whether the source is a simulation or treatment, whether images are digitized film or real-time acquisitions, and whether treatment is portal or double exposure for beam localization. Examples are presented for images acquired, processed, stored, and displayed with on-line portal imaging system (OPIUM) and digital simulation system (FLIP)

  1. Electron wedges for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene P.; Lo, Y.-C.; Humm, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Brain tumors can be advantageously treated with electron over photon radiation, by exploiting the rapid fall-off in dose with depth. This advantage could be further enhanced by utilizing multiple electron beams. However, in some beam configurations, wedged dose profiles would be necessary for the dose uniformity. Unlike photons, shaped pieces of material placed in electron beam severely degrade the energy, give additional scattering and, therefore, are suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to create wedged electron fields, using intensity modulation. The combination of electron wedges enables a more uniform coverage of brain tumors with a reduced dose to normal tissue. Methods and Materials: Intensity modulation was performed for 10 to 50 MeV electrons using a narrow scanning elementary beam of a racetrack Microtron accelerator, delivering radiation pulses with coordinates and intensities prescribed by a custom scan matrix. Dispensing more pulses (or longer pulses) within the field to increase the local dose, one can sharpen the penumbra at depth and generate wedged dose distributions of arbitrary angle as well as many other desired profiles. We modulated the electron beams, measured dose distributions using film in an anthropomorphic phantom, and compared the results with conventional techniques. Results: Intensity modulation of electron beams decreases the 50-90% penumbra at depth by 40% and increases the flatness by 80%. Wedged profiles at depth can be created for any angle up to about 70 deg. , depending on the beam energy. Multiple modulated electron beams give smaller 20-70% but larger 70-100% isodose regions than photon beams. Conclusions: Electron beams can improve dose distributions in brain compared to the same number of photon beams, reducing the 20-70% isodoses region in normal tissue by 30%. Intensity modulation significantly improves the dose distribution from combined electron beams providing a sharper penumbra, better conformity, and

  2. Contemporary radiation therapy in combined modality therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K; Terezakis, Stephanie A

    2015-05-01

    The advent of effective combination chemotherapy markedly changed the management of Hodgkin lymphoma, establishing combined modality therapy as the standard of care for most patients with this disease. In response, significant interest has been shown in refining the delivery of radiation in the combined modality setting such that toxicity is minimized while still preserving disease control. An understanding of the way in which radiation treatment fields, prescription dose, and advanced technology have evolved to accomplish these goals is critical. Moreover, fluency in the clinical literature exploring contemporary questions, such as the omission of radiation and response-based treatment, is equally important. Knowledge of these topics will yield both an appreciation of the value of radiation in the combined modality setting and the ability to better customize treatment regimens to individual patients. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  3. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy

  4. [Intravascular endothelioma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanĕk, J

    1978-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman developed a slowly growing lesion over the right index and the adjacent part of the metacarpus. A cell proliferation filling up the skin veins was classified as intravascular endothelioma. This rather rare oncological entity with a good prognosis should be differentiated from peculiar pattern occasionally seen in organisation of thrombi as well as malignant endothelial tumours.

  5. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate

  6. External beam radiation therapy for recurrent sigmoid colorectal cancer. Retrospective analysis by group comparison between the radiation therapy alone and the radiation therapy combined with other therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churei, Hisahiko; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hiraki, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Yasutaka; Hokotate, Hirohumi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Ohkubo, Kouichi; Miyaji, Noriaki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate retrospectively clinical efficacy of curativeintent external beam radiation therapy for recurrent sigmoid colorectal cancer. As the radiation therapy of higher dose level combined with other therapies might improve pain control, tumor response, and prognosis, the total dose over 60 Gy was delivered except cases that were received surgery for the recurrent tumor. The study population consisted of 25 patients received the radiation therapy alone (RTA) and 24 patients received the radiation therapy combined with other one or two treatment modalities (RTC), which included surgery (tumor resection) in 15 cases, chemotherapy (low dose daily CDDP) in 13 cases, and hyperthermia in 6 cases. They received the radiation therapy from January, 1989 to June, 1996. Data on pain relief and tumor response were compared between the groups of RTA and RTC. The effect on pain relief was not different between the two groups. Tumor response appeared to be high in the patients combined with chemotherapy, but the difference was not statistically significant between the groups. There were no differences in the prognosis by the recurrent tumor size, the pain relief, and the tumor response. There was a statistically significant difference in the prognosis between the groups with and without extrapelvic distant metastases. A more effective treatment modality combined with the external radiation therapy is necessary to improve the clinical efficacy for the recurrent sigmoid colorectal cancer. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 892.5840 - Radiation therapy simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy simulation system. 892.5840... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5840 Radiation therapy simulation system. (a) Identification. A radiation therapy simulation system is a fluoroscopic or radiographic x-ray...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit an...

  9. Radiation therapy with fast neutrons: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.; Wambersie, A.

    2007-01-01

    Because of their biological effects fast neutrons are most effective in treating large, slow-growing tumours which are resistant to conventional X-radiation. Patients are treated typically 3-4 times per week for 4-5 weeks (sometimes in combination with X-radiation) for a variety of conditions such as carcinomas of the head and neck, salivary gland, paranasal sinus and breast; soft tissue, bone and uterine sarcomas and malignant melanomas. It is estimated that about 27,000 patients have undergone fast neutron therapy to date

  10. Nonthermal Ablation by Using Intravascular Oxygen Radical Generation with WST11: Dynamic Tissue Effects and Implications for Focal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Simon Y; Tarin, Tatum V; Monette, Sébastien; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Gerber, Daniel; Durack, Jeremy C; Solomon, Stephen B; Scardino, Peter T; Scherz, Avigdor; Coleman, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To examine the hypothesis that vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11 and clinically relevant parameters can be used to ablate target tissues in a non-tumor-bearing large-animal model while selectively sparing blood vessels and collagen. Materials and Methods By using an institutional animal care and use committee-approved protocol, 68 ablations were performed in the kidneys (cortex and medulla) and livers of 27 adult pigs. Posttreatment evaluation was conducted with contrast material-enhanced computed tomography in the live animals at 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry was evaluated and histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Intravenous infusion of WST11 (4 mg per kilogram of body weight) was followed by using near-infrared illumination (753 nm for 20 minutes) through optical fibers prepositioned in target tissues by using a fixed template. Treated areas were scanned, measured, and statistically analyzed by using the Student t test and two-way analysis of variance. Results Focal WST11 VTP treatment in the liver and kidney by using a single optical fiber resulted in well-demarcated cylindrical zones of nonthermal necrosis concentrically oriented around the light-emitting diffuser, with no intervening viable parenchymal cells. The radius of ablated tissue increased from approximately 5 mm at 150 mW to approximately 7 mm at 415 mW (P the peripheral ablation zone, blood vessels at least 40 μm in diameter were selectively preserved and remained functional at 7 days. Ablated tissues exhibited progressive fibrosis and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates. No histologic changes consistent with thermal injury were observed in blood vessels or collagen. The renal hilum and collecting system did not show treatment effect, despite treatment proximity. Conclusion WST11 VTP induces nonthermal tissue ablation in target tissue while preserving critical organ structures and bystander blood

  11. Y90 selective internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward W; Thakor, Avnesh S; Tafti, Bashir A; Liu, David M

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver malignancies and liver metastases are affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Because of their late and advanced stage presentation, only 10% of patients can receive curative surgical treatment, including transplant or resection. Alternative treatments, such as systemic chemotherapy, ablative therapy, and chemoembolization, have been used with marginal survival benefits. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as radioembolization, is a compelling alternative treatment option for primary and metastatic liver malignancies with a growing body of evidence. In this article, an introduction to SIRT including background, techniques, clinical outcomes, and complications is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50∼80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68∼120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin cancer in

  13. Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, S.M.; Gillette, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation therapy may be indicated for larger invasive tumors of the head and neck that may be difficult to surgically excise or for which surgery would be significantly disfiguring. Previous studies of oral squamous cell carcinomas indicate that it should be possible to control approximately 80% of all but the most advanced local or locoregional tumors. Aggressive radiation therapy to total doses of 56 Gy or greater may be required. That can be done by using smaller doses per fraction and gradually reducing the size of the field so that the highest dose is given only to the tumor with a relatively tight margin. Malignant melanomas can be controlled locally apparently with a few large fractions. Metastatic disease limits survival; therefore, some type of systemic therapy seems to be needed to improve survival of those patients. Canine oral fibrosarcomas require a very high dose for a reasonable probability of control. It seems that a dose of 56 Gy given in 3.3 Gy fractions might provide local control of 50% of the tumors. It is likely that a combination of surgery and radiation would significantly improve the probability for control. Oral squamous cell carcinomas of cats must also be treated very aggressively to improve local control. Tumors of the nasal cavity are usually very large and invasive at the time of diagnosis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be effective in some instances. It is possible that with better definition of the tumor through computerized tomography imaging and improved treatment planning, control of these difficult to manage nasal tumors can be improved

  14. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation , Tacoma, WA 98402 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE November 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 08/04/2008 - 08/03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeted Radiation Therapy...REPORT NUMBER The Geneva Foundation 917 Pacific Ave, Suite 600 Tacoma, WA 98402 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  15. Chronic neuroendocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklar, C.A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Constine, L.S. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    A variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are observed following treatment with external radiation therapy when the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose dependent and may develop many years after irradiation. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur following doses as low as 18 Gy fractionated radiation and are the most common neuroendocrine problems noted in children. Deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropin are seen primarily in individuals treated with > 40 Gy HPA irradiation. Hyperprolactinemia can be seen following high-dose radiotherapy (>40 Gy), especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA irradiation are treatable; patients at risk require long-term endocrine follow-up. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Generalized Morphea after Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kushi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who received external beam radiation for the treatment of breast cancer. Seven months later, she developed generalized morphea involving the area of irradiated skin of the breast as well as distant sites of the groin and distal lower extremity. Postirradiation morphea is an uncommon yet well-documented phenomenon, usually confined to the radiated site and the immediate surrounding tissue. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of morphea occurring distant from the radiation field. While most cases of postirradiation morphea have been shown to either resolve spontaneously or respond to topical corticosteroids, our patient required systemic therapy with methotrexate, which resulted in clinical improvement. With this paper, we hope to bring further awareness to this phenomenon and demonstrate a successful treatment response with the use of methotrexate in postirradiation generalized morphea.

  17. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  18. Image-guided radiation therapy: physician's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, T.; Anand Narayan, C.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of radiotherapy has been ontogenetically linked to medical imaging. Over the years, major technological innovations have resulted in substantial improvements in radiotherapy planning, delivery, and verification. The increasing use of computed tomography imaging for target volume delineation coupled with availability of computer-controlled treatment planning and delivery systems have progressively led to conformation of radiation dose to the target tissues while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Recent advances in imaging technology coupled with improved treatment delivery allow near-simultaneous soft-tissue localization of tumor and repositioning of patient. The integration of various imaging modalities within the treatment room for guiding radiation delivery has vastly improved the management of geometric uncertainties in contemporary radiotherapy practice ushering in the paradigm of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Image-guidance should be considered a necessary and natural corollary to high-precision radiotherapy that was long overdue. Image-guided radiation therapy not only provides accurate information on patient and tumor position on a quantitative scale, it also gives an opportunity to verify consistency of planned and actual treatment geometry including adaptation to daily variations resulting in improved dose delivery. The two main concerns with IGRT are resource-intensive nature of delivery and increasing dose from additional imaging. However, increasing the precision and accuracy of radiation delivery through IGRT is likely to reduce toxicity with potential for dose escalation and improved tumor control resulting in favourable therapeutic index. The radiation oncology community needs to leverage this technology to generate high-quality evidence to support widespread adoption of IGRT in contemporary radiotherapy practice. (author)

  19. Radiation therapy of psoriasis and parapsoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskemann, A.

    1982-09-15

    Selective UV-Phototherapy with lambda 300-320 nm (SUP) as well as oral photochemotherapy with 8-methoxy-psoralen plus UVA-radiation (PUVA intern) are very effective in clearing the lesions of the generalized psoriasis and those of the chronic forms of parapsoriasis. Being treated with 4 suberythemal doses per week psoriasis patients are free or nearly free of symptoms after averagely 6.3 weeks of SUP-therapy or after 5.3 weeks of PUVA orally. The PUVA-therapy is mainly indicated in pustular, inverse and erythrodermic psoriasis as well as in parapsoriasis en plaques and variegata. In all other forms of psoriasis and in pityriasis lichenoides-chronica, we prefer the SUP-therapy because of less acute or chronic side effects, and because of its better practicability. X-rays are indicated in psoriais of nails, grenz-rays in superficial psoriatic lesions of the face, the armpits, the genitals and the anal region.

  20. Intravascular (catheter) MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Hurst, G.C.; Katz, D.E.; Dverk, J.L.; Wiesen, E.J.; Czerski, L.W.; Malaya, R.; Bellon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intravascular MR probes allow excellent spatial resolution and have the potential to detect arterial wall microstructure. Ultrasonic intravascular probes suggest that detailed morphologic information can assist clinical decision making. Catheter MR probes of 2--7 mm outside diameter (OD) were built of copper wire, Teflon, and parts from standard commercial catheters. The probes were connected to the surface coil receiver input of our Picker VISTA 2055HP 1.5-T imaging system. The extant (linear) body coil was used for transmit. Phantoms were constructed of coaxial glass MR tubes, filled with doped water. Watanabe rabbit aorta and human autopsy iliac artery specimens were examined within 4 hours of excision or stored by freezing. In vivo iliac arteries in dogs under general anesthesia were imaged, with percutaneous placement of the probe. Results are presented

  1. Radiation therapy in Africa: distribution and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, C.V.; Meghzifene, A.; Gueddari, B. el

    1999-01-01

    Africa is the least developed continent as regards radiation oncology resources. The documented ASR of cancer is of the order of 1 to 2 per 1000. With improving health care this is becoming more significant. This review was undertaken to help develop priorities for the region. Radiation Oncology departments in Africa were identified and a survey of their equipment performed. These were compared to the reported situation in 1991. Population tables for the year 2000 were compared to available megavoltage machines. Of 56 countries in Africa, only 22 are confidently known to have megavoltage therapy concentrated in the southern and northern extremes of the continent. The 155 megavoltage machines operating represents over 100% increase over the past 8 years. The population served by each megavoltage machine ranges from 0.6 million to 70 million per machine. Overall, only 50% of the population have some access to Radiation Oncology services. Progress has been made in initiating radiation oncology in Ghana, Ethiopia and Namibia. There has been some increase in machines in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. However, a large backlog exists for basic radiation services. (author.)

  2. Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G; Henriques, U V

    1988-01-01

    Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesion...... and fetal death was found, the cause of death being attributed to intrauterine asphyxia. It is concluded, that intravascular "mulberry-bodies" most likely represent artifacts due to red blood cell autolysis....

  3. Radiation therapy for superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    We studied the effect of such variables as the symptom improvement rate, survival and prognostic factors on the treatment results of radiation therapy for Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS). From 1988 to 2003, seventy two patients with SVCS were treated with radiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The patients' ages ranged from 10 to 83 years old with the median age being 61, and sixty four patients were male. For the causes of the SVCS, 64 patients had lung cancer, four had metastatic lung cancer, two had malignant lymphoma and two had thymoma. The radiotherapy was delivered with 6-MV X-ray and all patients received above 900 cGy up to 6,600 cGy, with the median dose being 4,000 cGy. The follow-up periods were from 1 to 180 months with a median of 5.6 months. The main clinical manifestations were dyspnea (84.7%), facial edema (81.9%), arm edema (22.2%), neck vein distension (25%), hoarseness (12.5%) and facial plethora (5.6%). Eighty percent of patients achieved excellent to good symptom improvement and 19.4% experienced minimal improvement. The median survival period was 5.1 months, and overall survival rates were 17.7% at 2 years (2YOS) and 14.8% at five years (5YOS) for all the patients. The median survival period, the two and five year disease free survival rates were 4.3 months, 16.7% and 13.4% for the lung cancer patients, respectively. The total tumor dose was a statistically significant survival factor on the univariate analysis for the patients with lung cancer (2YSR; > 30 Gy, 25.6%, {<=} 30 Gy 6.7%, {rho} < 0.01). On the multivariated analysis, a higher total tumor dose ({rho} < 0.01) and younger age ({rho} < 0.05) were statistically significant factors of survival for the lung cancer patients. Patients with NSCLC showed better survival than did the patients with SCLC, but this was not statistically significant ({rho} > 0.05). Radiation therapy for the patients with SVCS due to

  4. Quantification of late complications after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Horst; Beck-Bornholdt, Hans-Peter; Svoboda, Vladimir; Alberti, Winfried; Herrmann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of patients survive cancer after having received radiation therapy. Therefore, the occurrence of late normal tissue complications among long-term survivors is of particular concern. Methods: Sixty-three patients treated by radical surgery and irradiation for rectal carcinoma were subjected to an unconventional sandwich therapy. Preoperative irradiation was given in four fractions of 5 Gy each applied within 2 or 3 days; postoperative irradiation consisted mostly of 15x2 Gy (range, 20-40 Gy). A considerable proportion of these patients developed severe late complications (Radiother Oncol 53 (1999) 177). The data allowed a detailed analysis of complication kinetics, leading to a new model which was tested using data from the literature. Results: Data on late complications were obtained for eight different organs with a follow-up of up to 10 years. For the various organs, the percentage of patients being free from late complications, plotted as a function of time after start of radiation therapy, was adequately described by exponential regression. From the fit, the parameter p a was obtained, which is the percentage of patients at risk in a given year of developing a complication in a given organ during that year. The rate p a remained about constant with time. Following sandwich therapy, the annual incidence of complications in the bladder, ileum, lymphatic and soft tissue, and ureters was about the same (p a =10-14%/year), whereas complications in bone or dermis occurred at lower rates (4.7 or 7.5%/year, respectively). Discussion: Numerous data sets collected from published reports were analyzed in the same way. Many of the data sets studied were from patients in a series where there was a high incidence of late effects. Three types of kinetics for the occurrence of late effects after radiotherapy were identified: Type 1, purely exponential kinetics; Type 2, exponential kinetics, the slope of which decreased exponentially with time

  5. Optical Tracking Technology in Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Thomas H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Tome, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen the introduction of advanced technologies that have enabled much more precise application of therapeutic radiation. These relatively new technologies include multileaf collimators, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning, and intensity modulated radiotherapy in radiotherapy. Therapeutic dose distributions have become more conformal to volumes of disease, sometimes utilizing sharp dose gradients to deliver high doses to target volumes while sparing nearby radiosensitive structures. Thus, accurate patient positioning has become even more important, so that the treatment delivered to the patient matches the virtual treatment plan in the computer treatment planning system. Optical and image-guided radiation therapy systems offer the potential to improve the precision of patient treatment by providing a more robust fiducial system than is typically used in conventional radiotherapy. The ability to accurately position internal targets relative to the linac isocenter and to provide real-time patient tracking theoretically enables significant reductions in the amount of normal tissue irradiated. This report reviews the concepts, technology, and clinical applications of optical tracking systems currently in use for stereotactic radiation therapy. Applications of radiotherapy optical tracking technology to respiratory gating and the monitoring of implanted fiducial markers are also discussed

  6. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  7. Why do patients drop out during radiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chong, Won A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Wu, Hong Gyun

    1998-01-01

    This study is to see how much proportion of the patients receiving radiation therapy drop out during radiation therapy and to analyze the reason for the incomplete treatment. The base population of this study was 1,100 patients with registration numbers 901 through 2,000 at Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Authors investigated the incidence of incomplete radiation therapy, which was defined as less than 95% of initially planned radiation dose, and the reasons for incomplete radiation therapy. One hundred and twenty eight patients (12%) did not complete the planned radiation therapy. The performance status of the incompletely treated patients was generally poorer than that of the base population, and the aim of radiation therapy was more commonly palliative. The most common reason for not completing the planned treatment was the patients' refusal of further radiation therapy because of the distrust of radiation therapy and/or the poor economic status. Careful case selection for radiation therapy with consideration of the socioeconomic status of the patients in addition to the clinical indication would be necessary for the reduction of incomplete treatment, especially in the palliative setting

  8. Model of distribution of dose for intravascular brachytherapy; Modelo de distribucion de dosis para braquiterapia intravascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirchio, Rosana; Signoretta, Catalina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dosimetria de Radioaciones Ionizantes; Martin, Gabriela; Rivera, Elena; Bergoc, Rosa [Univeridad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica. Lab. de Radioisotopos; Guzman, Luis [Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In this work we present the radiation dose distributions for a theoretical model with Monte Carlo simulation, which was based on an experimental model developed for the study of the prevention of restenosis post-angioplasty employing intravascular brachytherapy. In the experimental model, the atherosclerotic plaques were induced in femoral arteries of male New Zealand rabbits through surgical intervention and later administration of cholesterol enriched diet. For the intravascular irradiation we employed a {sup 32} P source contained within the balloon used for the angioplasty. The radiation dose distributions were calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B according to a segment of a simulated artery. We studied the radiation dose distribution in the axial and radial directions for different thickness of the atherosclerotic plaques. The results will be correlated with the biologic effects observed by means of histological analysis of the irradiated arteries. (author)

  9. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzhausen, T. (Medical Univ. of Southern Africa, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Community Dentistry)

    1982-07-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed.

  10. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzhausen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed

  11. Two component-theory and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wideroee, R.

    1990-01-01

    The two component theory which describes the biological effect of X-ray and particle irradiation divides radiation into densely ionizing radiation (ion density in water greater than four ions per 100 A, i.e. LET>12 keV/μm) und loosely ionizing radiation with low ion densities. In case of densely ionizing radiation, the ions can produce breaks of both cords of DNA thus causing the death of the cell (α effect). Lower ion densities will produce only slight damages which are possibly lethal but can be partly repaired (β effect). If the cell parameters are known (L. Cohen 1983), the number of surviving cells after an irradiation can be calculated. The surviving lung cells and tumor cells (squamous cell carcinoma) have been calculated for a pulmonary irradiation with 30 MeV electrons and 200 keV X-rays (single doses of 2 and 5 Gy), respectively. The electron irradiation with single doses of 5 Gy turned out to be the most favorable therapy sparing the greatest number of lung cells and reducing the tumor cells in the most effective way (down to 1.6x10 -10 ). (orig.) [de

  12. Imaging after radiation therapy of thoracic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaye, B.; Wanet, M.; El Hajjam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is frequent after therapeutic irradiation of thoracic malignancies. Many technique-, treatment-, tumor- and patient-related factors influence the degree of injury sustained by the lung after irradiation. Based on the time interval after the completion of the treatment RILD presents as early and late features characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes, respectively. They are usually confined to the radiation port. Though the typical pattern of RILD is easily recognized after conventional two-dimensional radiation therapy (RT), RILD may present with atypical patterns after more recent types of three or four-dimensional RT treatment. Three atypical patterns are reported: the modified conventional, the mass-like and the scar-like patterns. Knowledge of the various features and patterns of RILD is important for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. RILD should be differentiated from recurrent tumoral disease, infection and radiation-induced tumors. Due to RILD, the follow-up after RT may be difficult as response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) criteria may be unreliable to assess tumor control particularly after stereotactic ablation RT (SABR). Long-term follow-up should be based on clinical examination and morphological and/or functional investigations including CT, PET-CT, pulmonary functional tests, MRI and PET-MRI. (authors)

  13. Radiation therapy in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jin; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is very rare worldwide. Radical resection is the only prognostic factor for long survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative radiation therapy can improve local control and survival rates for patients with palliative resection, but it remains controversial in patients with radical resection. Biliary drainage can effectively release bile duct obstruction for the majority of patients with locally advanced disease, and may even prolong survival when combined with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy includes extrernal beam therapy alone, external beam therapy with intraluminal brachytheapy and new radiation technique, such as three dimentional conformal therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The propective randomized clinical study is needed for further investigation in the role of combined modality therapy especially for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  14. Treatment of arterial lesions after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, D.; Jonsson, K.; Nilsson, M.; Takolander, R.

    1987-01-01

    Of 1,724 patients who underwent peripheral vascular operation, 12 (0.7 per cent) underwent radiation therapy of the areas including the relevant arteries one and one-half to 28 years (a mean of 15 years) previously; one patient had carcinoma of the breast, three had tumors of the neck and eight patients had malignant gynecologic disease. One patient with an occluded carotid artery was not actively treated, two underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and the remaining patients underwent different types of vascular reconstructions. These patients frequently have other radiation lesions as well with involvement of the skin, bladder or intestine, which may make them problematic from a surgical point of view. Extra-anatomic reconstructions or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be recommended. One patient died of malignant disease three years after arterial operation. Otherwise, the results of follow-up study for these patients did not differ from other patients who underwent arterial reconstruction

  15. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the eyelid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Miwako; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Shinozaki, Jun; Kaneda, Koichi; Oda, Norio; Tabuchi, Yoshiko

    1987-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1985, 30 patients with carcinomas of the eyelid were treated by radiation, including 19 primary cases and 11 secondary cases. The latter were less controlable than the former. According to histology, there were 21 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 basal cell carcinomas and 3 adenocarcinomas. Among the 21 patients with squamous cell carcinomas, 5 had local recurrences, 10 had lymph node metastasis and 3 had distant metastasis. Patients with other histological classifications had no local recurrences, except for one who received incomplete therapy due to diabetes. Almost all of the controlled patients with squamous cell carcinomas were treated with a TDF value greater than 90. Although the visual function was damaged by irradiation in seven patients, the lesions of 6 of them were too advanced to avoid radiation injuries. (author)

  16. Impact of radiation therapy for benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.; Van Houtte, P.; Beauvois, S.; Roelandts, M.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation therapy of benign diseases represent a wide panel of indications. Some indications are clearly identified as treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, postoperative heterotopic bone formations or keloid scars. Some indications are under evaluation as complications induced by neo-vessels of age-related macular degeneration or coronary restenosis after angioplasty. Some indications remain controversial with poor evidence of efficiency as treatment of bursitis, tendinitis or Dupuytren's disease. Some indications are now obsolete such as warts, or contra-indicated as treatment of infant and children. (authors)

  17. Radiation therapy following targeted therapy in oligometastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravis, Gwenaelle; Faure, Marjorie; Rybikowski, Stanislas; Dermeche, Slimane; Tyran, Marguerite; Calderon, Benoit; Thomassin, Jeanne; Walz, Jochen; Salem, Naji

    2015-11-01

    Up to 40% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with initially localized disease eventually develop metastasis following nephrectomy. The current standard of care for metastatic RCC (mRCC) is targeted therapy. However, complete response remains rare. A state of oligometastatic disease may exist, in which metastases are present in a limited number of locations; such cases may benefit from metastasis-directed local therapy, based on the evidence supporting resection of limited-volume metastases, allowing for improved disease control. We retrospectively analyzed 7 cases of response of RCC metastases, in patients treated with targeted therapies followed by radiation therapy (RT) of residual metastatic lesions in Paoli-Calmettes Institute (Marseille, France). We analyzed disease response rates, response to sequential strategy, relapse at the irradiated locations and disease evolution. The median follow-up was 34.1 months (range, 19.2-54.5 months). No progression at the irradiated sites was observed. A total of 5 patients had stable disease at the irradiated locations at the last follow-up; 3 remained in complete remission at the assessment, and 2 were stable. Excellent local response and clinical benefit may be achieved without added toxicity. In conclusion, sequential therapeutic strategies with RT following systemic treatment using sunitinib appear to be highly effective in patients with progressive mRCC and prompt the conduction of further confirmatory trials.

  18. Results of radiation therapy on cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nagai, Teruo; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Tsuchiya, Miwako; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Niibe, Hideo

    1989-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1985, a total of 298 patients with cervical cancer were treated by radiation therapy at the Department of Radiology, Gunma University Hospital. Another 111 patients were treated with irradiation as a follow up to surgery; 69 for prophylactic reasons and 42 to treat residual tumors. Patients treated with irradiation alone were given a combination of external irradiation to the pelvis and low dose rate intracavitary irradiation. Patients treated post-operatively were given intracavitary electron beam irradiation of the resected end of the vagina, and external irradiation of the entire pelvis. The following results were obtained: In patients treated by radiation therapy alone, the relative 5-year survival rates according to clinical stage were: 108% for patients with stage I cancer, 90% for stage II, 62% for stage III, and 31% for stage IV. Stage IV patients with no evidence of hematogenous metastasis could be candidates for radical therapy. Local recurrence was observed in 13% of stage II and III patients, attributed to inadequate intracavitary treatment and the histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Severe complications occurred in only 12 (4%) of the 298 patients treated with irradiation alone. The relative 5-year survival rates for patients treated with post-operative irradiation were 91% for patients treated prophylactically and 49% for patients treated for residual tumor. Patients treated with post-operative irradiation for residual tumor at the resected end of the vagina showed a high cumulative survival rate of 77%. Since urinary sequelae developed in only 4 patients, it would seem that electron beam irradiation of the resected end of the vagina is a safe and effective method of therapy. (author)

  19. Memory and survival after microbeam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Juurlink, Bernhard H.J.; Ataelmannan, Khalid; Laissue, Jean; Blattmann, Hans; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Minczewska, Joanna; Crosbie, Jeffrey; Taherian, Hadi; Frangou, Evan; Wysokinsky, Tomasz; Chapman, L. Dean; Griebel, Robert; Fourney, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of memory function are frequently observed in patients with malignant brain tumours and as adverse effects after radiotherapy to the brain. Experiments in small animal models of malignant brain tumour using synchrotron-based microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) have shown a promising prolongation of survival times. Materials and methods: Two animal models of malignant brain tumour were used to study survival and memory development after MRT. Thirteen days after implantation of tumour cells, animals were submitted to MRT either with or without adjuvant therapy (buthionine-SR-sulfoximine = BSO or glutamine). We used two orthogonal 1-cm wide arrays of 50 microplanar quasiparallel microbeams of 25 μm width and a center-to-center distance of about 200 μm, created by a multislit collimator, with a skin entrance dose of 350 Gy for each direction. Object recognition tests were performed at day 13 after tumour cell implantation and in monthly intervals up to 1 year after tumour cell implantation. Results: In both animal models, MRT with and without adjuvant therapy significantly increased survival times. BSO had detrimental effects on memory function early after therapy, while administration of glutamine resulted in improved memory

  20. Gene expression profiles in cervical cancer with radiation therapy alone and chemo-radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Joo Young; Hwang, You Jin; Kim, Meyoung Kon; Choi, Myung Sun; Kim, Chul Young

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the gene expression profiles of uterine cervical cancer, and its variation after radiation therapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, using a cDNA microarray. Sixteen patients, 8 with squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix, who were treated with radiation alone, and the other 8 treated with concurrent chemo-radiation, were included in the study. Before the starting of the treatment, tumor biopsies were carried out, and the second time biopsies were performed after a radiation dose of 16.2-27 Gy. Three normal cervix tissues were used as a control group. The microarray experiments were performed with 5 groups of the total RNAs extracted individually and then admixed as control, pre-radiation therapy alone, during-radiation therapy alone, pre-chemoradiation therapy, and during chemoradiation therapy. The 33P-labeled cDNAs were synthesized from the total RNAs of each group, by reverse transcription, and then they were hybridized to the cDNA microarray membrane. The gene expression of each microarrays was captured by the intensity of each spot produced by the radioactive isotopes. The pixels per spot were counted with an Arrayguage, and were exported to Microsoft Excel. The data were normalized by the Z transformation, and the comparisons were performed on the Z-ratio values calculated. The expressions of 15 genes, including integrin linked kinase (ILK), CDC28 protein kinase 2, Spry 2, and ERK 3, were increased with the Z-ratio values of over 2.0 for the cervix cancer tissues compared to those for the normal controls. Those genes were involved in cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle control, or signal transduction. The expressions of the other 6 genes, including G protein coupled receptor kinase 6, were decreased with the Z-ratio values of below -2.0. After the radiation therapy, most of the genes, with a previously increase expressions, represented the decreased expression profiles, and the genes, with the Z-ratio values of over 2.0, were

  1. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  2. Criteria and standards for radiation therapy (megavoltage) in southeastern Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The criteria and standards presented in this document provide the basis for the review of proposals to establish, expand or alter institutionally-based radiation therapy services, the criteria developed should provide sufficient guidance to the Plan Implementation Committee of CHPC-SEM to enable it to accomplish the following: Assure the existence of sufficient treatment capacity to serve the identified radiation therapy needs of the Southeastern Michigan community; Assure the residents of Southeastern Michigan of reasonable access to radiation therapy services; Assure that the radiation therapy services offered are of good quality; Avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication of radiation therapy equipment and services; and promote the effective operation of the health care system in Southeastern Michigan. These criteria and standards also should provide guidance to providers who may consider initiating a new radiation therapy service or altering an existing service or program

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy. (orig.) [de

  4. Mapping the literature of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Frances A

    2013-04-01

    This study characterizes the literature of the radiation therapy profession, identifies the journals most frequently cited by authors writing in this discipline, and determines the level of coverage of these journals by major bibliographic indexes. Cited references from three discipline-specific source journals were analyzed according to the Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Project Protocol of the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to all journal references to identify the most frequently cited journal titles. Journal references constituted 77.8% of the total, with books, government documents, Internet sites, and miscellaneous sources making up the remainder. Although a total of 908 journal titles were cited overall, approximately one-third of the journal citations came from just 11 journals. MEDLINE and Scopus provided the most comprehensive indexing of the journal titles in Zones 1 and 2. The source journals were indexed only by CINAHL and Scopus. The knowledgebase of radiation therapy draws heavily from the fields of oncology, radiology, medical physics, and nursing. Discipline-specific publications are not currently well covered by major indexing services, and those wishing to conduct comprehensive literature searches should search multiple resources.

  5. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  6. Selective use of adjuvant radiation therapy in resectable colorectal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Gunderson, L.L.; Welch, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Colorectal cancer recurs within the operative field in 10-20 per cent of patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. In certain subgroups, the recurrence rate is 20-50 per cent. There are some data to suggest either preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy as an adjuvant to potentially curative surgery can reduce the local operative failure rate. However, since radiation therapy has significant side effects, patient selection to maximize the therapeutic ratio is important. This report defines the criteria at the Massachusetts General Hospital for selection of patients with colorectal cancer for adjuvant radiation therapy, defines radiation therapy-surgery sequencing alternatives used, and describes techniques to reduce radiation side effects. Over a period of three and a half years, 196 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy: 51 patients received either moderate or low dose preoperative radiation therapy to rectal or rectosigmoid cancers, and 161 patients received postoperative radiation therapy to the pelvis or extrapelvic colonic tumor-lymph node beds. Some patients who received low-dose preoperative radiation therapy also received moderate-dose postoperative radiation therapy. We prefer moderate-dose postoperative radiation therapy as the approach most likely to decrease the local recurrence rate with minimal interference with surgical procedures and late small-bowel complications. Patients who received postoperative radiation therapy were those without distant metastases, whose primary tumor pathology revealed macroscopic or extensive microscopic transmural tumor penetration into extraperitoneal tissues. Careful case selection, multiple field techniques, the use of reperitonealization, omental flaps, and retroversion of the uterus into the pelvis were combined with postoperative small-bowel x-rays, bladder distention, and lateral portals to minimize radiation damage to normal structures

  7. Percutaneous radiation therapy of peyronie's disease with 137cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, B.; Rossbach, T.; Schmitt, G.; Essen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    From 1966 to 1977, 49 patients suffering from Peyronie's disease received percutaneous radiation treatment with 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs). Therapy results were followed up for a period of from 2 months to 11 years. The method of 137 Cs radiation is described and the results compared with other forms of therapy. Percutaneous radiation therapy with 137 Cs seems to be the preferred treatment of Peyronie's disease because of its few side effects, rapid effectiveness, and low cost. (orig.) [de

  8. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.m.bouchet@gmail.com [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); El Atifi, Michèle [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec' h, Céline [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Pelletier, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.pelletier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Le Duc, Géraldine [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  9. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; El Atifi, Michèle; Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec'h, Céline; Laissue, Jean Albert; Pelletier, Laurent; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  10. Potential for heavy particle radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-03-01

    Radiation therapy remains one of the major forms of cancer treatment. When x rays are used in radiotherapy, there are large variations in radiation sensitivity among tumors because of the possible differences in the presence of hypoxic but viable tumor cells, differences in reoxygenation during treatment, differences in distribution of the tumor cells in their cell cycle, and differences in repair of sublethal damage. When high-LET particles are used, depending upon the LET distribution, these differences are reduced considerably. Because of these differences between x rays and high-LET particle effects, the high-LET particles may be more effective on tumor cells for a given effect on normal cells. Heavy particles have potential application in improving radiotherapy because of improved dose localization and possible advantages of high-LET particles due to their radiobiological characteristics. Protons, because of their defined range, Bragg peak, and small effects of scattering, have good dose localization characteristics. The use of protons in radiotherapy minimizes the morbidity of radiotherapy treatment and is very effective in treating deep tumors located near vital structures. Fast neutrons have no physical advantages over /sup 60/Co gamma rays but, because of their high-LET component, could be very effective in treating tumors that are resistant to conventional radiations. Negative pions and heavy ions combine some of the advantages of protons and fast neutrons.

  11. Potential for heavy particle radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-03-01

    Radiation therapy remains one of the major forms of cancer treatment. When x rays are used in radiotherapy, there are large variations in radiation sensitivity among tumors because of the possible differences in the presence of hypoxic but viable tumor cells, differences in reoxygenation during treatment, differences in distribution of the tumor cells in their cell cycle, and differences in repair of sublethal damage. When high-LET particles are used, depending upon the LET distribution, these differences are reduced considerably. Because of these differences between x rays and high-LET particle effects, the high-LET particles may be more effective on tumor cells for a given effect on normal cells. Heavy particles have potential application in improving radiotherapy because of improved dose localization and possible advantages of high-LET particles due to their radiobiological characteristics. Protons, because of their defined range, Bragg peak, and small effects of scattering, have good dose localization characteristics. The use of protons in radiotherapy minimizes the morbidity of radiotherapy treatment and is very effective in treating deep tumors located near vital structures. Fast neutrons have no physical advantages over 60 Co gamma rays but, because of their high-LET component, could be very effective in treating tumors that are resistant to conventional radiations. Negative pions and heavy ions combine some of the advantages of protons and fast neutrons

  12. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Celis, M.; Larraga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields

  13. Radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Takeo; Sejima, Teruhiro; Sugaya, Jun-ichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    Thirteen patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by palliative radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation sites were abdominal cavities in 8 cases, superficial masses in 5 and lung metastasis in one. The purposes were to diminish mass size in 5 cases, to relieve pain in 3 and to reduce stenosis in 6. The total doses were more than 40 Gy in 10 patients. In 2 cases, the intracavitary irradiation was performed using {sup 192}Ir. In one case, radiation had to be stopped at the dose of 22.5 Gy because of poor general condition. Partial response was obtained in 6 of 12 cases (RP, 50%). The sites of responders were superficial lesions in 4 and hepatic hilar mass in 2, which were given intracavitary as well as external radiation. Pain relief was achieved in all patients suffering from it. One of 3 cases with esophageal stenosis showed marked improvement in swallowing. Two patients showed a decrease in the levels of tumor markers. Five patients had side effects of more than grade 2. Two of them were grade 3, one thrombocytopenia and one diarrhea. The median survival time of all cases was 9 months, and 5 patients could shift to home care. These results suggest that palliative radiotherapy could be one of the most useful locoregional therapies for advanced gastric cancer, in the aspect of improvement of patient`s QOL. (author)

  14. Radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Takeo; Sejima, Teruhiro; Sugaya, Jun-ichi

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by palliative radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation sites were abdominal cavities in 8 cases, superficial masses in 5 and lung metastasis in one. The purposes were to diminish mass size in 5 cases, to relieve pain in 3 and to reduce stenosis in 6. The total doses were more than 40 Gy in 10 patients. In 2 cases, the intracavitary irradiation was performed using 192 Ir. In one case, radiation had to be stopped at the dose of 22.5 Gy because of poor general condition. Partial response was obtained in 6 of 12 cases (RP, 50%). The sites of responders were superficial lesions in 4 and hepatic hilar mass in 2, which were given intracavitary as well as external radiation. Pain relief was achieved in all patients suffering from it. One of 3 cases with esophageal stenosis showed marked improvement in swallowing. Two patients showed a decrease in the levels of tumor markers. Five patients had side effects of more than grade 2. Two of them were grade 3, one thrombocytopenia and one diarrhea. The median survival time of all cases was 9 months, and 5 patients could shift to home care. These results suggest that palliative radiotherapy could be one of the most useful locoregional therapies for advanced gastric cancer, in the aspect of improvement of patient's QOL. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy of psoriasis and parapsoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiskemann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Selective UV-Phototherapy with lambda 300-320 nm (SUP) as well as oral photochemotherapy with 8-methoxy-psoralen plus UVA-radiation (PUVA intern) are very effective in clearing the lesions of the generalized psoriasis and those of the chronic forms of parapsoriasis. Being treated with 4 suberythemal doses per week psoriasis patients are free or nearly free of symptoms after averagely 6.3 weeks of SUP-therapy or after 5.3 weeks of PUVA orally. The PUVA-therapy is mainly indicated in pustular, inverse and erythrodermic psoriasis as well as in parapsoriasis en plaques and variegata. In all other forms of psoriasis and in pityriasis lichenoides-chronica, we prefer the SUP-therapy because of less acute or chronic side effects, and because of its better practicability. X-rays are indicated in psoriais of nails, grenz-rays in superficial psoriatic lesions of the face, the armpits, the genitals and the anal region. (orig.) [de

  16. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  17. Radiation therapy in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Marc; Romestaing, Pascale; Talon, Bernard; Ardiet, J.M.; Salerno, Nathalie; Sentenac, Irenee; Gerard, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) received radiation therapy between Jan 1980-Dec 1988. The location of the tumors was: proximal third, 20 patients; middle third, 23; distal third, 3; diffuse, 5 patients. Thirty-six patients underwent surgery with complete gross resection in 14 (10/14 with positive margins), incomplete gross resection in 12 and only biopsy in 10. Fifteen patients had only biliary drainage without laparotomy after cytologic diagnosis of malignancy in 11/15. Radiation therapy was done with curative intent after complete or incomplete resection (n=26) and it was palliative in patients who had no resection or only biliary drainage (n=25). Twenty-five patients received external radiation-therapy (ERT) alone to the tumor and lymph nodes (mean dose 45 Gy/2Gy per fraction for cure, 35 Gy/10 fractions for palliation), 8 patients had only iridium-192 ( 192 Ir) implant (50-60 Gy at a 1 cm radius for cure, 30 Gy for palliation), 17 patients had both ERT + 192 Ir(ERT 42.5 Gy + 192 Ir 10-15 Gy for cure; ERT 20 Gy/5 fractions + 192 Ir 20-30 Gy for palliation) and one intra-operative irradiation + ERT. The overall survival rate for the entire group was 55, 28.5 and 15 percent at 12, 24, 36 months and median survival 12 months. Median survival was 22 months in patients treated with curative intent and only 10 months after palliative treatment (p0.03). Among patients who had curative treatment, median survival was 27.5 months after complete gross resection and 13 months after incomplete gross resection (p0.045). After complete gross resection 5/14 patients were alive without evolutive disease at 11, 19, 20, 23 and 41 months, 2 were alive with metastases at 25 and 27 months and 7/14 died of cancer from 7 to 59 months. The rate of complications was low: 3 cholangitis responsive to antibiotics, 1 hemobilia and 2 gastric ulcers. These results are encouraging especially for patients with complete gross resection but they must be

  18. Method of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, L.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of radiation therapy treatment planning designed to allow the assignment of dosage limits directly to chosen points in the computer-displayed cross-section of the patient. These dosage limits are used as constraints in a linear programming attempt to solve for beam strengths, minimizing integral dosage. If a feasible plan exists, the optimized plan will be displayed for approval as an isodose pattern. If there is no feasible plan, the operator/therapist can designate some of the point dosage constraints as ''relaxed.'' Linear programming will then optimize for minimum deviation at the relaxed points. This process can be iterated and new points selected until an acceptable plan is realized. In this manner the plan is optimized for uniformity as well as overall low dosage. 6 claims, 6 drawing figures

  19. Radiation protection at hadron therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelliccioni, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radio-biological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u -1 LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u -1 synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities. (authors)

  20. Clinical results of radiation therapy for thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Sasai, Keisuke; Kitakabu, Yoshizumi; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, Masaji; Tsutsui, Kazushige; Fushiki, Masato

    1992-05-01

    From August 1968 to December 1989, 58 patients with thymoma were treated by radiotherapy using cobalt-60 gamma ray. Eleven cases were treated by radiothrapy alone, 1 by preoperative radiotheapy, 43 by postoperative radiotherapy, and 3 in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy. The following points were clarified: (a) Postoperative and intraoperative radiotherapy were effective; (b) For postoperative radiotherapy, operability was the major factor influencing survival and local control, and Stage I and II tumors resected totally or subtotally as well as Stage III tumors resected totally were good indications for such therapy; (c) The patients with complicating myasthenia gravis had a longer survival time and better local control rate than those without it. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17 patients, and none of them died of this complication. In all cases in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy, dry desquamation was observed within the irradiated field. (author).

  1. Radiation therapy for intrahepatic recurrence after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ohara, Kiyosi; Takada, Yasutsugu; Ueda, Takanori; Murata, Souichirou; Ushijima, Ryou; Adachi, Shinya; Todoroki, Takesi

    2003-01-01

    The intrahepatic recurrence rate after curative hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high, and management of recurrence is thus important for long-term survival. The use of radiation therapy has been relatively uncommon in the treatment of recurrent HCC. Eight patients underwent radiation therapy for recurrent HCC 12-98 months after hepatectomy. Five of them were treated with protons (250 MeV; 68.8-84.5 Gy), and three were treated with X-rays (6 MV; 60 or 70 Gy). One patient received radiation therapy twice for another lesion with a 79-month interval. The target tumors were 1.2-4.5 cm. All patients also underwent transcatheter arterial embolization or other regional therapy. Although transient ascites was found in three patients after radiation therapy, no patient died as a result of the irradiation. Seven patients died 9 months to 4 years (median 1 year 6 months) after radiation therapy. Re-recurrence was observed in the irradiated liver in two patients (local control 78%). Four patients died of lung metastasis after radiation therapy. The median survival time was 3 years 3 months (range 1 year 1 month to 8 years 6 months) after recurrence. Multimodality therapy is necessary for the management of recurrence. Radiation therapy could be beneficial when other therapies present some difficulty regarding application or are performed incompletely. It must be emphasized that radiation therapy should be considered in addition to other regional therapies for the treatment of recurrent or re-recurrent HCC, and that radiation therapy can be repeated in selected patients. (author)

  2. Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1996-01-01

    When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 (by Nordic Association of Clinica Physics) to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ''Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy''. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed

  3. Radiation Therapy in Peru: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, P.; Má, C.; Venegas, D.; Bustamante, R.

    2015-01-01

    Peru is the fastest growing economy in Latin America (sustained increase in GDP, low inflation and poverty reduction). The health system is fragmented and until 2012, almost half of the population had no health insurance. The current government poses: Improved access to health and education, employment and social security, reducing extreme poverty, within a context of social inclusion. The Plan for Prevention and Control of Cancer (“Plan Esperanza”) was established in 2012 in order to reduce cancer mortality and morbidity, with greater access to oncology services (promotion, prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care). With an area of 1 285 216 square kilometers and almost 30 million inhabitants, cancer treatment resources are scarce. Regarding Radiation Therapy, until 2007, it existed only in Lima, the capital city (over 9 million inhabitants). Later, another services were established in two more regions. At present, there is 23 radiotherapy machines in whole country. In this regard, Plan Esperanza is working on strengthening Radiation Therapy Services nationwide. Considering the population demand and availability of other cancer services (chemotherapy, oncologic surgery), the regions where need create new radiotherapy services were identified: 3 Hospitals in Lima (in peripheral areas: Cayetano Heredia at the North, Hipólito Unanue at East and Maria Auxiliadora at South). Also, other Regions of the country: Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad at North; Junín in the Central Highland, Cusco in the Southern Highland, and Loreto in the Northern Forest. Each with 2 linear accelerators, except Loreto, where they will consider two 60 Cobalt bomb instead, due to the geographical conditions. Moreover, one linear accelerator in Arequipa Region will be acquired. In Lima, the Hospitals are projected to become operational in 2016, while in the Regions, the Ministry of Health is providing them technical assistance in needs identification, planning and

  4. Managing radiation therapy side effects with complementary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerah; Beinhorn, Curtiss; Norton, Dena; Richardson, Michael; Sumler, Sat-Siri; Frenkel, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Over one-third of Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The prevalence among cancer patients may even be higher. Complementary therapies may reduce possible symptom burdens caused by conventional cancer treatments. Integrating CAM therapies has become more common and more accepted in clinical oncology. However, little research is available on beneficial CAM therapies for radiation therapy patients. This article reviews potential CAM therapies that have been shown to be effective in decreasing the symptom burden related to radiation therapy treatments and includes clinical observations from CAM practitioners in a comprehensive cancer center.

  5. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Coronary artery disease following mediastinal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annest, L.S.; Anderson, R.P.; Li, W.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Coronary artery disease occurred in four young men (mean age 41 years) who had received curative irradiation therapy for mediastinal malignancies 12 to 18 (mean 15) years previously. None was at high risk for developing coronary artery disease by Framingham criteria. Angiography demonstrated proximal coronary artery disease with normal distal vessels. Distribution of the lesions correlated with radiation dosimetry in that vessels exposed to higher radiation intensity were more frequently diseased. Three patients had coronary bypass grafting for intractable angina and are asymptomatic at 10 to 43 months. A total of 163 patients underwent mediastinal irradiation for lymphoma or thymoma between 1959 and 1980. Among the 29 who survived 10 or more years, five (18%) developed severe coronary artery disease, implicating thoracic radiotherapy as an important risk factor. Because of the importance of mantle irradiation in the treatment of lymphomas, the prevalence of these neoplasms, and the survival patterns following treatment, many long-term survivors may be at increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Recognition of the relationship between radiotherapy and coronary artery disease may lead to earlier diagnosis and more timely intervention. Standard surgical treatment may be particularly beneficial because of the relative youth of most of these patients and because the proximal distribution of typical lesions increases the likelihood of complete revascularization

  7. Experimental frontiers in radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, H.S.

    1979-01-01

    Eighty years of the history of radiation therapy are reviewed. Discovery of X-ray, radioactivity and radium was made at the end of the 19th Century. The products of nuclear fission reactions such as 60 Co and the high-energy beam generated by megavoltage devices are used as effective tools to ionize beneath the skin surface where cancerous change is present. Development of more selective devices was performed from both the irradiating means and chemically sensitive and selective sensitizers. Differential radioprotection is also a valid means to improve therapeutic gain. The radiosensitivity of mammalian cells is reduced approximately 3-fold when they are irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere rather than in air or in oxygen. As the differential modification of radiosensitivity currently used, the following means are practiced: (a) increased yield of irreversible radiation lesions, (b) increased intrinsic sensitivity of target DNA, (c) inhibition of repair, (d) optimization of dose fractionation schedules and (e) differential radioprotection of normal tumors. With 156 references up to 1978. (Yamashita, S.)

  8. Virtual reality in radiation therapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boejen, Annette; Grau, Cai

    2011-09-01

    Integration of virtual reality (VR) in clinical training programs is a novel tool in radiotherapy. This paper presents a review of the experience with VR and Immersive visualization in 3D perspective for planning and delivery of external radiotherapy. Planning and delivering radiation therapy is a complex process involving physicians, physicists, radiographers and radiation therapists/nurses (RTT's). The specialists must be able to understand spatial relationships in the patient anatomy. Although still in its infancy, VR tools have become available for radiotherapy training, enabling students to simulate and train clinical situations without interfering with the clinical workflow, and without the risk of making errors. Immersive tools like a 3D linear accelerator and 3D display of dose distributions have been integrated into training, together with IT-labs with clinical software. Training in a VR environment seems to be cost-effective for the clinic. Initial reports suggest that 3D display of dose distributions may improve treatment planning and decision making. Whether VR training qualifies the students better than conventional training is still unsettled, but the first results are encouraging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    2002-01-01

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  10. The Effect of Therapy Oriented CT in Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1987-01-01

    The success of radiation therapy depends on exact treatment of the tumor with significant high dose for maximizing local control and excluding the normal tissues for minimizing unwanted complications. To achieve these goals, correct estimation of target volume in three dimension, exact dose distribution in tumor and normal critical structures and correction of tissue inhomogeneity are required. The effect of therapy oriented CT (planning CT) were compared with conventional simulation method in necessity of planning change, set dose, and proper distribution of tumor dose. Of 365 new patients examined, planning CT was performed in 104 patients (28%). Treatment planning was changed in 47% of head and neck tumor, 79% of intrathoracic tumor and 63% of abdominal tumor. In breast cancer and musculoskeletal tumors, planning CT was recommended for selection of adequate energy and calculation of exact dose to critical structures such as kidney or spinal cord. The average difference of tumor doses between CT planning and conventional simulation was 10% in intrathoracic and intra-abdominal tumors but 20% in head and neck tumors which suggested that tumor dose may be overestimated in conventional simulation. Although some limitations and disadvantages including the cost and irradiation during CT are still criticizing, our study showed that CT planning is very helpful in radiotherapy planning

  11. Comparison of change in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris receiving statin therapy (from the Treatment With Statin on Atheroma Regression Evaluated by Intravascular Ultrasound With Virtual Histology [TRUTH] study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-04-01

    Although statin-induced regression in coronary atherosclerosis seems to be greater in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in those with stable coronary artery disease, no reports have examined this. The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable versus unstable angina pectoris (AP). The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, and analyzable intravascular ultrasound data were obtained from 119 patients (83 patients with stable AP and 36 with unstable AP). A significant decrease in plaque volume was observed in patients with unstable AP (-2.2%, p = 0.02) but not in patients with stable AP. A significant increase in the necrotic-core component (0.30 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.009) was observed only in patients with unstable AP. Significant positive correlations were observed between the percentage of change in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and the percentage of change in plaque volume (r = 0.346, p = 0.05) in patients with unstable AP. No significant correlations were observed in patients with stable AP. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a reduction in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly of the fibrous component (β = 0.443, p = 0.003), in patients with unstable AP. In conclusion, regression of the coronary artery plaque volume was greater, although statin therapy did not halt the increases in plaque vulnerability, in patients with unstable AP compared to those with stable AP. A reduction in the serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase level was associated with regression in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly the fibrous plaque volume, in patients with unstable AP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SRT). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT), microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  13. Precise positioning of patients for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhey, L.J.; Goitein, M.; McNulty, P.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Suit, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of immobilization schemes which permit precise daily positioning of patients for radiation therapy are discussed. Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs have been taken with the patient in the treatment position and analyzed to determine the amount of intratreatment movement. Studies of patients in the supine, seated and decubitus positions indicate mean movements of less than 1 mm with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm. Patients immobilized in the seated position with a bite block and a mask have a mean movement of about 0.5 mm +/- 0.3 mm (s.d.), and patients immobilized in the supine position with their necks hyperextended for submental therapy evidence a mean movement of about 1.4 mm +/- 0.9 mm (s.d.). With the exception of those used for the decubitus position, the immobilization devices are simply fabricated out of thermoplastic casting materials readily available from orthopedic supply houses. A study of day-to-day reproducibility of patient position using laser alignment and pretreatment radiographs for final verification of position indicates that the initial laser alignment can be used to position a patient within 2.2 mm +/- 1.4 mm (s.d.) of the intended position. These results indicate that rigid immobilization devices can improve the precision of radiotherapy, which would be advantageous with respect to both tumor and normal tissue coverage in certain situations

  14. Radiation therapy for malignant lid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuka, Seiichi; Itsuno, Hajime

    1991-01-01

    The case of a 42-year-old man with Meibomian gland carcinoma in his right lower lid is reported. The tumor found in the nasal part of the lower lid, was 12 mm x 13 mm in size. First, surgical resection was performed. The pathological diagnosis of the frozen section was 'undifferentiated basal cell epithelioma'. Second, cryotherapy was performed all over the cut surface. Later, the permanent section was pathologically diagnosed as 'undifferentiated Meibomian gland carcinoma'. Total 50 Gy irradiation therapy was therefore performed using a 9 Mev Linac electron beam, 25 x 20 mm field, with a lead protector for the cornea and lens. A lead contact lens did not afford good results because it was too easily shifted on the cornea, owing to its weight. Therefore, we made a racket-shaped lead protector. Fixed well with tape, this protector afforded good protective effect. Three years after treatment, the patient has good visual function, with no recurrence. This racket-shaped lead protector is thought to be useful in radiation therapy for malignant lid tumors. (author)

  15. Influence of radiation therapy on T-lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author claims this to be the first time where monoclonal antibodies are used in a long-term study in order to determine the influence of radiation therapy on T-lymphozyte-subpopulations in patients suffering from malignant growths. The influence of radiation therapy on B-cells, T-cells and macrophages was also checked. Two groups of patients were given two different radiation doses, and examined separately in order to discover possible effects of the dosage. Radiation therapy reduced B- and T-lymphocytes to the same degree as the total lymphozyte population so that their shares in percent remained unchanged. The same was also found for macrophages. Determination of clones and suppressor T-lymphozytes before, during and after radiation showed T-lymphozytes to have a higher resistance against the influence of radiation than clones. Suppressor cells also regenerated more quickly than clones after the end of the therapy. While radiation therapy was applied the clone/suppressor cell ratio dropped to values lower than those of the healthy reference group. After the end of the therapy this quotient dropped even further in some cases while in others it began to rise slowly, but even 6 months after the end of the therapy it was still lower than normal. As a number of diseases show an increased 'immunoregulatory quotient' it would be conceivable to influence this quotient with radiation therapy in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Source book of educational materials for radiation therapy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijar, M.L.

    1979-08-01

    The Source Book is a listing of educational materials in radiation therapy technology. The first 17 sections correspond to the subjects identified in the ASRT Curriculum Guide for schools of radiation therapy. Each section is divided into publications and in some sections audiovisuals and training aids. Entries are listed without endorsement

  17. The role of radiation therapy in bone metastases management

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, Francesca De; Piccioli, Andrea; Musio, Daniela; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases represent an important complication of malignant tumours. Despite improvement in surgical techniques and advances in systemic therapies, management of patients with bone metastatic disease remains a powerful cornerstone for the radiation oncologist. The primary goal of radiation therapy is to provide pain relief, preserving patients quality of life.

  18. Stereotactic radiation therapy combined with immunotherapy: augmenting the role of radiation in local and systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Andrew B; Tran, Phuoc T; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G; Deweese, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy are two contemporary radiation modalities that can treat tumors in any area of the body using highly focused radiation. Recently, immunotherapy has established itself as a viable and powerful anticancer treatment. In this review we detail the rationale supporting a combination of immunotherapy and stereotactic radiation. Additionally, we discuss the evidence for the immune stimulatory effects of focused radiation and the role that radiation may play in enhancing the systemic treatment effects of immunotherapy.

  19. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  20. Laryngeal necrosis after combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaguchi, Mamoru; Kubo, Takeshi [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). School of Medicine; Takashima, Hitoshi [Kagawa Medical School (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Post-radiation necrosis of the larynx is a major complication after irradiation and has become rare. Recently, combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been introduced for head and neck tumours. The authors report a case of laryngeal necrosis after combination therapy for a patient with cervical lymph node metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and review the literature on late laryngeal necrosis. Although radiation-induced laryngeal necrosis has become a rare complication, the combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase its incidence. (author).

  1. Scalp Dose Evaluation According Radiation Therapy Technique of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joon Yung; Park, Soo Yun; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Opposing portal irradiation with helmet field shape that has been given to a patient with brain metastasis can cause excess dose in patient's scalp, resulting in hair loss. For this reason, this study is to quantitatively analyze scalp dose for effective prevention of hair loss by comparing opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy designed to protect patient's scalp with conventional radiation therapy. Scalp dose was measured by using three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO) after five thermo-luminescence dosimeters were positioned along center line of frontal lobe by using RANDO Phantom. Scalp dose and change in dose distribution were compared and analyzed with DVH after radiation therapy plan was made by using Radiation Treatment Planning System (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System, USA) and 6 MV X-ray (Clinac 6EX, VARIAN, USA). When surface dose of scalp by using thermo-luminescence dosimeters was measured, it was revealed that scalp dose decreased by average 87.44% at each point in MLC technique and that scalp dose decreased by average 88.03% at each point in TOMO compared with HELMET field therapy. In addition, when percentage of volume (V95%, V100%, V105% of prescribed dose) was calculated by using Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) in order to evaluate the existence or nonexistence of hotspot in scalp as to three therapies (HELMET, MLC, TOMO), it was revealed that MLC technique and TOMO plan had good dose coverage and did not have hot spot. Reducing hair loss of a patient who receives whole brain radiotherapy treatment can make a contribution to improve life quality of the patient. It is expected that making good use of opposing portal irradiation with scalp-shielding shape and tomotherapy to protect scalp of a patient based on this study will reduce hair loss of a patient.

  2. Modern role and issues of radiation therapy for benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Tateno, Atsushi; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1999-01-01

    Cases of radiation therapy for benign diseases have diminished in number because of recent alternative methods and knowledge about radiation carcinogenesis. In contrast to this tendency, our cases of benign diseases have recently increased. The facts made us reconsider today's radiation therapy of benign diseases. We reviewed 349 patients who were diagnosed as having benign tumors or non-neoplastic conditions and treated by radiation therapy in the past sixteen years. Analyzed items were the annual transition of treatment number, sorts of diseases, patients' age and sex, and the goal of therapy. Of all radiation therapy patients, benign diseases account for 9.26%. The annual percentages were 0.5%, 6.0%, 11.2% and 13.7% at intervals of five years since 1982. The majority was 246 post-operative irradiation for keloids (71%) and 41 pituitary adenomas (12%). Compared with malignant tumors, benign disease patients were statistically younger and female-dominant. Applications of radiation therapy in keloids and pituitary adenomas had definite goals, but were unclear in other rare diseases. Benign diseases should be treated by radiation therapy as the second or third option, provided the patients have serious symptoms and their diseases do not respond to other modalities. It seems to be widely accepted that favorite cases such as keloids and pituitary adenomas are treated by radiation therapy. But, optimal radiation therapies for other rare benign diseases have not been established. Therefore, the building of databases on radiation therapy on benign diseases should be pursued. Since benign disease patients were young and female-dominant and had many remaining years, their carcinogenicity potential should be considered. (author)

  3. Using Oxygen “Microbubbles” To Improve Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen-carrying “microbubbles” could potentially improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy in the treatment of breast cancer, findings from a study in mice suggest. Using the bubbles along with radiation slowed tumor growth more than radiation alone, as this NCI Cancer Currents post reports.

  4. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo; Morimatu, Takafumi

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  5. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS...

  6. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Kuo Ann; Yeo, Richard; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed. PMID:22408567

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Hack, C. Erik; Wuillemin, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a frequent complication of sepsis. Coagulation activation, inhibition of fibrinolysis, and consumption of coagulation inhibitors lead to a procoagulant state resulting in inadequate fibrin removal and fibrin deposition in the microvasculature. As a

  8. CT follow-up after radiation therapy for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, S.C.; Newall, J.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, 105 patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their treatment for pituitary tumor at the New York University Medical Center. Of these, 48 patients underwent computed tomography (CT) at a minimum of 2 years following treatment, with detailed reports available for analysis of tumor regression. There were 28 men with a median age of 46 years (range, 18-71 years) and 20 women with a median age of 53 years (range, 28-80 years). Tumors were classified as secretory in 23 patients, nonsecretory in 21, and undetermined in four. Sixteen patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 23 patients with surgery and radiation therapy, and the other with bromocriptine and radiation therapy, with or without surgery. With a median follow-up of 5 years (range, 2-14 years), 16 patients developed an empty sella, 25 patients had residual sellar mass, and seven patients had persistent extrasellar components or no change in their intrasellar mass. Among patients who did not have hypopituitarism at the inception of radiation therapy, five of 13 with empty sellas and 12 of 22 with residual mass subsequently required therapy. The authors conclude that residual mass is commonly found in long-term follow-up after radiation therapy, that isolated imaging studies revealing such findings after treatment in no way herald a diagnosis of recurrence, and that hypopituitarism following pituitary radiation therapy does not correlate with the ablation or persistence of tissue within the sella

  9. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryanski, M.J.; Schulz, R.J.; Gignac, C.; Eastman, P.; Gore, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  10. Postoperative radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Chatani, Masashi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kurokawa, Eiji; Kodama, Ken; Doi, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    From January 1978 through December 1982, a total of 241 cases with lung cancer underwent surgery. Twenty-nine cases (operative death: 7, relative non-curative operation: 13, exploratory thoracotomy: 9) were excluded because they did not receive radiation therapy (RT). The remaining 212 cases were available for this analysis. Forty-two of them were treated with RT postoperatively. Three-year survival rates according to curability in the non-RT and RT groups were 83 % and 71 % (NS) in the curative operation group. In the relatively curative operation group, the corresponding figures were 40 % and 33 % (NS), and in the absolutely non-curative operation group, 3 % and 20 % (p < 0.01), respectively. The analysis of background factors revealed that in the curative operation group the rate of combined resection and in the relatively curative operation group pT3 and combined resection were significantly higher in the RT group than non-RT group. In the absolutely non-curative operation group, the rate of pM1 was significantly lower in RT group than the non-RT group. The pattern of failure of the RT group by histology was analysed. Local and regional failure was most common in the squamous cell carcinoma group and distant failure in the adenocarcinoma group. However, in the adenocarcinoma group local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was also frequently noted. The relationship between the radiation field and local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was analysed. In the squamous cell carcinoma group, in-field failure was most common, whereas in the adenocarcinoma group, outside (marginal) failure was common, especially in the supraclavicular lymph nodes. Concerning squamous cell carcinoma, microscopic or macroscopic residual tumor at the surgical margin, which includes the chest wall, stump (BS or VS) and pericardium was well controlled in each operation group with more than 50 Gy of RT. (J.P.N.)

  11. Scatter factors assessment in microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sanchez, M. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie IMNC-UMR 8165, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire, Bat. 440, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain) and ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Servicio de Radiofisica, Complejo Hospitalario de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Choupana S/N, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The success of the preclinical studies in Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) paved the way to the clinical trials under preparation at the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Within this framework, an accurate determination of the deposited dose is crucial. With that aim, the scatter factors, which translate the absolute dose measured in reference conditions (2 x 2 cm{sup 2} field size at 2 cm-depth in water) to peak doses, were assessed. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed with two different widely used codes, PENELOPE and GEANT4, for the sake of safety. The scatter factors were obtained as the ratio of the doses that are deposited by a microbeam and by a field of reference size, at the reference depth. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained by radiochromic (ISP HD-810) films and a PTW 34070 large area chamber. Results: The scatter factors for different microbeam field sizes assessed by the two MC codes were in agreement and reproduced the experimental data within uncertainty bars. Those correction factors were shown to be non-negligible for the future MRT clinical settings: an average 30% lower dose was deposited by a 50 {mu}m microbeam with respect to the reference conditions. Conclusions: For the first time, the scatter factors in MRT were systematically studied. They constitute an essential key to deposit accurate doses in the forthcoming clinical trials in MRT. The good agreement between the different calculations and the experimental data confirms the reliability of this challenging micrometric dose estimation.

  12. A virtual radiation therapy workflow training simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, P.; Crowe, S.B.; Gibson, G.; Ellemor, N.J.; Hargrave, C.; Carmichael, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Simulation forms an increasingly vital component of clinical skills development in a wide range of professional disciplines. Simulation of clinical techniques and equipment is designed to better prepare students for placement by providing an opportunity to learn technical skills in a “safe” academic environment. In radiotherapy training over the last decade or so this has predominantly comprised treatment planning software and small ancillary equipment such as mould room apparatus. Recent virtual reality developments have dramatically changed this approach. Innovative new simulation applications and file processing and interrogation software have helped to fill in the gaps to provide a streamlined virtual workflow solution. This paper outlines the innovations that have enabled this, along with an evaluation of the impact on students and educators. Method: Virtual reality software and workflow applications have been developed to enable the following steps of radiation therapy to be simulated in an academic environment: CT scanning using a 3D virtual CT scanner simulation; batch CT duplication; treatment planning; 3D plan evaluation using a virtual linear accelerator; quantitative plan assessment, patient setup with lasers; and image guided radiotherapy software. Results: Evaluation of the impact of the virtual reality workflow system highlighted substantial time saving for academic staff as well as positive feedback from students relating to preparation for clinical placements. Students valued practice in the “safe” environment and the opportunity to understand the clinical workflow ahead of clinical department experience. Conclusion: Simulation of most of the radiation therapy workflow and tasks is feasible using a raft of virtual reality simulation applications and supporting software. Benefits of this approach include time-saving, embedding of a case-study based approach, increased student confidence, and optimal use of the clinical environment

  13. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  14. On probabilistically defined margins in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papiez, Lech; Langer, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2006-08-21

    Margins about a target volume subject to external beam radiation therapy are designed to assure that the target volume of tissue to be sterilized by treatment is adequately covered by a lethal dose. Thus, margins are meant to guarantee that all potential variation in tumour position relative to beams allows the tumour to stay within the margin. Variation in tumour position can be broken into two types of dislocations, reducible and irreducible. Reducible variations in tumour position are those that can be accommodated with the use of modern image-guided techniques that derive parameters for compensating motions of patient bodies and/or motions of beams relative to patient bodies. Irreducible variations in tumour position are those random dislocations of a target that are related to errors intrinsic in the design and performance limitations of the software and hardware, as well as limitations of human perception and decision making. Thus, margins in the era of image-guided treatments will need to accommodate only random errors residual in patient setup accuracy (after image-guided setup corrections) and in the accuracy of systems designed to track moving and deforming tissues of the targeted regions of the patient's body. Therefore, construction of these margins will have to be based on purely statistical data. The characteristics of these data have to be determined through the central limit theorem and Gaussian properties of limiting error distributions. In this paper, we show how statistically determined margins are to be designed in the general case of correlated distributions of position errors in three-dimensional space. In particular, we show how the minimal margins for a given level of statistical confidence are found. Then, how they are to be used to determine geometrically minimal PTV that provides coverage of GTV at the assumed level of statistical confidence. Our results generalize earlier recommendations for statistical, central limit theorem

  15. New modalities in radiation therapy for treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. Cancer mortality is the second and most common cause of death in the USA and in most European countries. In India, it is the fourth leading disease and the major cause of death. Cancer remains one of the most dreadful disease and approximately ten million cases of cancer occur in the world every year. The course of cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, its location, and its state of advancement. Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy and targeted therapy. Radiation therapy is an important an affordable modality for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. Radiation kills cancer cells with high-energy rays targeted directly to the tumor. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA and preventing its replication: therefore, it preferentially kills cancer cells, which rapidly divides. Radiation therapy is used for cure, control, and palliation of cancers in more than 60% of cancer patients. The goal of radiotherapy is to treat the cancer and spare the normal tissue as much as possible. Advances have been made in radiotherapy that allow delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor while sparing a greater amount of surrounding tissue, thus achieving more cures and fewer acute and long-term side effects. Technological advances and research are being continued to result in improvements in the field. Several new devices and techniques are used these days in radiotherapy for accurate treatment of cancer. Teletherapy (external radiation therapy) used focused radiation beams targeting well defined tumor through extremely detailed imaging scans. Conventional external beam radiation therapy (2DXRT) is delivered via two-dimensional beams using linear accelerator machines (X

  16. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katrina, E-mail: Trinabena23@gmail.com; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  17. Two case reports of a cerebrovascular disorder after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Jiro; Mimaki, Takashi; Tagawa, Tetsuzo

    1985-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of certain brain tumors. However, a few patients have been reported who developed cerebrovasculopathy accompanying transient ischemic attacks several months to several years after radiation therapy. The present report described cerebrovascular disorders after radiation therapy for brain tumors. The first case was an 8-year-6-month-old boy treated with a total dose of 5,200 rads after partial removal of a right periventricular astrocytoma extending into the thalamus. Two years and 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy, he showed transient ischemic attacks of numbness in the right upper limb and right hemiparesis. Arteriography revealed stenosis or occlusion of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Preoperative arteriography did not show occlusion nor narrowing of the cerebral arteries. The second case was a 2-year-8-month-old boy diagnosed as diencephalic syndrome, because of marked emaciation and a huge tumor mass expanding into the diencephalon and frontal lobe on the brain CT scan. He was irradiated with up to 5,000 rads. Seven months after radiation therapy, he developed transient right hemiparesis. Arteriography revealed stenosis or occlusion of the middle sized cerebral arteries. Although radiation therapy is acceptable in children with certain brain tumors, and very few patients develop postradiation vasculopathy, the risk of radiation therapy requires more careful consideration in the treatment of intracranial tumors. (author)

  18. Treatment of Recurrent Chordomas by Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Fukukura, Y.; Nandate, T.; Nakajo, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent sacral chordomas that have been successfully controlled by the combination therapy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) and radiation therapy in a 71-year-old man. PEIT may be one of the adjuvant therapies for recurrent chordomas

  19. Cost-containment in hypofractionated radiation therapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Darren; Mauldon, Emily; Anderson, Nigel

    2018-03-13

    Recent technological advances in radiation therapy have allowed for greater accuracy in planning and treatment delivery. The development of hypofractionated radiation treatment regimens is an example, and has the potential to decrease the cost per episode of care, relative to conventional treatments. Our aim was to analyse published literature on the cost-effectiveness and budgetary implications of hypofractionated radiation therapy. As such, this article will quantify the projected health care cost savings and address the optimal means of treatment delivery, associated patient outcomes, and implications arising from an increased use of hypofractionated regimens. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  20. Radiation therapy for the solitary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül Koçak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-cell neoplasms are classically categorized into four groups as: multiple myeloma (MM, plasma-cell leukemias, solitary plasmacytomas (SP of the bone (SPB, and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP. These tumors may be described as localized or diffuse in presentation. Localized plasma-cell neoplasms are rare, and include SP of the skeletal system, accounting for 2-5% of all plasma-cell neoplasms, and EMP of soft tissue, accounting for approximately 3% of all such neoplasms. SP is defined as a solitary mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in the bone marrow or in various soft tissue sites. There appears to be a continuum in which SP often progresses to MM. The main treatment modality for SP is radiation therapy (RT. However, there are no conclusive data in the literature on the optimal RT dose for SP. This review describes the interrelationship of plasma-cell neoplasms, and attempts to determine the minimal RT dose required to obtain local control.

  1. Stereotactic radiation therapy for large vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, Ellen S.; Meijer, Otto W.M.; Slotman, Ben J.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Peerdeman, Saskia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the morbidity and tumor-control rate in the treatment of large vestibular schwannomas (VS) after stereotactic radiation therapy in our institution. Material and methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients (17 men, 8 women) with large VS (diameter 3.0 cm or larger), treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between 1992 and 2007, were retrospectively studied after a mean follow-up period of three years with respect to tumor-control rate and complications. Results: Actuarial 5-year maintenance of pre-treatment hearing level probability of 30% was achieved. Five of 17 patients suffered permanent new facial nerve dysfunction. The actuarial 5-year facial nerve preservation probability was 80%. Permanent new trigeminal nerve neuropathy occurred in two of 15 patients, resulting in an actuarial 5-year trigeminal nerve preservation probability of 85%. Tumor progression occurred in four of 25 (16%) patients. The overall 5-year tumor control probability was 82%. Conclusion: Increased morbidity rates were found in patients with large VS treated with SRT or SRS compared to the published series on regular sized VS and other smaller retrospective studies on large VS.

  2. Radiation therapy for long-bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadasaki, Kouichi; Tomiyoshi, Hideki; Ooshima, Yoshie; Urashima, Masaki; Mori, Masaki

    1992-01-01

    Efficacy of palliative and prophylactic radiotherapies for metastatic bone pain and pathological fracture was investigated in 14 patients with long bone metastases. Irradiation sites were the femur in 10 patients, the humerus in 2, the radius in one, and the tibia in one. Radiographs showed osteolytic lesion in 13 patients and osteoblastic lesion in one. A total dose of 48.6 Gy to 87.3 Gy was delivered in daily fractional doses of 2 Gy (one patient), 2.5 Gy (3), 3 Gy (6), 4 Gy (2) and 5 Gy (2), 5 days a week. For 13 patients, except for one death within one month after the completion of irradiation, pain relief was attained. Of these patients, 7 (54%) had complete pain relief. In one patient, pathological fracture occurred as early as 10 days after the beginning of irradiation when irradiation efficacy was not attained. In none of the 13 others, was pathological fracture encountered. No side effects were seen at all during or after irradiation. Radiation therapy was an extremely effective means for managing patients with long bone metastases in terms of its palliative and prophylactic role. (N.K.)

  3. The Indiana University proton radiation therapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.; Derenchuk, V.; Cameron, J.; Fasano, M.; Gilmore, J.; Hashemian, R.; Hornback, N.; Low, D.A.; Morphis, J.; Peterson, C.; Rosselot, D.; Sandison, G.; Shen, R.N.; Shidnia, H.

    1993-01-01

    A fixed horizontal beam line at the Indiana University cyclotron facility (IUCF) has been equipped for proton radiation therapy treatment of head, neck, and brain tumors. The complete system will be commissioned and ready to treat patients early in 1993. IUCF can produce external proton beams from 45 to 200 MeV in energy, which corresponds to a maximum range in water of 26 cm. Beam currents over 100 nA are easily attained, allowing dose rates in excess of 200 cGy/min, even for large fields. Beam spreading systems have been tested which provide uniform fields up to 20 cm in diameter. Range modulation is accomplished with a rotating acrylic device, which provides uniform depth dose distributions from 3 to 18 cm in extent. Tests have been conducted on detectors which monitor the beam position and current, and the dose symmetry. This report discusses those devices, as well as the cyclotron characteristics, measured beam properties, safety interlocks, computerized dose delivery/monitoring system, and future plans. (orig.)

  4. Chondronecrosis of the cricoid cartilage following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Masahiro; Isshiki, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi

    1979-01-01

    Chondronecrosis of the laryngeal cartilage following radiation therapy is a rare but serious complication. We report herein a case of post-radiation chondronecrosis and discuss factors predisposing to its development. A 67-year-old man received telecobalt therapy for cancer of the right vocal cord. A year after the radiation therapy given in a dose of 7,000r, the patient developed dysphagia and dyspnea. Following tracheotomy, he underwent total laryngectomy. The surgical specimen showed no cancer but chondronecrosis of the cricoid cartilage was present. After laryngectomy he developed progressive soft tissue necrosis of the neck and died following a carotid hemorrhage. (author)

  5. Radiation therapy quality control in MRCCC radiotherapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielda Djuita; Rina Taurisia; Andreas Nainggolan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing cancer patients in Indonesia is not supported with the number of equipment that is able to treat cancer patients, especially in the radiation therapy field. Therefore, several private hospitals have joined to provide radiation therapy services and one of them is MRCCC. As a new hospital providing services in radiotherapy field, the writer tries to present our quality control program that we have done in our hospital. Purpose: As quality control to radiation therapy clinical practice. Methods: Descriptive essay of what we do in our institution. Conclusion: Average output photon and electron lower more than tolerance dose. (author)

  6. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-07-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  7. COMPARISON OF HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIATION THERAPY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL RADIATION THERAPY IN POST MASTECTOMY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death in females and accounts for 1.8 million new cases and approximately 0.5 million deaths annually. Patients who present with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC require multidisciplinary team approach that incorporates diagnostic imaging, surgery, chemotherapy and histopathological assessment, including molecular-based studies, radiation, and, if indicated, biologic and hormonal therapies. Hypofractionated radiation therapy following mastectomy has been used in many institutions for several decades and have demonstrated equivalent local control, cosmetic and normal tissues between 50 Gy in 25 fractions and various hypofractionated radiotherapy prescriptions employing 13-16 fractions. Evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy may also be safe and effective for regional nodal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare the local control and side effects of hypofractionated radiation therapy with conventional radiation therapy in post mastectomy carcinoma breast with stage II and III and to compare the tolerability and compliance of both schedules. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 60 histopathologically proven patients of carcinoma of breast, treated surgically with modified radical mastectomy. Group I patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 39 Gy/13 fractions/3.1 weeks, a daily dose 3 Gy for 13 fractions in 4 days a week schedule and Group II patients were given external radiation to chest flap and drainage areas, a dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks, to receive a daily dose 2 Gy for 25 fractions in a 5 days a week schedule. RESULTS The median age at presentation in Group I and II was 48 and 50 years respectively. Locoregional control after completion of radiotherapy in Group I vs. Group II was 26/30 (86.7% vs. 27/30 (90% respectively. Acute reactions and their grades in Group

  8. Optimizing patient positioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy in hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siglin, Joshua; Champ, Colin E; Vakhnenko, Yelena; Witek, Matthew E; Peng, Cheng; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Harrison, Amy S; Shi, Wenyin

    2014-01-01

    Sparing the hippocampus during whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) offers potential neurocognitive benefits. However, previously reported intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans use multiple noncoplanar beams for treatment delivery. An optimized coplanar IMRT template for hippocampal-sparing WBRT would assist in clinical workflow and minimize resource utilization. In this study, we sought to determine the optimal patient position to facilitate coplanar treatment planning and delivery of hippocampal-sparing WBRT using IMRT. A variable angle, inclined board was utilized for patient positioning. An anthropomorphic phantom underwent computed tomography simulation at various head angles. The IMRT goals were designed to achieve target coverage of the brain while maintaining hippocampal dose-volume constraints designed to conform to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0933 protocol. Optimal head angle was then verified using data from 8 patients comparing coplanar and noncoplanar WBRT IMRT plans. Hippocampal, hippocampal avoidance region, and whole brain mean volumes were 1.1 cm(3), 12.5 cm(3), and 1185.1 cm(3), respectively. The hippocampal avoidance region occupied 1.1% of the whole brain planning volume. For the 30-degree head angle, a 7-field coplanar IMRT plan was generated, sparing the hippocampus to a maximum dose of 14.7 Gy; D100% of the hippocampus was 7.4 Gy and mean hippocampal dose was 9.3 Gy. In comparison, for flat head positioning the hippocampal Dmax was 22.9 Gy with a D100% of 9.2 Gy and mean dose of 11.7 Gy. Target coverage and dose homogeneity was comparable with previously published noncoplanar IMRT plans. Compared with conventional supine positioning, an inclined head board at 30 degrees optimizes coplanar whole brain IMRT treatment planning. Clinically acceptable hippocampal-sparing WBRT dosimetry can be obtained using a simplified coplanar plan at a 30-degree head angle, thus obviating the need for complex and time consuming noncoplanar

  9. New technologies in radiation therapy: ensuring patient safety, radiation safety and regulatory issues in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard I

    2008-11-01

    New technologies such as intensity modulated and image guided radiation therapy, computer controlled linear accelerators, record and verify systems, electronic charts, and digital imaging have revolutionized radiation therapy over the past 10-15 y. Quality assurance (QA) as historically practiced and as recommended in reports such as American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Groups 40 and 53 needs to be updated to address the increasing complexity and computerization of radiotherapy equipment, and the increased quantity of data defining a treatment plan and treatment delivery. While new technology has reduced the probability of many types of medical events, seeing new types of errors caused by improper use of new technology, communication failures between computers, corrupted or erroneous computer data files, and "software bugs" are now being seen. The increased use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography imaging has become routine for many types of radiotherapy treatment planning, and QA for imaging modalities is beyond the expertise of most radiotherapy physicists. Errors in radiotherapy rarely result solely from hardware failures. More commonly they are a combination of computer and human errors. The increased use of radiosurgery, hypofractionation, more complex intensity modulated treatment plans, image guided radiation therapy, and increasing financial pressures to treat more patients in less time will continue to fuel this reliance on high technology and complex computer software. Clinical practitioners and regulatory agencies are beginning to realize that QA for new technologies is a major challenge and poses dangers different in nature than what are historically familiar.

  10. Planning guide for radiologic installations. fascicle 1 -- radiation therapy installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuddenham, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Five articles dealing with the development and operation of radiation therapy facilities present recommendations for the design of various types of radiation therapy facilities, including the university center, the free-standing private oncology center, and the community hospital radiation therapy department. Different concepts of department design are represented. In one article, the planning room is conceived to be the central feature of a facility; in another article, radiation therapy is designed around examination rooms. Shielding requirements are also discussed, as are the advantages and space and licensing requirements of various types of equipment. There is a need for planning appropriate computer facilities in conjunction with other equipment plans, and a critique of one radiation therapy unit is provided. The concept of a regional network for the delivery of radiation therapy services is then explored. The volume contains extensive illustrations in the form of floor plans, drawings, figures, and tables. Many of the articles include a bibliography. This is the first in a series of publications on radiation department design which will be useful to architects, engineers, and hospital planners

  11. Intravascular Ultrasound and its Use in Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepanec, A.; Vulev, I.; Vozar, M.; Balazs, T.; Madaric, J.; Holoman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound has become in invasive vascular radiology in the last decade the important part of diagnostic and also therapeutic procedures in management of vascular diseases. The basic possibilities for the use of IVUS include diagnostic procedures in vascular pathology assessment and therapeutic indications in the field of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI). Unlike other image modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound) IVUS enables gather unique image in r eal time r ight from the vessel lumen, what helps to add important information regarding vessel wall, plate morphology, thrombi and cross-sectional vessel area. After initial use of intravascular ultrasound in coronary circulation, using IVUS is nowadays widely extended especially in aortic diseases, carotid and renal arteries and arteries of the lower extremities. This review article summarizes possibilities of intravascular ultrasound utilization in diagnostic process and therapy from peripheral vascular diseases up to thoracoabdominal aorta diseases and our experience with this new diagnostic modality. (author)

  12. Optimal Radiation Therapy for Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Loo, Billy W

    2017-04-01

    Radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of both limited stage and extensive stage small cell lung cancer. For limited stage disease, there has been a trend toward reduced size of thoracic radiation fields, which has the potential to reduce toxicity. FDG-PET staging helps make this possible by more accurately identifying areas of nodal and metastatic involvement. Trials have demonstrated similar outcomes using a range of radiation fractionation schedules, allowing flexibility in individualizing treatment. Using advanced radiation therapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, it may be possible to deliver fewer, higher dose fractions and achieve similar results to the hyperfractionated regimen. For extensive stage disease, consolidative thoracic radiation therapy after chemotherapy was recently shown to improve overall survival in certain patient subsets. Prophylactic cranial irradiation continues to play an important role in management of all stages of small cell lung cancer. Debate continues about the neurocognitive effects of this treatment, and whether MRI surveillance is an acceptable alternative. Strategies such as hippocampal avoidance may reduce the cognitive effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the future. Finally, in the last few years stereotactic ablative radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for stage I small cell lung cancer. This radiation treatment is usually given over 1-5 fractions and appears to provide a good rate of local control with a low rate of serious toxicity.

  13. Target volumes in gastric cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Ratoanina, J.L.; Escarmant, P.

    2001-01-01

    The spread of gastric adenocarcinoma may follow three main patterns: hemato-genic, lymphatic and intraperitoneal. A GTV should be considered in preoperative or exclusive radiation therapy. After non-radical surgery, a 'residual GTV' will be defined with the help of the surgeon. The CTV encompasses three intricated volumes. a) A 'tumor bed' volume. After radical surgery, local recurrences appear as frequent as distant metastases. The risk depends upon the depth of parietal invasion and the nodal status. Parietal infiltration may extend beyond macroscopic limits of the tumor, especially in dinitis plastica. Therefore this volume will include: the tumor and the remaining stomach or their 'bed of resection', a part of the transverse colon, the duodenum, the pancreas and the troncus of the portal vein. In postoperative RT, this CTV also includes the jejuno-gastric or jejuno-esophageal anastomosis. b) A peritoneal volume. For practical purposes, two degrees of spread must be considered: (1) contiguous microscopic extension from deeply invasive T3 and T4 tumors, that remain amenable to local sterilization with doses of 45-50 Gy, delivered in a CTV including the peritoneal cavity at the level of the gastric bed, and under the parietal incision; (2) true 'peritoneal carcinomatosis', with widespread seeds, where chemotherapy (systemic or intraperitoneal) is more appropriate. c) A lymphatic volume including the lymph node groups 1 to 16 of the Japanese classification. This volume must encompass the hepatic pedicle and the splenic hilum. In proximal tumors, it is possible to restrict the lover part of the CTV to the lymphatic volume, and therefore to avoid irradiation of large intestinal and renal volumes. In distal and proximal tumors, involvement of resection margins is of poor prognosis -a radiation boost must be delivered at this level. The CTV in tumors of the cardia should encompass the lover part of the thoracic esophagus and the corresponding posterior mediastinum. In

  14. RADIATION THERAPY COMMUNICATION-REIRRADIATION OF A NASAL TUMOR IN A BRACHYCEPHALIC DOG USING INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancilio, Nicholas J; Custead, Michelle R; Poulson, Jean M

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu was referred for evaluation of a nasal transitional carcinoma. A total lifetime dose of 117 Gy was delivered to the intranasal mass in three courses over nearly 2 years using fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to spare normal tissues. Clinically significant late normal tissue side effects were limited to bilaterally diminished tear production. The patient died of metastatic disease progression 694 days after completion of radiation therapy course 1. This case demonstrates that retreatment with radiation therapy to high lifetime doses for recurrent local disease may be well tolerated with IMRT. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and

  16. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, J A G; Burns, J; Barnes, J; Colgan, F; White, S A; Littler, P; Manas, D M; French, J J

    2015-11-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a non-ablative technique for the treatment of liver primaries and metastases, with the intention of reducing tumour bulk. This study aimed to determine optimal patient selection, and elucidate its role as a downsizing modality. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who underwent SIRT between 2011 and 2014. The procedure was performed percutaneously by an expert radiologist. Response was analysed in two categories, based on radiological (CT/MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST)) and biological (α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, chromogranin A) parameters. Forty-four patients were included. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (22 patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (9) were the most common pathologies. Radiological response data were collected from 31 patients. A reduction in sum of diameters (SOD) was observed in patients with HCC (median -24.1 (95 per cent c.i. -43.4 to -3.8) per cent) and neuroendocrine tumours (-30.0 (-45.6 to -7.7) per cent), whereas a slight increase in SOD was seen in patients with colorectal cancer (4.9 (-10.6 to 55.3) per cent). Biological response was assessed in 17 patients, with a reduction in 12, a mixed response in two and no improvement in three. Six- and 12-month overall survival rates were 71 and 41 per cent respectively. There was no difference in overall survival between the RECIST response groups (median survival 375, 290 and 214 days for patients with a partial response, stable disease and progressive disease respectively; P = 0.130), or according to primary pathology (P = 0.063). Seven patients underwent liver resection with variable responses after SIRT. SIRT may be used to downsize tumours and may be used as a bridge to surgery in patients with tumours deemed borderline for resection. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. NMR with Combined Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapies - Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The original goal of the present study was to determine optimal strategies for combining radiation and antiangiogenic therapies in spontaneous murine tumors and to evaluate the potential of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR...

  18. Automatic Organ Localization for Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi, Sarang

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this study is adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for prostate cancer, in which the treatment is to be adjusted over time, based on CT images acquired on the treatment table before each daily treatment...

  19. Multiple Aperture Radiation Therapy (MART) for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Tianfang

    2006-01-01

    .... In this USAMRMC-supported project, we have developed a multiple-aperture radiation therapy (MART) procedure dedicated to breast irradiation, which combines the planning simplicity of the conventional OFT with the superior dose distribution of IMRT methods...

  20. Review of the afterloading techniques in gynecologic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotte, K.

    1975-01-01

    A review of clinically used afterloading techniques - remote controlled and manually operated ones - is given by tables. The advantages of afterloading techniques are discussed with regard to radiation protection as well as to the therapy of gynecologic carcinomas. (orig.) [de

  1. CART - a Scandinavian approach to computer aided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstam, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CART project, a program of computer-aided radiation therapy developed as a joint venture by Scandinavian countries is described. The history is outlined and the individual areas of the CART program are listed. (L.O.). 3 refs

  2. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, C.; Jarosz, H.; Calandra, D.; McCall, A.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1987-01-01

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently

  3. Calcifications in mediastinal lymphoma after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Menges, V.

    1976-01-01

    One case of calcifications in mediastinal lymphoma after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease is reported. The incidence of these calcifications is remarkably low. They are mostly localized in the anterior mediastinum showing a characteristical pattern which is initially stippled, later confluent and coral-shaped. An open interval after radiation therapy is typical for this phenomenon. The cause of the calcifications is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bortfeld, T; Jeraj, R

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more...

  5. Role of radiation therapy for 'juvenile' angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudea, F.; Vega, M.; Canals, E.; Montserrat, J.M.; Valdano, J. (Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Spain))

    1990-09-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign neoplasm which occurs primarily in male adolescents and is characterized by aggressive local growth. The controversy concerning appropriate treatment for patients with juvenile angiofibroma persists. Radiation therapy and survival resection have both been reported to be effective to control a high proportion of these tumours. The case reported here demonstrates a locally advanced JNA controlled by radiation therapy. (author).

  6. Monte Carol-Based Dosimetry of Beta-Emitters for Intravascular Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.K.

    2002-06-25

    Monte Carlo simulations for radiation dosimetry and the experimental verifications of the simulations have been developed for the treatment geometry of intravascular brachytherapy, a form of radionuclide therapy for occluded coronary disease (restenosis). Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, has been used to calculate the radiation dose from the encapsulated array of B-emitting seeds (Sr/Y-source train). Solid water phantoms have been fabricated to measure the dose on the radiochromic films that were exposed to the beta source train for both linear and curved coronary vessel geometries. While the dose difference for the 5-degree curved vessel at the prescription point of f+2.0 mm is within the 10% guideline set by the AAPM, however, the difference increased dramatically to 16.85% for the 10-degree case which requires additional adjustment for the acceptable dosimetry planning. The experimental dose measurements agree well with the simulation results

  7. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O' Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  8. Comparison of split-course radiation therapy and continuous radiation therapy for unresectable bronchogenic carcinoma: 5 year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.E.; Carr, D.T.; Childs, D.S. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight patients with inoperable or unresectable bronchogenic carcinoma were stratified by cell type, TNM staging, and prior surgery and then randomized into two treatment groups: continuous radiation therapy and split-course radiation therapy. There was no difference in clinical or objective improvement in the two groups. Survival rates for cases of squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma were the same after both regimens of therapy. Split-course therapy resulted in a significantly better survival rate in cases of large cell carcinoma but the number of cases was small. We doubt that the difference is clinically significant. Objective roentgenographic response was accompanied by improved survival in squamous cell carcinoma, but not in the other three cell types. Split-course radiation therapy is superior to continuous radiation therapy because it is better tolerated by the patient and because re-examination of the patient prior to the second half of split-course therapy permits the detection of new metastatic disease that has become manifest during the rest period and spares the patient the futile second half of radiation therapy

  9. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  10. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasdorf, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  11. Coronary artery calcium in breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Pilz, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Morris, Pamela B; Henzler, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ae

  12. Development of a versatile algorithm for optimization of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Anders.

    1996-12-01

    A flexible iterative gradient algorithm for radiation therapy optimization has been developed. The algorithm is based on dose calculation using the pencil-beam description of external radiation beams in uniform and heterogeneous patients. The properties of the algorithm are described, including its ability to treat variable bounds and linear constraints, its efficiency in gradient calculation, its convergence properties and termination criteria. 116 refs

  13. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  14. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiothera...

  15. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care

  16. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  17. Anesthesia for pediatric external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, Jennifer T.; Halperin, Edward C.; Hertz, Caryn M.; Schulman, Scott R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: For very young patients, anesthesia is often required for radiotherapy. This results in multiple exposures to anesthetic agents over a short period of time. We report a consecutive series of children anesthetized for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods: Five hundred twelve children ≤ 16 years old received EBRT from January 1983 to February 1996. Patient demographics, diagnosis, anesthesia techniques, monitoring, airway management, complications, and outcome were recorded for the patients requiring anesthesia. Results: One hundred twenty-three of the 512 children (24%) required 141 courses of EBRT with anesthesia. Anesthetized patients ranged in age from 20 days to 11 years (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 ). The frequency of a child receiving EBRT and requiring anesthesia by age cohort was: ≤ 1 year (96%), 1-2 years (93%), 2-3 years (80%), 3-4 years (51%), 4-5 years (36%), 5-6 years (13%), 6-7 years (11%), and 7-16 years (0.7%). Diagnoses included: primary CNS tumor (28%), retinoblastoma (27%), neuroblastoma (20%), acute leukemia (9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (6%), and Wilms' tumor (4%). Sixty-three percent of the patients had been exposed to chemotherapy prior to EBRT. The mean number of anesthesia sessions per patient was 22 ± 16. Seventy-eight percent of the treatment courses were once daily and 22% were twice daily. Anesthesia techniques included: short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (21%), inhalation only (20%), ketamine (19%), propofol only (12%), propofol induction + inhalation maintenance (7%), ketamine induction + inhalation maintenance (6%), ketamine or short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (6%). Monitoring techniques included: EKG (95%), O 2 saturation (93%), fraction of inspired O 2 (57%), and end-tidal CO 2 (55%). Sixty-four percent of patients had central venous access. Eleven of the 74 children with a central line developed sepsis (15%): 6 of the 11 were anesthetized with propofol (55%), 4 with a

  18. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  19. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  20. Radiation therapy for primary spinal cord tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, B.; Grujicic, D.; Jovanovic, D.; Djuric, L.; Mijatovic, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of radiation therapy in management of primary spinal cord tumors in adults. Records of 21 patients with primary spinal cord tumors treated with radiation therapy after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Histologic examination showed two diffuse and 10 localized ependymomas, six low-grade gliomas, and three malignant gliomas. Surgery consisted of gross tumor resection in six patients, subtotal resection in three patients, and biopsy in 12 patients. Three patients also received chemotherapy. Radiation dose range from 45 to 55 Cy

  1. The pitfalls of dosimetric commissioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Naoki; Kodama, Takashi; Hatano, K.

    2013-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows higher radiation dose to be focused to the target volumes while minimizing the dose to OAR. To start of clinical treatment in IMRTvwe must perform commissioning strictly than 3D-conformal radiotherapy (CRT). In this report, pitfalls of dosimetric commissioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy were reviewed. Multileaf collimator (MLC) offsets and MLC transmissions are important parameters in commissioning of RTPS for IMRT. Correction of depth scaling and fluence scaling is necessary for dose measurement using solid phantom. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...-particle radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...) intended for use in radiation therapy. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display...

  3. Stage III thymoma: results of postoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, J.B.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of postoperative radiation therapy in 12 patients with stage III thymoma treated during 1966-1986 were reviewed. Surgical therapy consisted of total resection in one, subtotal resection in seven, and biopsy only in four. Megavoltage irradiation in the dose range of 3,000-5,600 cGy was employed, with nine patients receiving a dose of at least 5,000 cGy. The local control rate was 67%. The actuarial observed and adjusted 5-year survival rates were 57% and 75%, respectively. These results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy is an effective therapeutic modality in the control of stage III thymoma

  4. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  5. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  6. Neutron-Activatable Nanoparticles for Intraperitoneal Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Derek; Lu, Xiuling

    2017-01-01

    Intraperitoneal internal radiation therapy is a cancer treatment option that is employed in situations where surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy are not amenable for patients. However, exposure of noncancerous tissues to radiation continues to be a hindrance to safe and effective treatment of patients. In addition, reducing prolonged radiation exposure of personnel during preparation of internal radiation therapy agents makes their manufacture complicated and hazardous. Developments in nanotechnology have provided a platform for targeted treatments that combine dual imaging and treatment capabilities all in one package, while also being robust enough to withstand the intense stresses faced during neutron activation. Here, we describe a method for synthesizing neutron activatable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for use in radiotherapy of metastatic peritoneal cancers while limiting personal exposure to radioactive materials, limiting the leakage of radioactive isotopes caused by nanoparticle degradation during neutron activation, and increasing cancer tissue specificity of radiation.

  7. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  8. Intravascular Stenting in Microvascular Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assersen, Kristine; Sørensen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of intravascular stenting (IVaS) on microvascular anastomoses has given adverse results. For experienced microsurgeons the benefit of IVaS is doubtful. We have investigated the potential benefit of the IVaS technique for two groups of inexperienced microsurgeons with differe...

  9. Intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.; Prat, J.; Lopez, J.I.; Velilla, O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975 Dail and Liebow described the clinical and pathological characteristics of a pulmonary tumor which they dominated intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor (IVBAT). Our aim is to acquaint radiologists with the existence of this tumor by describing the radiologic findings in 2 patients with IVBAT, 1 with hepatic involvement ant the other with pulmonary osteoarthropathy. (author). 7 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Oxygenation of spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, R.E.; Ohlerth, S.M.; Bley, C.R.; Inteeworn, N.; Schaerz, M.; Wergin, M.C.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Gassmann, M.; Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation predicts treatment outcome, and reoxygenation is considered important in the efficacy of fractionated radiation therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the changes of the oxygenation status in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy using polarographic needle electrodes. Material and methods: tumor oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) measurements were performed with the eppendorf-pO 2 -Histograph. The measurements were done under general anesthesia, and probe tracks were guided with ultrasound. pO 2 was measured before radiation therapy in all dogs. In patients treated with curative intent, measurements were done sequentially up to eight times (total dose: 45-59.5 Gy). Oxygenation status of the palliative patient group was examined before each fraction of radiation therapy up to five times (total dose: 24-30 Gy). Results: 15/26 tumors had a pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg. The pO 2 values appeared to be quite variable in individual tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. The pO 2 of initially hypoxic tumors (pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg) remained unchanged during fractionated radiotherapy, whereas in initially normoxic tumors the pO 2 decreased. Conclusion: hypoxia is common in spontaneous canine tumors, as 57.7% of the recorded values were ≥ 10 mmHg. The data of this study showed that initially hypoxic tumors remained hypoxic, whereas normoxic tumors became more hypoxic. (orig.)

  11. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  12. Gluteus Maximus Turnover Flap for Sacral Osteomyelitis After Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Sho; Yanagawa, Takashi; Saito, Kenichi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Developments in radiation therapy modalities offer alternative treatments for unresectable malignant tumors in the pelvis and trunk. However, poor vascularity as a result of radiation therapy makes the treated lesion susceptible to infection, and there are no established treatments for pelvic osteomyelitis with a large dead space after radiation therapy. The authors report 2 cases of sacral osteomyelitis after radiation therapy that were treated successfully with a gluteus maximus turnover flap. To create the flap, the distal portion of the lower third of the muscle was detached from the trochanter. The distal edge of the flap was turned toward the sacral defect and sewn to the remnant of the sacrum, which filled the dead space with the muscle bulk. A 68-year-old man with a recurrent sacral chordoma was treated with carbon ion radiation therapy; however, a sacral infection developed 5 months later. Debridement and a course of antibiotics could not control the infection and did not induce sufficient formation of granulation tissue in the large and deep dead space. The turnover flap with both gluteus maximus muscles cured the deep-seated infection and closed the wound. A 58-year-old woman had sacral osteoradionecrosis with infection. A turnover flap created with the left gluteus maximus muscle controlled the infection and closed the wound after the first operation, a V-Y flap, failed. This study showed that a gluteus maximus muscle turnover flap effectively controlled infectious lesions with large and deep dead space around the sacrum. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Alterations of nutritional status: impact of chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, S.S.; Lenon, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The nutritional status of a cancer patient may be affected by the tumor, the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy directed against the tumor, and by complications associated with that therapy. Chemotherpay-radiotherapy is not confined exclusively to malignant cell populations; thus, normal tissues may also be affected by the therapy and may contribute to specific nutritional problems. Impaired nutrition due to anorexia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be dependent upon the specific chemotherapeutic agent, dose, or schedule utilized. Similar side effects from radiation therapy depend upon the dose, fractionation, and volume irradiated. When combined modality treatment is given the nutritional consequences may be magnified. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of nutritional support during chemotherapy-radiotherapy on tolerance to treatment, complications from treatment, and response rates to treatment. Preliminary results demonstrate that the administration of total parenteral nutrition is successful in maintaining weight during radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but that weight loss occurs after discontinuation of nutritional support. Thus, longterm evaluation is mandatory to learn the impact of nutritional support on survival, diease-free survival, and complication rates, as well as on the possible prevention of morbidity associated with aggressive chemotherapy-radiation therapy

  14. Guidelines for safe practice of stereotactic body (ablative) radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Matthew; Barry, Tamara; Bailey, Michael; Smith, Leigh; Seeley, Anna; Siva, Shankar; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Booth, Jeremy; Ball, David; Thwaites, David

    2015-01-01

    The uptake of stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) / stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) worldwide has been rapid. The Australian and New Zealand Faculty of Radiation Oncology (FRO) assembled an expert panel of radiation oncologists, radiation oncology medical physicists and radiation therapists to establish guidelines for safe practice of SABR. Draft guidelines were reviewed by a number of international experts in the field and then distributed through the membership of the FRO. Members of the Australian Institute of Radiography and the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine were also asked to comment on the draft. Evidence-based recommendations (where applicable) address aspects of departmental staffing, procedures and equipment, quality assurance measures, as well as organisational considerations for delivery of SABR treatments. Central to the guidelines is a set of key recommendations for departments undertaking SABR. These guidelines were developed collaboratively to provide an educational guide and reference for radiation therapy service providers to ensure appropriate care of patients receiving SABR.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction after radiation therapy to the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Takada, Yoshiki; Kimura, Shuji; Yoshida, Shoji.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the thyroid were investigated in 102 patients treated by radiation therapy to the neck. All patients had radiation ports which included the thyroid gland. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were elevated in 41 cases and the cumulative elevation rate was 52.1% in 5 years. The high frequency of elevated serum TSH levels observed in patients whose thyroid glands were included within the radiation fields (74.1%) was statistically significant compared to those whose thyroid glands were only partially included (23.4%). Among the patients whose entire thyroid glands were included within the radiation field, combination with chemotherapy increased the frequency of elevated serum TSH levels, but the increase was not statistically significant. Among 36 laryngeal cancer patients treated by only radiation therapy through a portal encompassing part of the thyroid, 4 (14%) were found to have elevated serum TSH levels. We advocate routine monitoring of thyroid functions after radiation therapy to the neck. (author)

  16. Influence of radiation therapy on oral Candida albicans colonization: a quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, K.M.; Taylor, J.; Beck, F.M.; Hodgson, S.E.; Blozis, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in quantity of oral Candida albicans was documented in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy during and after therapy, as assessed by an oral-rinse culturing technique. The amount of the increase was greater in denture wearers and directly related to increasing radiation dose and increasing volume of parotid gland included in the radiation portal. A significant number of patients who did not carry C. albicans prior to radiation therapy developed positive cultures by 1 month after radiation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy who carried C. albicans prior to radiation therapy did not differ significantly from matched dental patient controls

  17. Deformable image registration in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jong; Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The number of imaging data sets has significantly increased during radiation treatment after introducing a diverse range of advanced techniques into the field of radiation oncology. As a consequence, there have been many studies proposing meaningful applications of imaging data set use. These applications commonly require a method to align the data sets at a reference. Deformable image registration (DIR) is a process which satisfies this requirement by locally registering image data sets into a reference image set. DIR identifies the spatial correspondence in order to minimize the differences between two or among multiple sets of images. This article describes clinical applications, validation, and algorithms of DIR techniques. Applications of DIR in radiation treatment include dose accumulation, mathematical modeling, automatic segmentation, and functional imaging. Validation methods discussed are based on anatomical landmarks, physical phantoms, digital phantoms, and per application purpose. DIR algorithms are also briefly reviewed with respect to two algorithmic components: similarity index and deformation models.

  18. Modern radiation therapy for extranodal lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena

    2015-01-01

    , involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far...... adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other...

  19. Determinants of job satisfaction among radiation therapy faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swafford, Larry G; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Job satisfaction is one of the most significant predictors of employee retention in a variety of occupational settings, including health care and education. A national survey of radiation therapy educators (n = 90) has indicated that respondents are not satisfied with their jobs based on data collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). To predict the factors associated with job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the authors used a nine-item questionnaire derived from the MSQ. Educators were grouped according to their job satisfaction scores, and multiple discriminant analysis was used to determine which factors were predictive of satisfaction among groups of educators. Statistical results indicate that ability utilization, institutional support, compensation, personnel, and job characteristics were key determinants of job satisfaction among radiation therapy educators. These results may better inform faculty and administration of important factors that can promote job satisfaction and retain faculty in radiation therapy education programs.

  20. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  1. Comparison of dose-volume histograms for Tomo therapy, linear accelerator-based 3D conformal radiation therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Youn-Sang; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Chang-Bok; Choi, Seong-Kwan; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of DVH from 3D CRT, IMRT and Tomo therapy was conducted for tumor therapy. → The doses of GTV and CTV were compared using DVHs from 3D CRT, IMRT and Tomo therapy. → The GTV was higher when Tomo therapy was used, while the doses of critical organ were low. → They said that Tomo therapy satisfied the goal of radiation therapy more than the others. - Abstract: Evaluation of dose-volume histograms from three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and Tomo therapy was conducted. These three modalities are among the diverse treatment systems available for tumor therapy. Three patients who received tumor therapy for a malignant oligodendroglioma in the cranium, nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cervical neck, and prostate cancer in the pelvis were selected as study subjects. Therapy plans were made for the three patients before dose-volume histograms were obtained. The doses of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were compared using the dose-volume histograms obtained from the LINAC-based 3D CRT, IMRT planning station (Varian Eclipse-Varian, version 8.1), and Tomo therapy planning station. In addition, the doses of critical organs in the cranium, cervix, and pelvis that should be protected were compared. The GTV was higher when Tomo therapy was used compared to 3D CRT and the LINAC-based IMRT, while the doses of critical organ tissues that required protection were low. These results demonstrated that Tomo therapy satisfied the ultimate goal of radiation therapy more than the other therapies.

  2. Assessing intravascular fluid status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perfusion such as urine output. or titration of fluid therapy with the goal of optimising haemodynamic status. Most practitioners agree that an underlying theme is ... their work is the understanding that at steady state venous return and cardiac output are equal, and that factors increasing venous return would enable a greater.

  3. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Minako

    2002-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is to improve the survival rate of patients without increasing treatment-related toxicity and to improve patients' quality of life. Several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated a survival advantage in combined modality treatment over radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone when a cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimen is utilized in the treatment plan. Combined modality treatment of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy is standard treatment for selected patients such as those with better performance status with locally or regionally advanced lung cancer including T3-T4 or N2-N3. Determining the contribution of new agents in combined modality treatment will require carefully designed and conducted clinical trials. High-dose involved field radiation therapy using 3D-conformal radiation therapy potentially enables the use of higher doses than standard radiation therapy, because less normal tissue is irradiated, and may improve local control and survival. The combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy and dose escalation using 3D-conformal radiation therapy is also a possibility in unresectable NSCLC. In surgery cases, the results of several Phase III trials of cisplatin-based preoperative chemotherapy have suggested survival improvement. But the concept needs to be tested in a larger Phase III trial. (author)

  4. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Budach, W.; Doerr, W.

    1998-01-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [de

  5. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, A.F.; Farshatova, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy clinical evidence and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Successful clinical use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) represents a significant advance in radiation oncology. Because IMRT can deliver high-dose radiation to a target with a reduced dose to the surrounding organs, it can improve the local control rate and reduce toxicities associated with radiation therapy. Since IMRT began being used in the mid-1990s, a large volume of clinical evidence of the advantages of IMRT has been collected. However, treatment planning and quality assurance (QA) of IMRT are complicated and difficult for the clinician and the medical physicist. This book, by authors renowned for their expertise in their fields, provides cumulative clinical evidence and appropriate techniques for IMRT for the clinician and the physicist. Part I deals with the foundations and techniques, history, principles, QA, treatment planning, radiobiology and related aspects of IMRT. Part II covers clinical applications with several case studies, describing contouring and dose distribution with cl...

  7. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  8. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, T; Jeraj, R

    2011-06-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more compact and cheaper technologies. Bigger challenges lie ahead of physicists in radiation therapy beyond the dose localisation problem, for example in the areas of biological target definition, improved modelling for normal tissues and tumours, advanced multicriteria and robust optimisation, and continuous incorporation of advanced technologies such as molecular imaging. The success of physics in radiation therapy has been based on the continued "fuelling" of the field with new discoveries and inventions from physics research. A key to the success has been the application of the rigorous scientific method. In spite of the importance of physics research for radiation therapy, too few physicists are currently involved in cutting-edge research. The increased emphasis on more "professionalism" in medical physics will tip the situation even more off balance. To prevent this from happening, we argue that medical physics needs more research positions, and more and better academic programmes. Only with more emphasis on medical physics research will the future of radiation therapy and other physics-related medical specialties look as bright as the past, and medical physics will maintain a status as one of the most exciting fields of applied physics.

  9. The physical basis and future of radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, T; Jeraj, R

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in radiation therapy over the last century has been largely due to our ability to more effectively focus and deliver radiation to the tumour target volume. Physics discoveries and technology inventions have been an important driving force behind this progress. However, there is still plenty of room left for future improvements through physics, for example image guidance and four-dimensional motion management and particle therapy, as well as increased efficiency of more compact and cheaper technologies. Bigger challenges lie ahead of physicists in radiation therapy beyond the dose localisation problem, for example in the areas of biological target definition, improved modelling for normal tissues and tumours, advanced multicriteria and robust optimisation, and continuous incorporation of advanced technologies such as molecular imaging. The success of physics in radiation therapy has been based on the continued “fuelling” of the field with new discoveries and inventions from physics research. A key to the success has been the application of the rigorous scientific method. In spite of the importance of physics research for radiation therapy, too few physicists are currently involved in cutting-edge research. The increased emphasis on more “professionalism” in medical physics will tip the situation even more off balance. To prevent this from happening, we argue that medical physics needs more research positions, and more and better academic programmes. Only with more emphasis on medical physics research will the future of radiation therapy and other physics-related medical specialties look as bright as the past, and medical physics will maintain a status as one of the most exciting fields of applied physics. PMID:21606068

  10. Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Oka, Kuniyuki

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is currently evaluated by the accumulation of long-term results because of the low incidence of this disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation therapy alone between 1961 and 1988 were studied. The radiation therapy consisted of a combination of intracavitary and external pelvis irradiation. Intracavitary treatment was performed with low dose rate and/or high dose rate sources. Results: The 5-year survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IV were 85.7%, 66.7%, 32.3%, and 9.1%, respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 85.7%, 60.0%, 27.6%, and 9.1%, respectively. The local control rate with high dose rate treatment was 45.5%, significantly lower than 85.7% and 72.7% with low and mixed dose rate treatments, respectively. Five-year survival and local control rates by tumor volume were 68.6% and 80.0% for small tumors, 63.6% and 66.0% for medium tumors, and 14.4% and 18.2% for large tumors, respectively. The survival rate and local control rate for large tumors were significantly lower than those for small and medium tumors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stage and tumor volume were independent variables for survival and local control, respectively. Isoeffective dose expressed by time dose fractionation (TDF) was not associated with local control. Radiation complications developed in 10 patients (17.2%), most of which were of moderate degree. Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone for adenocarcinoma of the cervix was regarded to be an effective treatment, comparable to combination therapy of surgery and radiation therapy

  11. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma treated with surgery and radiation therapy -case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Young; Oh, Yoon Kyeong

    2006-01-01

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an uncommon dura-based tumor and can recur not only locally but also distantly in the neural axis or extraneural sites. We report our experience of radiation therapy, one preoperative and one elective postoperative, in two patients with meningeal HPC and reviewed the role of radiation therapy. A 41-year-old man (Case 1) presented with a 3-month history of headache and right hemiparesis. The mass was nearly unresectable at the first and second operation and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Preoperative radiation therapy was given with a total dose of 55.8 Gy/31 fractions to the large residual mass of left frontoparietal area. Follow-up computerized tomography (CT) showed marked regression of tumor after radiation therapy. The third operation was performed to remove the residual tumor at 6 months after the radiation therapy and a 2 x 2 cm sized tumor was encountered. The mass was totally removed. The serial follow-up CT showed no evidence of recurrence and he is alive without distant metastasis for 4 years and 10 months after the first operation. A 45-year-old woman (Case 2) presented with suddenly developed headache and visual impairment. Tumor mass occupying right frontal lobe was removed with the preoperative diagnosis of meningioma. It was totally removed with attached sagittal sinus and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Elective postoperative radiation therapy was performed to reduce local recurrence with a total dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions to the involved area of right frontal lobe. She is alive for 5 years maintaining normal activity without local recurrence and distant metastasis

  12. Determining appropriate timing of adaptive radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma during intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huixian; Lu, Heming; Feng, Guosheng; Jiang, Hailan; Chen, Jiaxin; Cheng, Jinjian; Pang, Qiang; Lu, Zhiping; Gu, Junzhao; Peng, Luxing; Deng, Shan; Mo, Ying; Wu, Danling; Wei, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    To determine appropriate timing of an adaptive radiation therapy (ART) replan by evaluating anatomic and dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Nineteen NPC patients were recruited. Each patient had repeat computed tomography (CT) scans after each five fractions and at treatment completion. Automatic re-contouring the targets and OARs by using deformable registration algorithm was conducted through CT-CT fusion. Anatomic changes were assessed by comparing the initial CT and repeated CT. Hybrid plans with re-contouring were generated and the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the hybrid plan and the original plan were compared. Progressive volume reductions in gross target volume for primary disease (GTVnx), gross target volume for involved lymph nodes (GTVnd), and parotids were observed over time. Comparing with the original plan, each hybrid plan had no significant difference in homogeneity index (HI) for all the targets. Some parameters for planning target volumes for primary disease and high-risk clinical target volume (PTVnx and PTV1, respectively) improved significantly, notably starting from the 10th fraction. These parameters included mean dose (Dmean), dose to 95 % of the volume (D95), percentage of the volume receiving 95 % of the prescription dose (V95), and conformity index (CI) for PTVnx, and Dmean, D95, and CI for PTV1. The dosimetric parameters for PTVnd remained the same in general except for D95 and V95 which had significant improvement at specific time points; whereas for PTV2, similar trend of dosimetric changes was also observed. Dose to some OARs increased significantly at some time points. There were significant anatomic and dosimetric changes in the targets and OARs. The target dose coverage in the hybrid plans did not get worse, but overdose occurred in some critical structures. Significant dosimetric changes should be considered as a

  13. A discrete-ordinates solution for a radiation therapy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Gustavo Brun; Reichert, Janice Teresinha; Barichello, Liliane Basso

    2008-01-01

    A concise and accurate procedure for evaluating dose distribution, in a radiation therapy planning, is presented. The analytical discrete-ordinates method (ADO method) is used to develop a complete solution for a spectral dependent radiative transfer equation, in a one-dimensional medium, according to a multigroup scheme. Numerical results are presented for test problems, where the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel was used to describe the interaction processes. (author)

  14. Radiation dose received by TAMVEC neutron therapy staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, J.B.; Graves, R.G.; Sandel, P.S.; Almond, P.R.; Otte, V.A.; Grant, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Based on over 5 years of experience in fast neutron radiotherapy, the activation radiation source origins and magnitudes are discussed and the staff radiation exposures reviewed. Source magnitudes were determined using ionization chamber survey instruments and staff doses by commercial TLD and film badge service reports. It is concluded that while staff doses exceed those obtained in conventional therapy, the levels received are well within published guidelines for occupational exposure. (author)

  15. Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy: An Overview for the Practicing Surgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Locoregional control of breast cancer is the shared domain and responsibility of surgeons and radiation oncologists. Because surgeons are often the first providers to discuss locoregional control and recurrence risks with patients and because they serve in a key gatekeeping role as referring providers for radiation therapy, a sophisticated understanding of the evidence regarding radiotherapy in breast cancer management is essential for the practicing surgeon. This paper synthesizes the comple...

  16. Synchrotron Radiation Therapy from a Medical Physics point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezado, Y.; Adam, J. F.; Berkvens, P.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Fois, G.; Thengumpallil, S.; Edouard, M.; Vautrin, M.; Deman, P.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Renier, M.; Elleaume, H.; Estève, F.; Bravin, A.

    2010-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) therapy is a promising alternative to treat brain tumors, whose management is limited due to the high morbidity of the surrounding healthy tissues. Several approaches are being explored by using SR at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where three techniques are under development Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT), Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) and Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT). The sucess of the preclinical studies on SSRT and MRT has paved the way to clinical trials currently in preparation at the ESRF. With this aim, different dosimetric aspects from both theoretical and experimental points of view have been assessed. In particular, the definition of safe irradiation protocols, the beam energy providing the best balance between tumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing in MRT and MBRT, the special dosimetric considerations for small field dosimetry, etc will be described. In addition, for the clinical trials, the definition of appropiate dosimetry protocols for patients according to the well established European Medical Physics recommendations will be discussed. Finally, the state of the art of the MBRT technical developments at the ESRF will be presented. In 2006 A. Dilmanian and collaborators proposed the use of thicker microbeams (0.36-0.68 mm). This new type of radiotherapy is the most recently implemented technique at the ESRF and it has been called MBRT. The main advantage of MBRT with respect to MRT is that it does not require high dose rates. Therefore it can be more easily applied and extended outside synchrotron sources in the future.

  17. Auger radiation targeted into DNA: a therapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchegger, Franz; Perillo-Adamer, Florence; Dupertuis, Yves M; Delaloye, Angelika Bischof

    2006-11-01

    Auger electron emitters that can be targeted into DNA of tumour cells represent an attractive systemic radiation therapy goal. In the situation of DNA-associated decay, the high linear energy transfer (LET) of Auger electrons gives a high relative biological efficacy similar to that of alpha particles. In contrast to alpha radiation, however, Auger radiation is of low toxicity when decaying outside the cell nucleus, as in cytoplasm or outside cells during blood transport. The challenge for such therapies is the requirement to target a high percentage of all cancer cells. An overview of Auger radiation therapy approaches of the past decade shows several research directions and various targeting vehicles. The latter include hormones, peptides, halogenated nucleotides, oligonucleotides and internalising antibodies. Here, we will discuss the basic principles of Auger electron therapy as compared with vector-guided alpha and beta radiation. We also review some radioprotection issues and briefly present the main advantages and disadvantages of the different targeting modalities that are under investigation.

  18. Auger radiation targeted into DNA: a therapy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, Franz; Perillo-Adamer, Florence; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Dupertuis, Yves M.

    2006-01-01

    Auger electron emitters that can be targeted into DNA of tumour cells represent an attractive systemic radiation therapy goal. In the situation of DNA-associated decay, the high linear energy transfer (LET) of Auger electrons gives a high relative biological efficacy similar to that of α particles. In contrast to α radiation, however, Auger radiation is of low toxicity when decaying outside the cell nucleus, as in cytoplasm or outside cells during blood transport. The challenge for such therapies is the requirement to target a high percentage of all cancer cells. An overview of Auger radiation therapy approaches of the past decade shows several research directions and various targeting vehicles. The latter include hormones, peptides, halogenated nucleotides, oligonucleotides and internalising antibodies. Here, we will discuss the basic principles of Auger electron therapy as compared with vector-guided α and β radiation. We also review some radioprotection issues and briefly present the main advantages and disadvantages of the different targeting modalities that are under investigation. (orig.)

  19. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula as a complication of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, D.; Piccone, B.R.; Littman, P.; Lisker, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistulization is a well-known complication of tracheostomy and of tracheal resection. The first known occurrence of this problem in a patient in whom no transtracheal procedure had ever been performed is reported, and high-dose radiation therapy delivered three years before for a mediastinal malignancy is suggested as the cause. No evidence of tumor was found in or adjacent to the tracheovascular communication. The tracheoinnominate artery fistula must be considered a potential complication of radiation therapy as well as of surgery

  20. Complications of head and neck radiation therapy and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmeier, R.L.; King, G.E.

    1983-04-01

    Patients who receive radiation therapy to the head and neck suffer potential complications and undesirable side-effects of this therapy. The extent of undesirable responses is dependent on the source of irradiation, the fields of irradiation, and the dose. The radiotherapist determines these factors by the extent, location, and radiosensitivity of the tumor. The potential undesirable side-effects are xerostomia, mucositis, fibrosis, trismus, dermatitis, photosensitivity, radiation caries, soft tissue necrosis, and osteoradionecrosis. Each of these clinical entities and their proposed management have been discussed.

  1. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N. (Khar' kovskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii (Ukrainian SSR))

    1984-04-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients.

  2. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients

  3. Enhanced radiation therapy with internalized polyelectrolyte modified nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peipei; Qiao, Yong; Wang, Chaoming; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2014-08-01

    A challenge of X-ray radiation therapy is that high dose X-ray under therapeutic conditions damages normal cells. This paper describes a nanoparticle-based method to enhance X-ray radiation therapy by delivering radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles into cancer cells. The nanoparticles have been modified with cationic polyelectrolytes to allow internalization. Upon X-ray irradiation of nanoparticles, more photoelectrons and Auger electrons are generated to cause water ionization, leading to formation of free radicals that damage DNA of cancer cells. The X-ray dose required for DNA damage and cell killing is reduced by delivering gold nanoparticles inside cancer cells.

  4. Analysis of variations in the dose delivered in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The outcome of radiotherapy in cancer care is heavily dependent on the quality of the treatment. This work presents a review of how daily practice and the current availability of equipment for treatment planning and simulating as well as a number of other factors affect the radiation therapy quality in Argentina. The establishment of refreshing courses for all types of staffs involved in the treatments, modernization of equipment and strict routines in patient set up and quality control would give a significant contribution to a higher quality in radiation therapy. (author). 3 refs

  5. Khan's lectures handbook of the physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M; Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Khan's Lectures: Handbook of the Physics of Radiation Therapy will provide a digest of the material contained in The Physics of Radiation Therapy. Lectures will be presented somewhat similar to a PowerPoint format, discussing key points of individual chapters. Selected diagrams from the textbook will be used to initiate the discussion. New illustrations will used, wherever needed, to enhance the understanding of important concepts. Discussion will be condensed and often bulleted. Theoretical details will be referred to the textbook and the cited literature. A problem set (practice questions) w

  6. Communication skills training for radiation therapists: preparing patients for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkett, Georgia; O'Connor, Moira; Aranda, Sanchia; Jefford, Michael; Merchant, Susan; York, Debra; Miller, Lisa; Schofield, Penelope

    2016-12-01

    Patients sometimes present for radiation therapy with high levels of anxiety. Communication skills training may assist radiation therapists to conduct more effective consultations with patients prior to treatment planning and treatment commencement. The overall aim of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a preparatory programme 'RT Prepare' delivered by radiation therapists to reduce patient psychological distress. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the communication skills workshops developed for radiation therapists and evaluate participants' feedback. Radiation therapists were invited to participate in two communication skills workshops run on the same day: (1) Consultation skills in radiation therapy and (2) Eliciting and responding to patients' emotional cues. Evaluation forms were completed. Radiation therapists' consultations with patients were then audio-recorded and evaluated prior to providing a follow-up workshop with participants. Nine full day workshops were held. Sixty radiation therapists participated. Positive feedback was received for both workshops with 88% or more participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with all the statements about the different components of the two workshops. Radiation therapists highlighted participating in role play with an actor, discussing issues; receiving feedback; acquiring new skills and knowledge; watching others role play and practicing with checklist were their favourite aspects of the initial workshop. The follow-up workshops provided radiation therapists with feedback on how they identified and addressed patients' psychological concerns; time spent with patients during consultations and the importance of finding private space for consultations. Communication skills training consisting of preparing patients for radiation therapy and eliciting and responding to emotional cues with follow-up workshops has the potential to improve radiation therapists' interactions with patients undergoing

  7. Role of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor J

    2017-06-01

    Radiation therapy has historically been the pillar of curative treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). With improved efficacy of systemic therapy and the ever-increasing recognition of treatment-related morbidity in long-term survivors, the role of radiotherapy has evolved significantly. Modern combined modality therapy (CMT) with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by involved site radiation therapy (ISRT) to initially involved sites of disease remains the gold standard for the majority of patients with HL. Reduction of long-term treatment-related toxicity has become the major driver in clinical trial design for early-stage HL while improved disease-specific survival remains the goal in patients with more advanced and unfavorable disease. This review will address the data supporting the use of radiotherapy in HL as well as specific methods for reducing late toxicity from radiotherapy.

  8. Radiation therapy-related toxicity (including pneumonitis and fibrosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rahul R; Bogart, Jeffrey A

    2009-05-01

    In the modern age of cancer therapy, advances in the multidisciplinary management of cancer have resulted in increased rates of survivorship. Radiation therapy (RT) toxicity must be tempered with the desire to achieve dose escalation to provide the best chance of long-term cure. This article is designed to acquaint emergency medicine physicians with common, expected, and potential acute and late complications of RT.

  9. LIMITED STAGE FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA: THE ROLE OF RADIATION THERAPY.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Riccardo Filippi

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) alone has been considered for a long time as the standard therapeutic option for limited stage FL, due to its high efficacy in terms of local disease control with a quite significant proportion of ?cured? patients (without further relapses at 10?15 years). Multiple therapeutic choices are currently accepted for the management of early stage FL at diagnosis, and better staging procedures as well as better systemic therapy partially modified the role of RT in this setting...

  10. Clinical trial experience using erythropoietin during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavey, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Oncologists have several reasons for trying to maintain or increase hemoglobin levels in their patients during therapy. Relief of the symptoms of anemia, including fatigue and dyspnea, are traditional, well-accepted indications. A newer rationale is to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy in controlling tumors. A laboratory animal study found that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) increased intratumoral median oxygen levels and diminished the proportion of measurements in the very low ( [de

  11. 3: Computer network in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekonen, A.; Valve, J.; Toivanen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A computer network linking two accelerators (Saturne Therac 20, CGR and Dynaray CH-4, BBC), dose planning system, simulator (Ximatron CX, Varian) and radiation field analyzer is described. Patient anatomical data are fed off-line from the CT-scanner. In addition the system insists a treatment control (verification) system developed in the hospital. The treatment parameters from the dose planning are transferred to the PDP-11/23+ computer via a serial line using the KERMIT data transfer protocol. The verification computer is further connected with the accelerators and the simulator. The radiation treatment is possible only when accelerator settings agree with the treatment parameters transmitted from the dose planning. Verification is also applied to the simulation process. When simulation study requires changes in fields and/or field settings the changes are fed back on line to the dose planning. 5 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table

  12. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droupy, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  13. Phototherapy cabinet for ultraviolet radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.

    1981-01-01

    A newly designed cabinet can be used for the treatment of psoriasis with fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamps. the new design provides more uniform distribution of UV radiation in both the horizontal and vertical axes, and several safety features have been added. The distribution and uniformity of UV output in this and in a previously described cabinet are compared. The UV output at the vertical center of the older UV light cabinet was six times greater than that at either the top or bottom, while the design of the present cabinet provides uniform UV radiation except for a slight increase at head height and at the level of the lower legs compared with the middle third of the cabinet. The variation in output of the older cabinet may, in part, explain the commonly encountered difficulty in the phototherapy of psoriasis of the scalp and lower extremities

  14. 21 CFR 892.5770 - Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered radiation therapy patient support assembly... therapy patient support assembly. (a) Identification. A powered radiation therapy patient support assembly is an electrically powered adjustable couch intended to support a patient during radiation therapy...

  15. Accompanying therapy with melatonin at radiation therapy for uterine body cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhach, N.E.; Sorochan, P.P.; Gromakova, Yi.A.; Krugova, M.; Sukhyin, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    The results of treatment for uterine body cancer using post-operative radiation therapy (RT) accompanied by melatonin administration are analyzed. Accompanying therapy with melatonin limited negative RT influence on hematological and immune indices and prevented aggravation of quality of life.

  16. Complications after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masataka

    1981-01-01

    From 1966 to 1973, 215 patients with cervical cancer were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first group, 123 patients were treated by external radiation with Tele- 60 Co plus radium insertions (1966-1970). In the second group, 83 patients were treated with linear accelerator plus cesium insertions (1970-1973). The results on both of 5-year survival rate and appearance of radiation injuries were compared with two groups. There was no significant difference in the cure rate between those of groups. The incidence of pigmentation, edema and diarrhea (early complications) was higher and the diarrhea continued significantly longer in the second group. The incidence of rectal ulcer and rectostenosis (later complications) was significantly higher than former group. A study was made to lean the reason for the significant higher occurrence of rectal ulcer and rectostenosis. As a result, it was determined that later complication was more emphasized especially by ret dose given intracavitary radiation. In addition, it is thought that the dose rate, the dose volume and natural history such as the patients' age are also related to the severity of the complication. (J.P.N.)

  17. Installations for radiation therapy with remote controlled afterloading technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Installations for radiation therapy with remote controlled afterloading technique; radiation protection rules for fabrication and construction; amendment 1 to draft standard (DIN) 6853. Compared to the draft standard of Semptember 1980, the following modifications are planned as amendment 1: a. Paragraph no. 1: In the title, the word ''scope'' is changed into ''field of application''. The words ''by moving the radiation source electromecanically'' are deleted. b. Paragraph no. 2'' Standards also applicable'' and the list of ''Additional standards'' are summarized under the heading ''Standards and supporting documents'' (without any paragraph number). c. Paragraph no. 3 ''Terms'' is completed by additional terms and their definitions. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Histopathological approach for diagnosis of intravascular leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors arising from venous walls in the lower extremities are uncommon and intravascular leiomyosarcoma represents only a small proportion and rare of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma. All publications in the literature are of small clinical series or case reports. We present a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein in a 40 year old man; which is a rare lesion with less than 40 cases reported. The patient presented with swelling and localized leg pain. The diagnosis was made histopathologically, the tumor was resected, vascular reconstruction was performed, and for postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy patient was referred to the oncologist. Primary leiomyosarcoma of a major peripheral artery is extremely rare, and this report share the clinical presentation, histopathological findings, treatment, and prognosis in these patients

  19. Preoperative radiation therapy and pelvic autonomic nerve-preserving operation for rectal carcinoma; Especially regarding preoperative radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarashina, Hiromi; Saito, Norio; Nunomura, Masao (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-12-01

    Results of pelvic plexus nerves and/or hypogastric nerves-preserving operation in combination with preoperative radiation for advanced rectal cancer were examined. Roentogenographically, preoperative radiation had marked effect on the reduction of tumor volume, which was closely related to histological effect. Histologically, high risk factors of local recurrence, such as depth of invasion, ew (defined as the distance between the external surgical surface and the deepest site of invasion) and lymph nodal involvement, have been successfully changed after radiation therapy. Especially, cases in which tumor was limited to within mucosa and proper muscle but not exposed on to the serosal surface did not show positive lymph nodes in the lateral side of the pelvic cavity. These findings suggested that autonomic nerve preserving operation should be undertaken in such cases that demonstrated marked tumor reduction after preoperative radiation therapy. The present study also confirmed that autonomic nerves preserving operation have obviously decreased the incidence of sexual as well as urinary dysfunction. (author).

  20. Curative Radiation Therapy for T2N0M0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Kyu; Kim, Jae Choel

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Surgery is the treatment of choice for resectable non-small cell lung cancer. For patients who are medically unable to tolerate a surgical resection or who refuse surgery, radiation therapy is an acceptable alternative. A retrospective analysis of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiation therapy was performed to determine the results of curative radiation therapy and patterns of failure, and to identify factors that may influence survival. Materials and Methods : From 1986 through 1993, 39 patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer were treated with curative radiation therapy at department of radiation oncology, Kyungpook national university hospital All patients were not candidates for surgical resection because of either patient refusal (16 patients), poor pulmonary function (12 patients), old age (7 patients), poor performance (2 patients) or coexisting medical disease (2 patients). Median age of patients was 67 years. Histologic cell type was squamous cell carcinoma in 1. All patients were treated with megavoltage irradiation and radiation dose raged from 5000cGy to 6150 cGy with a median dose of 600cGy. The median follow-up was 17 months with a range of 4 to 82 months. Survival was measured from the date therapy initiated. Results : The overall survival rate for entire patients was 40.6% at 2 years and 27.7% at 3 years, with a median survival time of 21 months he disease-free survival at 2 and 3 years was 51.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Of evaluable 20 Patients with complete response, 15 Patients were considered to have failed. Of these, 13 patients showed local failure and 2 patients failed distantly. Response to treatment (p=0.0001), tumor size (p=0.0019) and age p=0.0247) were favorably associated with overall survival. Only age was predictive for disease-free survival (p=0.0452). Conclusion : Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for small (less than 3 cm) tumors, and should be offered as an

  1. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Guney, H Zafer; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    Ionising radiation is known one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer but in many thoracic cancers, the total prescribed dose of radiation that can be safely administered to the target volume is limited by the risk of complications arising in the normal lung tissue. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radiation pneumonitis is an acute phase side-effect which generally subsides after a few weeks and is followed by a chronic phase characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, that can develop months or years after irradiation. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine. The exact biological role of carnosine is not totally understood, but several studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage,and promotes wound healing. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, ROS and free radicals scavenging ability . Either its antioxidant or anti-inflammatuar properties, we propose that carnosine ameliorates irradiation-induced lung injury. Thus, supplementing cancer patients to whom applied radiation therapy with carnosine, may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced lung injury. This issue warrants further studies.

  2. The radiation therapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, F.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray should only be applied when other forms of treatment of good-natured diseases do not provide equally good results. One should note that somatic lesion should be completely avoided and genetic lesion avoided to the greatest probability. One can distinguish according to ones aims between inflammation irradiation, pain irradiation, stimulation therapy and functional therapy. An indication for inflammation irradiation can be post-operative parotitis, furuncle in the face, mastitis puerperalis, panaritium ossale, recurrent sudoriparouns abscesses and repelling reactions after transplanting organs. Pain irradiation is indicated with degenerative diseases of the skeleton system. A further possible application is radiotherapy of hypotrophic processes and benign tumours. Functional radiotherapy is indicated with hyperendocrinism, neurovegetative disorders and allergies. (MG) [de

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of radiation: what is next for cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Simon, Samantha S; Moody, Tomika D; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Despite its former reputation as being immunosuppressive, it has become evident that radiation therapy can enhance antitumor immune responses. This quality can be harnessed by utilizing radiation as an adjuvant to cancer immunotherapies. Most studies combine the standard radiation dose and regimens indicated for the given disease state, with novel cancer immunotherapies. It has become apparent that low-dose radiation, as well as doses within the hypofractionated range, can modulate tumor cells making them better targets for immune cell reactivity. Herein, we describe the range of phenotypic changes induced in tumor cells by radiation, and explore the diverse mechanisms of immunogenic modulation reported at these doses. We also review the impact of these doses on the immune cell function of cytotoxic cells in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Radiation therapy of 9L rat brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.D.; Kimler, B.F.; Morantz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation therapy on normal rats and on rats burdened with 9L brain tumors have been studied. The heads of normal rats were x-irradiated with single exposures ranging from 1000 R to 2700 R. Following acute exposures greater than 2100 R, all animals died in 8 to 12 days. Approximately 30% of the animals survived beyond 12 days over the range of 1850 to 1950 R; following exposures less than 1850 R, all animals survived the acute radiation effects, and median survival times increased with decreasing exposure. Three fractionated radiation schedules were also studied: 2100 R or 3000 R in 10 equal fractions, and 3000 R in 6 equal fractions, each schedule being administered over a 2 week period. The first schedule produced a MST of greater than 1 1/2 years; the other schedules produced MSTs that were lower. It was determined that by applying a factor of 1.9, similar survival responses of normal rats were obtained with single as with fractionated radiation exposures. Animals burdened with 9L gliosarcoma brain tumors normally died of the disease process within 18 to 28 days ater tumor inoculation. Both single and fractionated radiation therapy resulted in a prolongation of survival of tumor-burdened rats. This prolongation was found to be linearly dependent upon the dose; but only minimally dependent upon the time after inoculation at which therapy was initiated, or upon the fractionation schedule that was used. As with normal animals, similar responses were obtained with single as with fractionated exposures when a factor (1.9) was applied. All tumor-bearing animals died prior to the time that death was observed in normal, irradiated rats. Thus, the 9L gliosarcoma rat brain tumor model can be used for the pre-clinical experimental investigation of new therapeutic schedules involving radiation therapy and adjuvant therapies

  5. Salvage radiation therapy following radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ervandian, Maria; Høyer, Morten; Petersen, Stine Elleberg

    2016-01-01

    .0%. Nearly half of the patients (44%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with SRT. Positive surgical tumour margins (p = 0.025) and ADT (p = 0.001) were the only markers independently correlated with b-PFS. In patients who received SRT without ADT, both a pre-SRT PSA level ≤0.5 ng...

  6. The synergistic effect of nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Na; Tu Yu; Zhang Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel treatment: based on nanoparticles that combines radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy. With this approach, the application of traditional photodynamic therapies only to surface treatment can be solved, so that the therapeutic effect can be improved; the approach also could guarantee the effectiveness of treatment and reduce radiation doses, so it can effectively control the complications of radiotherapy, This new modality will open a new chapter for cancer therapy. (authors)

  7. Adjuvant radiation therapy versus surgery alone in operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, L.E.; Pettersson, D.; Johansson, H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents long-term results from a randomized trial of pre- or postoperative megavoltage radiation therapy versus surgery alone in pre- and postmenopausal women with operable breast cancer. Treatment outcome after relapse among patients who developed loco-regional recurrences was also analyzed. A total of 960 patients were included in the trial. The mean follow-up was 16 years (range: 13-19 years). The radiation therapy was individually planned. It included the chest wall (and the breast in the preoperative cases) and the regional lymph nodes. The tumor dose was 45 Gy/5 weeks. No adjuvant systemic therapy was used. The results showed a significant benefit with radiation therapy in terms of recurrence-free survival during the entire follow-up period. There was also an overall survival difference - corresponding to 16% reduction of deaths - in favour of the irradiated patients which, however, was not statistically significant (p=0.09). Among those 169 patients who developed loco-regional recurrences long-term control was only achieved in about one-third of the cases. This figure was similar among those who had received adjuvant radiation therapy (34%) compared to those initially treated with surgery alone (32%). This implied that the overall proportion of patients who eventually developed uncontrolled local disease was significantly higher among those initially allocated to surgery alone (16%) compared to those allocated to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy (6%, p<0.01). These results suggest that local undertreatment may be deleterious in subgroups of patients. (author) 5 tabs

  8. Role of radiation therapy for stage III thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ha Chung; Lee, Myung Za [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of the postoperative radiation therapy for patients with Stage III thymoma and to define the optimal radiotherapeutic regimen. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 24 patients with Stage III thymoma who were referred for postoperative radiation therapy in our institution from June, 1987 to May, 1999. Surgical therapy consisted of total resection in one patient, subtotal resection in seventeen, and biopsy alone in six patients. Age of the patients was ranged from 20 to 62 years with mean age of 47 years. Male to female ratio was 14 to 10. Radiation therapy was delivered with linear accelerator producing either 6 MeV or 10 MeV photons. The irradiated volume included anterior mediastinum and known residual disease. The supraclavicular fossae were not irradiated. The delivered total dose was ranged from 30 to 56 Gy. One patient received 30 Gy and eighteen patients received minimum of 50 Gy. Follow up period was ranged from 12 months to 8 years with median follow up of 40 months. The overall local control rate for entire group of patients was 67% at 5 years. The cumulative local failure rates at one, three and five year were 18%, 28% and 33%, respectively. In patients treated with subtotal resection and biopsy alone, local control rate was 76% and 33%, respectively. The actuarial observed survival rate at 5 years was 57%, and actuarial adjusted survival at 5 years was 72%. The difference between 5 year survival rates for patients treated with subtotal resection and biopsy alone was not statistically significant (62% vs 30%). We might conclude that postoperative radiation therapy was safe and effective treatment for patients with Stage III thymoma. Postoperative radiation therapy is recommended in cases where tumor margin is close or incomplete resection is accomplished.

  9. Fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor for proton therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Bongsoo

    2012-06-18

    In proton therapy dosimetry, a fiber-optic radiation sensor incorporating a scintillator must undergo complicated correction processes due to the quenching effect of the scintillator. To overcome the drawbacks of the fiber-optic radiation sensor, we proposed an innovative method using the Cerenkov radiation generated in plastic optical fibers. In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor without an organic scintillator to measure Cerenkov radiation induced by therapeutic proton beams. Bragg peaks and spread-out Bragg peaks of proton beams were measured using the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor and the results were compared with those of an ionization chamber and a fiber-optic radiation sensor incorporating an organic scintillator. From the results, we could obtain the Bragg peak and the spread-out Bragg peak of proton beams without quenching effects induced by the scintillator, and these results were in good agreement with those of the ionization chamber. We also measured the Cerenkov radiation generated from the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor as a function of the dose rate of the proton beam.

  10. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy: the tomo-therapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthout, N.; Verellen, D.; Coninck, P. de; Bel, A.; Storme, G.

    2000-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy allows the possibility of delivering high doses at the tumor volume whilst limiting the dose to the surrounding tissues and diminishing the secondary effects. With the example of the conformal radiation therapy used at the AZ VU8 (3DCRT and tomo-therapy), two treatment plans of a left ethmoid carcinoma will be evaluated and discussed in detail. The treatment of ethmoid cancer is technically difficult for both radiation therapy and surgery because of the anatomic constraints and patterns of local spread. A radiation therapy is scheduled to be delivered after surgical resection of the tumor. The treatment plan for the radiation therapy was calculated on a three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system based on virtual simulation with a beam's eye view: George Sherouse's Gratis. An effort was made to make the plan as conformal and as homogeneous as possible to deliver a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions at the tumor bed with a maximum dose of 56 Gy to the right optic nerve and the chiasma. To establish the clinical utility and potential advantages of tomo-therapy over 3DCRT for ethmoid carcinoma, the treatment of this patient was also planned with Peacock Plant. For both treatment plans the isodose distributions and cumulative dose volume histograms (CDVH) were computed. Superimposing the CDVHs yielded similar curves for the target and an obvious improvement for organs at risk such as the chiasma, brainstem and the left eye when applying tomo-therapy. These results have also been reflected in the tumor control probabilities (equal for both plans) and the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP), yielding significant reductions in NTCP for tomo-therapy. The probability of uncomplicated tumor control was 52.7% for tomo-therapy against 38.3% for 3DCRT. (authors)

  11. Radiation therapy in retroperitoneal sarcoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Rick L; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chung, Peter W; van Coevorden, Frits; DeLaney, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    Surgery is potentially curative for primary non-metastatic retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (RPS), although patients remain at risk for local recurrence. To reduce this risk, the addition of radiotherapy to radical surgery may be considered. Nevertheless, level I evidence to support radiotherapy is currently lacking. The results from the EORTC-STBSG 62092-22092 studying this question are awaited. This manuscript addresses issues to consider when radiation-oncologists engage in a multidisciplinary treatment approach for RPS patients, including radiotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany); Budach, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Eberhard-Carls-Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: In vielen klinischen Situationen erfaehrt der bestrahlte Patient zusaetzliche Belastungen durch das frueher ausgesprochene Waschverbot der Bestrahlungsfelder wie auch durch die Unterbrechung seiner langjaehrigen Hygienegewohnheiten. Material und Methoden: Es wurde eine Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Empfehlungen wie auch der heutzutage bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken auftretenden Hautdosis durchgefuehrt. Ein individuelles Schema zur Pflege der bestrahlten Haut wurde entwickelt. Ergebnisse: Durch eine Verringerung der Hautdosis und damit der Inzidenz schwerer Hautreaktionen bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken wird mittlerweile in vielen Abteilungen das `Waschverbot` fuer bestrahlte Haut gelockert. Dies hat zu einem individualisierten Hautpflegekonzept unter der Bestrahlung

  13. QA in Radiation Therapy: The RPC Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbott, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) is charged with assuring the consistent delivery of radiation doses to patients on NCI-sponsored clinical trials. To accomplish this, the RPC conducts annual mailed audits of machine calibration, dosimetry audit visits to institutions, reviews of treatment records, and credentialing procedures requiring the irradiation of anthropomorphic phantoms. Through these measurements, the RPC has gained an understanding of the level of quality assurance practiced in this cohort of institutions, and a database of measurements of beam characteristics of a large number of treatment machines. The results of irradiations of phantoms have yielded insight into the delivery of advanced technology treatment procedures.

  14. [Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deme, Dániel; Ragán, Márton; Kalmár, Katalin; Kovács, Lajos; Varga, Erzsébet; Varga, Tünde; Rakonczai, Ervin

    2010-12-01

    in the peripheral blood), normal INR, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ARF suggested TTP-HUS. Hemodialysis and six plasmaferesis (PF) were carried out. After the fifth PF, skin manifestations of thrombotic microangiopathy occurred on the feet. Clotting analysis revealed elevated D-dimer (>5 μg/mL), normal fibrinogen (3.2 g/L), a slightly raised INR (1.36) and activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) (45.8 sec), normal reticulocyte (57 G/L) and a slightly low platelet count (123 G/L), which proved to be chronic DIC. Therapeutic dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was started. Elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (109.6 ng/mL) suggested prostatic carcinoma. Prostate biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma (Gleason: 4+4 for left lobe and 3+3 for right lobe). Elevated alkaline phosphatase suggested metastases in the bone, which were confirmed by bone scintigraphy. Combined androgen blockade (CAB) was started. After three months follow-up our patient's status is satisfactory. PSA is in the normal range (4.6 ng/mL). Thrombocytopenia of uncertain origin with normal or raised INR, APTT, elevated D-dimer, normal fibrinogen and reticulocyte count prove the diagnosis of chronic DIC. This process warrants searching for metastatic neoplasia. Due to the relatively low serum levels of circulating procoagulant factors (e.g. tissue factor), therapeutic dose of LMWH can be used with good efficiency in chronic DIC with low risk of bleeding. Severe DIC as a complication of metastatic prostate cancer can be treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or CAB in combination with ketokonazole and concomitant use of supportive treatment. Deme D, Ragán M, Kovács L, Kalmár K, Varga E, Varga T, Rakonczai E. Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case.

  15. Waiting Lists for Radiation Therapy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why waiting lists arise and how to address them remains unclear, and an improved understanding of these waiting list "dynamics" could lead to better management. The purpose of this study is to understand how the current shortage in radiation therapy in Ontario developed; the implications of prolonged waits; who is held accountable for managing such delays; and short, intermediate, and long-term solutions. Methods A case study of the radiation therapy shortage in 1998-99 at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Relevant documents were collected; semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with ten administrators, health care workers, and patients were conducted, audio-taped and transcribed; and relevant meetings were observed. Results The radiation therapy shortage arose from a complex interplay of factors including: rising cancer incidence rates; broadening indications for radiation therapy; human resources management issues; government funding decisions; and responsiveness to previous planning recommendations. Implications of delays include poorer cancer control rates; patient suffering; and strained doctor-patient relationships. An incompatible relationship exists between moral responsibility, borne by government, and legal liability, borne by physicians. Short-term solutions include re-referral to centers with available resources; long-term solutions include training and recruiting health care workers, improving workload standards, increasing compensation, and making changes to the funding formula. Conclusion Human resource planning plays a critical role in the causes and solutions of waiting lists. Waiting lists have harsh implications for patients. Accountability relationships require realignment.

  16. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning

  17. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  18. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for recurrent glioblastoma: single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciammella, Patrizia; Podgornii, Ala; Galeandro, Maria; D’Abbiero, Nunziata; Pisanello, Anna; Botti, Andrea; Cagni, Elisabetta; Iori, Mauro; Iotti, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Tumor control and survival have improved with the use of radiotherapy (RT) plus concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy, but the prognosis remain poor. In most cases the recurrence occurs within 7–9 months after primary treatment. Currently, many approaches are available for the salvage treatment of patients with recurrent GBM, including resection, re-irradiation or systemic agents, but no standard of care exists. We analysed a cohort of patients with recurrent GBM treated with frame-less hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy with a total dose of 25 Gy in 5 fractions. Of 91 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated between 2007 and 2012 with conventional adjuvant chemo-radiation therapy, 15 underwent salvage RT at recurrence. The median time interval between primary RT and salvage RT was 10.8 months (range, 6–54 months). Overall, patients undergoing salvage RT showed a longer survival, with a median survival of 33 vs. 9.9 months (p= 0.00149). Median overall survival (OS) from salvage RT was 9.5 months. No patients demonstrated clinically significant acute morbidity, and all patients were able to complete the prescribed radiation therapy without interruption. Our results suggest that hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is effective and safe in recurrent GBM. However, until prospective randomized trials will confirm these results, the decision for salvage treatment should remain individual and based on a multidisciplinary evaluation of each patient

  19. Radiation protection of patients and staff during radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, D.; Schueler, W.; Winkler, B.; Petzold, J.; Lincke, T.; Sabri, O.; Sattler, B.; Seese, A.

    2008-01-01

    A measuring system for continuous assessment of local dose rate in the environment of radioiodine therapy patients is presented that allows statements on doses reached in the target area with high statistical reliability. Furthermore, this kind of measurement leads to a noticeable reduction of external radiation exposure for the group of medical personnel involved. (orig.)

  20. Complications after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, M. (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-04-01

    From 1966 to 1973, 215 patients with cervical cancer were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first group, 123 patients were treated by external radiation with Tele-/sup 60/Co plus radium insertions (1966-1970). In the second group, 83 patients were treated with linear accelerator plus cesium insertions (1970-1973). The results on both of 5-year survival rate and appearance of radiation injuries were compared with in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the cure rate between those groups. The incidence of pigmentation, edema and diarrhea (early complications) was higher and the diarrhea continued significantly longer in the second group. The incidence of rectal ulcer and rectostenosis (later complications) was significantly higher than former group. A study was made to learn the reason for the significantly higher occurrence of rectal ulcer and rectostenosis. As a result, it was determined that later complication was more emphasized especially by dose rate of intracavitary irradiation. In addition, it is thought that the dose rate, the dose volume and natural history such as the patients' age are also related to the severity of the complications.

  1. Role of radiation therapy in mycosis fungoides refractory to systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, Vitaliana; Persechino, Severino; Fanelli, Alessandro; Valeriani, Maurizio; Bracci, Stefano; D'Arienzo, Marco; Monarca, Bruno; Caperchi, Cristiano; Raffa, Salvatore; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2011-01-01

    The long natural history of early stage mycosis fungoides (MF) makes its management a difficult problem. Skin lesions are sensitive to different therapies and a variety of treatment modalities have been used, such as topical nitrogen mustard, puvatherapy, UV-B, retinoids, radiation therapy, extracorporal photopheresis and systemic chemotherapy. For patients with refractory early stage MF, treatment selection is made by clinical parameters such as the age, sex and performance status of the patients, as well as the institutional expertise and the toxicity profiles of the different therapeutic approaches. We report radiation therapy in a relapsed/resistant stage IB patient with mycosis fungoides treated with local radiation therapy for symptomatic progression unresponsive to bexarotene therapy. Total skin electron beam therapy has been employed in early stage and for limited skin failure MF, while the role of local radiation therapy in MF is less defined. In our experience local radiotherapy has proved to be a very efficient, tolerable and cost effective approach in patients with MF unresponsive to systemic approaches.

  2. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Charlene; Zhang, Junran, E-mail: Junran.zhang@case.edu

    2015-10-01

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  3. Temporary corneal stem cell dysfunction after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi, Fujishima; Kazuo, Tsubota

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy can cause corneal and conjuctival abnormalities that sometimes require surgical treatment. Corneal stem cell dysfunction is described, which recovered after the cessation of radiation. Methods - A 44-year-old man developed a corneal epithelial abnormality associated with conjuctival and corneal inflammation following radiation therapy for maxillary cancer. Examination of brush cytology samples showed goblet cells in the upper and lower parts of the cornea, which showed increased fluorescein permeability, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Impression cytology showed goblet cells in the same part of the cornea. Specular microscopy revealed spindle type epithelial cells. Patient follow up included artificial tears and an antibiotic ophthalmic ointment. The corneal abnormalities resolved after 4 months with improved visual acuity without any surgical intervention, but the disappearance of the palisades of Vogt did not recover at 1 year after radiation. Radiation therapy in this patient caused temporary stem cell dysfunction which resulted in conjunctivalisation in a part of the cornea. Although limbal stem cell function did not fully recover, this rare case suggested that medical options should be considered before surgery. (Author)

  4. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Charlene; Zhang, Junran

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations

  5. Considering the role of radiation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin KS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly S Corbin,1 Hedy L Kindler,2 Stanley L Liauw31Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare mesenchymal tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last decade, the management and prognosis of GISTs has changed dramatically with molecular characterization of the c-kit mutation and the adoption of targeted systemic therapy. Currently, the standard of care for resectable tumors is surgery, followed by adjuvant imatinib for tumors at high risk for recurrence. Inoperable or metastatic tumors are treated primarily with imatinib. Despite excellent initial response rates, resistance to targeted therapy has emerged as a common clinical problem, with relatively few therapeutic solutions. While the treatment of GISTs does not commonly include radiotherapy, radiation therapy could be a valuable contributing modality. Several case reports indicate that radiation can control locally progressive, drug-resistant disease. Further study is necessary to define whether radiation could potentially prevent or delay the onset of drug resistance, or improve outcomes when given in combination with imatinib.Keywords: GIST, imatinib, radiotherapy

  6. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi (Kitagata National Sanatorium, Fukui (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author).

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  9. Oxygenation of spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achermann, R.E.; Ohlerth, S.M.; Bley, C.R.; Inteeworn, N.; Schaerz, M.; Wergin, M.C.; Kaser-Hotz, B. [Section of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Veterinary School, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Gassmann, M. [Inst. for Veterinary Physiology, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Roos, M. [Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation predicts treatment outcome, and reoxygenation is considered important in the efficacy of fractionated radiation therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the changes of the oxygenation status in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy using polarographic needle electrodes. Material and methods: tumor oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) measurements were performed with the eppendorf-pO{sub 2}-Histograph. The measurements were done under general anesthesia, and probe tracks were guided with ultrasound. pO{sub 2} was measured before radiation therapy in all dogs. In patients treated with curative intent, measurements were done sequentially up to eight times (total dose: 45-59.5 Gy). Oxygenation status of the palliative patient group was examined before each fraction of radiation therapy up to five times (total dose: 24-30 Gy). Results: 15/26 tumors had a pretreatment median pO{sub 2} {<=} 10 mmHg. The pO{sub 2} values appeared to be quite variable in individual tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. The pO{sub 2} of initially hypoxic tumors (pretreatment median pO{sub 2} {<=} 10 mmHg) remained unchanged during fractionated radiotherapy, whereas in initially normoxic tumors the pO{sub 2} decreased. Conclusion: hypoxia is common in spontaneous canine tumors, as 57.7% of the recorded values were {>=} 10 mmHg. The data of this study showed that initially hypoxic tumors remained hypoxic, whereas normoxic tumors became more hypoxic. (orig.)

  10. Adjuvant radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer: a 15-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, Ralph R.; Merrick, Hollis W.; Khuder, Sadik; Battle, Joyce A.; Herron, Lisa M.; Pawlicki, Todd

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis to determine differences in survival of patients with pancreatic aden carcinoma treated by radical surgery with and without adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1995, 249 patients with pancreatic tumors were identified at the Medical College of Ohio. Forty-four of these patients underwent radical surgical procedures with curative intent. These patients were divided into four groups according to treatment: surgery alone (n = 14), surgery plus intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) (n = 6), surgery plus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (n = 14), or surgery plus both IORT and EBRT (n = 10). Outcome and survival were analyzed among the four groups. Results: The median survival time of patients treated with radical surgery alone was 6.5 months. The median survival time for the surgery plus IORT group was 9 months; however, 33.3% (two of six) of these patients survived longer than 5 years. This survival pattern was borderline significantly better than that for the surgery alone group (p = 0.0765). The surgery plus EBRT and the surgery plus IORT and EBRT groups had median survival times of 14.5 and 17.5 months, respectively. These were significantly better than that of the surgery alone group (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The addition of radiation therapy did not affect the treatment complication rate. Conclusion: The survival of patients who were treated with radical surgery alone was significantly poorer than that of patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy. These results are consistent with other studies in the literature. Patients treated with all three modalities (surgery, IORT, and EBRT) displayed the best median survival time

  11. [Stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, D; Martinage, G; Mirabel, X; Lacornerie, T; Makhloufi, S; Faivre, J-C; Thureau, S; Lartigau, É

    2016-10-01

    After the liver and lungs, bones are the third most common sites of cancer metastasis. Palliative radiotherapy for secondary bone tumours helps relieve pain, improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of fractures. Stereotactic body radiotherapy can deliver high radiation doses with very tight margins, which has significant advantages when treating tumours close to the spinal cord. Strict quality control is essential as dose gradient at the edge of the spinal cord is important. Optimal schedule is not defined. A range of dose-fractionation schedules have been used. Pain relief and local control are seen in over 80%. Toxicity rates are low, although vertebral fracture may occur. Ongoing prospective studies will help clarify its role in the management of oligometastatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J.; Rose, Peter S.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Brown, Paul D.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Laack, Nadia N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 ± 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10–40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1–5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18–30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1–5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Mayo Medical School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Rose, Peter S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  14. Modern Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Outcomes in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Hwang, Lindsay; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Einck, John P.; Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Parikh, Sahil A. [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy, which has proven benefit against breast cancer, has historically been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Modern techniques have reduced this risk, but a detailed evaluation has not recently been conducted. The present study evaluated the effect of current radiation practices on ischemia-related cardiac events and procedures in a population-based study of older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,102 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Medicare claims were used to identify the radiation therapy and cardiac outcomes. Competing risk models were used to assess the effect of radiation on these outcomes. Results: Patients with left-sided breast cancer had a small increase in their risk of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after radiation therapy—the 10-year cumulative incidence for these patients was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9%-6.2%) and 4.5% (95% CI 4.0%-5.0%) for right-sided patients. This risk was limited to women with previous cardiac disease. For patients who underwent PCI, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 2.02 (95% CI 1.23-3.34). No other outcome, including cardiac mortality for the entire cohort, showed a significant relationship with tumor laterality. Conclusions: For women with a history of cardiac disease, those with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiation therapy had increased rates of PCI and a survival decrement if treated with PCI. The results of the present study could help cardiologists and radiation oncologists better stratify patients who need more aggressive cardioprotective techniques.

  15. Modern Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Outcomes in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Hwang, Lindsay; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Einck, John P.; Mell, Loren K.; Parikh, Sahil A.; Murphy, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy, which has proven benefit against breast cancer, has historically been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Modern techniques have reduced this risk, but a detailed evaluation has not recently been conducted. The present study evaluated the effect of current radiation practices on ischemia-related cardiac events and procedures in a population-based study of older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,102 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Medicare claims were used to identify the radiation therapy and cardiac outcomes. Competing risk models were used to assess the effect of radiation on these outcomes. Results: Patients with left-sided breast cancer had a small increase in their risk of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after radiation therapy—the 10-year cumulative incidence for these patients was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9%-6.2%) and 4.5% (95% CI 4.0%-5.0%) for right-sided patients. This risk was limited to women with previous cardiac disease. For patients who underwent PCI, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 2.02 (95% CI 1.23-3.34). No other outcome, including cardiac mortality for the entire cohort, showed a significant relationship with tumor laterality. Conclusions: For women with a history of cardiac disease, those with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiation therapy had increased rates of PCI and a survival decrement if treated with PCI. The results of the present study could help cardiologists and radiation oncologists better stratify patients who need more aggressive cardioprotective techniques.

  16. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment.

  17. Proton radiation therapy for clivus chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Tsunoda, Takashi; Hyodo, Akio; Nose, Tadao; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Inada, Tetsuo; Maruhashi, Akira; Hayakawa, Yoshinori.

    1993-01-01

    A 57-year-old male with clival chordoma developed severe hoarseness, dysphagia, and dysphonia 1 month after a second removal of the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass 10 cm in diameter in the region of the middle clivus enhanced inhomogeneously by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, and a defect in the skull base. There was evidence of compression of the anterior surface of the pons. He received proton irradiation employing a pair of parallel opposed lateral proton beams. The dose aimed at the tumor mass was 75.5 Gy, to the pharyngeal wall less than 38 Gy, and to the anterior portion of the pons less than 30 Gy. Time dose and fractionation factor was calculated at 148. Thirty-one months following treatment, he was free of clinical neurological sequelae. Proton therapy should be considered in treatment planning following initial surgical removal or for inoperable clivus chordoma. (author)

  18. Dynamics of immune indices in patients with Hodgkin's disease following splenectomy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankudinov, V.A.; Aslyaev, L.A.; Khvorostenko, M.I.; Krugovov, B.A.; Kosse, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of splenectomy and radiation therapy on immunoreactivity in patients with Hodgkin's disease is studied. It is established that splenectomy and laparatomy are advisable prior to radiation therapy [ru

  19. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, S.; Bernier, J.; Sklar, C.; Constine, L.

    1997-01-01

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  20. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2. Licenses... radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy technology. 2. Special eligibility to take the...-referenced examination in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy technology shall be...

  1. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouette, R.; Causse, N.; Elkhadri, M.; Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Houlard, J.P.; Racaldini, L.; Demeaux, H.

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  2. Role of the ICRU in quality assurance in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1984-01-01

    A short history of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and its main objectives are presented. They now include the development of internationally acceptable recommendations regarding: (1) quantities and units; (2) procedures suitable for the measurement and application of these quantities (as well as the associated uncertainties); (3) physical data needed in the application of these procedures; and (4) definition of terms and concepts used in radiation therapy. One of the most important actions of the ICRU during the last two decades was its recommendation in favor of the introduction of the SI units (International System of Units) in the field of ionizing radiation. Recently published ICRU reports in the field of radiation therapy are reviewed. Reports 23 and 24 provide recommendations for determining the absorbed dose in a patient irradiated with X or gamma ray beams. High energy electron and neutron beams have been considered in Reports 21 and 26 respectively. Report 31 provides a survey of the available anti W values and Report 29 makes recommendations on dose specification for reporting therapeutic irradiation in external beam therapy

  3. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning.

  4. Exclusive radical radiation therapy in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.; Salomon, A.; Gary-Bobo, J.; Pourquier, H.; Pujol, H.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of 186 breast cancer patients treated initially for locoregional disease by radiotherapy alone, combining cobalt therapy with external electron beam or interstitial iridium implants. According to the TNM classification, the patients were distributed as follows: 3 T 1 N 0 , 2 T 1 N 1 , 33 T 2 N 0 , 36 T 2 N 1 , 16 T 3 N 0 , 26 T 3 N 1 , 6 T 3 N 2 , 14 T 4 N 0 , 29 T 4 N 1 , 9 T 4 N 2 and 12 T 4 N 3 . The 5- and 10-year survival rates (52.7 and 36.5 per cent respectively, for all patients) were directly correlated with the size and location of the breast tumor, and the extent of lymph node involvement. Locoregional recurrence was observed in 39.8 per cent of the cases, metastases alone in 26.8 per cent, and a combination of local recurrence and distant metastasis in 14.5 per cent of the cases. The local recurrences and metastases were directly correlated with the extent of locoregional involvement. Late complications and sequelae were mostly minor and occurred in less than 25 per cent of the cases; severe sequelae in no more than 2 per cent. They depended on the initial tumor volume and the tumor dose. The results, along with those in the literature, indicate that radiotherapy administered alone is a valid therapeutic option in breast cancer. (author). 23 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. Radiation therapy of osteolytic bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.; Roesler, H.P.; Doll, G.; Dostert, M.; Kutzner, J.; Schild, H.

    1992-01-01

    Percutaneous radiotherapy is the most effective modality for treatment of metastatic bone cancer. Local irradiation improves overall quality of life by relieving pain in most patients. It also helps preventing complications as pathological fractures in lytic bone lesions by new bone formation. In a retrospective study on 100 patients, irradiated for lytic bone metastases, the radiotherapeutic effect on alleviation of pain and on recalcification rate was investigated. In our experience in 84% of the cases pain and disability associated with bone metastases could be decreased. 38% of the patients had complete relief of symptoms. A correlation between subjective therapy effect and histology of the primary tumor was not demonstrated. Remineralization was found in 67% of all irradiated skeletal areas (n=137) (recalcification rate in breast cancer 77%, in bronchial carcinoma 27%, and in renal cell carcinoma 25%). After a total dose of 30 Gy reduction of the metastases-associated pain was achieved in 81% of the cases and remineralization was observed in 70% of the cases. (orig.) [de

  6. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  7. The effect of radiation therapy on hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Sang Gi; Shin, Dong Oh

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive bleeding into the joint space is the cause of debilitative hemophilic arthropathy. To interrupt this process, we treated the hemophilic patients suffering from repetitive joint bleeding with radiation therapy. From 1997 to 2001, a total of 41 joints from 37 hemophilic arthropathy patients were treated with radiation therapy at KyungHee University Hospital. The treated joints were 35 ankles, 3 knees and 3 elbows, respectively. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 27 years (median age: 11 years). The radiation dose ranged from 900 cGy to 2360 cGy (median dose: 900 cGy). The fraction size was 150 cGy, 180 cGy or 200 cGy. The number of bleeding in one year before and after radiotherapy was compared. There was a tendency of frequent bleeding for the patients younger than 11 (ρ 0.051) but there was also a tendency for more improvement in this group (ρ 0.057). The number of joint bleedings was related with joint pain (ρ 0.012) and joint swelling (ρ = 0.033) but not with the Arbold-Hilgartner stage (ρ 0.739),cartilage destruction (ρ = 0.718) and synovial hypertrophy (ρ = 0.079). The number of bleeding was reduced in thirty-three cases, and eight cases showed no improvement after radiation therapy. The average number of bleeding in a month was 2.52 before radiotherapy, but this was reduced to 1.4 after radiotherapy (ρ = 0.017). Radiation therapy was effective for the hemophilia patients with repetitive joint bleeding to decrease the bleeding frequency and to prevent hemophilic arthropathy

  8. The effect of radiation therapy on hemophilic arthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Sang Gi; Shin, Dong Oh [School of Medicine, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Repetitive bleeding into the joint space is the cause of debilitative hemophilic arthropathy. To interrupt this process, we treated the hemophilic patients suffering from repetitive joint bleeding with radiation therapy. From 1997 to 2001, a total of 41 joints from 37 hemophilic arthropathy patients were treated with radiation therapy at KyungHee University Hospital. The treated joints were 35 ankles, 3 knees and 3 elbows, respectively. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 27 years (median age: 11 years). The radiation dose ranged from 900 cGy to 2360 cGy (median dose: 900 cGy). The fraction size was 150 cGy, 180 cGy or 200 cGy. The number of bleeding in one year before and after radiotherapy was compared. There was a tendency of frequent bleeding for the patients younger than 11 ({rho} 0.051) but there was also a tendency for more improvement in this group ({rho} 0.057). The number of joint bleedings was related with joint pain ({rho} 0.012) and joint swelling ({rho} = 0.033) but not with the Arbold-Hilgartner stage ({rho} 0.739),cartilage destruction ({rho} = 0.718) and synovial hypertrophy ({rho} = 0.079). The number of bleeding was reduced in thirty-three cases, and eight cases showed no improvement after radiation therapy. The average number of bleeding in a month was 2.52 before radiotherapy, but this was reduced to 1.4 after radiotherapy ({rho} = 0.017). Radiation therapy was effective for the hemophilia patients with repetitive joint bleeding to decrease the bleeding frequency and to prevent hemophilic arthropathy.

  9. Delayed damage after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki [Osaka Dental Univ., Hirakata (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    I investigated radiation damage, including osteoradionecrosis, arising from tooth extraction in fields that had received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and evaluated the effectiveness of pilocarpine for xerostomia. Between January 1990 and April 1996, I examined 30 patients for bone changes after tooth extraction in fields irradiated at the Department of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University Hospital. Nineteen of the patients had been treated for nasopharyngeal cancer and 11 for oropharyngeal cancer. Between January and April 1996, 4 additional patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (3-mg, 6-mg and 9-mg of KSS-694 orally three times a day) for 12 weeks and evaluated every 4 weeks as a base line. One had been treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two for cancer of the cheek and one for an unknown carcinoma. Eighteen of the patients (11 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 7 with oropharyngeal carcinoma) had extractions. Use of preoperative and postoperative radiographs indicated that damage to the bone following tooth extraction after radiation exposure was related to whether antibiotics were administered the day before the extraction, whether forceps or elevators were used, and whether the tooth was in the field of radiation. Xerostomia improved in all 4 of the patients who received 6-mg or 9-mg of pilocarpine. It improved saliva production and relieved the symptoms of xerostomia after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, although there were minor side effects such as fever. This information can be used to improve the oral environment of patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and to better understand their oral environment. (author)

  10. Delayed damage after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    I investigated radiation damage, including osteoradionecrosis, arising from tooth extraction in fields that had received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and evaluated the effectiveness of pilocarpine for xerostomia. Between January 1990 and April 1996, I examined 30 patients for bone changes after tooth extraction in fields irradiated at the Department of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University Hospital. Nineteen of the patients had been treated for nasopharyngeal cancer and 11 for oropharyngeal cancer. Between January and April 1996, 4 additional patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (3-mg, 6-mg and 9-mg of KSS-694 orally three times a day) for 12 weeks and evaluated every 4 weeks as a base line. One had been treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two for cancer of the cheek and one for an unknown carcinoma. Eighteen of the patients (11 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 7 with oropharyngeal carcinoma) had extractions. Use of preoperative and postoperative radiographs indicated that damage to the bone following tooth extraction after radiation exposure was related to whether antibiotics were administered the day before the extraction, whether forceps or elevators were used, and whether the tooth was in the field of radiation. Xerostomia improved in all 4 of the patients who received 6-mg or 9-mg of pilocarpine. It improved saliva production and relieved the symptoms of xerostomia after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, although there were minor side effects such as fever. This information can be used to improve the oral environment of patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and to better understand their oral environment. (author)

  11. Gold Nanoparticles and Their Alternatives for Radiation Therapy Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Cooper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for cancer. The dose of delivered ionizing radiation can be amplified by the presence of high-Z materials via an enhancement of the photoelectric effect; the most widely studied material is gold (atomic number 79. However, a large amount is needed to obtain a significant dose enhancement, presenting a challenge for delivery. In order to make this technique of broader applicability, the gold must be targeted, or alternative formulations developed that do not rely solely on the photoelectric effect. One possible approach is to excite scintillating nanoparticles with ionizing radiation, and then exploit energy transfer between these particles and attached dyes in a manner analogous to photodynamic therapy. Doped rare-earth halides and semiconductor quantum dots have been investigated for this purpose. However, although the spectrum of emitted light after radiation excitation is usually similar to that seen with light excitation, the yield is not. Measurement of scintillation yields is challenging, and in many cases has been done only for bulk materials, with little understanding of how the principles translate to the nanoscale. Another alternative is to use local heating using gold or iron, followed by application of ionizing radiation. Hyperthermia pre-sensitizes the tumors, leading to an improved response. Another approach is to use chemotherapeutic drugs that can radiosensitize tumors. Drugs may be attached to high-Z nanoparticles or encapsulated. This article discusses each of these techniques, giving an overview of the current state of nanoparticle-assisted radiation therapy and future directions.

  12. Radiation biology as a basis for multidisciplinary cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, N.

    2017-01-01

    The research field of radiation biology has progressed greatly thanks to the advances in molecular biology. DNA in the cell nucleus is the principal target of radiation. The biological effect of radiation can be determined by how the DNA damage is processed in the cell. In order to prevent deleterious biological effects due to DNA damage, the cells possess a system termed 'DNA damage response'. The DNA damage response finally induces cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair pathways, or cell death. If accurately repaired, DNA damage will result in survival of cells with no biological effects. If inaccurately repaired, DNA damage may result in survival of cells exhibiting genetic alterations, which can lead to the development of various diseases including cancer. If unrepaired, fatal DNA damage such as the DNA double-strand break will result in cell depth. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy are designed to specifically kill cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks, it is important to take advantage of cancer-specific abnormalities in DNA damage response. In this review, I describe the impact of targeting DNA damage response in cancer therapy and show how progress in radiation biology has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (author)

  13. A prospective study of quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canhua Xiao, PhD, RN

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Radiation therapy did not worsen QOL in breast cancer patients. However, pre-radiation therapy patient characteristics including BMI and perceived stress may be used to identify women who may experience decreased physical and mental function during and up to 1 year after radiation therapy.

  14. What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What To Know About Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) “I asked questions. My doctor took the time ... most. Understanding Radiation Therapy: Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) Types of brachytherapy: Low-dose rate (LDR) implants ...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5900 - X-ray radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false X-ray radiation therapy system. 892.5900 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5900 X-ray radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. An x-ray radiation therapy system is a device intended to produce and control x...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5710 - Radiation therapy beam-shaping block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy beam-shaping block. 892.5710... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5710 Radiation therapy beam-shaping block. (a) Identification. A radiation therapy beam-shaping block is a device made of a highly...

  17. Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, C C; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    limited data on the volume required to establish a maximal SV before the start of surgery. Therefore, we estimated the occurrence and size of the potential functional intravascular volume deficit in surgical patients. METHODS: Patients scheduled for mastectomy (n=20), open radical prostatectomy (n=20......BACKGROUND: Stroke volume (SV) maximization with a colloid infusion, referred to as individualized goal-directed therapy, improves outcome in high-risk surgery. The fraction of patients who need intravascular volume to establish a maximal SV has, however, not been evaluated, and there are only...... deficit. RESULTS: Forty-two (70%) of the patients needed volume to establish a maximal SV. For the patients needing volume, the required amount was median 200 ml (range 200-600 ml), with no significant difference between the three groups of patients. The required volume was >or=400 ml in nine patients (15...

  18. Advances in radiotherapy techniques and delivery for non-small cell lung cancer: benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy, and stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwanji, Tejan P; Mohindra, Pranshu; Vyfhuis, Melissa; Snider, James W; Kalavagunta, Chaitanya; Mossahebi, Sina; Yu, Jen; Feigenberg, Steven; Badiyan, Shahed N

    2017-04-01

    The 21st century has seen several paradigm shifts in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in early-stage inoperable disease, definitive locally advanced disease, and the postoperative setting. A key driver in improvement of local disease control has been the significant evolution of radiation therapy techniques in the last three decades, allowing for delivery of definitive radiation doses while limiting exposure of normal tissues. For patients with locally-advanced NSCLC, the advent of volumetric imaging techniques has allowed a shift from 2-dimensional approaches to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). The next generation of 3DCRT, intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), have enabled even more conformal radiation delivery. Clinical evidence has shown that this can improve the quality of life for patients undergoing definitive management of lung cancer. In the early-stage setting, conventional fractionation led to poor outcomes. Evaluation of altered dose fractionation with the previously noted technology advances led to advent of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This technique has dramatically improved local control and expanded treatment options for inoperable, early-stage patients. The recent development of proton therapy has opened new avenues for improving conformity and the therapeutic ratio. Evolution of newer proton therapy techniques, such as pencil-beam scanning (PBS), could improve tolerability and possibly allow reexamination of dose escalation. These new progresses, along with significant advances in systemic therapies, have improved survival for lung cancer patients across the spectrum of non-metastatic disease. They have also brought to light new challenges and avenues for further research and improvement.

  19. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...

  20. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  1. Exposure of medical personnel to radiation during radionuclide therapy practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Sophie; Guillet, Benjamin; Sigrist, Sophie; Bourrelly, Marc; Waultier, Serge; Mundler, Oliver; Pisano, Pascale

    2008-04-01

    Radioisotopes that emit beta radiation are used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, of arthritic patients (radiosynovectomy) and treatment of bone metastases with, respectively, I-labelled lipiodol, colloidal citrate of Y or and Sm-labelled EDTMP. Radiation energy of these radioisotopes that emit beta or beta and gamma radiation (from 300 to 2000 keV) leads to an increase in radiation dose received by nuclear medicine staff. In this paper we focused on clinical and laboratory staff exposure during these types of metabolic radiation therapies. Cylindrical LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure radiation-related whole-body doses (WBDs) and finger doses of the clinical staff. Exposure of the two radiopharmacists and three nurses taking part in I-labelled lipiodol, Y-colloid and Sm-EDTMP therapies, for 12 months in succession, were 146 microSv and 750 microSv, respectively, considering WBD, and 14.6 mSv and 6.5 mSv, respectively, considering finger doses. Extrapolated annual exposures (six radiosynovectomies per year) for the rheumatologists were estimated to be 21 microSv (WBD) and 13.2 mSv (finger dose). Extrapolated annual WBDs and finger doses (25 I-labelled lipiodol treatments per year) for radiologists were estimated to 165 microSv and 3.8 microSv, respectively. Fortunately, these doses were always lower than the limits reported in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29 05/13/1996 (WBD medical staff involved in all these clinical practices justifies dosimetry studies to validate protocols and radiation protection devices for each institution.

  2. Accounting for radiation quality in heavy ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany). Radiobiological Inst.]|[Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearbiologie

    1997-09-01

    This introductory contribution outlines the need for models and their use in radiotherapy dose planning. The linear-quadratic dose relation is now predominantly used in therapy dose planning. In Section I it is linked to the earlier quantitative scheme for conventional radiotherapy. In Section II two major approaches are presented in a form that makes them comparable; the section can be read by itself, if this comparison alone is of interest. Models for therapy planning are tools, largely of empirical character; they do not need to elucidate unknown mechanisms of radiation action. The emphasis is, therefore, on the computational scheme, not on its interpretation. (orig.)

  3. A case of sarcoma of the chest wall after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Junko; Nishi, Tsunehiro; Fukuuchi, Atsushi; Takanashi, Riichiro

    1998-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced sarcoma of the chest wall after radiation therapy for breast cancer is reported. A 69-year-old woman underwent mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection followed by linac therapy of 50 Gy delivered to the left axilla, left supraclavicular area, and parasternal area. During therapy for bone and liver metastases, a tumor was noted in the left chest wall 15 years after radiation therapy. Incisional biopsy was performed. Histological diagnosis was spindle cell sarcoma. Radiation-induced sarcoma was suspected because the tumor developed 15 years after radiation therapy within the same area. Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare tumor, but radiation therapy following breast-conserving therapy is widely employed. It is important to be aware of the possibility of radiation-induced sarcoma. (author)

  4. A case of sarcoma of the chest wall after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Junko; Nishi, Tsunehiro; Fukuuchi, Atsushi; Takanashi, Riichiro [Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    A case of radiation-induced sarcoma of the chest wall after radiation therapy for breast cancer is reported. A 69-year-old woman underwent mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection followed by linac therapy of 50 Gy delivered to the left axilla, left supraclavicular area, and parasternal area. During therapy for bone and liver metastases, a tumor was noted in the left chest wall 15 years after radiation therapy. Incisional biopsy was performed. Histological diagnosis was spindle cell sarcoma. Radiation-induced sarcoma was suspected because the tumor developed 15 years after radiation therapy within the same area. Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare tumor, but radiation therapy following breast-conserving therapy is widely employed. It is important to be aware of the possibility of radiation-induced sarcoma. (author)

  5. New diagnostic techniques in the service of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goitein, M.

    1979-01-01

    A new technique is a solution to a problem. In this review, the treatment of malignant diseases is discussed according to the following schema; tumor evaluation, with pathology, staging and treatment techniques; the technical assistance in therapy planning, with planning radiation technique, dosimetry, monitoring therapy execution and charged particle therapy; the monitoring of tumor response during therapy; follow-up after therapy; and the impact of technology on outcome. The most significant advance in the last decade is the introduction of X-ray transmission computed tomography (CT). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied to the medical field as another physical means. Ultrasound, radioactively labeled compounds, alpha particle microradiography, etc. are promissing techniques for the purpose. Positron emission can be imaged from a variety of isotopes, particularly short-lived positron emitters such as 11 C. Special purpose cameras are used to monitor the positron activity induced within patients by high energy (45 MeV) therapy beam itself. By carefully measuring washout curves, the blood perfusion rate in tumors can be deduced. To the extent that this is an indication of the oxygen tension of the tumors, it may have a value in assessing the likely responsiveness of the tumors to therapy and in guiding the choice of dose and fractionation. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements......, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  7. [Ameloblastoma of the maxillary sinus treated with radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehal, Asmaa; Lobo, Rosabel; Naim, Asmaa; Azinovic, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign aggressive odontogenic tumor which requires early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. It commonly affects the mandible and radical surgery is the gold standard treatment. We report the case of a patient with ameloblastoma in extremely advanced phase affecting the maxillary sinus who was treated with intensity modulated conformal radiation therapy. Patient's evolution was marked by complete remission maintained after 24 months follow-up. Maxillary ameloblastoma is not well documented in the literature. It is usually diagnosed at the later stage when optimal surgery cannot be performed. This case study aimed to demonstrate that radiation therapy is a real therapeutic alternative in the treatment of advanced and inoperable forms of ameloblastoma.

  8. Tolerance of brain to multiple courses of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritschilo, A.; Bruckman, J.E.; Cassady, J.R.; Belli, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Patients with recurrent brain tumours years after initial radiation therapy pose a difficult management decision. Should retreatment be performed with irradiation, which carries a risk of necrosis, or should retreatment be with less effective agents but without unnecessary risks. The results of retreatment of 32 patients at the Mayo Clinic and the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy are presented. Clinical improvement was seen in all retreated patients. The median survival was 36 months after completion of the second course of irradiation. Eight patients (25%) were alive, free of disease, from 22 to 315 months after retreatment. Of the 11 patients alive at the time of analysis, eight were experiencing productive lives and three were suffering from severe neurological damage. Evidence of brain necrosis was observed in two patients (6%); however, only 10/21 patients underwent autopsy examinations. Reirradiation of patients with late recurrences of brain tumours may offer neurological improvement and prolonged survival without excessive risk of necrosis. (author)

  9. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  10. Optimization of brain tumor dose using intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbakery, Andaria Elhanfi Elmaki

    2016-04-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) become an essential technique that achieves the goal of radiation therapy, maximum target dose and minimum dose for healthy tissues. Dose optimization was applied for brain tumor through as set of constrains given to the software. Fifteen patients were selected for IMRT planning and delineation was done using special software (fical). All data was tranferred to the treatment planning system. Kon Rad planning system was used in this work. The planning was evaluated with homogeneity index and dose volume histogram ( DVH). The 0ptimization was achieved from converge of target volume with 5% as maxim dose and 95% as the minimum dose. The homogeneity index that calculated for most of patients was approcimately equal to 1. It means that converge was good and the optimization fulfilled. For organs at risk (OAR) the dose was below the tolerances and the mean dose and maxim dose were calculated. (Author)

  11. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  12. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  13. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-01-01

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques

  14. Dose calculation algorithms for radiation therapy with an MRI-Integrated radiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) aims at improving therapy outcome on the basis of more precise knowledge of the anatomical and physiological situation during treatment. By integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), better differentiation is possible between the target volume to be irradiated and healthy surrounding tissues. In addition, changes that occur either between or during treatment fractions can be taken into account. On the basis of this information, a better conformation of radiation dose to the target volume may be achieved, which may in turn improve prognosis and reduce radiation side effects. This requires a precise calculation of radiation dose in a magnetic field that is present in these integrated irradiation devices. Real-time adaptation of the treatment plan is aimed at for which fast dose calculation is needed. Kernel-based methods are good candidates to achieve short calculation times; however, they presently only exist for radiation therapy in the absence of magnetic fields. This work suggests and investigates two approaches towards kernel-based dose calculation algorithms. One of them is integrated into treatment plan optimisation and applied to four clinical cases.

  15. Effects of radiation therapy on growing long bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, A.A.; Kuhns, L.R.; Fayos, J.V.; Holt, J.F.

    1976-12-01

    Characteristic radiographic changes were seen in six of 14 children who received radiation therapy to the epiphyseal plate of a long bone. These changes, which include metaphyseal sclerosis, metaphyseal fraying, and epiphyseal plate widening, resemble rickets. In three patients, these changes were followed by development of a broad metaphyseal band of increased density. The absence of metaphyseal changes may indicate sterilization of cartilage cells and may be predictive of significant limb shortening.

  16. WE-B-BRD-02: MR Simulation for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, K. [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of MRI in radiation therapy is rapidly increasing. Applications vary from the MRI simulator, to the MRI fused with CT, and to the integrated MRI+RT system. Compared with the standard MRI QA, a broader scope of QA features has to be defined in order to maximize the benefits of using MRI in radiation therapy. These QA features include geometric fidelity, image registration, motion management, cross-system alignment, and hardware interference. Advanced MRI techniques require a specific type of QA, as they are being widely used in radiation therapy planning, dose calculations, post-implant dosimetry, and prognoses. A vigorous and adaptive QA program is crucial to defining the responsibility of the entire radiation therapy group and detecting deviations from the performance of high-quality treatment. As a drastic departure from CT simulation, MRI simulation requires changes in the work flow of treatment planning and image guidance. MRI guided radiotherapy platforms are being developed and commercialized to take the advantage of the advance in knowledge, technology and clinical experience. This symposium will from an educational perspective discuss the scope and specific issues related to MRI guided radiotherapy. Learning Objectives: Understand the difference between a standard and a radiotherapy-specific MRI QA program. Understand the effects of MRI artifacts (geometric distortion and motion) on radiotherapy. Understand advanced MRI techniques (ultrashort echo, fast MRI including dynamic MRI and 4DMRI, diffusion, perfusion, and MRS) and related QA. Understand the methods to prepare MRI for treatment planning (electron density assignment, multimodality image registration, segmentation and motion management). Current status of MRI guided treatment platforms. Dr. Jihong Wang has a research grant with Elekta-MRL project. Dr. Ke Sheng receives research grants from Varian Medical systems.

  17. Implications of the Bystander and Abscopal Effects of Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Lin, Steven H

    2016-10-01

    Siva and colleagues have demonstrated that localized thoracic radiation resulted in DNA damage at out-of-field sites. Although these interesting findings require validation, we discuss the important clinical implications of these data, especially in the era of immune therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(19); 4763-5. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Siva et al., p. 4817. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  19. Urothelial cancers following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Seiji; Hasumi, Masaru; Sato, Jin; Mayuzumi, Takuji; Kumasaka, Fuminari; Shimizu, Toshihiro.

    1996-01-01

    Some reports have indicated that bladder cancer is induced by radiation therapy for cervical cancer. We encountered 6 cases of urothelial cancer (5 cases of bladder cancer and 1 case of ureter cancer) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Age at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 38 to 66 years, and the average was 51.2±11.0 (S.D.) years old. Age at the time of diagnosis of urothelial cancer ranged from 53 to 83 years, and the average was 67.5±10.3 years old. The interval between the diagnosis of cervical cancer and urothelial cancer ranged from 3 to 25 years, averaging 16.3 years. It is impossible to evaluate the risk of development of urothelial cancer after radiation therapy based on our data. However, it is important to make an effort to diagnose urothelial cancer at an early stage by educating patients (e.g., advising regular urine tests) after the follow-up period to cervical cancer. (author)

  20. Current status of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Araki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    External-beam radiation therapy has been one of the treatment options for prostate cancer. The dose response has been observed for a dose range of 64.8-81 Gy. The problem of external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer is that as the dose increases, adverse effects also increase. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) has enabled us to treat patients with up to 72-76 Gy to the prostate, with a relatively acceptable risk of late rectal bleeding. Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to deliver a higher dose to the target with acceptable low rates of rectal and bladder complications. The most important things to keep in mind when using an IMRT technique are that there is a significant trade-off between coverage of the target, avoidance of adjacent critical structures, and the inhomogeneity of the dose within the target. Lastly, even with IMRT, it should be kept in mind that a ''perfect'' plan that creates completely homogeneous coverage of the target volume and zero or small dose to the adjacent organs at risk is not always obtained. Participating in many treatment planning sessions and arranging the beams and beam weights create the best approach to the best IMRT plan. (author)

  1. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  2. Definitive radiation therapy for infiltrative thyroid carcinoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, L; Roberts, R E; Dawson, S D; Dookwah, H D

    2001-01-01

    The medical records of eight dogs with histopathologically confirmed infiltrative thyroid carcinoma treated with external beam radiation were reviewed and a retrospective analysis of survival and local tumor control were performed. The dogs received a definitive radiotherapy protocol of 46.8-48 Gray. All dogs had a reduction in tumor size to a clinically undetectable level on follow up examinations. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a median survival time of 24.5 months. Pulmonary metastasis was detected in three dogs and one of these dogs had concurrent bone metastasis. One dog had bone metastasis alone. Two dogs were alive at the censor. This study suggests that fractionated, definitive radiation therapy using multiple, moderate doses of radiation is an effective treatment for local control of invasive thyroid carcinoma in dogs.

  3. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  4. Dental extractions in relation to radiation therapy of 224 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkonen, T.A.; Kiminki, A.; Makkonen, T.K.; Nordman, E.

    1987-01-01

    The case histories of 224 patients treated with radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies at the Radiotherapy Clinic of the Univesity Central Hospital in Turku during the years 1974-77 are reviewed. Of the 92 patients surviving for 5 years, 90 were available for re-examination. The median radiation dosage was 61 Gy in 6 to 8 weeks in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and othe solid tumours and 43 Gy in 5 weeks in patients with lymphoma. The oral status of the patients was examined clinically and radiographically. From these pationts 45 teeth had been extracted before irradiation and 94 after irradiation. In no case had this resulted in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws. It is evident that the repairing of patient's teeth before radiation treatment, coupled with continuous preventive care of caries, will prevent serious complications from arising. (author)

  5. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  6. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  7. Injectable Colloidal Gold in a Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate Gelating Matrix with Potential Use in Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Binderup, Tina; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy relies on the ability to deliver high radiation doses to tumor cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. Advanced irradiation techniques, including image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), rely on the ability to locate tumors to optimize the therapeu......External beam radiation therapy relies on the ability to deliver high radiation doses to tumor cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. Advanced irradiation techniques, including image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), rely on the ability to locate tumors to optimize...

  8. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandai, Michiko; Ogura, Yuichiro

    1996-01-01

    Authors' results of low dose radiation therapy for ARMD were described. CT scan simulation was performed to determine the irradiation field of posterior pole of eyeball to which more than 90% of radiation was to be absorbed. The photon beam of 6MV was irradiated as to avoid lens at 2 Gy/day for 1 or 2 weeks to attain 10 or 20 Gy in total, respectively. After the treatment, the process was followed every 3 months and examinations with fluorescence contrasting, for visual field and for adverse radiation effects were done every 6 months. Results of reduction, no change and increase of choroidal neovascularization plate within 1 y were seen in 7 (47%), 4 (27%) and 4 eyes (27%) per total 15 eyes, respectively, in the treated group with 10 Gy whereas those in the control untreated group were 1 (6%), 6 (35%) and 10 (59%) eyes per 17 eyes, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the treatment was effective for improvement of serous abruption and of retinal edema and for keeping optesthesia. The radiation therapy with 20 Gy was one too recently introduced to give enough results but may be more promising. (K.H.)

  9. Aesthetic results following partial mastectomy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matory, W.E. Jr.; Wertheimer, M.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Walton, R.L.; Love, S.; Matory, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the aesthetic changes inherent in partial mastectomy followed by radiation therapy in the treatment of stage I and stage II breast cancer. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients treated according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project Protocol B-06 was undertaken in 57 patients from 1984 to the present. The size of mastectomy varied between 2 x 1 cm and 15 x 8 cm. Objective aesthetic outcome, as determined by physical and photographic examination, was influenced primarily by surgical technique as opposed to the effects of radiation. These technical factors included orientation of resections, breast size relative to size of resection, location of tumor, and extent and orientation of axillary dissection. Regarding cosmesis, 80 percent of patients treated in this study judged their result to be excellent or good, in comparison to 50 percent excellent or good as judged by the plastic surgeon. Only 10 percent would consider mastectomy with reconstruction for contralateral disease. Asymmetry and contour abnormalities are far more common than noted in the radiation therapy literature. Patients satisfaction with lumpectomy and radiation, however, is very high. This satisfaction is not necessarily based on objective criteria defining aesthetic parameters, but is strongly influenced by retainment of the breast as an original body part

  10. Breast Cancer Biology: Clinical Implications for Breast Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Janet K; Jagsi, Reshma; Woodward, Wendy A; Ho, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Historically, prognosis and treatment decision making for breast cancer patients have been dictated by the anatomic extent of tumor spread. However, in recent years, "breast cancer" has proven to be a collection of unique phenotypes with distinct prognoses, patterns of failure, and treatment responses. Recent advances in biologically based assays and targeted therapies designed to exploit these unique phenotypes have profoundly altered systemic therapy practice patterns and treatment outcomes. Data associating locoregional outcomes with tumor biology are emerging. However, the likelihood of obtaining level I evidence for fundamental radiation therapy questions within each of the specific subtypes in the immediate future is low. As such, this review aims to summarize the existing data and provide practical context for the incorporation of breast tumor biology into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  12. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors ≤4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  13. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  14. Acute toxicity in comprehensive head and neck radiation for nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancers: cohort comparison of 3D conformal proton therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Liu, Yuan; Moore, Michael G.; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute toxicity endpoints in a cohort of patients receiving head and neck radiation with proton therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Forty patients received comprehensive head and neck radiation including bilateral cervical nodal radiation, given with or without chemotherapy, for tumors of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, any T stage, N0-2. Fourteen received comprehensive treatment with proton therapy, and 26 were treated with IMRT, either comprehensively or matched to proton therapy delivered to the primary tumor site. Toxicity endpoints assessed included g-tube dependence at the completion of radiation and at 3 months after radiation, opioid pain medication requirement compared to pretreatment normalized as equivalent morphine dose (EMD) at completion of treatment, and at 1 and 3 months after radiation. In a multivariable model including confounding variables of concurrent chemotherapy and involved nodal disease, comprehensive head and neck radiation therapy using proton therapy was associated with a lower opioid pain requirement at the completion of radiation and a lower rate of gastrostomy tube dependence by the completion of radiation therapy and at 3 months after radiation compared to IMRT. Proton therapy was associated with statistically significant lower mean doses to the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and parotid glands. In subgroup analysis of 32 patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy, there was a statistically significant correlation with a greater opioid pain medication requirement at the completion of radiation and both increasing mean dose to the oral cavity and to the esophagus. Proton therapy was associated with significantly reduced radiation dose to assessed non-target normal tissues and a reduced rate of gastrostomy tube dependence and opioid pain medication requirements. This warrants further evaluation in larger studies, ideally with patient-reported toxicity outcomes and quality of life

  15. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, Jillian R.; Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali; Ketonen, Leena; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Boehling, Nicholas S.; Khatua, Soumen; Adesina, Adekunle; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem

  16. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ketonen, Leena [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Jeremy Y. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Weinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Khatua, Soumen [Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adesina, Adekunle [Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem.

  17. Palliative care and palliative radiation therapy education in radiation oncology: A survey of US radiation oncology program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Colbert, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua; Racsa, Margarita; Kane, Gabrielle; Lutz, Steve; Vapiwala, Neha; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    The purpose of this study was to assess the state of palliative and supportive care (PSC) and palliative radiation therapy (RT) educational curricula in radiation oncology residency programs in the United States. We surveyed 87 program directors of radiation oncology residency programs in the United States between September 2015 and November 2015. An electronic survey on PSC and palliative RT education during residency was sent to all program directors. The survey consisted of questions on (1) perceived relevance of PSC and palliative RT to radiation oncology training, (2) formal didactic sessions on domains of PSC and palliative RT, (3) effective teaching formats for PSC and palliative RT education, and (4) perceived barriers for integrating PSC and palliative RT into the residency curriculum. A total of 57 responses (63%) was received. Most program directors agreed or strongly agreed that PSC (93%) and palliative radiation therapy (99%) are important competencies for radiation oncology residents and fellows; however, only 67% of residency programs had formal educational activities in principles and practice of PSC. Most programs had 1 or more hours of formal didactics on management of pain (67%), management of neuropathic pain (65%), and management of nausea and vomiting (63%); however, only 35%, 33%, and 30% had dedicated lectures on initial management of fatigue, assessing role of spirituality, and discussing advance care directives, respectively. Last, 85% of programs reported having a formal curriculum on palliative RT. Programs were most likely to have education on palliative radiation to brain, bone, and spine, but less likely on visceral, or skin, metastasis. Residency program directors believe that PSC and palliative RT are important competencies for their trainees and support increasing education in these 2 educational domains. Many residency programs have structured curricula on PSC and palliative radiation education, but room for improvement exists in

  18. Managing complications of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients: Part I. Management of xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngeow, Dr. W.C.; Chai, W. L.; Rahman, R. A.; Ramli, R.

    2006-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therap...

  19. Evaluation of patients' engagement in radiation therapy safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, A; Mollo, V; Bibault, J-E; Giraud, P

    2016-12-01

    Treatment safety has become a priority in health policies after several incidents occurred around the world in radiation oncology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse the patients' contribution in that field and to understand which actions empower the patient in that regard. Several methods were used in a general hospital and in a comprehensive cancer centre to analyse the activities of the radiation therapists and the patients and the interactions between them: treatment session observations, semidirective interviews with radiation therapists and patients, self and alloconfrontation with radiation therapists and explanatory interviews with patients. Cooperation of the patients in treatment safety acts as an additional step that contributes to safer treatments. Radiation therapy sessions are a creative opportunity for the patient to observe, learn and analyse what is happening. Changes between treatment sessions are a source of anxiety for the patients. This study highlights the factors that favour the patients' participation. A trusting relationship and support from the health professionals can be leveraged in that manner. There is a common will shared between the patients and the health professionals towards better treatment safety. The cooperation is still not well-known and underused. This empowerment of the patient cannot be mandatory but should be promoted and developed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Evaluation of selection criteria for graduate students in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn

    2006-12-01

    Selection of suitable students into graduate medical and specialist health professional courses can be difficult. Historically, selection of students was primarily based on prior academic performance. Recently, however, more emphasis has been placed on considering broader academic backgrounds and personal characteristics and attitudes of students, but no reliable measurement tool is available to predict student success and satisfaction with their choice of profession. The aim of this study was to survey practising radiation therapists in Australia to seek their opinions regarding suitable selection criteria for graduate entry radiation therapy (RT) students in order to optimize selection procedures for future applicants. Four hundred questionnaires were sent to nine RT centres in three states within Australia. All nine clinics participated in the survey and 189 questionnaires were returned. Results show that the majority of radiation therapists place a high level of importance upon a sound knowledge of physics and mathematics, as well as life experience, and agree that a visit to an RT clinic plus an interview comprise important components of the selection process. Humanities, psychology and a psychometric test were not viewed as essential entry requirements. Experienced radiation therapists placed less value on academic performance in the primary degree and were more likely to include an interview as a selection criterion than junior practitioners. Empathy for patients was identified as the most important personal attribute. It is thus recommended that not only cognitive but also personal skills be evaluated during the selection of prospective radiation therapists.

  1. Radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Dobroś; Justyna Hajto-Bryk; Małgorzata Wróblewska; Joanna Zarzecka

    2015-01-01

    Overall improvement in the nationwide system of medical services has consequently boosted the number of successfully treated patients who suffer from head and neck cancer. It is essential to effectively prevent development of radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy. Incidence and severity of radiation-induced changes within the teeth individually vary depending on the patient’s age, actual radiation dose, size of radiation exposure field, patient’s general condition a...

  2. The New Radiation Therapy Clinical Practice: The Emerging Role of Clinical Peer Review for Radiation Therapists and Medical Dosimetrists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Robert D.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Pawlicki, Todd; Hayman, James; Church, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The concept of peer review for radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists has been studied very little in radiation oncology practice. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the concept of peer review in the clinical setting for both radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists. The literature reviewed both the percentages and causes of radiation therapy deviations. The results indicate that peer review can be both implemented and evaluated into both the radiation therapist and medical dosimetrist clinical practice patterns.

  3. Melanoma Therapy via Peptide-Targeted a-Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yubin; Hylarides, Mark; Fisher, Darrell R.; Shelton, Tiffani; Moore, Herbert A.; Wester, Dennis W.; Fritzberg, Alan R.; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Current chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy regimens are ineffective agents against melanoma, as shown by a 10-year survival rate for patients with disseminated disease of approximately 5% (reference?). In this study, the unique combination of a melanoma targeting peptide and an in vivo generated a-particle emitting radioisotope was investigated for its melanoma therapy potential. Alpha-radiation is densely ionizing and energy is locally absorbed, resulting in high concentrations of destructive free radicals and irreparable DNA double strand breaks. This high linear-energy-transfer overcomes radiation resistant tumor cells and oxygen-enhancement effects. The melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH was radiolabeled with 212Pb, the parent of 212Bi, which decays via alpha and beta decay. Biodistribution and therapy studies were performed in the B16/F1 melanoma bearing C57 mouse flank tumor model. 212Pb[DOTA]-R e(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited rapid tumor uptake and extended retention coupled with rapid whole body disappearance. Radiation dose delivered to the tumor was estimated to be 61 cGy/uCi 212Pb administered. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with 50, 100 and 200 uCi of 212Pb[DOTA]-Re(Arg11)CCMSH extended mean survival of mice to 22, 28, and 49.8 days, respectively, compared to the 14.6 day mean survival of the placebo control group. Forty-five percent of the mice receiving 200 uCi survived the study disease-free.

  4. A point kernel algorithm for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Charlotte; Oelfke, Uwe; Bartzsch, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a treatment approach in radiation therapy where the treatment field is spatially fractionated into arrays of a few tens of micrometre wide planar beams of unusually high peak doses separated by low dose regions of several hundred micrometre width. In preclinical studies, this treatment approach has proven to spare normal tissue more effectively than conventional radiation therapy, while being equally efficient in tumour control. So far dose calculations in MRT, a prerequisite for future clinical applications are based on Monte Carlo simulations. However, they are computationally expensive, since scoring volumes have to be small. In this article a kernel based dose calculation algorithm is presented that splits the calculation into photon and electron mediated energy transport, and performs the calculation of peak and valley doses in typical MRT treatment fields within a few minutes. Kernels are analytically calculated depending on the energy spectrum and material composition. In various homogeneous materials peak, valley doses and microbeam profiles are calculated and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. For a microbeam exposure of an anthropomorphic head phantom calculated dose values are compared to measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Except for regions close to material interfaces calculated peak dose values match Monte Carlo results within 4% and valley dose values within 8% deviation. No significant differences are observed between profiles calculated by the kernel algorithm and Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements in the head phantom agree within 4% in the peak and within 10% in the valley region. The presented algorithm is attached to the treatment planning platform VIRTUOS. It was and is used for dose calculations in preclinical and pet-clinical trials at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, France.

  5. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Koichi; Mukawa, Jiro; Mekaru, Susumu; Harakuni, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Tominaga, Daisuke; Nakasone, Susumu.

    1996-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  6. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A Sam; Suchowerska, Natalka; Law, Susan H

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  7. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J.

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification

  8. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Accuracy of marketing claims by providers of stereotactic radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K; Lam, Edwin; Makary, Martin A; Deweese, Theodore L; Pawlik, Timothy M; Pronovost, Peter J; Herman, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising by industry has been criticized for encouraging overuse of unproven therapies, but advertising by health care providers has not been as carefully scrutinized. Stereotactic radiation therapy is an emerging technology that has sparked controversy regarding the marketing campaigns of some manufacturers. Given that this technology is also being heavily advertised on the Web sites of health care providers, the accuracy of providers' marketing claims should be rigorously evaluated. We reviewed the Web sites of all U.S. hospitals and private practices that provide stereotactic radiation using two leading brands of stereotactic radiosurgery technology. Centers were identified by using data from the manufacturers. Centers without Web sites were excluded. The final study population consisted of 212 centers with online advertisements for stereotactic radiation. Web sites were evaluated for advertisements that were inconsistent with advertising guidelines provided by the American Medical Association. Most centers (76%) had individual pages dedicated to the marketing of their brand of stereotactic technology that frequently contained manufacturer-authored images (50%) or text (55%). Advertising for the treatment of tumors that have not been endorsed by professional societies was present on 66% of Web sites. Centers commonly claimed improved survival (22%), disease control (20%), quality of life (17%), and toxicity (43%) with stereotactic radiation. Although 40% of Web sites championed the center's regional expertise in delivering stereotactic treatments, only 15% of Web sites provided data to support their claims. Provider advertisements for stereotactic radiation were prominent and aggressive. Further investigation of provider advertising, its effects on quality of care, and potential oversight mechanisms is needed.

  10. CNS Intravascular Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular lymphoma is a rare but well-described entity. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented initially with syncope followed by subacute cognitive decline that progressed to minimally conscious state. Shortly after the transfer to our tertiary center the patient died. Brain autopsy disclosed the diagnosis of B-cell intravascular lymphoma. We speculate that syncope could be the first manifestation of central nervous system intravascular lymphoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained syncope. In addition, we stress the importance of early brain biopsy in unexplained white matter disease.

  11. Endoscopic diode laser therapy for chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Marini, Lucia; Rizzato, Roberto; Picardi, Edgardo; Merigliano, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic diode laser therapy in patients presenting rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). A retrospective analysis of CRP patients who underwent diode laser therapy in a single institution between 2010 and 2016 was carried out. The patients were treated by non-contact fibers without sedation in an outpatient setting. Fourteen patients (median age 77, range 73-87 years) diagnosed with CRP who had undergone high-dose radiotherapy for prostatic cancer and who presented with rectal bleeding were included. Six required blood transfusions. Antiplatelet (three patients) and anticoagulant (two patients) therapy was not suspended during the treatments. The patients underwent a median of two sessions; overall, a mean of 1684 J of laser energy per session was used. Bleeding was resolved in 10/14 (71%) patients, and other two patients showed improvement (93%). Only one patient, who did not complete the treatment, required blood transfusions after laser therapy; no complications were noted during or after the procedures. Study findings demonstrated that endoscopic non-contact diode laser treatment is safe and effective in CRP patients, even in those receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy.

  12. External radiation therapy in early stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is controversial. Numerous options are available, however, comparison of results is difficult in view of the insufficiency of phase III randomized trials comparing alternative treatment strategies. These options include such strategies as no curative therapy (so-called watchful waiting), radiotherapy (external and/or internal), cryotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. Clearly, a broad spectrum of clinical approaches. When reported experiences involving radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are compared, surgical patients tend to be younger, of earlier stage, of higher performance status, and have lower pre-therapy PSA. These prognostic factors influence the probability of disease control, and since patient selection can have a profound impact on results reporting, these issues need to be carefully controlled. A review of patients who are potentially candidates for surgery at the University of Michigan treated with conformal therapy external beam treatment, indicates that these relatively early patients are doing well. These issues will be elaborated upon further during the presentation

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldermans, Jonathan L. [F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Romak, Lindsay B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Kwon, Eugene D. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Park, Sean S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R., E-mail: olivier.kenneth@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To review outcomes of patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to identify variables associated with local failure. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with SBRT for oligometastatic PCa. Metastasis control (ie, control of the treated lesion, MC), biochemical progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, and overall survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Sixty-six men with 81 metastatic PCa lesions, 50 of which were castrate-resistant, were included in the analysis. Lesions were in bone (n=74), lymph nodes (n=6), or liver (n=1). Stereotactic body radiation therapy was delivered in 1 fraction to 71 lesions (88%), at a median dose of 16 Gy (range, 16-24 Gy). The remaining lesions received 30 Gy in 3 fractions (n=6) or 50 Gy in 5 fractions (n=4). Median follow-up was 16 months (range, 3-49 months). Estimated MC at 2 years was 82%. Biochemical progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, and overall survival were 54%, 45%, and 83%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only the dose of SBRT was significantly associated with MC; lesions treated with 16 Gy had 58% MC, and those treated with ≥18 Gy had 95% MC at 2 years (P≤.001). At 2 years, MC for lesions treated with 18 Gy (n=21) was 88%. No patient treated with ≥18 Gy in a single fraction or with any multifraction regimen had local failure. Six patients (9%) had grade 1 pain flare, and 2 (3%) had grade 2 pain flare. No grade 2 or greater late toxicities were reported. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer provided optimal metastasis control and acceptable toxicity with doses ≥18 Gy. Biochemical progression-free survival was 54% at 16 months with the inclusion of SBRT in the treatment regimen. Stereotactic body radiation therapy should be considered in

  14. Dosimetric model for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, E.E.; Stroud, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Intravascular brachytherapy has been shown to be a prophylaxis for restenosis. Adventitial macrophages, which are extremely radiosensitive, initiate neointima formation. A model of the dose levels of the treatment range is developed, assuming that the adventitia is the target tissue. If the adventitia receives a dose of less than 10 Gy, it is assumed the treatment will be ineffective. If the dose to any part of the wall is above 30 Gy, it is assumed that the treatment could be detrimental. Hence the treatment range is between 10 and 30 Gy, with 20 Gy being the optimum dosage to the adventitia. An algorithm using numerical integration of published dose kernels calculates the dose at any point surrounding a beta ( 32 P) line source of finite length. Dose profiles were obtained to demonstrate edge effects. For long lesions, the source is often stepped along the artery. Dose changes due to separation or overlapping of sources during source stepping procedures were also determined. Isodose curves were superimposed on intravascular ultrasound images to demonstrate dose levels. For an exposure time of 60 seconds with a 200mCi source, the optimum dose of 20 Gy occurs at a distance 1.94mm from the centre of the source. The upper limit of the treatment dose range (30 Gy) occurs at 1.59mm. The lower limit of the treatment dose range (10 Gy) occurs at 2.7mm. Significant perturbations to the treatment dose range can be caused by non-centering of the source, edge effects and separation or overlapping of sources in stepping procedures. Despite these concerns, many successful procedures have been reported and this implies that the model is over simplified and requires modifications. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Young; Hong, Sung Woo; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    This report details a case of 8-year-old girl showing failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomysarcoma at the age of 4. The observed results were as follows: 1. Past history revealed that she had received for a total radiation dose od 4430 cGy, 29 fractions in 6 weeks and chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D and cytoxan, followed as maintenance phase for 2 years. 2. The patient was symptom-free and appointed for the treatment of multiple dental caries. 3. Oral examination showed hypoplastic enamel on whole erupted permanent teeth and showed retarded eruption. 4. Conventional radiograms showed failure of root development including abrupt cessation of root formation and root agenesis, and microdobtia, missing teeth, irregular enamel, dislocation of the impacted teeth. Additional finding showed good healing bone pattern on the left mandibular ramus and angle area. 5. Cehalometric analysis revealed failure of bite raising due to incomplete eruption of all the first molars and made it possible to suspect entrapped mandibular growth and then Class II tendency growth. 6. There was correlation between the time of chemo-radiation therapy and the damage of the teeth.

  16. Failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Young; Hong, Sung Woo; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1998-01-01

    This report details a case of 8-year-old girl showing failure of odontogenesis after chemo-radiation therapy for rhabdomysarcoma at the age of 4. The observed results were as follows ; 1. Past history revealed that she had received for a total radiation dose od 4430 cGy, 29 fractions in 6 weeks and chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D and cytoxan, followed as maintenance phase for 2 years. 2. The patient was symptom-free and appointed for the treatment of multiple dental caries. 3. Oral examination showed hypoplastic enamel on whole erupted permanent teeth and showed retarded eruption. 4. Conventional radiograms showed failure of root development including abrupt cessation of root formation and root agenesis, and microdobtia, missing teeth, irregular enamel, dislocation of the impacted teeth. Additional finding showed good healing bone pattern on the left mandibular ramus and angle area. 5. Cehalometric analysis revealed failure of bite raising due to incomplete eruption of all the first molars and made it possible to suspect entrapped mandibular growth and then Class II tendency growth. 6. There was correlation between the time of chemo-radiation therapy and the damage of the teeth.

  17. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  18. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Dias, Humberto G.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  19. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Sawamichi; Shirahata, Yuichi; Uchida, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  20. The value of radiation therapy for pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Tsutomu

    1995-01-01

    Following points are discussed in this review. 1) Historical review of our previous therapeutic management. 2) Classification of pituitary adenomas. 3) Clinical analysis of my recent 58 cases. 4) Verification of usefulness of postoperative irradiation which achieved to increase in local control rate. 5) Authoritativeness of radiotherapy. In general, 3 to 4 portal technique or arc therapy were employed. The lateral opposing field technique was avoid to use. The recommended doses using linear accelerator x-ray technique is approximately 5000 cGy in 5 weeks. To prevent radiation hazard; (1) examiner should not use technique of two opposed fields, (2) total doses should not exceed 5000 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks and the use of daily fractions should not exceed 200 cGy. 6) Correlation of hormone secreting tumors and radiation therapy. 7) Problem of radiosurgery and heavy particle. 8) Countermeasure for recurrence cases. 9) Problem of side effects of radiotherapy and its precaution. Complication of radiation for pituitary adenoma found that the significant side effects are negligibly small in recent years. 10) Pituitary tumor are originally slow growing and benign tumor, therefore the response to irradiation takes long time to elapse for final evaluation. For instance, over 80 to 90% of acromegaly patients respond HGH successfully, but this may require from one to several years. 11) Conclusion. (author)

  1. The role of medical physics in prostate cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Seuntjens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics, both as a scientific discipline and clinical service, hugely contributed and still contributes to the advances in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The traditional translational role in developing and safely implementing new technology and methods for better optimizing, delivering and monitoring the treatment is rapidly expanding to include new fields such as quantitative morphological and functional imaging and the possibility of individually predicting outcome and toxicity. The pivotal position of medical physicists in treatment personalization probably represents the main challenge of current and next years and needs a gradual change of vision and training, without losing the traditional and fundamental role of physicists to guarantee a high quality of the treatment. The current focus issue is intended to cover traditional and new fields of investigation in prostate cancer radiation therapy with the aim to provide up-to-date reference material to medical physicists daily working to cure prostate cancer patients. The papers presented in this focus issue touch upon present and upcoming challenges that need to be met in order to further advance prostate cancer radiation therapy. We suggest that there is a smart future for medical physicists willing to perform research and innovate, while they continue to provide high-quality clinical service. However, physicists are increasingly expected to actively integrate their implicitly translational, flexible and high-level skills within multi-disciplinary teams including many clinical figures (first of all radiation oncologists) as well as scientists from other disciplines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Luxemburgo Hospital, Mario Penna Institute, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  3. Phantom dosimetry at 15 MV conformal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: larissathompson@hotmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto G., E-mail: fisicamedica.hl@mariopenna.org.br [Instituto Mario Penna, Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil). Hospital Luxemburgo

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a tumor simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. As final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  4. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, A.; Doyen, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Courdi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute skin toxicity is frequent during radiation therapy and can lead to temporary arrest of the treatment. Chronic toxicity can occur and conduct to cosmetic problems. Alopecia is the most frequent toxicity concerning hair and is most of the time reversible. Several factors linked to patients influence skin toxicity, such as under-nutrition, old age, obesity, smoking, skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, failure of DNA reparation. Skin, hair and nail toxicities depend also on radiation schedule. Acute toxicity is greater when dose per fraction increases. Chronic and acute toxicities are more often when total dose increases. Under 45 Gy, the risk of severe skin toxicity is low, and begins above 50 Gy. Skin toxicity depends also on the duration of radiotherapy and split course schedules are associated with less toxicities. Irradiation surface seems to influence skin toxicity but interaction is more complex. Reirradiation is often feasible in case of cancer recurrence but with a risk of grade 3-4 toxicity above all in head and neck cancer. The benefit/risk ratio has to be always precisely evaluated. Permanent alopecia is correlated with the follicle dose. Modern techniques of radiation therapy allow to spare skin. (authors)

  5. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  6. Changes in T-cell subsets after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.J.; Rafla, S.; Youssef, E.; Selim, H.; Salloum, N.; Chuang, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The T-cell subsets of 129 patients with cancer were counted before and after radiation therapy. The cells were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for each type of T cell. Significant changes after therapy were decreases in the proportion of T-helper/inducer cells, pan-T cells, and in the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. There was an increase in the percentage of T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. When the site of the primary cancer was considered, genitourinary cancer and cancer of the head and neck both showed a decreased percentage of T-helper/inducer cells and a reduced ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. The percentage of pan-T cells in head and neck cancer and the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells in breast cancer were decreased. The percentage of T-helper cells was particularly decreased by radiation therapy in advanced stages of cancer, in higher grade tumors, and in larger tumors. The absolute numbers of various T-cell subsets were decreased in all groups

  7. The role of radiation therapy in childhood acute leukemia. A review from the viewpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Miwako

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been playing important roles in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia since the 1970s. The first is the preventive cranial irradiation for central nervous system therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second is the total body irradiation as conditioning before bone marrow transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission and with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. Although some late effects have been reported, a part of them could be overcome by technical improvement in radiation and salvage therapy. Radiation therapy for children might have a successful outcome on a delicate balance between efficiencies and potential late toxicities. The role of radiation therapy for childhood acute leukemia was reviewed from the standpoint of basic and clinical radiation oncology in this paper. (author)

  8. Extrapleural pneumonectomy, photodynamic therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kevin L; Both, Stefan; Friedberg, Joseph S; Rengan, Ramesh; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has recently been proposed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we describe our experience with a multimodality approach for the treatment of mesothelioma, incorporating extrapleural pneumonectomy, intraoperative photodynamic therapy and postoperative hemithoracic IMRT. From 2004-2007, we treated 11 MPM patients with hemithoracic IMRT, 7 of whom had undergone porfimer sodium-mediated PDT as an intraoperative adjuvant to surgical debulking. The median radiation dose to the planning treatment volume (PTV) ranged from 45.4-54.5 Gy. For the contralateral lung, V20 ranged from 1.4-28.5%, V5 from 42-100% and MLD from 6.8-16.5 Gy. In our series, 1 patient experienced respiratory failure secondary to radiation pneumonitis that did not require mechanical ventilation. Multimodality therapy combining surgery with increased doses of radiation using IMRT, and newer treatment modalities such as PDT , appears safe. Future prospective analysis will be needed to demonstrate efficacy of this approach in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Efforts to reduce lung toxicity and improve dose delivery are needed and provide the promise of improved local control and quality of life in a carefully chosen multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yunfeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Parker, William [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Breen, Stephen [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yin Fangfang; Cai Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Papiez, Lech S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Bednarz, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen Wenzhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Xiao Ying, E-mail: ying.xiao@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA

  10. Studies on radiation therapy for carcinoma of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Iku; Ito, Jun; Ikeda, Hajime; Nakamura, Yuji; Takeuchi, Miho; Niibe, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    We studied local control rates and survival rates according to primary sites, TNM classifications and treatment modalities such as radiation alone and radiation combined with surgical treatment. The results were as follows; 1) Local control rate of basal cell carcinoma was 81 % (13/16) by initial therapy and relapsed 3 patients have been all salvaged by re-treatment. 2) Overall local control rate of squamous cell carcinoma was 61 % (59/96) and 39 % (22/56) in group with radiation alone including 100 % in T1, 58 % in T2, 18 % in T3 and 0 % in T4. With respect to primary sites, lesions on the penis and pudendum above T2 were poor in local control. On the other hand, patients irradiated after surgical treatment showed good local control of 100 % with little respect for T-factors and primary sites. 3) Overall 5-year relative survival rate of squamous cell carcinoma was 73 % and 55 % in radiation alone including 105 % in T1, 88 % in T2, 35 % in T3 and 0 % in T4. With respect to primary sites, lesions of T3 of the penis and T2 and T3 of the pudendum showed markedly poor prognosis of 0 %. On the other hand, 5-year relative survival rate of patients irradiated after surgical treatment was 94 % including 106 % in T1, 91 % in T2, 98 % in T3 and 0 % in T4. Moreover, there was distinct difference of 5-year relative survival rate between cases with negative lymphnode metastasis and positive lymphnode metastasis; indicating 86 % and 34 % respectively. 4) Cosmetic results were excellent in general, except for 2 cases with severe radiation damage in which radiation therapy was unable to be avoided because of necessity of local control. 5) Special techniques for management of improper T3 and T4 lesions should be developed in the near future, but radiation combined with surgical treatment seems to be the best way for the time being. The use of implant methods should be beneficial for lesions in difficult situations. (J.P.N.)

  11. Optimization of perfluorochemical levels with radiation therapy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Herman, T.S.; Jones, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the effects of a wide range of levels of Therox, a perfluorochemical emulsion containing bis-perfluorobutyl ethylene (F44E) with carbogen breathing on the tumor growth delay of the Lewis lung carcinoma produced by single dose radiation and fractionated radiation. The enhancement in tumor growth delay with single dose radiation therapy increased as the dose of F44E was increased from 1.2 g/kg (0.03 ml) to 4 g/kg (0.1 ml). As the dose was increased further from 6 g/kg (0.15 ml) to 8 g/kg (0.2 ml) and then to 12 g/kg (0.3 ml), there was a progressive decrease in the tumor growth delay observed. The dose of 4 g/kg was the optimal F44E level with single dose radiation therapy, giving a dose modifying factor of 2.4 +/- 0.2. This was true whether administered as a 48% (v/v) emulsion in 0.1 ml or as a 16% (v/v) emulsion in 0.3 ml. When the injection volume was varied from 0.1 ml to 0.4 ml at the 4 g/kg or 6 g/kg dose, thereby varying the emulsion concentration from 48% (v/v) to 12% (v/v) or 18% (v/v), the results tended to indicate that the volume of injection may be more important than the emulsion concentration, i.e., an injection volume of 0.2 ml produced the greatest tumor growth delay for both doses, and the emulsion concentration of 0.2 ml and 4 g/kg of F44E is 24% (v/v) whereas the emulsion concentration of 0.2 ml and 6 g/kg of F44E is 36% (v/v). Administering any dose of the emulsion with carbogen for 1 h prior to and during the radiation fraction on Day 1 only of a daily fractionated radiation protocol (3 Gy/fraction x 5 days) had very little effect on tumor growth delay compared to radiation and daily carbogen breathing. When F44E was administered on treatment Days 1, 3, and 5 with carbogen breathing, there was an increased effect on tumor growth delay

  12. Release of the radioactive patient following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Cancer Board, A.

    2004-01-01

    Patients walk out of medical facilities containing as much as a complete therapeutic dose of radiation on a daily basis. This presents a significant challenge to the radiation protection community, as most patients have no prior education related to radiation and may not have the aptitude to assimilate such knowledge. In the case of targeted radiation therapy in which radionuclides are used to selectively target the cancer, patients are typically released only after adequate elimination and decay of the radionuclide administered. Established modalities of targeted radiotherapy include the use of iodine for thyroid cancer, strontium for bone pain, phosphorous for haematological diseases, 131I-mIBG for neuroblastoma, and most recently Y-90 labelled monoclonal antibodies for lymphoma. In the case of permanent implants, implants of encapsulated radioactive sources are left permanently in the tissues, thus patients are released containing their complete therapeutic dose. Isotopes used in permanent implants include I-125, Pd-103 and Au-198. Radiation safety considerations for both cases, the release of a patient who has received targeted radiotherapy, and the release of a patient who has received a permanent implant, will be discussed. A summary of applicable regulations will serve as a starting point for each of the following considerations; i) Security and source control ii) Instructions to patient and family members iii) Risk to the public As the incidence of cancer increases, and the popularity of targeted radiotherapy and permanent seed implants grows, the event of having an untrained person in possession of a therapeutic dose of radiation becomes more and more common. It is essential to stop and examine the risk of this practice, whether current strategies to reduce the risk to an acceptable level are indeed effective, and whether control over these sources is even feasible. (Author)

  13. Anti-tumor activities of direct current (DC) therapy combined with fractionated radiation or chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Toshitake; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of direct current (DC) therapy combined with fractionated radiation or cyclophosphamide were studied in mice which were transplanted with murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) in the right thighs. Using TCD 50 assay, DC therapy, given in a single fraction, enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.3. Tumor control rates were more improved by the combination therapy with the smaller doses of radiation than the larger ones. When DC therapy was applied one time immediately after the first radiation of fractionated ones, the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both of DC therapy and radiation were divided in three fractions and DC therapy was applied everytime after radiation, tumor growth retardation were not different between the combination therapy and radiation alone. This result suggests that there is a minimum amount of Coulombs to improve the effect of radiation alone. On the other hand, DC therapy combined with cyclophosphamide given in one fraction showed the same enhancement effect as those divided in three fractions. These results suggest that DC therapy combined with radiation or cyclophosphamide is effective to improve tumor control, but the mechanisms to enhance the effect of radiation or cyclophosphamide are different. (author)

  14. Whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: detrimental or beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemici, Cengiz; Yaprak, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is frequently used, either alone or together with whole-brain radiation therapy to treat brain metastases from solid tumors. Certain experts and radiation oncology groups have proposed replacing whole-brain radiation therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery alone for the management of brain metastases. Although randomized trials have favored adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery for most end points, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a survival disadvantage for patients treated with whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery compared with patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery alone. However the apparent detrimental effect of adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery reported in this meta-analysis may be the result of inhomogeneous distribution of the patients with respect to tumor histologies, molecular histologic subtypes, and extracranial tumor stages between the groups rather than a real effect. Unfortunately, soon after this meta-analysis was published, even as an abstract, use of whole-brain radiation therapy in managing brain metastases has become controversial among radiation oncologists. The American Society of Radiation Oncology recently recommended, in their “Choose Wisely” campaign, against routinely adding whole-brain radiation therapy to stereotactic radiosurgery to treat brain metastases. However, this situation creates conflict for radiation oncologists who believe that there are enough high level of evidence for the effectiveness of whole-brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases

  15. Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Khan MD, FACP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation . A 69-year-old Hispanic male, with a past history of diabetes and coronary disease, was admitted for fever, diarrhea, and confusion of 4 weeks duration. Physical examination showed a disoriented patient with multiple ecchymoses, possible ascites, and bilateral scrotal swelling. Hemoglobin was 6.7, prothrombin time (PT 21.4 seconds with international normalized ratio 2.1, partial thromboplastin time (PTT 55.6 seconds, fibrin split 10 µg/L, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH 1231 IU/L. Except for a positive DNA test for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection, extensive diagnostic workup for infections, malignancy, or a neurological cause was negative. Mixing studies revealed a nonspecific inhibitor of PT and PTT but Factor VIII levels were normal. The patient was empirically treated with antibiotics but developed hypotension and died on day 27 of admission. At autopsy, patient was found to have intravascular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving skin, testes, lung, and muscles. The malignant cells were positive for CD20, CD791, Mum-1, and Pax-5 and negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD30, and Bcl-6. The malignant cells were 100% positive for Ki-67. Discussion . Intravascular large cell B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is rare form of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and tends to proliferate within small blood vessels, particularly capillaries and postcapillary venules. The cause of its affinity for vascular bed remains unknown. In many reports, IVLBCL was associated with HIV, HHV8, and EBV infections. The fact that our case showed evidence of EBV infection lends support to the association of this diagnosis to viral illness. The available literature on this subject is scant, and in many cases, the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. The typical presentation of this disorder is with B symptoms, progressive neurologic deficits, and skin findings. Bone marrow, spleen, and liver are involved in a minority of patients. Nearly all patients have elevated LDH

  16. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Image Guided Radiation Therapy: An Overview. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been related to medicine since its discovery (see Milestones in Cancer Radiotherapy and Imaging). The ability to visualize the inside of the body by contrasting soft and bone tissues was the first capability of X rays exploited and was the beginning of a path that has brought medical imaging to the heights it occupies today. The harmful side of X rays was only discovered by chance, by Henri Becquerel, and subsequently tested by Pierre Curie, who carried out the first experiment on himself. The use of radiotherapy to treat malignant diseases offered a good alternative to surgery, resulting in a rush during which almost all patients wanted to be treated with it. But the disadvantages were slowly becoming apparent, showing the hazards of ionizing radiation. Minor and major complications were reported, and the ability to induce tumours was recognized. Since then, radiation oncology has become the art of balancing between destroying the tumour and protecting healthy tissues. More than a hundred years of retrieving information and experience from patients has helped build a medical specialty that represents one of the most important modalities to treat, relieve and control cancer.

  17. Liposarcoma: Analysis of radiation therapy results in 38 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, B.E.; Kraus, D.; Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.

    1986-01-01

    Over a 25-year period, 198 patients with sarcomas were seen in the department of radiation oncology of Hahnemann University. Thirty-eight patients had liposarcomas, and they form the basis of this review. There were 19 neoplasms arising in the extremities, nine in the retroperitoneal area, three in the chest wall, two in the shoulder, two in the buttocks, and one each in the axilla, abdominal wall, and neck. Five patients were seen initially with distant metastases (lung); the remainder had a long history of enlarging masses. Thirty-four patients were treated by radiation therapy. Doses ranged from 6,000 to 7,000 cGy, delivered in 7-8 weeks. Megavoltage treatment was used in all patients. Six patients also received additional boost radiation by interstitial implants. One third of the patients were treated after multiple surgical procedures had failed; five patients received more than one course of radiation. The most serious complication was soft-tissue necrosis at the site of the primary tumor. Analysis of treatment results revealed that patients with peripheral lesions did better than patients with central tumors. Patients treated with postoperative adjuvant irradiation did better than patients treated with postsurgical recurrence. Analysis of treatment results is presented

  18. Breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Radiation oncologist's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mitsumori, Michihide; Kokubo, Masaki; Fujishiro, Satsuki

    1998-01-01

    The roles and problems of radiation therapy in breast conserving therapy for breast cancer were presented. The roles of radiation therapy include decrease in breast recurrence, an alternative to axillary dissection for N0 cases, and neo-adjuvant radiation therapy. On the other hand, problems associated with radiation therapy are question of using radiation therapy for all cases, complications and worsening of cosmetics, and relatively high breast recurrence rates for margin-positive cases. The concept of breast conserving therapy is to improve QOL without decreasing treatment outcomes. It is considered that we should be more concentrated on the aspects of QOL because treatment outcomes of breast conserving therapy in Japan demonstrated sofar appear excellent. (author)

  19. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or...... to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate......We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost...

  20. Results of primary radiation therapy in early vocal cord cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.A.; Sarkar, S.; Mehta, M.S.; Marfatia, P.T.; Choudhary, A.J.; Mehta, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of 74 patients treated by primary radiation therapy with curative intent at the Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1980 and December 1984 are reported. Thirty three (44.6%) were classified as TlaNO, twenty five (33.8%) as TlbNO, ten (13.5%) as T2NO and six(8.1%) as TisNO. The 5-year actuarial survival was 92% and disease-free survival was 85%. Thirteen patients (17.5%) failed locally, seven (53.8%) of whom were salvaged by surgery. Radiation side-effects were minimal and there were no long term complications. Anterior commissure involvement did not affect the local recurrence rates. (author). 19 refs., 1 tabs

  1. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdiac, P.; Mineur, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the following article, we will discuss general issues relating to acute and late gastric's radiation toxicities. The tolerance of the stomach to complete or partial organ irradiation is more un-appreciated than for most other organs. We consulted the Medline database via PubMed and used the key words gastric - radiotherapy - toxicity. Currently, 60 Gy or less is prescribed in gastric radiation therapy. Acute clinical toxicity symptoms are predominantly nausea and vomiting. Although there is a general agreement that the whole stomach tolerance is for doses of 40 to 45 Gy without unacceptable complication, it is well established that a stomach dose of 35 Gy increases the risk of ulcer complications. (authors)

  2. Change in Seroma Volume During Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Spierer, Marnee; Mutyala, Subhakar; Thawani, Nitika; Cohen, Hillel W.; Hong, Linda; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, a seroma often forms in the surgical cavity. If not drained, it may affect the volume of tumor bed requiring a boost after whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Our objective was to evaluate the change in seroma volume that occurs during WBRT, before boost planning. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of women receiving breast-conserving therapy with evidence of seroma at the time of WBRT planning. Computed tomography (CT) simulation was performed before WBRT and before the tumor bed boost. All patients received either a hypofractionated (42.4 Gy/16 fraction + 9.6 Gy/4 fraction boost) or standard fractionated (50.4 Gy/28 fraction + 10 Gy/5 fraction boost) regimen. Seroma volumes were contoured and compared on CT at the time of WBRT simulation and tumor bed boost planning. Results: Twenty-four patients with evidence of seroma were identified and all patients received WBRT without drainage of the seroma. Mean seroma volume before WBRT and at boost planning were significantly different at 65.7 cm 3 (SD, 50.5 cm 3 ) and 35.6 cm 3 (SD, 24.8 cm 3 ), respectively (p < 0.001). Mean and median reduction in seroma volume during radiation were 39.6% (SD, 23.8%) and 46.2% (range, 10.7-76.7%), respectively. Fractionation schedule was not correlated with change in seroma volume. Length of time from surgery to start of radiation therapy showed an inverse correlation with change in seroma volume (Pearson correlation r = -0.53, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The volume of seroma changes significantly during WBRT. Consequently, the accuracy of breast boost planning is likely affected, as is the volume of normal breast tissue irradiated. CT-based boost planning before boost irradiation is suggested to ensure appropriate coverage.

  3. A Method for Evaluating Quality Assurance Needs in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Medin, Paul M.; Mundt, Arno; Mutic, Sassa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques challenges traditional prescriptive quality control and quality assurance programs that ensure safety and reliability of treatment planning and delivery systems under all clinical scenarios. Until now quality management (QM) guidelines published by concerned organizations (e.g., American Association of Physicists in Medicine [AAPM], European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ESTRO], International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]) have focused on monitoring functional performance of radiotherapy equipment by measurable parameters, with tolerances set at strict but achievable values. In the modern environment, however, the number and sophistication of possible tests and measurements have increased dramatically. There is a need to prioritize QM activities in a way that will strike a balance between being reasonably achievable and optimally beneficial to patients. A systematic understanding of possible errors over the course of a radiation therapy treatment and the potential clinical impact of each is needed to direct limited resources in such a way to produce maximal benefit to the quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and is developing a framework for designing QM activities, and hence allocating resources, based on estimates of clinical outcome, risk assessment, and failure modes. The report will provide guidelines on risk assessment approaches with emphasis on failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and an achievable QM program based on risk analysis. Examples of FMEA to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy are presented. Recommendations on how to apply this new approach to individual clinics and further research and development will also be discussed

  4. The Radiation Therapy for Spinal Cord Compression in Hematologic Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Ah; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Chung, Su Mi

    1994-01-01

    Spinal cord compression, an oncologic emergency, is a rare complication of hematologic malignancy. Our experience was obtained with a series 32 patients following retrospective analysis for assessing the role of radiation therapy and identifying the prognostic factors affecting on treatment outcome. Diagnosis was usually made by means of radiologic study such as myelography or computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurologic examination. Five cases were diagnosed by subjective symptom only with high index of suspicion. In 31 cases, the treatment consisted in radiation therapy alone and the remained one patient had laminectomy before radiation therapy because of diagnostic doubts. Total treatment doses ranged from 800 cGy to 4000 cGy with median of 2999 cGy. Initially large fraction size more than 250 cGy were used in 13 patients with rapidly progressed neurologic deficit. The clinical parameters considered in evaluating the response to treatment were backache, motor-sensory performance and sphincter function. Half on all patients showed good response. Partial response and no response were noted in 37.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Our results showed higher response rate than those of other solid tumor series. The degree of neurologic deficit an that time of diagnosis was the most important predictor of treatment outcome. The elapsed time from development of symptoms to start of treatment was significantly affected on the outcome. But histology of primary tumor, total dose and use of initial large fraction size were not significantly affect on the outcome. These results confirmed the value of early diagnosis and treatment especially in radiosensitive hematologic malignancy

  5. Intravascular lipoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Doyle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign neoplasms composed of adipocytes encased in a fibrous capsule. Intravascular lipomas are rare and almost always incidental findings. In the published literature, the majority are described within the inferior vena cava (IVC and less frequently reported in the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, internal jugular vein, external iliac vein and common femoral vein. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with a symptomatic ureteral calculus and was found to have an intravascular lipoma of the right renal vein with extension into the IVC. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report of an intravascular lipoma in the renal vein. We discuss the imaging characteristics of intravascular lipomas and the differential diagnosis that should be considered.

  6. Intraoperative radiation therapy for patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tetsuo; Itoh, Kei; Agawa, Senichiro; Ishihara, Yukio; Konishi, Toshiro

    2001-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and complications of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in 40 subjects with unresected pancreatic carcinoma (Group A) and 8 with resected pancreatic carcinoma (Group B). These 2 groups were compared to groups not treated by IORT; 59 subjects with unresected pancreatic carcinoma (Group C) and 55 with resected pancreatic carcinoma (Group D). The 6-month survival in Group A was 55%, and 1-year survival 26% compared to 20% 6-month survival and 9% 1-year survival in Group C with a median survival of 7 months in Group A and 4 months in group C; all statistically significant. Pain control was 81.8% in Group A, reduction in tumor size was 50% and reduction of tumor marker, CA19-9 was 56.3% in Group A. Survival in Groups B and D did not differ significantly. The histological efficacy of IORT in Group A was confirmed in autopsy of fibrosis and scar formation in radiation fields of the pancreas. Two patients in Group B had major morbidity leading to death; 1 from leakage in the pancreatojejunal anastomosis accompanied by pancreatic necrosis and the other from duodenal perforation with rupture of the portal vein and hepatic artery. This study demonstrates the efficacy of IORT in patients with unresected pancreatic carcinoma. Prophylactic bypass and shielding of the residual pancreas with lead or reducing the IORT or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) dose should be considered in patients with unresected or resected pancreatic carcinoma, however, to prevent serious complications due to radiation injury of the duodenum and pancreas. (author)

  7. Preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bared, Nancy; Taussky, Daniel; Mehiri, Selma; Patocskai, Erika; Roberge, David; Donath, David

    2014-06-01

    The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed for the administration of high doses to retroperitoneal sarcomas (RSTS) while limiting toxicity to adjacent organs. The purpose of our study is to assess the outcome and toxicities of patients with RSTS treated with neo-adjuvant external beam radiation (EBRT) therapy using IMRT. This is a retrospective study of 21 patients treated with preoperative IMRT for primary or recurrent RSTS between 2005 and 2011. Overall survival (OS) and local recurrence free survival (LRFS) were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test). Acute and chronic toxicities were assessed using the CTCAE v. 3 criteria. The actuarial 2 and 3-year OS was 66% for both and the 5-year OS was 51%. As for LRFS it was 57% at 2 and 3-year and 51% for the 5-year LRFS. Factors predictive for local control were microscopically negative margins (p = 0.022), a median tumor diameter <15 cm (p = 0.007) and pathology of liposarcoma (p = 0.021). Furthermore, patients treated for recurrent disease fared worse (p = 0.04) in local control than patients treated for primary disease. As for OS, patients treated for Grade 1 histology had a better outcome (p 5 0.05). EBRT was generally well tolerated. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) Grade 1 or 2 toxicities occurred in 33% of patients and one patient had unexplained post-radiation Grade 2 fever that resolved after tumor resection. As for chronic toxicities 24% of our patients presented Grade 1 GI toxicity and one patient presented Grade 3 small bowel stenosis not clearly due to radiation toxicity. Despite the location and volume of the tumors treated, preoperative IMRT was very well tolerated in our patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma. Unfortunately local recurrences remain common and dose escalation is to be considered.

  8. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Diehn, Felix E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  9. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Tan, K.E.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  10. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  11. The effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Bunmei; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Sakura, Mizuyoshi; Ishihara, Akinori; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Nagai, Teruo.

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy, ninety nine bone scans and Ga-67 citrate tumor scans were performed on 67 patients, including 42 with lung cancer, 5 with esophageal cancer, 4 malignant lymphoma and 15 with other malignancy. The spinal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate and Ga-67 citrate were evaluated during or after radiation therapy involving thoracic and lumbar spines. The correlation among the spinal uptake of radioactivity in the radiation field, the irradiation dose and the interval after radiotherapy was investigated. The results revealed that 34 of 99 bone scans (34%) showed ''decreased'' radioactivity in the irradiated spines. Twenty six of 41 bone scans (63%) performed more than three months after radiotherapy showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. Among the same 41 bone scans, 16 of 21 bone scans (76%) taken in patients who received more than 5000 rads showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. The decreased spinal uptake was irreversible. Eight cases changed to ''decreased'' from ''equilibrated'' during follow up study after radiotherapy. Twenty two of 31 cases (71%) with Ga tumor scans, which were performed in the earlier periods and with less dose of radiotherapy as compared with bone scans, showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake, which suggests impaired Ga-67 uptake by the bone marrow rather than the spinal bone. The factors causing decreased uptake of radioactivity in bone scan after irradiation were discussed in view of irradiation effect on bone tissue. The descrepancy of uptake of radioactivity between bone scan and Ga tumor scan was also discussed reviewing difference of radiation effect on bone and bone marrow cells. (author)

  12. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  13. Energy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    In recent years intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons (xIMRT) has gained attention due to its ability to reduce the dose in the tissues close to the tumour volume. However, this technique also results in a large low dose volume. Electron IMRT (eIMRT) has the potential to reduce the integral dose to the patient due to the dose fall off in the electron depth dose curves. This dose fall off makes it possible to modulate the dose distribution in the direction of the beam by selecting...

  14. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, E.B.; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D.; Liwnicz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments