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Sample records for intrathoracic pathology early

  1. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  2. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Collins, James M. P.; Coret, Elbertus H.; Schröder, Peter J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  3. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

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    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Pathologic features of early inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Sydney D; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Regueiro, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Often the pathologic changes of IBD are subtle and may not be present in a proportion of biopsy specimens. In cases of early disease, the changes may be missed, and additional specimens should be taken after a period of time. Modifying factors, such as prebiopsy treatment and coexisting disease, should be considered. A forum to review cases and allow for communication between gastroenterologists and pathologists is especially useful for clinicopathologic correlation and assignment of a working diagnosis to each case. Careful attention to the pathologic features of early UC and CD would be most useful when evaluating new therapies for IBD.

  6. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  7. Intrathoracic splenosis. Intrathorakale Splenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farres, M T [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Zentrales Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Grabenwoeger, F; Dock, W; Klepetko, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Roentgenstation

    1989-10-01

    Intrathoracic splenosis is an unusual event after diaphragmatic and splenic rupture, which causes intrathoracic mass lesions. It results from spontaneous autotransplantation of splenic tissue to serous surfaces. On chest X-rays, three different radiological appearances were distinguished: Pulmonary mass lesions, pleural lesions and mediastinal tumors. Since the radiological appearance is nonspecific, a diagnosis may only be suspected together with the characteristic anamnesis. In those cases scintigraphy should be performed because this method may verify the diagnosis. Here we report the radiological and clinical appearances of this entity by one of our own and 13 well-documented cases in the literature. (orig.).

  8. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

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    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  9. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  10. Intrathoracic Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Yik Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic involvement with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is frequently overlooked in IgG4-related disease patients. In this article we review the intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD which are variable and protean. IgG4-related disease has been reported to affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vasculature, and pericardium within the thorax. Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy is the most common intrathoracic manifestation of IgG4-RD. Four main patterns of pulmonary disease have been described, including the solid nodular type, the bronchovascular type, the alveolar interstitial type, and the round shaped ground glass type. When feasible, a biopsy should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Most lesions show characteristic pathologic findings of IgG4-RD: dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. While this helps establish the diagnosis, the interpretation of pathology findings in the clinical context is key in making an accurate diagnosis. Mimickers of IgG4-RD should be ruled out, before making a diagnosis. The intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD can be treated effectively with prednisone, but may require additional immunosuppressive therapies, including rituximab.

  11. Images of the intrathoracic lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez, Patricia; Fernandez, Maria del Pilar; Betancourt, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    The intrathoracic involvement in lymphoma is diverse. It's study and diagnosis requires not only plain chest x-rays but also additional imaging. In this paper we summarize the most frequent findings seen in CAT scan and magnetic resonance permitting better staging and enhancing further treatment options

  12. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

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    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  14. Intrathoracic desmoid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.M.; Schey, W.L.; Bassuk, A.; Shrock, P.

    1985-01-01

    The case history of a child with an intrathoracic desmoid tumor is presented. The insidious nature of the tumor's development and its possible relationship to previous surgery are noted. Desmoid tumors are rare in the childhood population and an intrathoracic site as the origin of one has not been reported previously. (orig.)

  15. Esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer : comparison with pathologic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Choong Bai; Kim, Ho Guen; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer (EEC), and to compare these with the pathologic results, and to thus determine the most useful method of esophagography for detection of EEC. We examined 18 patients (M:F=16:2) with pathologically proven EEC; 17 cases were squamous cell carcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma. Tumor size, shape and location were evaluated by esophagography and the findings were compared with the pathologic results. The tumors were 0.5 - 7 cm in size; all except two were smaller than 4 cm. Twelve were located in the middle esophagus, five cases in the lower esophagus and one case in the upper esophagus; in ten cases, the margin was ill-defined. Esophagography showed that eight cases were of the superficial depressed type, seven were the superficial elevated type, and three were the tumorous type. All 18 cases were detected by double contrast study, but mucosal relief study and barium filling study revealed only ten and eight cases, respectively; for the detection of EEC double contrast study was thus the most useful. EEC was commonly demonstrated in the middle esophagus with an ill-defined margin; it was of the superficial depressed or elevated type. For the detection of EEC, double contrast study was the most useful. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  16. Intrathoracic lipoma masquerading as subclavian artery trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munro, P T

    2012-02-03

    A 58 year old man was admitted to the accident and emergency department following an industrial accident in which he sustained a three part fracture dislocation of his right humerus. Chest radiography revealed a large mass in the right upper hemithorax and, when the patient became hypotensive, an emergency thoracotomy was performed. The mass was found to be a massive intrathoracic lipoma. This case shows how preexisting intrathoracic lesions may be mistaken for subclavian or great vessel trauma following violent shoulder girdle injury. The differential diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic intrathoracic mass lesions in chest radiography should be considered carefully.

  17. Intrathoracic manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Golbin, Jason M; Yi, Eunhee S; Prakash, Udaya B S; Vassallo, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD), also known as Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare monocyte/macrophage proliferative disorder of varied biological behavior. Although cutaneous and lymph node involvement are relatively well-described, intrathoracic manifestations of RDD have only occasionally been reported. We conducted a retrospective computer-assisted search of the Mayo Clinic record from 1976 to 2005 for patients with histopathologic evidence of RDD on organ biopsy. Clinical characteristics were abstracted from charts and thoracic manifestations recorded. Survival was estimated using the national social security database. A total of 21 patients were diagnosed with RDD over a period of 30 years; 9 had intrathoracic manifestations (43%). Main pulmonary symptoms included dyspnea and cough. Age at the time of diagnosis, gender, race, smoking history, mortality and time of survival after diagnosis were no different between RDD patients with and without intrathoracic manifestations. The most common radiographic thoracic manifestation was mediastinal lymphadenopathy (6 patients). Cystic change, interstitial lung disease, and airway disease were radiographically evident in 4 patients. Seven patients were treated at some point in the course of their disease, most commonly with oral corticosteroids. At the time of last follow-up 87% were alive, with a median (IQR) time interval since diagnosis of 8 years (4-9.7). Intrathoracic manifestations of RDD are relatively common and include mediastinal lymphadenopathy, airway disease, pleural effusion, cystic and interstitial lung disease. Although limited in size, this series suggests the prognosis of patients with RDD and intrathoracic manifestations is relatively good.

  18. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan SUN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic findings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis was 87.50% and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain definite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further confirmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.

  19. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  20. Early classification of pathological heartbeats on wireless body sensor nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braojos, Rubén; Beretta, Ivan; Ansaloni, Giovanni; Atienza, David

    2014-11-27

    Smart Wireless Body Sensor Nodes (WBSNs) are a novel class of unobtrusive, battery-powered devices allowing the continuous monitoring and real-time interpretation of a subject's bio-signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG). These low-power platforms, while able to perform advanced signal processing to extract information on heart conditions, are usually constrained in terms of computational power and transmission bandwidth. It is therefore essential to identify in the early stages which parts of an ECG are critical for the diagnosis and, only in these cases, activate on demand more detailed and computationally intensive analysis algorithms. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for real-time automatic classification of normal and abnormal heartbeats, targeting embedded and resource-constrained WBSNs. In particular, we provide a comparative analysis of different strategies to reduce the heartbeat representation dimensionality, and therefore the required computational effort. We then combine these techniques with a neuro-fuzzy classification strategy, which effectively discerns normal and pathological heartbeats with a minimal run time and memory overhead. We prove that, by performing a detailed analysis only on the heartbeats that our classifier identifies as abnormal, a WBSN system can drastically reduce its overall energy consumption. Finally, we assess the choice of neuro-fuzzy classification by comparing its performance and workload with respect to other state-of-the-art strategies. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show energy savings of as much as 60% in the signal processing stage, and 63% in the subsequent wireless transmission, when a neuro-fuzzy classification structure is employed, coupled with a dimensionality reduction technique based on random projections.

  1. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  2. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  3. A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Ben J.; Gie, Robert P.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Donald, Peter R.; Beyers, Nulda; Starke, Jeff R.

    2004-01-01

    One of the obstacles in discussing childhood tuberculosis (TB) is the lack of standard descriptive terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of disease. Accurate disease classification is important, because the correct identification of the specific disease entity has definite prognostic significance. Accurate classification will also improve study outcome definitions and facilitate scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide practical guidelines for the accurate radiological classification of intra-thoracic TB in children less than 15 years of age. The proposed radiological classification is based on the underlying disease and the principles of pathological disease progression. The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus. (orig.)

  4. CT findings of intrathoracic mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Hwa; Choi, Kyu Ok; Lee, Jong Doo

    1989-01-01

    8 patients with pathologically proven pleural mesothelioma (5 localized type, 3 diffuse type), and 1 patient with malignant pericardial mesothelioma, were examined by computed tomography (CT), and obtained some results as follows: 1. Pleural Mesothelioma a. Localized pleural mesothelioma 4 cases were benign and 1 case was malignant in microscopic examination. CT showed invariably sharply marginated pleura-based soft tissue mass and the density of the mass was variable, homogenous in small tumor but inhomogenous with low density area in larger ones, and even calcification was seen in one of them. The angle of pleura-mass interface was obtuse in only one small tumor and acute with smooth taping end in four lager tumor. b. Diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) Multiple nodular pleural masses encompassing nearly entire lung were seen with associated multiple subpleural parenchymal nodule and localized axial interstitial thickening in two case. Protruding chest wall mass with destruction of rib was seen in previous pneumonectomized thorax. Minimal pleural effusion/thickening was also seen in all. 2. Pericardial mesothelioma Pericardial fluid and multiple nodular masses, which occupied pericardial sac up to superior sinus were well delineated on CT. It had been misinterpreted as pericardial effusion for years on echocardiogram

  5. Activity of some enzymes of the blood serum during irradiation of intrathoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikova, E N; Kallistova, L P; Vasil' eva, I G; Korkina, L V; Goncharova, I M; Golovchenko, A G [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR)

    1978-08-01

    Out of 90 patients with intrathoracic tumours (71) and with tumours of other localizations (19 patients - the control) by the end of the radiation therapy course in 13 patients with tumours of the thoracic cavity organs (the lung and esophagus) the activity of creatine phosphokinase increased with simultaneous increase of aspartate aminotransferase in 6 patients and lactate dehydrogenase in one patient. Electrocardiographically pathological shifts in the heart were registered only in 8 out of 13 patients that makes it possible to make a conclusion about the necessity of studying the enzymes of creatine phosphokinase, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase in patients with intrathoracic tumours during the process and after radiation therapy for the diagnosis of the cardiac muscle affection.

  6. Intrathoracic lipoblastoma presenting with severe respiratory distress

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Motshedi Sekgololo; Risenga Frank Chauke; Peter Shere Ramoroko; Khondker Mofazzal Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumour which originates from an adipose tissue. In this study we report the case of a three year old boy who presented with a large intrathoracic tumour occupying the whole of the left hemithorax. He presented in severe respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed total opacity of the left hemithorax, and CT-scan showed a low attenuation mass inkeeping with fat in the left hemithorax. A complete resection of a tumour was undertaken, with histopathology report confi...

  7. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  8. Intrathoracic Paraspinal Mesothelial Cyst: A Report of Two Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Paik, Seung Sam; Chung, Won Sang; Chon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    Intrathoracic mesothelial cysts are congenital developmental cysts usually located in the anterior cardiophrenic angle region (so called, pericardial cysts). We report two rare cases of an intrathoracic paraspinal mesothelial cyst which was purely cystic and had no perceptible cyst wall on CT or MRI with histopathologic findings

  9. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation obtunds the capacity of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons to transduce myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Jeffrey L; Cardinal, René; Vermeulen, Michel; Armour, J Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Populations of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons transduce myocardial ischemia, thereby contributing to sympathetic control of regional cardiac indices during such pathology. Our objective was to determine whether electrical neuromodulation using spinal cord stimulation (SCS) modulates such local reflex control. In 10 anesthetized canines, middle cervical ganglion neurons were identified that transduce the ventricular milieu. Their capacity to transduce a global (rapid ventricular pacing) vs. regional (transient regional ischemia) ventricular stress was tested before and during SCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms duration at 90% MT) applied to the dorsal aspect of the T1 to T4 spinal cord. Rapid ventricular pacing and transient myocardial ischemia both activated cardiac-related middle cervical ganglion neurons. SCS obtunded their capacity to reflexly respond to the regional ventricular ischemia, but not rapid ventricular pacing. In conclusion, spinal cord inputs to the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system obtund the latter's capacity to transduce regional ventricular ischemia, but not global cardiac stress. Given the substantial body of literature indicating the adverse consequences of excessive adrenergic neuronal excitation on cardiac function, these data delineate the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system as a potential target for neuromodulation therapy in minimizing such effects.

  10. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insecure Attachment and Eating Pathology in Early Adolescence: Role of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…

  12. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  14. CT volumetry of intrathoracic space occupying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, W.; Schnabel, K.; Kaick, G. van; Kayser, K.

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative CT volumetry was performed in 39 patients with intrathoracic neoplasms. The results are compared to postoperative volume measures of the surgical preparation. The correlation of both measuring series was very high (rho = .94). The estimated influence of systematic and stochastic errors was only 10 to 15%. The authors outline the consequences for clinical practice: by means of the better quantification in the T category of the TNM system, the surgeon is in a position to make a more precise preoperative planning. The reliable numeric in vivo determination of regression and growth velocity of tumors and/or metastases allows for the first time an exact quantification of control examinations during and after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This will possibly lead to a more precise individual prognosis. In experimental radiotherapy a more detailed-description of the evolution of experimental tumors in the living animal will be possible by this procedure. (orig.) [de

  15. Intrathoracic lipoblastoma presenting with severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Motshedi Sekgololo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumour which originates from an adipose tissue. In this study we report the case of a three year old boy who presented with a large intrathoracic tumour occupying the whole of the left hemithorax. He presented in severe respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed total opacity of the left hemithorax, and CT-scan showed a low attenuation mass inkeeping with fat in the left hemithorax. A complete resection of a tumour was undertaken, with histopathology report confirming the diagnosis of lipoblastoma. The relevant literature review was done. At three and six months follow up, there was no recurrent tumour on imaging and the child had started thriving well.

  16. Intrathoracic Kidney after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Fikret Halis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma is responsible for most genitourinary injuries. The incidence of renal artery injury and intrathoracic kidney is quite low in patients who present with blunt trauma experiencing damage. There are four defined etiologies for intrathoracic kidney, which include real intrathoracic ectopic kidney, eventration of the diaphragm, congenital diaphragmatic herniation, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. The traumatic intrathoracic kidney is an extremely rare case. We presented intrathoracic kidney case after traumatic posterior diaphragmatic rupture.

  17. X-ray appearance of intrathoracic lymph nodes in lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodskaya, M.M.; Antonova, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of clinico-roentgenological data obtained when examining 174 patients with lymphogranulomatosis is carried out. Roentgenological semiotics of the lesions of intrathoracic lymp nodes according to the Rouviere classification supplemented by Zhdanov has been specified. Technique of layer-by-layer examination with an account of roentgenotopography of intrathoracic lymph nodes promoting to their determination is developed. Dynamics of the lymph node changes under treatment is traced. Rarely occurring wide-spread decalcification of prevascular nodes after the radiotherapy is described

  18. The Accuracy of Plain Radiography in Detection of Traumatic Intrathoracic Injuries

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    Maryam Abedi Khorasgani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries leads to improvement in patient management. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chest radiography (CXR in comparison to chest computed tomography (CT scan in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries. Methods: Participants of this prospective diagnostic accuracy study included multiple trauma patients over 15 years old with stable vital admitted to emergency department (ED during one year. The correlation of CXR and CT scan findings in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was evaluated using SPSS 20. Screening characteristics of CXR were calculated with 95% CI. Results: 353 patients with the mean age of 35.2 ± 15.8 were evaluated (78.8% male. Age 16-30 years with 121 (34.2%, motorcycle riders with 104 (29.5% cases and ISS < 12 with 185 (52.4% had the highest frequency among patients. Generally, screening performance characteristics of chest in diagnosis of chest traumatic injuries were as follows: sensitivity 50.3 (95% CI: 44.8 – 55.5, specificity 98.9 (95% CI: 99.5 – 99.8, PPV 97.8 (95% CI: 91.5 – 99.6, NPV 66.4 (95% CI: 60.2 – 72.03, PLR 44.5 (95% CI: 11.3 175.3, and NLR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4 – 0.6. Accuracy of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was 74.5 (95% CI: 69.6 – 78.9 and its area under the ROC curve was 74.6 (95% CI: 69.3 – 79.8. Conclusion: The screening performance characteristics of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries were higher than 90% in all pathologies except pneumothorax (50.3%. It seems that this matter has a great impact on the general screening characteristics of the test (74.3% accuracy and 50.3%sensitivity. It seems that, plain CXR should be used as an initial screening tool more carefully.

  19. Early Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography Manifestations and Correlation with Pathology

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    Lin Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy for both men and women and adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can significantly improve the survival rate of patients. This study aimed to investigate the micro-computed tomography (micro-CT manifestations of early lung adenocarcinoma (LAC in mice and to provide a new perspective for early clinical diagnosis. Early LAC models in 10 mice were established by subcutaneously injecting 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG solution. Micro-CT scan and multiple planar reconstruction (MPR were used for mouse lungs. Micro-CT features of early LAC, especially the relationships between tumor and bronchus, were analyzed and correlated with pathology. Micro-CT findings of early LAC were divided into three types: non-solid (n = 8, 6%, partly solid (n = 85, 64% and totally solid (n = 39, 30%. Tumor-bronchus relationships, which could be observed in 110 of 132(83% LAC, were classified into four patterns: type I (n = 16, 15%, bronchus was truncated at the margin of the tumor; type II (n = 33, 30%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with tapered narrowing and interruption; type III (n = 38, 35%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with a patent and intact lumen; type IV (n = 99, 90%, bronchus ran at the border of the tumor with an intact or compressed lumen. Micro-CT manifestations of early LAC correlated well with pathological findings. Micro-CT can clearly demonstrate the features of mouse early LAC and bronchus-tumor relationships, and can also provide a new tool and perspective for the study of early LAC.

  20. Lack of miRNA misregulation at early pathological stages in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models

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    Anita eReinhardt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80-84 year old Europeans or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for > 55 years old share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence, a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for 7 diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3 days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. [Comparison of two quantitative methods of endobronchial ultrasound real-time elastography for evaluating intrathoracic lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Yang, J Y; Zheng, X X; Wang, L; Zhu, L; Li, Y; Xiong, H K; Sun, J Y

    2017-06-12

    Objective: To compare the clinical value of two quantitative methods in analyzing endobronchial ultrasound real-time elastography (EBUS-RTE) images for evaluating intrathoracic lymph nodes. Methods: From January 2014 to April 2014, EBUS-RTE examination was performed in patients who received EBUS-TBNA examination in Shanghai Chest Hospital. Each intrathoracic lymph node had a selected EBUS-RTE image. Stiff area ratio and mean hue value of region of interest (ROI) in each image were calculated respectively. The final diagnosis of lymph node was based on the pathologic/microbiologic results of EBUS-TBNA, pathologic/microbiologic results of other examinations and clinical following-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were evaluated for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions. Results: Fifty-six patients and 68 lymph nodes were enrolled in this study, of which 35 lymph nodes were malignant and 33 lymph nodes were benign. The stiff area ratio and mean hue value of benign and malignant lesions were 0.32±0.29, 0.62±0.20 and 109.99±28.13, 141.62±17.52, respectively, and statistical differences were found in both of those two methods ( t =-5.14, P methods can be used for analyzing EBUS-RTE images quantitatively, having the value of differentiating benign and malignant intrathoracic lymph nodes, and the stiff area ratio is better than the mean hue value between the two methods.

  2. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  3. Changes in pathology test ordering by early career general practitioners: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Davey, Andrew R; Ball, Jean; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Mulquiney, Katie J; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-07-17

    To assess the number of pathology tests ordered by general practice registrars during their first 18-24 months of clinical general practice. Longitudinal analysis of ten rounds of data collection (2010-2014) for the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study, an ongoing, multicentre, cohort study of general practice registrars in Australia. The principal analysis employed negative binomial regression in a generalised estimating equations framework (to account for repeated measures on registrars).Setting, participants: General practice registrars in training posts with five of 17 general practice regional training providers in five Australian states. The registrar participation rate was 96.4%. Number of pathology tests requested per consultation. The time unit for analysis was the registrar training term (the 6-month full-time equivalent component of clinical training); registrars contributed data for up to four training terms. 876 registrars contributed data for 114 584 consultations. The number of pathology tests requested increased by 11% (95% CI, 8-15%; P pathology test ordering by general practice registrars increased significantly during their first 2 years of clinical practice. This causes concerns about overtesting. As established general practitioners order fewer tests than registrars, test ordering may peak during late vocational training and early career practice. Registrars need support during this difficult period in the development of their clinical practice patterns.

  4. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahminan Suut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting.

  5. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  6. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early pathology in sleep studies of patients with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givaty, Gili; Maggio, Nicola; Cohen, Oren S; Blatt, Ilan; Chapman, Joab

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess sleep function in patients with recent-onset familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). The largest cluster of fCJD patients is found in Jews of Libyan origin, linked to the prion protein gene (PRNP) E200K mutation. The high index of suspicion in these patients often leads to early diagnosis, with complaints of insomnia being a very common presenting symptom of the disease. The study included 10 fCJD patients diagnosed by clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain, elevated tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive PRNP E200K mutation. Standard polysomnography was performed after a brief interview confirming the presence of sleep disturbances. All patients showed a pathological sleep pattern according to all scoring evaluation settings. The sleep stages were characterized by (i) disappearance of sleep spindles; (ii) outbursts of periodic sharp waves and shallowing of sleep consisting in increased Stage 2 and wake periods during the night, as well as decrease of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Recordings of respiratory functions reported irregular breathing with central and obstructive apnea and hypopnea. The typical hypotonia occurring during the night and atonia during REM sleep were replaced by hyperactive sleep consisting of multiple jerks, movements and parasomnia (mainly talking) throughout the night. In conclusion, we report unique pathological sleep patterns in early fCJD associated with the E200K mutation. Specific respiratory disturbances and lack of atonia could possibly serve as new, early diagnostic tools in the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  9. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pathology of amniogenesis in the early prenatal period of human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulazhenko, V P; Bragina, Z N

    1989-08-01

    Morphological and, in a number of cases, cytogenetical investigation has been performed in 420 intact embryonal sacs and in embryos 7-8-week-old, obtained at spontaneous abortions (272) and at tubal pregnancy (148). Among these cases 202 (48.1%) intact empty embryonal sacs, 75 (17.9%) embryos with panorganodysplasia, 25 (6%) embryos with isolated developmental defects and 118 (28%) phenotypically normal embryos have been revealed. Pathology of amniogenesis such as aplasia or hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity is noted in 136 (32.4%) cases. Among 75 embryos with panorganodysplasia anomalies such as hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity in combination with a partial extra-amniotic++ position of the embryos in exocelom (10.7%), aplasia (5.3%) or hypoplasia (17.3%) amniotic peduncle is present in 43 (57.3%) observations. Out of 40 such cases at spontaneous abortions, cytogenetically investigated, in 27 (67.5%) chromosomal disorders (tetraploidy, triploidy, autosomal trisomy and monosomy) are revealed. Aplasia and hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity are considered as pathology of histogenesis at the tissue stage of the early human ontogenesis, that most evidently occurs as a result of asplasia, destruction or anomaly of embryoblast during the first phase of gastrulation on the 7th-11th day of the intrauterine development.

  11. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis after resection of esophageal cancer: a matched pair analysis of 72 patients in a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Christian D; Binnebösel, Marcel; Otto, Jens; Boehm, Gabriele; von Trotha, Klaus T; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Conze, Joachim; Neumann, Ulf P; Jansen, Marc

    2012-08-06

    The aim of this study was to analyze the early postoperative outcome of esophageal cancer treated by subtotal esophageal resection, gastric interposition and either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis in a single center study. 72 patients who received either a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis after esophageal resection for esophageal cancer were matched by age and tumor stage. Collected data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively regarding morbidity and mortality rates. Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly lower in the intrathoracic anastomosis group than in the cervical anastomosis group (4 of 36 patients (11%) vs. 11 of 36 patients (31%); p = 0.040). The hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intrathoracic anastomosis group compared to the cervical anastomosis group (14 (range 10-110) vs. 26 days (range 12 - 105); p = 0.012). Wound infection and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurred significantly more often in the cervical anastomosis group compared to the intrathoracic anastomosis group (28% vs. 0%; p = 0.002 and 11% vs. 0%; p = 0.046). The overall In-hospital mortality rate was 6% (4 of 72 patients) without any differences between the study groups. The present data support the assumption that the transthoracic approach with an intrathoracic anastomosis compared to a cervical esophagogastrostomy is the safer and more beneficial procedure in patients with carcinoma of the lower and middle third of the esophagus due to a significant reduction of anastomotic leakage, wound infection, paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and shorter hospital stay.

  12. Hodgkin's disease part 1: pathology, staging, and management of early stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Peter; Yahalom, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 25 years there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of the epidemiology, biology, natural history, and treatment of Hodgkins disease. Hodgkin's disease is one of the few cancers where both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have provided dramatic improvements in cure of this once uniformly fatal disease. Part 1 of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease will include a review of: 1) New Findings in epidemiology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology of the Reed-Sternberg cell including association with Epstein-Barr virus; 2) Review of pathology including discussions of NS 1 vs NS2, and nodular LP subclassifications; 3) Recommendations for staging including the role of staging laparotomy in Hodgkin's disease; 4) Standard techniques for commonly used radiation therapy fields for Hodgkin's disease and 5) Treatment of early stage Hodgkin's disease including an overview on recent and current clinical trials

  13. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired

  14. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  15. E.M. Freeman: early research on cereal diseases and the rise of plant pathology at the University of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P D

    2001-01-01

    E.M. Freeman's role in early cereal disease research and the beginning of plant pathology at the University of Minnesota has been overshadowed largely by the enormous prestige of his student, E.C. Stakman. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Freeman was responsible for the transferral from Europe to the United States and the subsequent nurturing of important conceptual and technical developments in the area of cereal disease pathology. Under Freeman's leadership, these ideas would come to shape the direction of plant pathology research at the University of Minnesota for decades to follow.

  16. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  17. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  18. [Per os early nutrition for colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bustos, A; Creus Costas, G; Pujol Gebelli, J; Virgili Casas, N; Pita Mercé, A M

    2006-01-01

    Current less invasive surgical techniques, the use of new analgesic and anesthetic drugs, and early mobilization ("multimodal surgical strategies") reduce the occurrence of post-surgery paralytic ileus and vomiting, making possible early nutrition by the digestive route. With these premises, a nutrition protocol was designed for its implementation in colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery. to assess the efficacy of this protocol that comprises 3 phases. Phase I: home preparation with 7 days duration; low-residues and insoluble fiber diet, supplemented with 400 mL of hyperproteic polymeric formula with no lactose or fiber, bowel cleansing 2 days prior to surgery and hydration with water, sugared infusions, and vegetable broth. Phase II: immediate post-surgical period with watery diet for 3 days with polymeric diet with no fiber. Phase III: semi-solid diet with no residues, nutritional formula and progressive reintroduction of food intake in four stages of varying duration according to surgery and digestive tolerance. prospective study performed at our hospital with patients from our influence area, from February 2003 to May 2004, including 25 patients, 19 men and 6 women, with mean age of 63.3 years (range = 33-79) and mean body mass index of 26.25 kg/m2 (range = 20.84-31.3), all of them suffering from colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery, and to which the study protocol was applied. Fourteen left hemicolectomies, 5 right hemicolectomies, 4 low anterior resections with protective colostomy, and subtotal colectomies and lateral ileostomy were done. Final diagnoses were: 3 diverticular diseases; 3 adenomas; 7 rectosigmoidal neoplasms; and 12 large bowel neoplasms in other locations. The pathology study confirmed: pT3N0 (n = 7), pT3N1 (n = 3), pT3N2 (n = 1), and pT3N1M1 (n = 1), pT1N0 (n = 4), pT1N1 (n = 2), pTis (n = 1). Twelve patients were started on adjuvant therapy of which 3 had received an initial treatment

  19. Normative development of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile from early childhood to adolescence: Associations with personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, Marike H F; Vossen, Helen G M; De Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Van Baar, Anneloes L; Prinzie, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The Dysregulation Profile (DP) is a broad indicator of concurrent affective, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation, often measured with the anxious/depressed, aggressive behavior, and attention problems syndrome scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Despite an expanding body of research on the DP, knowledge of the normative developmental course of the DP from early childhood to adolescence is lacking. Furthermore, although we know that the DP longitudinally predicts personality pathology, no research yet has examined whether next to the DP in early childhood, the rate of change of the DP across development predicts personality pathology. Therefore, using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling in a population-based sample (N = 668), we examined the normative developmental course of mother-reported DP from ages 4 to 17 years and its associations with a wide range of adolescent-reported personality pathology dimensions 3 years later. The results showed that the DP follows a nonlinear developmental course with a peak in early adolescence. The initial level of the DP at age 4 and, to a lesser extent, the rate of change in the DP predicted a range of personality pathology dimensions in late adolescence. The findings suggest that the DP is a broad developmental precursor of personality pathology in late adolescence.

  20. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  1. Usefulness of enhanced breathhold 3D spoiled gradient-echo MRA for intrathoracic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kadoya, Masumi; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Takashima, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    Enhanced Breathhold 3D Spoiled Gradient-echo MRA was very attractive method for not only evaluating relationship between intrathoracic mass and intrathoracic vessels, but also visualizing small pulmonary vessels that could not be detected conventional MRA methods. Moreover, this methods could be applied for evaluating vascularity of the lesions. This method will be accepted as routine pulse sequence for evaluating intrathoracic mass especially malignant tumors. (author)

  2. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [ 131 I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  4. Early signs of pathological cognitive aging in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKonsolaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. Α deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-, which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioural signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviours, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm and extend the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments, manifested in both spatial learning and recognition memory tasks. In addition, we reveal deficits in spontaneous behaviour and habituation processes earlier in life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioural examination of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioural changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  5. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  6. A Rare Cause of Right-Sided Air Bubble on Chest Radiograph: Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus Related to Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Sahin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare disorder in adulthood, and most of the cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases are extremely rare and present with life-threatening complications. Early diagnosis and surgery are lifesaving. We hereby present an adult case of symptomatic Morgagni hernia. Diaphragmatic herniation of the stomach and mesenteroaxial rotation led to intrathoracic gastric volvulus in this case. A right-sided air bubble on a chest radiogram was the only finding leading to the suspicion of diaphragmatic hernia. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernias is of great importance.

  7. Self-esteem and peer-perceived social status in early adolescence and prediction of eating pathology in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2018-04-27

    Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Skeletal changes mimicking intrathoracic disease on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelderen, WFC van

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various chest radiographs are illustrated to demonstrate features where bony changes may mimic intrathoracic disease. To confirm the skeletal origin and nature, further conventional radiographs often suffice, and the need for CT or scintigraphy may therefore be obviated. At the time of presentation for radiography of the chest, further pertinent clinical details can be obtained from the patient by the department staff, as required. All previous radiographs and radiological reports should be readily available. In order to add to the educational value of the 13 cases illustrated, all are presented in quiz format, with the answers and further images included in the text.

  9. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication for intrathoracic migration of wrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic fundoplication is fast emerging as the treatment of choice of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, a complication peculiar to laparoscopic surgery for this disease is the intrathoracic migration of the wrap. This article describes a case of a male patient who developed this particular complication after laparoscopic total fundoplication. Following a trauma, wrap migration occurred. The typical history and symptomatology is described. The classical Barium swallow picture is enclosed. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication was carried out. The difficulties encountered are described. Postoperative wrap migration can be suspected clinically by the presence of a precipitating event and typical symptomatology. Confirmation is by a Barium swallow. Treatment is by redo surgery.

  10. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis and predictors of anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooszen, J. A. H.; Goense, L.; Gisbertz, S. S.; Ruurda, J. P.; van Hillegersberg, R.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    Studies comparing the anastomotic leak rate in patients with an intrathoracic versus a cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy are equivocal. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcome after oesophagectomy in patients with an intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis, and to identify

  11. Early Pathologic Findings of Bronchiolitis Obliterans after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Proposal from a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Nakamoto-Matsubara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is one of the serious, noninfectious pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT. Early diagnosis of BO is usually difficult because patients are often asymptomatic at an initial stage of the disease and pathologic findings are available mostly at the late stages. Therefore, the diagnosis of the disease is based on the pulmonary function test using the National Institute of Health consensus criteria. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive BO. A biopsy specimen at an early stage demonstrated alveolar destruction with lymphocyte infiltration in bronchial walls and mild narrowing of bronchioles without fibrosis, those were strongly indicative of initial pathologic changes of BO. Definitive BO followed, which was proven by both clinical course and autopsy. While alloreactive lymphocytes associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease are believed to initiate BO, we present a rare case that directly implies such a scenario.

  12. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  13. A case of an adenocarcinoma of the stomach after successful radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lower intrathoracic esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonari, Kazuhide; Uchida, Yuzo; Fujishima, Norihiko

    1988-01-01

    A case of a gastric cancer which developed 3 years and 11 months after radiotherapy for esophageal cancer is reported. A 76-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of the lower intrathoracic esophagus had received 50 Gy of irradiation as treatment. Thereafter, signs of the esophageal cancer disappeared radiologically and endoscopically, and a pathological biopsy of secimens taken from the site revealed no futher cancer cells. The patient remained well for 3 years and 11 months after radiotherapy, at which time he again was admitted to hospital, having been diagnosed as having a gastric cancer. On admission, an upper G-I series showed a shadow defect along the lesser curvature of the upper-middle stomach but no evidence of any stenosis in the lower intrathoracic esophagus. Endoscopically, the mucosal surface of the esophagus was normal, and biopsy specimens taken from the site in the esophagus that had been treated with irradiation 3 years 11 months ago revealed no recurrence of his esophageal cancer. Endoscopical examination of the stomach showed an infiltrative tumor with ulceration, and a subsequent histological examination revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Upon a laparotomy, a metastasis was detected in the perigastric and paraaortic lymphnodes and the cancer had invaded the retroperitoneum. The stomach could not be removed and he died 3 months after the laparotomy. (author)

  14. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  15. Cardiac effects of electrically induced intrathoracic autonomic reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1988-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the afferent components in one cardiopulmonary nerve (the left vagosympathetic complex at a level immediately caudal to the origin of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve) in acutely decentralized thoracic autonomic ganglionic preparations altered cardiac chronotropism and inotropism in 17 of 44 dogs. Since these neural preparations were acutely decentralized, the effects were mediated presumably via intrathoracic autonomic reflexes. The lack of consistency of these reflexly generated cardiac responses presumably were due in part to anatomical variation of afferent axons in the afferent nerve stimulated. As stimulation of the afferent components in the same neural structure caudal to the heart (where cardiopulmonary afferent axons are not present) failed to elicit cardiac responses in any dog, it is presumed that when cardiac responses were elicited by the more cranially located stimulations, these were due to activation of afferent axons arising from the heart and (or) lungs. When cardiac responses were elicited, intramyocardial pressures in the right ventricular conus as well as the ventral and lateral walls of the left ventricle were augmented. Either bradycardia or tachycardia was elicited. Following hexamethonium administration no responses were produced, demonstrating that nicotonic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms were involved in these intrathoracic cardiopulmonary-cardiac reflexes. In six of the animals, when atropine was administered before hexamethonium, reflexly generated responses were attenuated. The same thing occurred when morphine was administered in four animals. In contrast, in four animals following administration of phentolamine, the reflexly generated changes were enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Early experience after developing a pathology laboratory in Malawi, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Gopal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite increasing cancer burden in Malawi, pathology services are limited. We describe operations during the first 20 months of a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study of specimens from the Kamuzu Central Hospital pathology laboratory between July 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. Patient and specimen characteristics, and final diagnoses are summarized. Diagnoses were categorized as malignant, premalignant, infectious, other pathology, normal or benign, or nondiagnostic. Patient characteristics associated with premalignancy and malignancy were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2772 specimens, 2758 (99% with a recorded final diagnosis were included, drawn from 2639 unique patients. Mean age was 38 years and 63% were female. Of those with documented HIV status, 51% had unknown status, and 36% with known status were infected. Histologic specimens comprised 91% of cases, and cytologic specimens 9%. Malignant diagnoses were most common overall (n = 861, 31%. Among cancers, cervical cancer was most common (n = 117, 14%, followed by lymphoma (n = 91, 11%, esophageal cancer (n = 86, 10%, sarcoma excluding Kaposi sarcoma (n = 75, 9%, and breast cancer (n = 61, 7%. HIV status was known for 95 (11% of malignancies, with HIV prevalence ranging from 9% for breast cancer to 81% for cervical cancer. Increasing age was consistently associated with malignancy [bivariable odds ratio 1.24 per decade increase (95% CI 1.19-1.29 among 2685 patients with known age; multivariable odds ratio 1.33 per decade increase (95% CI 1.14-1.56 among 317 patients with known age, gender, and HIV status], while HIV infection and gender were not. CONCLUSIONS: Despite selection and referral bias inherent in these data, a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe has created a robust platform for cancer care and research. Strategies to effectively capture clinical information for

  17. The Carcinogenic Agent Azoxymethane (AOM) Enhances Early Inflammation-induced Colon Crypt Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2013-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with CD4+ T cells depleted of CD25+ regulatory T cells develop colitis within 2-3 weeks after the T cell transfer. In the present study we studied the effect of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) on the colon crypt pathology of normal SCID...

  18. The correlation study of radiological findings with pathological classification of superficial depressed (IIc type) early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linxiang; Deng Bingxing; Liu Yujin; Iinuma, G.; Moriyama, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relations between radiological findings and pathological classification of superficial depressed (II c type) early gastric cancer. Methods: Radiological features in subtonic double contrast barium examination and the endoscopic pictures of early gastric cancer compared with the global pathological specimens and micro-pathological features were prospectively studied. Combined with the gastric endoscopic pictures, the sharpness of margin of the lesions, the changes of converging mucosal folds and the changes of the depressed surface on the film of double contrast barium examination were analyzed. The correlation between the radiological features and histological classification of gastric cancer including well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por) and signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig) were studied. Results: In 102 cases of II c type early gastric cancer, there were tub1 27 cases, tub2 11, por 26 and sig 38 cases histologically. The margin of the depressed lesions of tubl (24 cases) and tub2 (9 cases) cancers were mostly unsharply demarcated or with fine spicular border, while the margin of lesions of por(15 cases) and sig(31 cases) were mostly clearly and sharply demarcated, with statistical significance (P<0.01). The depressed surface of tub1 and tub2 lesions (17 cases) revealed little unevenness, sometimes with evenly granulations, single nodule and scar-like depression, while that of por and sig lesions (41 cases) manifested as nodules of varying sizes, with statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: The radiological findings of superficial depressed early gastric cancer in different histological types were different, the possible histological type could be speculated according to the radiological findings of the lesions. (authors)

  19. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Naoko, E-mail: n.miyata@scchr.jp [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Kameya, Toru [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Ohde, Yasuhisa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules.

  20. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Naoko; Endo, Masahiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro; Kameya, Toru; Ohde, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules

  1. Aorto-aortic intrathoracic bypass in surgical treatment of aortic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Perez, F.; Duran Reyes, A.; Bigalli, D.; Filgueira Berobide, J.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of coarctation of the aorta is 6.5 percent of all congenital heart defects, according to national and international data. There is a restenosis rate of patients after surgery. Factors that influence this evolution depends on the age at which patients underwent surgery for the first time the anatomy of the aortic arch and type of surgical technique. Several procedures can be used to correct the coarctation, which include surgery and balloon catheter dilation. We present here a case of a patient of 22 years old, with a recurrent coarctation of the aorta studied by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgery a third time. We used an anterior approach (median sternotomy) and performed an aortic bypass graft, intrathoracic, under cardiopulmonary bypass. Evolved favorably and was discharged on the sixth day of post operative day (Author) [es

  2. Intrathoracic deplacement of the fractured humerus head mimicking lung mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.; Candas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 79-year-old woman was admitted to emergency department because she had a trauma to her right shoulder. In chest X ray film and CT orientated to her right shoulder; fragmented proximal humeral fracture and right 3. rib fracture, hemopneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema related to rib fracture were detected. In CT exam which is performed at one month after the trauma was viewed that a well defined, 3.5 cm in diameter, spheric, sharp in medial contour, osseous structure in right hemithorax. The intrathoracic osseous lesion was the fragmented and dislocated humeral head. if we see a bone structure in the lung while we reporting a chest-X-ray in a trauma patient, we have to retain that this structure might be the fractured and dislocated humerus head

  3. An early look at the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network explant pathology form data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ann M; Edwards, Erick; Washburn, W Kenneth; Heimbach, Julie

    2016-06-01

    In April 2012, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) implemented an online explant pathology form for recipients of liver transplantation who received additional wait-list priority for their diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of the form was to standardize the data being reported to the OPTN, which had been required since 2002 but were submitted to the OPTN in a variety of formats via facsimile. From April 2012 to December 2014, over 4500 explant forms were submitted, allowing for detailed analysis of the characteristics of the explanted livers. Data from the explant pathology forms were used to assess agreement with pretransplant imaging. Explant data were also used to assess the risk of recurrence. Of those with T2 priority, 55.7% were found to be stage T2 on explant. Extrahepatic spread (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8; P based on the number and size of tumors on the explant form was T4 (OR = 2.4; P < 0.01) were the strongest predictors of recurrence. In conclusion, this analysis confirms earlier findings that showed an incomplete agreement between pretransplant imaging and posttransplant pathology in terms of HCC staging, though the number of patients with both no pretransplant treatment and no tumor in the explant was reduced from 20% to <1%. In addition, several factors were identified (eg, tumor burden, age, sex, region, ablative therapy, alpha-fetoprotein, Milan stage, vascular invasion, satellite lesions, etc.) that were predictive of HCC recurrence, allowing for more targeted surveillance of high-risk recipients. Continued evaluation of these data will help shape future guidelines or policy recommendations. Liver Transplantation 22 757-764 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Pre-clinical heterotopic intrathoracic heart xenotransplantation: a possibly useful clinical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja; Reichart, Bruno; Buchholz, Stefan; Werner, Fabian; Lutzmann, Isabelle; Schmoeckel, Michael; Bauer, Andreas; Thormann, Michael; Langenmayer, Martin; Herbach, Nadja; Pohla, Heike; Herzog, Rudolf; McGregor, Christopher G A; Ayares, David; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Baehr, Andrea; Kind, Alexander; Hagl, Christian; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Guethoff, Sonja; Brenner, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    As a step towards clinical cardiac xenotransplantation, our experimental heterotopic intrathoracic xenotransplantation model offers a beating and ejecting donor heart while retaining the recipient's native organ as a backup in case of graft failure. Clinically applicable immunosuppressive regimens (IS) were investigated first, then treatments known to be effective in hypersensitized patients or those with recalcitrant rejection reactions. Consecutive experiments were carried out between 2009 and 2013. Twenty-one genetically modified pigs (GGTA1-knockout/hCD46/± thrombomodulin, in one case HLA-E instead) were used as donors. In all experiments, two cycles of immunoabsorption reduced preformed antibodies. Recipient baboons were divided into two groups according to IS regimen: In group one (n = 10), pre-treatment started either one (anti-CD20) or four weeks (anti-CD20 plus the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib) prior to transplantation. The extended conventional (as for allotransplantation) immunosuppressive maintenance regimen included anti-thymocyte globuline, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, methylprednisolone and weekly anti-CD20. In group two (n = 11), myeloablative pre-treatment as in multiple myeloma patients (long and short regimens) was added to extended conventional IS; postoperative total thoracic and abdominal lymphoid irradiation (TLI; single dose of 600 cGY) was used to further reduce antibody-producing cells. In the perioperative course, the surgical technique was safely applied: 19 baboons were weaned off extracorporeal circulation and 17 extubated. Nine animals were lost in the early postoperative course due to causes unrelated to surgical technique or IS regimen. Excluding these early failures, median graft survival times of group 1 and 2 were 18.5 (12-50) days and 16 (7-35) days. Necropsy examination of group 1 donor organs revealed hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall in the six longer-lasting grafts; myocardial histology confirmed pre

  5. Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Lanska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900 the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond’s career.  Methods: Review of controversies in the semi-centennial since the description of athetosis.  Results: Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinic-pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously.  Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Discussion: Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary.  Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight. 

  6. Accelerated radiochemotherapy in pancreatic cancer is not necessarily related to a pathologic pancreatic function decline in the early period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Eckehard; Seidel, Matthias; Micke, Oliver; Ruebe, Christian; Glashoerster, Marco; Schaefer, Ulrich; Willich, Normann A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional effects of ionizing radiation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in the early period after accelerated radiochemotherapy (ART). Methods and Materials: To analyze the exocrine component, the amino acid consumption test and fecal elastase 1 were performed in 13 patients immediately before and 4-8 weeks after ART. Pancreatic duct morphology was evaluated before therapy. Weight loss and clinical steatorrhea were recorded. Endocrine parameters were examined according to standardized criteria. Results: The relative change of the amino acid consumption test results and the median elastase concentration was 41.2% and 56.4%, respectively. Five patients still had normal test results after ART and 5 patients developed pathologic values. The median relative weight loss of the total body weight was 7.7% ± 4.5%. No steatorrhea occurred. Of the 5 patients with normal values, 3 had a mean organ dose of 41 Gy. The endocrine function measurements remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although a nominal reduction of exocrine function parameters occurred in most patients, ART was not necessarily related to a pathologic level in the early period. Diabetes was not established. The functional impairment that was existent in the patient population presumably contributed to the weight loss. Pancreatic enzyme preparations may also play a role in maintaining an anabolic state during and after radiochemotherapy

  7. Vacuum-assisted closure device: a useful tool in the management of severe intrathoracic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Alend; Perentes, Jean Yannis; Gonzalez, Michel; Tempia, Adrien Caliera; Wang, Yabo; Demartines, Nicolas; Ris, Hans-Beat; Krueger, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    This study is an evaluation of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy for the treatment of severe intrathoracic infections complicating lung resection, esophageal surgery, viscera perforation, or necrotizing pleuropulmonary infections. We reviewed the medical records of all patients treated by intrathoracic VAC therapy between January 2005 and December 2008. All patients underwent surgical debridement-decortication and control of the underlying cause of infection such as treatment of bronchus stump insufficiency, resection of necrotic lung, or closure of esophageal or intestinal leaks. Surgery was followed by intrathoracic VAC therapy until the infection was controlled. The VAC dressings were changed under general anesthesia and the chest wall was temporarily closed after each dressing change. All patients received systemic antibiotic therapy. Twenty-seven patients (15 male, median age 64 years) underwent intrathoracic VAC dressings for the management of postresectional empyema (n=8) with and without bronchopleural fistula, necrotizing infections (n=7), and intrathoracic gastrointestinal leaks (n=12). The median length of VAC therapy was 22 days (range 5 to 66) and the median number of VAC changes per patient was 6 (range 2 to 16). In-hospital mortality was 19% (n=5) and was not related to VAC therapy or intrathoracic infection. Control of intrathoracic infection and closure of the chest cavity was achieved in all surviving patients. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy is an efficient and safe adjunct to treat severe intrathoracic infections and may be a good alternative to the open window thoracostomy in selected patients. Long time intervals in between VAC changes and short course of therapy result in good patient acceptance. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  9. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft: Diagnosis, Pathologic Findings, and Early Stage Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sinopidis, Xenophon; Kourea, Helen P.; Panagidis, Antonios; Alexopoulos, Vasileios; Tzifas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel; Georgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a very uncommon malformation of the anterior neck, with less than 100 cases reported in medical literature. Herein we present a case of a female neonate with this anomaly. A detailed description of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics is performed. As it is derived from the natural history of the lesion, prompt clinical diagnosis, and operative treatment during early infancy predispose to a better aesthetic and functional prognosis.

  11. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer using Molecular, Biochemical and Pathological Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Salah E.D. El-Assal; Adel A. El-Tarras; Samir M. Abd-alla

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Laboratory diagnosis of breast cancer in most of the hospitals has traditionally been performed using cell culture and the direct hormone receptor assay, which are money and time consuming. Approach: This study was performed in order to direct the attention toward increasing the efficiency of early diagnosis in clinical laboratories at the western region of KSA and Egypt using recent PCR-dependent protocols i.e., Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) and Reverse Transc...

  12. Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach.

  13. Early Detection of Pathological Gambling: Betting on GPs’ Beliefs and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Achab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility. To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG prevalence seems to be 6.2% has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP’s management skills in a public health approach.

  14. Laparoscopic management of totally intra-thoracic stomach with chronic volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Toygar; Çipe, Gökhan; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Yerdel, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of intra-thoracic gastric volvulus (IGV) and to assess the preoperative work-up. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patient medical records identified 14 patients who underwent a laparoscopic repair of IGV. The procedure included reduction of the stomach into the abdomen, total sac excision, reinforced hiatoplasty with mesh and construction of a partial fundoplication. All perioperative data, operative details and complications were recorded. All patients had at least 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 4 male and 10 female patients. The mean age and the mean body mass index were 66 years and 28.7 kg/m2, respectively. All patients presented with epigastric discomfort and early satiety. There was no mortality, and none of the cases were converted to an open procedure. The mean operative time was 235 min, and the mean length of hospitalization was 2 d. There were no intraoperative complications. Four minor complications occurred in 3 patients including pleural effusion, subcutaneous emphysema, dysphagia and delayed gastric emptying. All minor complications resolved spontaneously without any intervention. During the mean follow-up of 29 mo, one patient had a radiological wrap herniation without volvulus. She remains symptom free with daily medication. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic management of IGV is a safe but technically demanding procedure. The best outcomes can be achieved in centers with extensive experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery. PMID:24124329

  15. Clinical and pathological study on early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimo, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    [ 123 I] Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy has been used to evaluate postganglionic cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart diseases and some neurological disorders. To see clinical usefulness of MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from related movement disorders and Alzheimer disease (AD), we performed MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in patients with these disorders. Cardiac uptake of MIBG is specifically reduced in PD and DLB, and this imaging approach is a sensitive diagnostic tool that possibly differentiates PD and DLB from related movement disorders and AD. To see pathological basis of the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG in Lewy body disease, we immunohistichemically examined cardiac tissues from patients with PD, DLB, related movement disorders and AD using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phosphorylated neurofilament (NF). Not only TH- but also NF-immunoreactive (ir) axons in the epicardial nerve fascicles were markedly decreased in Lewy body disease, namely cardiac sympathetic denervation, which accounts for the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG in Lewy body disease. Patients with PD and DLB have Lewy bodies (LBs) in the nervous system, whereas patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, parkin-associated PD and AD have no LBs in the nervous system. Even in patients with MSA, cardiac sympathetic denervation was associated with the presence of LBs. Therefore, cardiac sympathetic denervation is closely related to the presence of LBs in a wide range of neurodegenerative processes. Taken together, we conclude that the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG is a potential biomarker for the presence of LBs. Because α-synuclein is one of the key molecules in the pathogenesis of PD, we further investigate how α-synuclein aggregates are involved in degeneration of the cardiac sympathetic nerve in PD. We

  16. Clinical-pathologic correlation in early cervical carcinoma: CT-MR imaging comparison for effect on staging and treatment choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubens, D.; Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.; Lerner, R.M.; Angel, C.; Beecham, J.; Stoler, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A group of patients with clinical stage I or II squamous cell cervical carcinoma have been examined using a 1.5-T magnet. Of these, six have had radical hysterectomy (by April 1986), providing specimens for pathologic correlation. In this preliminary group of patients, MR imaging gave a more accurate assessment of primary tumor extent than did clinical staging. In three of six patients, the disease was underestimated clinically at examination under anesthesia. These patients would have been managed with preoperative radiation rather than surgery alone if the investigative MR imaging information had been used in treatment planning. CT examinations of these patients did not contribute useful information for patient management. Preoperative MR imaging has the potential to alter patient treatment in early cervical carcinoma

  17. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  18. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, Stephen E.; Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D.; Feldman, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  19. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  20. Pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension in early stage fibrosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Wang, Ji-Feng; Li, Yu; Tao, Xiao-Hua

    2005-11-07

    To study the role of hepatic sinusoidal capillarization and perisinusoidal fibrosis in rats with alcohol-induced portal hypertension and to discuss the pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension. Fifty SD rats were divided into control group (n=20) and model group (n=30). Alcoholic liver fibrosis rat model was induced by intragastric infusion of a mixture containing alcohol, corn oil and pyrazole (1 000:250:3). Fifteen rats in each group were killed at wk 16. The diameter and pressure of portal vein were measured. Plasma hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CoIV) and laminin (LN) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Liver tissue was fixed in formalin (10%) and 6-mum thick sections were routinely stained with Mallory and Sirius Red. Liver tissue was treated with rabbit polyclonal antibody against LN and ColIV. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells were isolated, total protein was extracted and separated by SDS-PAGE. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. The diameter (2.207+/-0.096 vs 1.528+/-0.054 mm, Pportal vein were significantly higher in model group than those in the control group. Plasma HA (129.97+/-16.10 vs 73.09+/-2.38 ng/mL, Pmodel group. Abundant collagen deposited around the central vein of lobules, hepatic sinusoids and hepatocytes in model group. ColI and ColIII increased remarkably and perisinusoids were almost surrounded by ColIII. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ColIV protein level (0.130+/-0.007 vs 0.032+/-0.004, Pprotein level (0.152+/-0.005 vs 0.029+/-0.005, Pmodel group. MMP-2 protein expression (2.306+/-1.089 vs 0.612+/-0.081, Pprotein expression (3.015+/-1.364 vs 0.446+/-0.009, Pmodel group and TIMP-1 protein expression was evidently higher than MMP-2 protein expression (2.669+/-0.170 vs 1.695+/-0.008, Pportal hypertension in rats.

  1. Peptidergic modulation of efferent sympathetic neurons in intrathoracic ganglia regulating the canine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1989-05-01

    When either substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was injected into an acutely decentralized intrathoracic sympathetic ganglion, short-lasting augmentation of cardiac chronotropism and inotropism was induced. These augmentations were induced before the fall in systemic arterial pressure occurred which was a consequence of these peptides leaking into the systemic circulation in enough quantity to alter peripheral vascular resistance directly. When similar volumes of normal saline were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no significant cardiac changes were induced. When substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was administered into an intrathoracic ganglion, similar cardiac augmentations were induced either before or after the intravenous administration of hexamethonium. In contrast, when these peptides were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion in which the beta-adrenergic blocking agent timolol (0.1 mg/0.1 ml of normal saline) had been administered no cardiac augmentation occurred. These data imply that in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade intraganglionic administration of substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide does not modify enough intrathoracic neurons to alter cardiac chronotropism and inotropism detectably. When neuropeptide Y was injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no cardiac changes occurred. However, when cardiac augmentations were induced by sympathetic preganglionic axon stimulation these were enhanced following the intraganglionic administration of neuropeptide Y. As this effect occurred after timolol was administered into the ipsilateral ganglia, but not after intravenous administration of hexamethonium, it is proposed that the effects of neuropeptide Y are dependent upon functioning intrathoracic ganglionic nicotinic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of either morphine or [D-ala2,D-leu5]enkephalin acetate did not alter the capacity of the preganglionic sympathetic axons to augment the heart

  2. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Stephen E; Done, Stephen L; Friedman, Seth D; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-10-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility.

  3. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis and predictors of anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooszen, J A H; Goense, L; Gisbertz, S S; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I

    2018-04-01

    Studies comparing the anastomotic leak rate in patients with an intrathoracic versus a cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy are equivocal. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcome after oesophagectomy in patients with an intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis, and to identify predictors of anastomotic leakage in a nationwide audit. Between January 2011 and December 2015, all consecutive patients who underwent oesophagectomy for cancer were identified from the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit. For the comparison between an intrathoracic and cervical anastomosis, propensity score matching was used to adjust for potential confounders. Multivariable logistic regression modelling with backward stepwise selection was used to determine independent predictors of anastomotic leakage. Some 3348 patients were included. After propensity score matching, 654 patients were included in both the cervical and intrathoracic anastomosis groups. An intrathoracic anastomosis was associated with a lower leak rate than a cervical anastomosis (17·0 versus 21·9 per cent; P = 0·025). The percentage of patients with recurrent nerve paresis was also lower (0·6 versus 7·0 per cent; P Risk factors for anastomotic leak were co-morbidities and proximal tumours. © 2018 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  4. An Ultra-High Field Study of Cerebellar Pathology in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Using MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartaria, Mário João; OʼBrien, Kieran; Şorega, Alexandra; Bonnier, Guillaume; Roche, Alexis; Falkovskiy, Pavel; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to study focal cerebellar pathology in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) using ultra-high-field magnetization-prepared 2 inversion-contrast rapid gradient-echo (7T MP2RAGE). Twenty early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent an MP2RAGE acquisition at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (images acquired at 2 different resolutions: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.58 mm, 7T_0.58, and 0.75 × 0.75 × 0.90 mm, 7T_0.75) and 3 T MRI (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm, 3T_1.0). Total cerebellar lesion load and volume and mean cerebellar lesion volume were compared across images using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean T1 relaxation times in lesions and normal-appearing tissue as well as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements were also compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the contribution of MRI metrics to clinical performance in MS patients. Both 7T_0.58 and 7T_0.75 MP2RAGE showed significantly higher lesion load compared with 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE (P < 0.001). Plaques that were judged as leukocortical in 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGEs were instead identified as WM lesions in 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE. Cortical lesion CNR was significantly higher in MP2RAGEs at 7 T than at 3 T. Total lesion load as well as total and mean lesion volume obtained at both 7 T and 3 T MP2RAGE significantly predicted attention (P < 0.05, adjusted R = 0.5), verbal fluency (P < 0.01, adjusted R = 0.6), and motor performance (P = 0.01, adjusted R = 0.7). This study demonstrates the value of 7 T MP2RAGE to study the cerebellum in early MS patients. 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE provides a more accurate anatomical description of white and gray matter pathology compared with 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE, likely due to the improved spatial resolution, lower partial volume effects, and higher CNR.

  5. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology as early pathological changes in human models of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Chong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, characterized by specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons, is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1 gene and subsequent decreased levels of functional SMN. How the deficiency of SMN, a ubiquitously expressed protein, leads to spinal motor neuron-specific degeneration in individuals affected by SMA remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of SMN in mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human motor neurons by generating SMA type 1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and differentiating these cells into spinal motor neurons. The initial specification of spinal motor neurons was not affected, but these SMA spinal motor neurons specifically degenerated following long-term culture. Moreover, at an early stage in SMA spinal motor neurons, but not in SMA forebrain neurons, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and mitochondrial transport were significantly reduced in axons. Knocking down of SMN expression led to similar mitochondrial defects in spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells, confirming that SMN deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, the application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC mitigated the impairment in mitochondrial transport and morphology and rescued motor neuron degeneration in SMA long-term cultures. Furthermore, NAC ameliorated the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in SMA spinal motor neurons, suggesting that NAC might rescue apoptosis and motor neuron degeneration by improving mitochondrial health. Overall, our data demonstrate that SMN deficiency results in abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology and a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial health, which are implicated in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in SMA.

  6. [Robotic-assisted minimally invasive abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with intrathoracic anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, J-H; Aselmann, H; Schafmayer, C; Jünemann, K-P; Becker, T

    2014-02-01

    Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy is one of the approaches used worldwide for treating oesophageal cancer. The adoption of minimally invasive oesophagectomy has increased worldwide since its first description more than 15 years ago. However, minimally invasive oesophagectomy with a chest anastomosis has advantages. By using a four-arm robotic platform, not only the preparation of the gastric tube and mobilisation of the oesophagus but also the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. The indication for oesophageal resection is oesophageal cancer. The operative procedure comprises robotic-assisted abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with reconstruction by a gastric tube and intrathoracic anastomosis (Ivor Lewis procedure). Robotic abdominal and thoracic minimally invasive esophagectomy is feasible, and safe with a complete lymph node dissection. Especially the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  8. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  9. The Existence of Primary Age-Related Tauopathy Suggests that not all the Cases with Early Braak Stages of Neurofibrillary Pathology are Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccone, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART) is a hotly debated issue. As most lines of evidence support the tenet that tau pathology occurs downstream of amyloid-β deposition, it seems reasonable to consider PART as a separate disease process not necessarily related to Aβ and hence AD. Following this view, the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology may not always be the forerunner of diffuse neurofibrillary changes and AD. The ongoing debate further enhances the need for greater caution against any future predictions using tau cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers.

  10. Dumbbell-shaped intrathoracic-extradural haemangioma of the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, P M; Abou-Zeid, A; Du Plessis, D; Herwadkar, A; Gnanalingham, K K

    2008-04-01

    Spinal haemangiomas are benign vasoproliferative lesions that are typically intra-osseous and generally asymptomatic, although localized pain can be a symptom. Capillary and cavernous variants have been described. We describe a rare case of a dumbbell-shaped haemangioma of the thoracic spine with both an intraspinal-extradural and intrathoracic component.

  11. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  12. Neoplastic pleural effusion and intrathoracic metastasis of a scapular osteosarcoma in a dog: a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Luis; Mortier, Jeremy; Ressel, Lorenzo; Finotello, Riccardo; Silvestrini, Paolo; Piviani, Martina

    2017-06-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed mixed-breed or cross-bred dog was referred to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool due to tachypnea, dyspnea, and pleural effusion not responding to diuretics and antibiotics. The chest was drained and cytology of the pleural fluid was consistent with a modified transudate with presence of atypical cells initially attributed to mesothelial hyperplasia and dysplasia. Computed tomography detected, in addition to the bilateral pleural effusion, diffuse pleural thickening, multiple pleural and pulmonary nodules, and a mineralized and lytic mass in the left scapula. Imaging findings were suggestive of a primary bone tumor with intrathoracic metastasis. Cytology of the left scapular and pleural masses revealed a malignant neoplasm highly suggestive of osteosarcoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of a positive cytochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase on prestained cytology slides. This finding prompted review of the initial interpretation of the pleural effusion cytology. The presence of neoplastic osteoblasts in the thoracic fluid was identified by a combination of cytochemistry, cell pellet immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy findings. In this report, a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach was used to diagnose and confirm a neoplastic pleural effusion due to osteosarcoma metastasis in a dog. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants. Instruction Manual [and] Early Interventionist's Workbook [and] Parent/Caregiver Workbook. William Beaumont Hospital Speech and Language Pathology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Altagracia A.; Bottino, Patti M.

    This early intervention kit includes a Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants (CESPI) instruction manual, an early interventionist workbook, and ten parent/caregiver workbooks. The CESPI early intervention program is designed to provide therapists, teachers, other health professionals, and parents with a common-sense, practical guide…

  14. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  15. Rare case of subcutaneous mycosis with intrathoracic extension due to Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R; Vasudevan, B; Badwal, S; Sriram, R; Neema, S; Kharayat, V

    2015-08-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of multiple lumps over his left upper arm and shoulder and the adjoining left side of his chest and upper back. His medical history included diabetes mellitus type 2. The patient was a farmer and used to lift sacks of grains and fertilizers onto his shoulders as part of his work, although he did not recollect any history of specific trauma. Skin biopsy revealed granulomatous reaction with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, while periodic-acid-Schiff and Grocott-Gomori stains confirmed fungal elements. Sabouraud agar grew Chaetomium species, and lactophenol blue mount confirmed the fungus as Chaetomium strumarium. Radiography and computed tomography of the chest revealed intrathoracic extension of the mycetoma. The patient responded well to treatment with oral Itraconazole. Subcutaneous mycosis due to C. strumarium is rarely reported in the literature, and the intrathoracic extension makes it an even rarer entity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Ganglioneuroma of Posterior Mediastinum in a 6-year-old Girl: Imaging for Pediatric Intrathoracic Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chin Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic tumor is a rare entity in the pediatric population and neurogenic tumors account for 40-50% of childhood intrathoracic tumors. They can cause severe symptoms, such as respiratory distress, neurological dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma (GN usually occurs in children and can be found accidentally. Precise preoperative diagnosis is very difficult and has a great influence on surgical intervention. Here, we report a 6-year-old girl with a posterior mediastinal GN that was found incidentally on chest radiography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a right paraspinal tumor with punctuate calcification and intraspinal extension. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed low-grade fluorodeoxyglucose avidity of this tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can characterize GN and positron emission tomography is helpful for differentiating benign or malignant lesions.

  17. 3D intrathoracic region definition and its application to PET-CT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently developed integrated PET-CT scanners give co-registered multimodal data sets that offer complementary three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the chest. PET (positron emission tomography) imaging gives highly specific functional information of suspect cancer sites, while CT (X-ray computed tomography) gives associated anatomical detail. Because the 3D CT and PET scans generally span the body from the eyes to the knees, accurate definition of the intrathoracic region is vital for focusing attention to the central-chest region. In this way, diagnostically important regions of interest (ROIs), such as central-chest lymph nodes and cancer nodules, can be more efficiently isolated. We propose a method for automatic segmentation of the intrathoracic region from a given co-registered 3D PET-CT study. Using the 3D CT scan as input, the method begins by finding an initial intrathoracic region boundary for a given 2D CT section. Next, active contour analysis, driven by a cost function depending on local image gradient, gradient-direction, and contour shape features, iteratively estimates the contours spanning the intrathoracic region on neighboring 2D CT sections. This process continues until the complete region is defined. We next present an interactive system that employs the segmentation method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis. A validation study over a series of PET-CT studies reveals that the segmentation method gives a Dice index accuracy of less than 98%. In addition, further results demonstrate the utility of the method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis, ROI definition, and visualization.

  18. Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after gastroesophageal cancer resection is associated with increased risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen C; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after intended curative resection for cancer in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction has a negative impact on long-term survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anastomotic leakage was associated with an increased recurrence......]: 1.17-2.29, P = .004) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.23-2.05, P cancer resection....

  19. Extramedullary plasmocytoma of the rhino pharynx associated to intrathoracic mass - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andrea Silveira de; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 56-year-old while male, who had occipital headache, libido and visual acuity (bitemporal field) reduction as the clinical picture, with progressive evolution within a four years period. The image diagnosis methods (roentgenologic studies, (MRI) demonstrated extensive mass involving the sella, clivus and sphenoid sinus, and an intrathoracic mass on the right. The final diagnosis was extramedullary plasmocytoma with rhinopharynx origin. (author)

  20. Developmental Alterations in Heart Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Function in Desmin Mutants Suggest an Early Pathological Root for Desminopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramspacher, Caroline; Steed, Emily; Boselli, Francesco; Ferreira, Rita; Faggianelli, Nathalie; Roth, Stéphane; Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Messaddeq, Nadia; Trinh, Le; Liebling, Michael; Chacko, Nikhil; Tessadori, Federico; Bakkers, Jeroen; Laporte, Jocelyn; Hnia, Karim; Vermot, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Desminopathies belong to a family of muscle disorders called myofibrillar myopathies that are caused by Desmin mutations and lead to protein aggregates in muscle fibers. To date, the initial pathological steps of desminopathies and the impact of desmin aggregates in the genesis of the disease are

  1. The Distribution of Surgical-Pathologic Risk Factors in Relation to Stage in Patients with Early Stage Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süha Özer

    2008-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Stage did not clearly predict surgical pathologic risk factors, a result of uncertainty of clinical staging. Without surgery, it is impossible to determine the actual limits of the disease with the tests available at this time.

  2. Autoaspiration versus manual aspiration in transbronchial needle aspiration in diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Pongtippan, Atcharaporn; Juthakarn, Sabaitip; Boonsarngsuk, Wison; Kurimoto, Noriaki

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, aspiration with high negative pressure is recommended to obtain a specimen in transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Undeniably, however, the assistant experiences difficulty in the generation of the negative pressure and precise control of the syringe while performing the procedure. To evaluate the effectiveness of the autoaspiration method created by our plunger lock in comparison with the conventional manual aspiration in the diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy by TBNA. A prospective study was conducted on all patients referred for diagnostic TBNA of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes. Both automatic and manual aspiration techniques were performed after the needle had been completely inserted into the nodes. The diagnostic yield and the numbers of diagnostic cells or benign lymphoid cells obtained by each technique were compared in the same node. A total of 31 intrathoracic lymph nodes in 24 patients were prospectively studied. Twenty-four nodes (77.4%) were malignancies whereas 7 nodes (22.6%) were benign disease. Adequate lymph node samples were obtained in 30 targets (96.8%), and TBNA revealed definite diagnosis for 25 nodes (80.6%). Both aspiration techniques showed exactly the same diagnostic yield. However, the autoaspiration technique provided significantly more adequate samples than manual aspiration techniques did (P=0.003). The autoaspiration method using our plunger lock was superior to the manual method in obtaining the numbers of adequate samples in TBNA procedures.

  3. Intrathoracic fracture-dislocation of the humerus - case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlos Sola Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shoulder fracture-dislocations are uncommon. Those associated with intrathoracic dislocation are very rare conditions, resulting from high-energy trauma; usually, the affected limb is in an abduction position. In Brazil, there is only one report of a teenager with displacement of the epiphysis into the chest cavity; the present is the first adult patient report of intrathoracic dislocation of the humerus. The authors present the case of a patient female, aged 56 years, who was hit by motorcycle and thrown approximately 5 meters away. She was rescued on site with thoracic, pelvic, and right upper limb trauma. Her chest was drained due to pneumothorax and multiple fractures of ribs; she was diagnosed with fracture-dislocation in four parts, with intrathoracic dislocation of the humeral head. Displaced forearm bones fracture was also diagnosed; the olecranon, scaphoid, and ischiopubic fractures were not displaced. The patient underwent a joint procedure with a cardiothoracic surgery team to remove the humeral head through thoracotomy and chest drainage; subsequently, a partial arthroplasty of the humerus was performed, with graft from the humeral head and fixation of forearm fractures. Conservative treatment was chosen for the other fractures. After three months, all fractures were healed with gradual functional improvement. The patient remained in physiotherapy and orthopedic monitoring, having been discharged from the thoracic surgery; in a severe depressive episode, the patient committed suicide after 11 months of the trauma.

  4. Intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenopathy in children: a guide to chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthony; Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the University of Bristol, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Pillay, Tanyia; Zar, Heather J. [University of Cape Town and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre [Tygerberg Hospital and the University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-09-15

    Making the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children can be difficult because microbiological confirmation is not often achieved. Diagnosis is therefore often based on clinical features in combination with chest radiograph findings. Chest radiographs can demonstrate lymphadenopathy of the hilar and para-tracheal regions on the anteroposterior view, and subcarinal lymphadenopathy on the lateral view. However poor interobserver agreement has been reported for radiologist and clinician assessment of lymphadenopathy. This might reflect the lack of standardised imaging criteria for diagnosis as well as radiologists' objectives for achieving sensitivity rather than specificity. In this paper the authors provide a pictorial aid of chest radiographs in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis to help clinicians identify lymph node enlargement in primary pulmonary tuberculosis. This collection of images comprises chest radiographs accompanied by schematics and either CT or MRI scan confirmation of pathological lymph node enlargement at the positions commonly affected in tuberculosis. (orig.)

  5. Powerful qPCR assays for the early detection of latent invaders: interdisciplinary approaches in clinical cancer research and plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Nicola; Capretti, Paolo; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Latent invaders represent the first step of disease before symptoms occur in the host. Based on recent findings, tumors are considered to be ecosystems in which cancer cells act as invasive species that interact with the native host cell species. Analogously, in plants latent fungal pathogens coevolve within symptomless host tissues. For these reasons, similar detection approaches can be used for an early diagnosis of the invasion process in both plants and humans to prevent or reduce the spread of the disease. Molecular tools based on the evaluation of nucleic acids have been developed for the specific, rapid, and early detection of human diseases. During the last decades, these techniques to assess and quantify the proliferation of latent invaders in host cells have been transferred from the medical field to different areas of scientific research, such as plant pathology. An improvement in molecular biology protocols (especially referring to qPCR assays) specifically designed and optimized for detection in host plants is therefore advisable. This work is a cross-disciplinary review discussing the use of a methodological approach that is employed within both medical and plant sciences. It provides an overview of the principal qPCR tools for the detection of latent invaders, focusing on comparisons between clinical cancer research and plant pathology, and recent advances in the early detection of latent invaders to improve prevention and control strategies.

  6. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  7. Intrathoracic Goiter. A Case Report Bocio endotorácico. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the anterolateral part of the neck. It is estimated that approximately 3 % of the population worldwide suffer from this condition, although the incidence of nodular goiter has decreased in some countries due to the intake of iodized salt and iodine-rich food. A case of a 59 year-old female patient who attended consultation with an enlargement of the neck, accompanied by weakness, palpitations and dysphagia is presented. After being examined, she underwent surgery which confirmed the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. Since this is a rare pathology, it is of scientific interest for professionals dealing with the study and treatment of thyroid conditions.Se denomina bocio al aumento de volumen de la glándula tiroides en la región antero-lateral del cuello. Se calcula que aproximadamente el 3 % de los pobladores del mundo lo tienen, aunque la incidencia del bocio nodular ha disminuido debido a la ingestión en algunos países de sal yodada y alimentos ricos en yodo. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 59 años que acudió a consulta por presentar aumento de volumen del cuello, acompañado de decaimiento, palpitaciones y disfagia, la cual después de ser estudiada en consulta fue intervenida quirúrgicamente, en la que se corroboró el diagnóstico de un bocio endotorácico. Por ser esta patología poco frecuente, se considera de interés científico para los profesionales dedicados al estudio y tratamiento de las afecciones tiroideas.

  8. Early- and Mid-term Results of the Chimney Technique in the Repair of Aortic Arch Pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Junjie; Jiao, Yuanyong, E-mail: wishlucky@163.com, E-mail: johemail@163.com; Zhang, Xiwei; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Hongyu; Ma, Hao [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo examine the safety, feasibility, and mid-term efficacy of the chimney technique for aortic arch pathologies.MethodsFrom February 2011 to December 2014, a total of 35 patients (30 men; mean age 54.3 ± 14.1 years) with aortic arch pathologies underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair combined with chimney stents. The indication was a proximal landing zone <1.5 cm. Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly thereafter.ResultsA total of 36 chimney stents were deployed (innominate artery, n = 1; left common carotid artery, n = 9; right subclavian artery, n = 1; left subclavian artery, n = 25). The technical success rate was 94.3 % (33/35). Immediate type Ia endoleaks (ELIa) were observed in two patients (8.6 %, 2/35). Twenty-five patients were successfully followed-up for a median period of 29.3 months (range, 6–48 months). One patient died due to aortic dissection aneurysm rupture at 36 months (mortality rate of 4 %, 1/25). Three late ELIa were observed and no reinterventions were performed. The overall incidence of ELIa was 20 % (5/25). During follow-up, the patency rate for chimney stents was 92 % (23/25).ConclusionOur limited experience demonstrates that the chimney technique is a viable and relatively safe treatment for patients with challenging thoracic aortic pathologies at least in the mid-term follow-up period.

  9. Early- and Mid-term Results of the Chimney Technique in the Repair of Aortic Arch Pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Junjie; Jiao, Yuanyong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Hongyu; Ma, Hao

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo examine the safety, feasibility, and mid-term efficacy of the chimney technique for aortic arch pathologies.MethodsFrom February 2011 to December 2014, a total of 35 patients (30 men; mean age 54.3 ± 14.1 years) with aortic arch pathologies underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair combined with chimney stents. The indication was a proximal landing zone <1.5 cm. Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly thereafter.ResultsA total of 36 chimney stents were deployed (innominate artery, n = 1; left common carotid artery, n = 9; right subclavian artery, n = 1; left subclavian artery, n = 25). The technical success rate was 94.3 % (33/35). Immediate type Ia endoleaks (ELIa) were observed in two patients (8.6 %, 2/35). Twenty-five patients were successfully followed-up for a median period of 29.3 months (range, 6–48 months). One patient died due to aortic dissection aneurysm rupture at 36 months (mortality rate of 4 %, 1/25). Three late ELIa were observed and no reinterventions were performed. The overall incidence of ELIa was 20 % (5/25). During follow-up, the patency rate for chimney stents was 92 % (23/25).ConclusionOur limited experience demonstrates that the chimney technique is a viable and relatively safe treatment for patients with challenging thoracic aortic pathologies at least in the mid-term follow-up period.

  10. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  12. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  13. Serum β-amyloid peptide levels spike in the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jue; Qiao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shenghua; Xue, Mengzhou; Chen, Wenwu; Wang, Xinchun; Tempier, Adrien; Huang, Qingjun; Kong, Jiming; Li, Xin-Min

    2013-11-01

    Serum levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides may represent an early biomarker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the temporal kinetic changes in the levels of serum Aβ 1-42 and 40 in an amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Serum Aβ peptide levels in 2-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 18-month old, and liver Aβ 1-40 level in 6-month old mice were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results revealed that serum Aβ levels peaked in 3-month old transgenic mice, and the Aβ level in non-transgenic and transgenic mice is comparable in liver. Compared to the 6-month old transgenic mice, Congo red staining showed that the 3-month old transgenic mice had minimum brain Aβ plaques, corresponding to the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology, and confocal microscope images showed that the deposition of Aβ in their cerebral vessels was minimal. Furthermore, results of the water maze test, showed that memory was normal for the 3- month old transgenic mice when compared to age-matched non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that serum Aβ peptide levels may be peaked during the early stage of AD. Monitoring serum Aβ peptide levels in the potential AD population may provide an early diagnosis of AD prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms.

  14. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women...... with progressing dyspnoea secondary to a huge left-side neoplasm. RESULTS: Work-up reveal an FEV(1) of 0.4 L, and a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The tumor was surgically removed in toto without complications: weighting approximately 3 kg, and benign histology. The patient was without dyspnoea...

  15. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo...

  16. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Hee Choi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeBrain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP were investigated.MethodsSixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]; group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty; and group III (incidental or normal findings. Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed.ResultsBrain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74% with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30% with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88% with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT, and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01 and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05 than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05.ConclusionEarlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up.

  18. Right sided traumatic diaphragmatic hernia repair with intrathoracic herniation of liver, stomach and transverse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Patel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic rupture of the right dome of the diaphragm is an uncommon clinical entity. The diagnosis is difficult due to lack of specificity in clinical signs and chest film findings. Clinical incidence of rupture of the right dome of the diaphragm due to blunt trauma is much less common (10% compared to the left (90% and usually associated with more grievous injuries with very high pre hospital mortality thus accounting for rare clinical diagnosis. We report a case of 26 year old male who had the blunt trauma chest referred to us after 7 days of injury with complaints of shortness of breath and vomiting. On investigations the patient was diagnosed as a case of the ruptured right dome of the diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the stomach. The patient also had fracture pelvis. Surgical exploration was done through right 6th intercostal space which revealed intrathoracic herniation of the stomach, liver and transverse colon, which were healthy. Contents reduced into the abdomen and diaphragm was repaired. Post operative chest X-ray suggested complete expansion of the right lung with no residual herniation of abdominal contents. Post operative recovery was uneventful with the patient discharged on 14th post operative day.

  19. Correlation between trans and intra-thoracic impedance and conductance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatto, Gabriella; Villani, Alessandra; Rosa, Francesco Della; Rella, Valeria; Oldani, Matteo; Giglio, Alessia; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    In chronic heart failure, changes of intra-thoracic impedance (Z0IT) may suggest impending pulmonary congestion; a similar result has been found by measuring trans-thoracic conductance (TFCTT = 1/Z0 = 1/kΩ). We assumed that a relationship could exist between Z0IT and TFCTT. We collected 140 measurements from 70 patients carrying an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization device with the CareLink function (71 ± 9 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) 2.4 ± 0.9, ejection fraction 31 ± 8%, optimal treatment); they were studied during system alarms and after appropriate treatment (diuretics and/or vasodilators, n = 42) or during clinical stability and at the time of a system alarm (n = 28); correspondent BNP values were obtained. We related Z0IT obtained by the device, with TFCTT obtained with a commercial system. A strong relationship was found between Z0IT and TFCTT. Changes in the variables after treatment or during worsening conditions were of the same direction and order of magnitude, and were related to BNP levels obtained simultaneously. Trans-thoracic conductance, similarly to intra-thoracic impedance, may noninvasively point to pulmonary congestion and be useful in patients not carrying an implanted device. The possibility of remotely obtaining this variable should be evaluated for the telemonitoring of heart failure patients.

  20. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  1. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakajima Akira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

  2. Mammographic, pathologic, and treatment-related factors associated with local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kini, Vijay R.; Vicini, Frank A.; Frazier, Robert; Victor, Sandra J.; Wimbish, Kathryn; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1999-01-01

    Background: We retrospectively reviewed our institution's experience treating early-stage breast cancer patients with breast conserving therapy (BCT) to determine clinical, pathologic, mammographic, and treatment-related factors associated with outcome. Methods: Between January 1980 and December 1987, 400 cases of Stage I and II breast cancer were managed with BCT at William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan. All patients underwent at least an excisional biopsy. Radiation treatment consisted of delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast, followed by a boost to the tumor bed to at least 60 Gy in all patients. The median follow-up in the 292 surviving patients is 118 months. Multiple clinical, pathologic, mammographic, and treatment-related factors were analyzed for an association with local recurrence and survival. Results: A total of 37 local recurrences developed in the treated breast, for a 5- and 10-year actuarial rate of 4% and 10%, respectively. On univariate analysis, patient age ≤ 35 years (25% vs. 7%, p = 0.004), and positive surgical margins (17% vs. 6%, p = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, only age ≤ 35 years remained significant. A subset analysis of 214 patients with evaluable mammographic findings was performed. On univariate analysis, age ≤ 35 years (38% vs. 8%, p = 0.0029) and the presence of calcifications on preoperative mammography (22% vs. 6%, p = 0.0016) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. On multivariate analysis, both of these factors remained significant. The presence of calcifications on preoperative mammography did not affect the rates of overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival. Conclusion: In patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, age ≤ 35 years and calcifications on preoperative mammography appear to be associated with an increased risk of local recurrence

  3. A Prospective Pathologic Study to Define the Clinical Target Volume for Partial Breast Radiation Therapy in Women With Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Brandon T., E-mail: Brandon.Nguyen@act.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Canberra Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Garran, ACT (Australia); Deb, Siddhartha [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Victorian Cancer Biobank, Cancer Council of Victoria, Carlton, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Stephen [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hill, Prudence [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Collins, Marnie [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chua, Boon H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine an appropriate clinical target volume for partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT) based on the spatial distribution of residual invasive and in situ carcinoma after wide local excision (WLE) for early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective pathologic study of women potentially eligible for PBRT who had re-excision and/or completion mastectomy after WLE for early breast cancer or DCIS. A pathologic assessment protocol was used to determine the maximum radial extension (MRE) of residual carcinoma from the margin of the initial surgical cavity. Women were stratified by the closest initial radial margin width: negative (>1 mm), close (>0 mm and {<=}1 mm), or involved. Results: The study population was composed of 133 women with a median age of 59 years (range, 27-82 years) and the following stage groups: 0 (13.5%), I (40.6%), II (38.3%), and III (7.5%). The histologic subtypes of the primary tumor were invasive ductal carcinoma (74.4%), invasive lobular carcinoma (12.0%), and DCIS alone (13.5%). Residual carcinoma was present in the re-excision and completion mastectomy specimens in 55.4%, 14.3%, and 7.2% of women with an involved, close, and negative margin, respectively. In the 77 women with a noninvolved radial margin, the MRE of residual disease, if present, was {<=}10 mm in 97.4% (95% confidence interval 91.6-99.5) of cases. Larger MRE measurements were significantly associated with an involved margin (P<.001), tumor size >30 mm (P=.03), premenopausal status (P=.03), and negative progesterone receptor status (P=.05). Conclusions: A clinical target volume margin of 10 mm would encompass microscopic residual disease in >90% of women potentially eligible for PBRT after WLE with noninvolved resection margins.

  4. A Prospective Pathologic Study to Define the Clinical Target Volume for Partial Breast Radiation Therapy in Women With Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Brandon T.; Deb, Siddhartha; Fox, Stephen; Hill, Prudence; Collins, Marnie; Chua, Boon H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine an appropriate clinical target volume for partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT) based on the spatial distribution of residual invasive and in situ carcinoma after wide local excision (WLE) for early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective pathologic study of women potentially eligible for PBRT who had re-excision and/or completion mastectomy after WLE for early breast cancer or DCIS. A pathologic assessment protocol was used to determine the maximum radial extension (MRE) of residual carcinoma from the margin of the initial surgical cavity. Women were stratified by the closest initial radial margin width: negative (>1 mm), close (>0 mm and ≤1 mm), or involved. Results: The study population was composed of 133 women with a median age of 59 years (range, 27-82 years) and the following stage groups: 0 (13.5%), I (40.6%), II (38.3%), and III (7.5%). The histologic subtypes of the primary tumor were invasive ductal carcinoma (74.4%), invasive lobular carcinoma (12.0%), and DCIS alone (13.5%). Residual carcinoma was present in the re-excision and completion mastectomy specimens in 55.4%, 14.3%, and 7.2% of women with an involved, close, and negative margin, respectively. In the 77 women with a noninvolved radial margin, the MRE of residual disease, if present, was ≤10 mm in 97.4% (95% confidence interval 91.6-99.5) of cases. Larger MRE measurements were significantly associated with an involved margin (P 30 mm (P=.03), premenopausal status (P=.03), and negative progesterone receptor status (P=.05). Conclusions: A clinical target volume margin of 10 mm would encompass microscopic residual disease in >90% of women potentially eligible for PBRT after WLE with noninvolved resection margins.

  5. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Tuengerthal, Siegfried [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2{+-}0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5{+-}0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0{+-}0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5{+-}0.6 vs. 2.0{+-}0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7{+-}0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  6. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine; Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.; Tuengerthal, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2±0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5±0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0±0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7±0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  7. Intrathoracic Lipomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gozubuyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomlar liposarkom, teratom ve hamartom ile benzer radyolojik özellikler gösterdigi ayirici tanida akilda bulundurulmasi gerektigi, diyaframa yakin lezyonlarin ise diyafram hernileri ile kolayca karistirilabilecegi bilinen bir konudur Ancak bilgisayarli tomografi ve manyetik rezonans görüntülüme yardimi ile diyafram hernisi ayrimi kolayca yapilabilmektedir. Ayrica yukarda belitilen diger patolojilerde bilgisayarli tomografi ile yapilan taramalarda lezyon sinirlari içinde çok daha yüksek dansiteler (>50HU saptanmakta, malign durumlarda tümörün çevre dokulara invazyonu gösterilebilmektedir. Tüm bu ileri radyolojik görüntülemelere ragmen, tani halen doku rezeksiyonu ile saglanabilmektedir. radyolojik hasta takibin de belli sorunlari vardir. Ancak video yardimli cerrahideki gelismeler bu tür lezyonlarin tani ve tedavisinde çok daha az morbid bir seçenek olarak karsimiza çikmakta, uzun süreli radyolojik takibin mali, radyoaktif etkilenme, malignite riski altindaki hastanin anksiete sorunlarindan kurtulma olanagi saglamaktadir.Bu nedenlerden dolayi radyolojik taramalarda saptanip, semptomsuz ve radyolojik malignite süphesi göstermeyen her hastaya mutlaka cerrahi önerilmesinin bir kez daha düsünülmesini ya da olanak varsa daha az invaziv olan video yardimli cerrahi seçeneginin zorlanmasinda yarar oldugu kanisindayim. Saygilarimla.

  8. Titanium/Polyetheretherketone Cages for Cervical Arthrodesis with Degenerative and Traumatic Pathologies: Early Clinical Outcomes and Fusion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Elizabeth; Mobbs, Ralph J; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2016-02-01

    statistically significant improvements; good to excellent outcomes being seen in 92% of patients. There was one complication, namely recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, which had partially resolved at 6 months follow-up. The present study shows that enhancement of PEEK cages with Ti endplates is a safe and effective treatment with the potential for early osseointegration and early radiological evidence of fusion. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  10. Analysis of primary intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts a rare clinical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ullah, M.K.; Imran, M.; Bilal, A.; Khan, M.A.; Ali, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anatomic location of cysts, operative characteristics of intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst and to determine the outcome of aggressive surgical interventions. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Thoracic Surgery Unit Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from 1st July 2008 to 30th June 2011. Methodology: All patients admitted to Thoracic unit from July 2008 to June 2011 with intra thoracic hydatid cysts were evaluated prospectively as to age, sex, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, anatomic location of cysts, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes. Chest radiography, computed tomography, and thoracic and abdominal ultrasonography had been performed preoperatively in all of them. Bronchoscopy and spirometry was also performed in all patients for assessment and operability. Echocardiography had been used in 2 patients to determine the contiguity of the cyst to the pericardium. Cystectomy and wide resection were the chief operative procedures. Most of the patients were having cysts in the pulmonary parenchyma only 10 patients had intrathoracic cysts in extrapulmonary locations. This group of patients was included in the study. We excluded patients who had a parenchymal cyst that had perforated to the pleura, myocardial hydatid and patients who had experienced transdiaphragmatic transmission. Results: Total of 149 patients were operated for hydatid cystectomy, out of these 139 patients had pulmonary hydatid and 10 patients had intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts. These 10 patients constitute our study group; out of these 7 were men and 3 women whose mean age was 39.14 ± 16.8 years (range, 16-69 years). Eight (80%) of these were symptomatic, most commonly with chest pain, two patients were asymptomatic. There were 2 (20%) mediastinal hydatid, 2 (20%) diaphragmatic, 2 (20%) pericardial, 2 (20%) oblique fissure, and 1 (10%) each in chest wall and pleural hydatid in our study. Albendazole (10 mg/kg) was

  11. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan

  12. Late presentation of a right Bochdalek hernia with a right intrathoracic stomach and organoaxial torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, Mohammed A.; Al-Binali, Ali M.; Eid, Waleed A.; Osinowo, Olu A.; Mohammed, Nabil E.

    2005-01-01

    A postero-lateral hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia CDH. The incidence of Bochdalek hernia on the right side is 10-20% compared to the left side, and herniation of the stomach into the right pleural cavity is extremely rare. We report a case of right-sided Bochdalek hernia with a right intrathoracic stomach and organo-axial torsion misdiagnosed initially, and treated as a case of hyperactive airway disease. The child had a right thoracotomy, excision of the hernia sac that contained the stomach, greater omentum and part of the liver, reduction of the viscera into the abdominal cavity and simple closure of the diaphragmatic defect. Recovery was uneventful. This case highlights the consequences of late diagnosis and the effectiveness of surgical relief. A new clinico-anatomical classification of Bochdalek hernia is presented. (author)

  13. Acute Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus due to Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Rare Emergency Easily Overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Hun Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus occurs when the stomach undergoes organoaxial torsion in the chest due to either concomitant enlargement of the hiatus or a diaphragmatic hernia. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia can occur after hiatal hernia repair and other surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and splenopancreatectomy. We describe a 49-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with acute moderate epigastric soreness and vomiting. She had undergone extensive gynecologic surgery including splenectomy 1 year before. The chest radiograph obtained in the emergency department demonstrated an elevated gastric air-fluid level in the left lower lung field. An urgent gastroscopy showed twisted structural abnormality of the stomach body. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the distended stomach, located in the left lower hemithorax through a left diaphragmatic defect. Emergent transthoracic repair was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient did not experience any pain or difficulty with eating.

  14. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  15. Intra-thoracic Sleeve Migration (ITSM): an Underreported Phenomenon After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Alan A; Shoar, Saeed; Khoursheed, Mousa

    2017-08-01

    Despite its technical simplicity, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) complications are increasingly reported. Intra-thoracic sleeve migration (ITSM ) is a rare complication after LSG which has been inconsistently addressed in the literature. The purpose of this study was to emphasize ITSM occurrence after LSG and evaluate the perioperative factors associated with its development. Between January and July 2016, LSG patients diagnosed with ITSM at two bariatric surgery departments were identified. Perioperative factors were assessed for all the patients and compared between two groups, LSG alone and LSG with concomitant hiatal hernia (HH) repair (HHR). A total of 19 patients (6 males and 13 females) were included. Central obesity was present in 18 patients (94.7%). Nine patients (47.4%) had concomitant hiatal hernia repair during their original LSG. Post-LSG GERD (94.7%) (38.9% de novo and 61.1% recurrent) and post-LSG constipation (57.9%) were commonly associated with ITSM. Severe refractory GERD was the most common presentation for ITSM (94.7%), followed by epigastric pain (47.4%), persistent nausea/vomiting (36.8%), and dysphagia (21.1%). Time interval between primary LSG and ITSM diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 3 years. Patients with LSG and concomitant HHR presented with higher post-LSG BMI compared to the LSG patients (37 ± 6.4 kg/m 2 vs. 30.1 ± 6.3 kg/m 2 , p = 0.03). All the patients underwent successful reduction of ITSM and subsequent HHR. Central obesity, chronic constipation, post-LSG GERD, and concomitant HHR are commonly seen in post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy intra-thoracic sleeve migration.

  16. Pathology in Undergraduate Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathology is a study of disease which deals with etiology, pathogenesis and morphological features and the associated clinical features. Pathology acts as a bridge that fills the gap between basic sciences and clinical medicine. With proper understanding of pathological processes, one can understand the disease process. In Nepal, since the beginning of medical school teaching, Pathology as a basic science discipline and is a component of the preclinical medical school curriculum.Pathology teaching in 19th century was vague, disorganized and very little, though precious. The lectures used to be conducted by surgeons. At Barts, surgeon Sir James Paget had taught surgical pathology. The real revolution in pathology teaching began in the early 1900s when, spurred on by increasing understanding of disease mechanisms, pathology began to be accepted as a specialty in its own right.During the early and mid of 20th century, pathology teaching was a part of clinical teaching with daily, autopsy demonstration. By the late 1980s, significant change had taken place. In many medical schools, debate started regarding relevance of vigorous preclinical teaching. Then system-based approach was incorporated and traditional preclinical course had been abandoned. With this pathology teaching also began to change with pathologists being involved in teaching histology, often alongside pathology to highlight its clinical relevance. In medical schools the pathology teaching time was cut. Autopsy demonstrations, which had been so popular with generations of medical students, were becoming irregular and less well attended.Though teaching of pathology in blocks to ‘avoid fragmentation’ has disappeared in western countries; it is still practice in Nepal. In western countries there was traditional practice of teaching general pathology in the first two years and systemic pathology in the clinical years. Now pathology teaching is integrated throughout the course. A

  17. The Mass1frings mutation underlies early onset hearing impairment in BUB/BnJ mice, a model for the auditory pathology of Usher syndrome IIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.R.; Zheng, Q.Y.; Weston, M.D.; Ptacek, L.J.; Noben-Trauth, K.

    2010-01-01

    The human ortholog of the gene responsible for audiogenic seizure susceptibility in Frings and BUB/BnJ mice (mouse gene symbol Mass1) recently was shown to underlie Usher syndrome type IIC (USH2C). Here we report that the Mass1frings mutation is responsible for the early onset hearing impairment of BUB/BnJ mice. We found highly significant linkage of Mass1 with ABR threshold variation among mice from two backcrosses involving BUB/BnJ mice with mice of strains CAST/EiJ and MOLD/RkJ. We also show an additive effect of the Cdh23 locus in modulating the progression of hearing loss in backcross mice. Together, these two loci account for more than 70% of the total ABR threshold variation among the backcross mice at all ages. The modifying effect of the strain-specific Cdh23ahl variant may account for the hearing and audiogenic seizure differences observed between Frings and BUB/BnJ mice, which share the Mass1frings mutation. During postnatal cochlear development in BUB/BnJ mice, stereocilia bundles develop abnormally and remain immature and splayed into adulthood, corresponding with the early onset hearing impairment associated with Mass1frings. Progressive base–apex hair cell degeneration occurs at older ages, corresponding with the age-related hearing loss associated with Cdh23ahl. The molecular basis and pathophysiology of hearing loss suggest BUB/BnJ and Frings mice as models to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying USH2C auditory pathology. PMID:15820310

  18. PROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF VISUAL ACUITY AGREEMENT BETWEEN STANDARD EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY CHART AND A HANDHELD EQUIVALENT IN EYES WITH RETINAL PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ehsan; Reddy, Sahitya; DeCroos, Francis Char; Khan, M Ali; Boyer, David S; Gupta, Omesh P; Regillo, Carl D; Haller, Julia A

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the visual acuity agreement between a standard back-illuminated Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart and a handheld internally illuminated ETDRS chart. Two-center prospective study. Seventy patients (134 eyes) with retinal pathology were enrolled between October 2012 and August 2013. Visual acuity was measured using both the ETDRS chart and the handheld device by masked independent examiners after best protocol refraction. Examination was performed in the same room under identical illumination and testing conditions. The mean number of letters seen was 63.0 (standard deviation: 19.8 letters) and 61.2 letters (standard deviation: 19.1 letters) for the ETDRS chart and handheld device, respectively. Mean difference per eye between the ETDRS and handheld device was 1.8 letters. A correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95 demonstrated a positive linear correlation between ETDRS chart and handheld device measured acuities. Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed to assess the reproducibility of the measurements made by different observers measuring the same quantity and was calculated to be 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.96). Agreement was independent of retinal disease. The strong correlation between measured visual acuity using the ETDRS and handheld equivalent suggests that they may be used interchangeably, with accurate measurements. Potential benefits of this device include convenience and portability, as well as the ability to assess ETDRS visual acuity without a dedicated testing lane.

  19. [Application of decision curve on evaluation of MRI predictive model for early assessing pathological complete response to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y J; Li, X T; Fan, Z Q; Li, Y L; Cao, K; Sun, Y S; Ouyang, T

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To construct a dynamic enhanced MR based predictive model for early assessing pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer, and to evaluate the clinical benefit of the model by using decision curve. Methods: From December 2005 to December 2007, 170 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy were identified and their MR images before neoadjuvant therapy and at the end of the first cycle of neoadjuvant therapy were collected. Logistic regression model was used to detect independent factors for predicting pCR and construct the predictive model accordingly, then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve were used to evaluate the predictive model. Results: ΔArea(max) and Δslope(max) were independent predictive factors for pCR, OR =0.942 (95% CI : 0.918-0.967) and 0.961 (95% CI : 0.940-0.987), respectively. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the constructed model was 0.886 (95% CI : 0.820-0.951). Decision curve showed that in the range of the threshold probability above 0.4, the predictive model presented increased net benefit as the threshold probability increased. Conclusions: The constructed predictive model for pCR is of potential clinical value, with an AUC>0.85. Meanwhile, decision curve analysis indicates the constructed predictive model has net benefit from 3 to 8 percent in the likely range of probability threshold from 80% to 90%.

  20. The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossum, Peter S.N. van [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fried, David V.; Zhang, Lifei; Court, Laurence E. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Houston, TX (United States); Ho, Linus [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Meijer, Gert J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Carter, Brett W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lin, Steven H. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). In 70 consecutive patients receiving a three-step treatment strategy of induction chemotherapy and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed before and after induction chemotherapy (before preoperative CRT). SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined at these two time points. The predictive potential of (the change in) these parameters for a poor pathologic response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. A poor pathologic response after induction chemotherapy and preoperative CRT was found in 27 patients (39 %). Patients with a poor pathologic response experienced less of a reduction in TLG after induction chemotherapy (p < 0.01). The change in TLG was predictive for a poor pathologic response at a threshold of -26 % (sensitivity 67 %, specificity 84 %, accuracy 77 %, PPV 72 %, NPV 80 %), yielding an area-under-the-curve of 0.74 in ROC analysis. Also, patients with a decrease in TLG lower than 26 % had a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.02), but not OS (p = 0.18). {sup 18}F-FDG PET appears useful to predict a poor pathologic response as well as PFS early after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing a three-step treatment strategy. As such, the early {sup 18}F-FDG PET response after induction chemotherapy could aid in individualizing treatment by modification or withdrawal of subsequent preoperative CRT in poor responders. (orig.)

  1. The value of 18F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossum, Peter S.N. van; Fried, David V.; Zhang, Lifei; Court, Laurence E.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ho, Linus; Meijer, Gert J.; Carter, Brett W.; Lin, Steven H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the value of 18 F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). In 70 consecutive patients receiving a three-step treatment strategy of induction chemotherapy and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed before and after induction chemotherapy (before preoperative CRT). SUV max , SUV mean , metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined at these two time points. The predictive potential of (the change in) these parameters for a poor pathologic response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. A poor pathologic response after induction chemotherapy and preoperative CRT was found in 27 patients (39 %). Patients with a poor pathologic response experienced less of a reduction in TLG after induction chemotherapy (p < 0.01). The change in TLG was predictive for a poor pathologic response at a threshold of -26 % (sensitivity 67 %, specificity 84 %, accuracy 77 %, PPV 72 %, NPV 80 %), yielding an area-under-the-curve of 0.74 in ROC analysis. Also, patients with a decrease in TLG lower than 26 % had a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.02), but not OS (p = 0.18). 18 F-FDG PET appears useful to predict a poor pathologic response as well as PFS early after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing a three-step treatment strategy. As such, the early 18 F-FDG PET response after induction chemotherapy could aid in individualizing treatment by modification or withdrawal of subsequent preoperative CRT in poor responders. (orig.)

  2. Formations, anomalies and variants of the mediastinum and the lung roots in children, simulating enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Borisova, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Timely detection of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes is of great importance in pediatric practice. Meanwhile there exist various mediastinal and lung root as well as anomalies and variants of their development, which could imitate the mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia. Their diagnosis is individually designed employing a complex of X-ray methods. In recent years the anatomo-physiological development of thoracic organs in children and teenagers has been affected by the acceleration process. Under the latters' impact the phenomenon of an increase in the large pulmonary vessels appeared in children with signs of high physical development, which caused lung root dilatation and produced an impression of the intrathoracic lymph node enlargement. The Valsalva functional tests should be used in combination with X-ray research methods

  3. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, Yi-Don; HAN, Hyun-Jung

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with ...

  4. [Pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas

    2007-10-01

    Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus in congenital intrathoracic disorders: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiang; Ashtari, M.; Leonidas, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, NY (United States); Chan Ying [Fetal-Maternal Medicine, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Background and objective. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide high-quality images of the intrathoracic organs. We studied the ability of MRI to define spatial relationships of the fetal lungs and measured lung volume in two cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), one of severe oligohydramnios secondary to bilateral cystic renal dysplasia and one case of prenatal chylothorax. Patients and methods. We performed pelvic MRI using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence in four pregnant women referred because of abnormal prenatal ultrasound (US) findings associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Results. The exact anatomic position of the contents of the hernia in CDH, including the position of the liver, was better defined with MRI. Pleural effusions were identified as well as the renal abnormality in the case of oligohydramnios. Lung volume was measured and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia was quantified in every case. Lung-to-thorax ratio was calculated in the case of fetal chylothorax. Conclusion. Ongoing work suggests that MRI can provide additional detailed quantitative information in prenatal disorders associated with fetal lung compression and resulting hypoplasia. Correlation of fetal lung volume with postnatal management and outcome may affect prognosis in these cases. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus in congenital intrathoracic disorders: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Ashtari, M.; Leonidas, J.C.; Chan Ying

    2001-01-01

    Background and objective. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide high-quality images of the intrathoracic organs. We studied the ability of MRI to define spatial relationships of the fetal lungs and measured lung volume in two cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), one of severe oligohydramnios secondary to bilateral cystic renal dysplasia and one case of prenatal chylothorax. Patients and methods. We performed pelvic MRI using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence in four pregnant women referred because of abnormal prenatal ultrasound (US) findings associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Results. The exact anatomic position of the contents of the hernia in CDH, including the position of the liver, was better defined with MRI. Pleural effusions were identified as well as the renal abnormality in the case of oligohydramnios. Lung volume was measured and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia was quantified in every case. Lung-to-thorax ratio was calculated in the case of fetal chylothorax. Conclusion. Ongoing work suggests that MRI can provide additional detailed quantitative information in prenatal disorders associated with fetal lung compression and resulting hypoplasia. Correlation of fetal lung volume with postnatal management and outcome may affect prognosis in these cases. (orig.)

  8. The extraosseal intrathoracic radiopaque bone cyst in West Highland White Terrier – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent Ledecký

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to present a clinical case and diagnostics of intrathoracic bone cyst as well as successful outcome of the surgical treatment in a male, 3-year-old West Highland White Terrier dog, weighing 6.9 kg. The dog was admitted in a very poor condition with clinical signs of severe dyspnoea that developed during about one month period of time before admission to our clinic. The dog underwent physical examination and further examinations including radiological examination which revealed a radiopaque mass formation in the cranial mediastinum. Ultrasonographic examination showed the presence of fluid; following thoracentesis revealed pseudochylous fluid. The bone cyst was surgically removed and more than 10 months after surgery the dog’s health was very good without any difficulties. Bone cysts in dogs are infrequent; this was the first case at our clinic and presented a successful treatment.

  9. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  11. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  12. Impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pathological complete response on eligibility for breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Golshan, Mehra; Barry, William T; Viale, Giulia; Wong, Stephanie; Santangelo, Michele; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2018-05-04

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised trials evaluating pathological complete response (pCR) and surgical outcomes after neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) in patients with early breast cancer (EBC). The primary outcome was breast-conserving surgery (BCT) rate. Secondary outcomes were pCR rate and association to BCT. Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models that use inverse-variance weighting for each treatment arm based on evaluable patients. Point estimates are reported with 95% confidence interval (CI), and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thirty-six studies were identified (N = 12,311 patients). We selected for the analysis 16 of 36 studies reporting both pCR and BCT for at least one treatment arm. Arms per study ranged from one to six; 42 independent units were available to evaluate the association between pCR and BCT. BCT rate ranged 5-76% across arms with an average BCT of 57% (95% CI 52-62%). Significant heterogeneity was observed among the trials (Cochrane Q = 787, p < 0.001, I 2  = 97%). In the meta-regression model, BCT rates were not significantly associated with year of first patient-in (p = 0.89), grade (p = 0.93) and hormone-receptor status (p = 0.39). Clinical N-stage (p = 0.01) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) status (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with BCT. pCR rate ranged 3-60% across studies. The average pCR across all study arms was 24% (95% CI 19-29%). No association was observed between pCR rate in a study arm and the resulting BCT rate in a univariate model (p = 0.34) nor after adjusting for HER2 and clinical nodal status (p = 0.82). In the subset of 14 multi-arm studies, no significant association was seen between the differences in pCR and BCT between treatment arms (p = 0.27). pCR does not increase BCT in patients receiving NST for EBC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Mankoff, David [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Espie, Marc [INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Centre, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-05-15

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned. (orig.)

  14. Changes of intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs after radiation therapy for lung and esophageal cancer:CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyeong Seop; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Woo Yoon; Hun, Bae Il; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hun; Park, Kil Sun

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings and incidence of complications occurring in intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs due to radiation therapy. Among 82 patients who underwent chest CT before and after radiation therapy, 23, in whom the procedure provided no evidence of pericardial invasion or pleural effusion before radiation therapy, nor of significant improvement in the tumor after this therapy, were evaulated. Changes in the pericardium, pleura and mediastinal fat were retrospectively assessed. In comparing the CT findings obtained before radiation therapy with those obtained afterwards, changes in the pericardium and pleura were classified as effusion where low density fluid was present and as thickening where there was no fluid. If an increased abundance of soft tissue strands was seen within mediastinal fat, changes in this fat were deemed to have occurred. Among the 23 patients evaluated, changes in the pericardium [thickening (n=3 ; 13.0%) ; effusion (n=8 ; 34.8%)] were found in 11 patients (47.8%), and changes in the pleura [thickening (n=3 ; 13.1%); effusion (n=9 ; 39.1%)] in 12 (52.2%). In no patient with pericardial or pleural effusion was thickening or contrast enhancement of the pericardium or pleura evident. In seven cases(30.4%), soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat had become more abundant. The CT findings which demonstrated complications resulting from radiation therapy were pericardial or pleural thickening or effusion and an increased abundance of soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat. In contrast to previous reports, pericardial and pleural change after radiation therapy was a common finding in our study, occurring in 69.6% of cases

  15. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  16. A Case of Unrecognized Intrathoracic Placement of a Subclavian Central Venous Catheter in a Patient with Large Traumatic Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Wallin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional recommendations suggest placement of a subclavian central venous catheter (CVC ipsilateral to a known pneumothorax to minimize risk of bilateral pneumothorax. We present the case of a 65-year-old male with a right hemopneumothorax who was found to have intrathoracic placement of his right subclavian CVC at thoracotomy despite successful aspiration of blood and transduction of central venous pressure (CVP. We thus recommend extreme caution with the interpretation of CVC placement by blood aspiration and CVP measurement alone in patients with large volume ipsilateral hemothorax.

  17. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Sziklavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC techniques. Methods We investigated 43 consecutive (preseptic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 % and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC, and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill. Results The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5–48 days. Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days was significantly shorter (p = 0.001 than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days. No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026. Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS was 21 days (median 18, 6–51 days. LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027 in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8 than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5. Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43 and 9.3 % (4/43, and none of the deaths was related to infection. Conclusions For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  18. Usefulness of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Goiter versus Metastases From Cancer of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred because of local reoccurrence of cancer of the breast. Chest x-ray showed a mediastinal tumor with dislocation of the trachea to the right. A Tc-99m pertechnetate scan showed irregular tracer uptake in an enlarged left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound confirmed...... the diagnosis of a nodular goiter with intrathoracic growth of the left lobe. A SPECT/CT scan of the mediastinum clearly showed that the soft tissue tumor was the left lobe of the thyroid gland, and not lymphatic metastases....

  19. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Neu, Reiner; Schemm, Rudolf; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-10-21

    This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) techniques. We investigated 43 consecutive (pre)septic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 %) and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases) or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC) with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC), and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill). The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5-48 days). Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days) was significantly shorter (p = 0.001) than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT)-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days). No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026). Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS) was 21 days (median 18, 6-51 days). LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027) in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8) than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5). Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43) and 9.3 % (4/43), and none of the deaths was related to infection. For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  20. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and Europ...

  1. Intrathoracic pressure regulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a feasibility case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nicolas; Parquette, Brent; Ziehr, Jonathon; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Lindstrom, David

    2013-04-01

    Intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) is a novel, noninvasive therapy intended to increase cardiac output and blood pressure in hypotensive states by generating a negative end expiratory pressure of -12 cm H2O between positive pressure ventilations. In this first feasibility case-series, we tested the hypothesis that IPR improves End tidal (ET) CO2 during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ETCO2 was used as a surrogate measure for circulation. All patients were treated initially with manual CPR and an impedance threshold device (ITD). When IPR-trained medics arrived on scene the ITD was removed and an IPR device (CirQLATOR™) was attached to the patient's advanced airway (intervention group). The IPR device lowered airway pressures to -9 mmHg after each positive pressure ventilation for the duration of the expiratory phase. ETCO2, was measured using a capnometer incorporated into the defibrillator system (LifePak™). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results were compared using paired and unpaired Student's t test. p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. ETCO2 values in 11 patients in the case series were compared pre and during IPR therapy and also compared to 74 patients in the control group not treated with the new IPR device. ETCO2 values increased from an average of 21 ± 1 mmHg immediately before IPR application to an average value of 32 ± 5 mmHg and to a maximum value of 45 ± 5mmHg during IPR treatment (p<0.001). In the control group ETCO2 values did not change significantly. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rates were 46% (34/74) with standard CPR and ITD versus 73% (8/11) with standard CPR and the IPR device (p<0.001). ETCO2 levels and ROSC rates were significantly higher in the study intervention group. These findings demonstrate that during CPR circulation may be significantly augmented by generation of a negative end expiratory pressure between each breath. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  2. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  3. The autonomic higher order processing nuclei of the lower brain stem are among the early targets of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; Thal, D R; Braak, E; Braak, H

    2001-06-01

    The nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region (medial parabrachial nucleus, MPB; lateral parabrachial nucleus, LPB; subpeduncular nucleus, SPP) together with the intermediate zone of the medullary reticular formation (IRZ) are pivotal relay stations within central autonomic regulatory feedback systems. This study was undertaken to investigate the evolution of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology in these four sites of the lower brain stem. We examined the MPB, LPB, SPP and IRZ in 27 autopsy cases and classified the cortical Alzheimer-related cytoskeletal anomalies according to an established staging system (neurofibrillary tangle/neuropil threads [NFT/NT] stages I-VI). The lesions were visualized either with the antibody AT8, which is immunospecific for the abnormally phosphorylated form of the cytoskeletal protein tau, or with a modified Gallyas silver iodide stain. The MPB, SPB, and IRZ display cytoskeletal pathology in stage I and the LPB in stage II, whereby bothstages correspond to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In stages III-IV (incipient AD), the MPB and SPP are severely affected. In all of the stage III-IV cases, the lesions in the LPB and IRZ are well developed. In stages V and VI (clinical phase of AD), the MPB and SPP are filled with the abnormal intraneuronal material. At stages V-VI, the LPB is moderately involved and the IRZ shows severe damage. The pathogenesis of the AD-related cytoskeletal lesions in the nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region and in the IRZ conforms with the cortical NFT/NT staging sequence I-VI. In the event that the cytoskeletal pathology observed in this study impairs the function of the nerve cells involved, it is conceivable that autonomic mechanisms progressively deteriorate with advancing cortical NFT/NT stages. This relationship remains to be established, but it could provide insights into the illusive correlation between the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology and the function of

  4. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  5. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  6. Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Pathology in Urban Children: Friend versus Foe Responses—It Is Time to Face the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kavanaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ), alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health. PMID:23509683

  7. Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology in urban children: Friend versus Foe responses--it is time to face the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kavanaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ), alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health.

  8. Early Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease Pathology in Urban Children: Friend versus Foe Responses—It Is Time to Face the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ, alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health.

  9. Purine-related metabolites and their converting enzymes are altered in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex at early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Andrés, Patricia; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidro; Martín, Mairena

    2018-01-24

    Adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanosine and inosine levels were assessed by HPLC, and the activity of related enzymes 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) measured in frontal (FC), parietal (PC) and temporal (TC) cortices at different stages of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in age-matched controls. Significantly decreased levels of adenosine, guanosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, and apparently less inosine, are found in FC from the early stages of AD; PC and TC show an opposing pattern, as adenosine, guanosine and inosine are significantly increased at least at determinate stages of AD whereas hypoxanthine and xanthine levels remain unaltered. 5'-NT is reduced in membranes and cytosol in FC mainly at early stages but not in PC, and only at advanced stages in cytosol in TC. ADA activity is decreased in AD when considered as a whole but increased at early stages in TC. Finally, PNP activity is increased only in TC at early stages. Purine metabolism alterations occur at early stages of AD independently of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques. Alterations are stage dependent and region dependent, the latter showing opposite patterns in FC compared with PC and TC. Adenosine is the most affected of the assessed purines. © 2018 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. SU-F-R-48: Early Prediction of Pathological Response of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using Perfusion CT:A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, K; Yue, N; Jabbour, S; Kim, S [Rutgers-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Shi, L; Mao, T; Qian, L; Hu, X; Sun, X; Niu, T [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the tumor vascularity assessed by perfusion CT for prediction of chemo-radiation treatment (CRT) response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients (61.9±8.8 years, from March–June 2015) diagnosed with LARC who underwent 6–8 weeks CRT followed by surgery were included. The pre-treatment perfusion CT was acquired after a 5s delay of contrast agent injection for 45s with 1s interval. A total of 7-cm craniocaudal range covered the tumor region with 3-mm slice thickness. The effective radiation dose is around 15mSv, which is about 1.5 the conventional abdomen/pelvis CT dose. The parametric map of blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability (PMB), and maximum intensity map (MIP) were obtained from commercial software (Syngo-CT 2011A, Siemens). An experienced radiation oncologist outlined the tumor based on the pre-operative MR and pathologic residual region, but was blinded with regards to pathological tumor stage. The perfusion parameters were compared to histopathological response quantified by tumor regression grade as good-responder (GR, TRG 0-1) vs. non-good responder (non-GR). Furthermore, the predictive value for pathological complete response (pCR) was also investigated. Results: Both BV (p=0.02) and MTT (P=0.02) was significantly higher and permeambility was lower (p=0.004) in the good responders. The BF was higher in GR group but not statistically significant. Regarding the discrimination of pCR vs non-pCR, the BF was higher in the pCR group (p=0.08) but none of those parameters showed statistically significant differences. Conclusion: BV and MTT can discriminate patients with a favorable response from those that fail to respond well, potentially selecting high-risk patients with resistant tumors that may benefit from an aggressive preoperative treatment approach. However, future studies with more patient data are needed to verify the prognostic value

  11. Relationship of tumor grade to other pathologic features and to treatment outcome for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Asa J; Gage, Irene; Connolly, James L; Schnitt, Stuart; Silver, Barbara; Hetelekidis, Stella; Recht, Abram; Harris, Jay R

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: To study the relationship of tumor grade to the distribution of pathologic features and to the risk of local and distant recurrence following breast-conserving therapy in patients with pure infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and to explore the differences between this type and tubular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1624 patients were treated for clinical Stage I or II invasive breast cancer with a complete gross excision and {>=}60 Gy to the tumor bed. The original slides were reviewed in 1337 cases (82%). Of these, 1081 were pure infiltrating ductal carcinoma and 28 were tubular carcinoma and these constitute the study population. Fifty-five patients (5%) have been lost to followup after 7-181 months. Median followup for 742 survivors is 134 months (7-278 mos.). We evaluated the following features: histologic grade (modified Bloom-Richardson system), the presence of nodal metastases (in 891 pts. (80%) undergoing axillary dissection [pLN+]), an extensive intraductal component (EIC), lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI), mononuclear cellular response (MCR), and necrosis. We analyzed the incidence of clinical and pathologic characteristics as a function of histology and histologic grade (Table 1). We also examined the 10-year crude rates of first failure for evaluable patients (Table 2) and calculated actuarial curves for regional nodal failure or distant metastasis (RNF/DM) at any time during followup (Figure 1). Results: Conclusions: 1) The proportion of tumors with LVI, EIC, or lymph node involvement did not vary significantly by histologic grade. Low grade tumors tended to be smaller and exhibit less MCR and necrosis; 2) Grade did not predict for local recurrence. Distant recurrence rates were significantly higher in patients with grade II or III as compared with grade I tumors, although recurrence rates continued to rise for grade I tumors through 10 years of followup; 3) Although patient numbers are small, tubular breast carcinomas

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  13. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yi-Don; Han, Hyun-Jung

    2017-08-10

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with pyothorax induced by a foreign body, and was treated successfully by surgical removal of the foreign body, partial lung lobectomy, thoracic lavage, and antibiotics. The foreign body was identified as a popsicle stick that the dog had eaten.

  14. Pathology of the region of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis. (orig.) [de

  15. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  16. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  17. Sequential 18F-FDG PET/CT for early prediction of complete pathological response in breast and axilla during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koolen, Bas B.; Pengel, Kenneth E.; Wesseling, Jelle; Vogel, Wouter V.; Valdes Olmos, Renato A.; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D.; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Vincent, Andrew D.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the value of response monitoring in both the primary tumour and axillary nodes on sequential PET/CT scans during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for predicting complete pathological response (pCR), taking the breast cancer subtype into account. In 107 consecutive patients 290 PET/CT scans were performed at baseline (PET/CT1, 107 patients), after 2 - 3 weeks of chemotherapy (PET/CT2, 85 patients), and after 6 - 8 weeks (PET/CT3, 98 patients). The relative changes in SUVmax (from baseline) of the tumour and the lymph nodes and in both combined (after logistic regression), and the changes in the highest SUVmax between scans (either tumour or lymph node) were determined and their associations with pCR of the tumour and lymph nodes after completion of NAC were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A pCR was seen in 17 HER2-positive tumours (65 %), 1 ER-positive/HER2-negative tumour (2 %), and 16 triple-negative tumours (52 %). The areas under the ROC curves (ROC-AUC) for the prediction of pCR in HER2-positive tumours after 3 weeks were 0.61 for the relative change in tumours, 0.67 for the combined change in tumour and nodes, and 0.72 for the changes in the highest SUVmax between scans. After 8 weeks equivalent values were 0.59, 0.42 and 0.64, respectively. In triple-negative tumours the ROC-AUCs were 0.76, 0.84 and 0.76 after 2 weeks, and 0.87, 0.93 and 0.88 after 6 weeks, respectively. In triple-negative tumours a PET/CT scan after 6 weeks (three cycles) appears to be optimally predictive of pCR. In HER2-positive tumours neither a PET/CT scan after 3 weeks nor after 8 weeks seems to be useful. The changes in SUVmax of both the tumour and axillary nodes combined correlates best with pCR. (orig.)

  18. Sequential {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for early prediction of complete pathological response in breast and axilla during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Bas B. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pengel, Kenneth E. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter V.; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D.; Rutgers, Emiel J.T. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vincent, Andrew D. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Biometrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rodenhuis, Sjoerd [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    To investigate the value of response monitoring in both the primary tumour and axillary nodes on sequential PET/CT scans during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for predicting complete pathological response (pCR), taking the breast cancer subtype into account. In 107 consecutive patients 290 PET/CT scans were performed at baseline (PET/CT1, 107 patients), after 2 - 3 weeks of chemotherapy (PET/CT2, 85 patients), and after 6 - 8 weeks (PET/CT3, 98 patients). The relative changes in SUVmax (from baseline) of the tumour and the lymph nodes and in both combined (after logistic regression), and the changes in the highest SUVmax between scans (either tumour or lymph node) were determined and their associations with pCR of the tumour and lymph nodes after completion of NAC were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A pCR was seen in 17 HER2-positive tumours (65 %), 1 ER-positive/HER2-negative tumour (2 %), and 16 triple-negative tumours (52 %). The areas under the ROC curves (ROC-AUC) for the prediction of pCR in HER2-positive tumours after 3 weeks were 0.61 for the relative change in tumours, 0.67 for the combined change in tumour and nodes, and 0.72 for the changes in the highest SUVmax between scans. After 8 weeks equivalent values were 0.59, 0.42 and 0.64, respectively. In triple-negative tumours the ROC-AUCs were 0.76, 0.84 and 0.76 after 2 weeks, and 0.87, 0.93 and 0.88 after 6 weeks, respectively. In triple-negative tumours a PET/CT scan after 6 weeks (three cycles) appears to be optimally predictive of pCR. In HER2-positive tumours neither a PET/CT scan after 3 weeks nor after 8 weeks seems to be useful. The changes in SUVmax of both the tumour and axillary nodes combined correlates best with pCR. (orig.)

  19. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using {sup 111}In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The utility of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  20. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG (111In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1998-01-01

    The utility of 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of 111 In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  1. Large-scale phenotyping of an accurate genetic mouse model of JNCL identifies novel early pathology outside the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Staropoli

    Full Text Available Cln3(Δex7/8 mice harbor the most common genetic defect causing juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL, an autosomal recessive disease involving seizures, visual, motor and cognitive decline, and premature death. Here, to more thoroughly investigate the manifestations of the common JNCL mutation, we performed a broad phenotyping study of Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, congenic on a C57BL/6N background, displayed subtle deficits in sensory and motor tasks at 10-14 weeks of age. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice also displayed electroretinographic changes reflecting cone function deficits past 5 months of age and a progressive decline of retinal post-receptoral function. Metabolic analysis revealed increases in rectal body temperature and minimum oxygen consumption in 12-13 week old homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, which were also seen to a lesser extent in heterozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Heart weight was slightly increased at 20 weeks of age, but no significant differences were observed in cardiac function in young adults. In a comprehensive blood analysis at 15-16 weeks of age, serum ferritin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV, and reticulocyte counts were reproducibly increased in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice, and male homozygotes had a relative T-cell deficiency, suggesting alterations in hematopoiesis. Finally, consistent with findings in JNCL patients, vacuolated peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 neonates, and to a greater extent in older animals. Early onset, severe vacuolation in clear cells of the epididymis of male homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice was also observed. These data highlight additional organ systems in which to study CLN3 function, and early phenotypes have been established in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice that merit further study for JNCL biomarker development.

  2. Thoracic injury rule out criteria and NEXUS chest in predicting the risk of traumatic intra-thoracic injuries: A diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Radfar, Fatemeh; Baratloo, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NEXUS chest and Thoracic Injury Rule out criteria (TIRC) models in predicting the risk of intra-thoracic injuries following blunt multiple trauma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, using the 2 mentioned models, blunt multiple trauma patients over the age of 15 years presenting to emergency department were screened regarding the presence of intra-thoracic injuries that are detectable via chest x-ray and screening performance characteristics of the models were compared. In this study, 3118 patients with the mean (SD) age of 37.4 (16.9) years were studied (57.4% male). Based on TIRC and NEXUS chest, respectively, 1340 (43%) and 1417 (45.4%) patients were deemed in need of radiography performance. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of TIRC were 98.95%, 62.70%, 21.19% and 99.83%. These values were 98.61%, 59.94%, 19.97% and 99.76%, for NEXUS chest, respectively. Accuracy of TIRC and NEXUS chest models were 66.04 (95% CI: 64.34-67.70) and 63.50 (95% CI: 61.78-65.19), respectively. TIRC and NEXUS chest models have proper and similar sensitivity in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-thoracic injuries that are detectable via chest x-ray. However, TIRC had a significantly higher specificity in this regard. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteaux, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism [fr

  4. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome – the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Marciniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35–60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  5. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome - the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka Rutkowska, Jolanta; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35-60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  6. Pathological gambling: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Larry L; Boehlke, Karmen K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a mental health disorder. Pathological gambling is currently classified as an impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, but it shares many important features with substance use disorders, especially in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical course, and treatment. Consequently, the DSM-V Task Force has suggested that pathological gambling be reclassified and included in a new category entitled "Addiction and Related Disorders." The category would include both substance-related and non-substance/behavioral addictions. This article provides a general overview of some of the available literature regarding pathological gambling and includes the presentation of a number of relevant topics including etiology, risk factors, comorbidity, prevention, and treatment. However, as with most complex, multifaceted, and multidimensional phenomena, more research is needed in order to improve both prevention and treatment efforts for pathological gambling.

  7. CT-guided transthoracic cutting needle biopsy of intrathoracic lesions: Comparison between coaxial and single needle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Reng-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Jing; Chang, Shih-Chin; Chen, Chia-Huei; Fung, Jui-Lung; Wang, Yen-Jen; Mak, Chee-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the complication rates and diagnostic accuracy of two different CT-guided transthoracic cutting needle biopsy techniques: coaxial method and single needle method. Methods: This study involved 198 consecutive subjects with 198 intrathoracic lesions. The first 98 consecutive subjects received a single needle cutting technique and the next 100 consecutive subjects received a coaxial technique. Both groups were compared in relation the diagnostic accuracy and complication rates. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups concerning patient characteristics, lesions and procedure variables. There was a borderline statistical difference in the incidence of pneumothorax at within 24-h post biopsy between patients in the single needle group (5%) and the coaxial group (13%) (P = 0.053). Little difference was found in the pneumothorax rate at immediately post biopsy between the two groups, which was 28% in the single needle group and 31% in the coaxial group. There was no significant difference in the hemoptysis rate between the two groups, which was 9.2% in the single needle group and 11% in the coaxial group. Both techniques yielded an overall diagnostic accuracy of 98% for malignant lesions with similar sensitivity (single needle: 96.9% vs. coaxial: 96.4%) and specificity (single needle: 100% vs. coaxial: 100%). Conclusion: There is little difference in the pneumothorax rates and bleeding complications between patients who either received a single needle or a coaxial transthoracic cutting biopsy. Both techniques produce an overall diagnostic accuracy of 98% for malignant lesions.

  8. Transdiaphragmatic extension of a retroperitoneal lipoma into the intrathoracic extrapleural space via the lumbocostal trigone in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Emily S; Heng, Hock Gan; Freeman, Lynetta J; Childress, Michael O

    2012-04-15

    An 8-year-old 12.2-kg (26.9-lb) spayed female American Cocker Spaniel was referred for evaluation of abdominal discomfort and a suspected intra-abdominal lipoma with possible invasion into the thorax. Physical examination revealed a tense abdomen, and the margins of a large abdominal mass could be appreciated. Abdominal imaging revealed a mass of fat opacity in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Computed tomography with precontrast and postcontrast peritoneograms was used to determine whether the masses connected via a diaphragmatic defect. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal lipomatous mass that had focally invaded the hypaxial musculature and had extended across the dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm via the lumbocostal trigone into the intrathoracic extrapleural space. Surgical resection required transdiaphragmatic thoracotomy. Histologic examination of excised tissue confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of a lipoma. The dog recovered from surgery with no complications and had no disease recurrence for at least 32 months after surgical resection. The defect of the lumbocostal trigone is also called the foramen of Bochdalek in humans, and it is recognized as a common location for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A lumbocostal trigone hernia may be considered as a differential diagnosis for bicavitary masses in dogs, particularly in the absence of a history of trauma.

  9. A case of perforating radiation-induced ulcer of the esophagus, 7 months after radiotherapy for early esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Hajime; Hamabe, Yutaka; Narita, Kouichi

    1997-01-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old man. Early esophageal cancer, slightly depressed type, was diagnosed at the middle part of the intrathoracic esophagus. Radiotherapy was chosen because of severe liver cirrhosis. External and intracavitary irradiation (50 Gy and 12 Gy, respectively) were administered with uracil and futraful (300 mg/day). The result of this therapy was complete response. Six months later, endoscopy showed that the lesion of the tumor had been almost completely healed with normal mucosa, but after 7 months the patient complained of chest pain. A large ulcer with white belag had formed. One month later the ulcer perforated into the right side of the chest, and the patient died of pyothorax. We suspected that the esophageal cancer had recurred, but at autopsy a deep ulcer 4 cm in length was found to have perforated into the right side of the chest. Pathologic findings included severe vasculitis of the esophageal wall. We diagnosed perforation of a radiation-induced esophageal ulcer after radiotherapy. The esophageal cancer did not recur. (author)

  10. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  11. Recent application of PET in the pathological mechanisms of PD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiyu

    2003-01-01

    PET is the best method in the investigation of molecular pathology at present. In this review, the value of positron emission computed tomography for providing insight into the role of pathology mechanism, early diagnosis, differential diagnosis, mechanisms of motor fluctuations in Parkinson disease is reviewed. Especially it can be used for the early diagnosis of PD, thus being beneficial to the therapy of it

  12. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia

  13. Does quantifying epicardial and intrathoracic fat with noncontrast computed tomography improve risk stratification beyond calcium scoring alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzandeh, Farshad; Chang, Su Min; Muhyieddeen, Kamil; Zaid, Rashid R; Trevino, Alejandro R; Xu, Jiaqiong; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J

    2013-01-01

    Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography allows calculation of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EATv) and intrathoracic fat (ITFv) volumes. It is unclear whether fat volume information contributes to risk stratification. Cardiac computed tomography was performed in 760 consecutive patients with acute chest pain admitted thorough the emergency department. None had prior coronary artery disease. CACS was calculated using the Agatston method. EATv and ITFv were semiautomatically calculated. Median patient follow-up was 3.3 years. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years and Framingham risk score 8.2±8.2. The 45 patients (5.9%) with major acute cardiac events (MACE) were older (64.8±13.9 versus 53.7±13.4 years), more frequently male (60% versus 40%), and had a higher median Framingham risk score (16 versus 4) and CACS (268 versus 0) versus those without events (all PEATv (154 versus 116 mL) and ITFv (330 versus 223 mL), and a higher prevalence of EATv >125 mL (67% versus 44%) and ITFv >250 mL (64% versus 42%) (all PEATv, and ITFv were all independently associated with MACE. CACS was associated with MACE after adjustment for fat volumes (PEATv and ITFv improved the risk model only in patients with CACS >400. CACS and fat volumes are independently associated with MACE in acute chest pain patients and beyond that provided by clinical information alone. Although fat volumes may add prognostic value in patients with CACS >400, CACS is most strongly correlated with outcome.

  14. Intrathoracic esophageal replacement in the dog with the use of an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, Y; Matsumoto, K; Takimoto, Y; Kiyotani, T; Sekine, T; Ueda, H; Liu, Y; Tamura, N

    1999-08-01

    Intrathoracic esophageal replacement with an artificial esophagus is considered difficult. We attempted to replace the intrathoracic esophagus with an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube and examined the state of host tissue regeneration. A 5-cm long gap was created in the intrathoracic esophagus in 9 dogs and repaired by interposition of our prosthesis. The dogs were fed only by intravenous hyperalimentation for 28 days. The silicone tube was removed at 29 days after the operation, and oral feeding was reintroduced. One dog was put to death at each of the following times: 1, 2, 3, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the operation. One dog is still surviving without problems after more than 26 months. One dog died of malnutrition at 10 months. In all dogs, the host regenerated tissue had replaced the resulting gap at the time of silicone tube removal. The mucosa had fully regenerated within 3 months and the glands within 12 months. The process of stenosis and shrinkage was complete within 3 months and did not advance thereafter. The lamina muscularis mucosae were observed as islets of smooth muscle within 12 months. Although the skeletal muscle regenerated close to the anastomoses, it did not extend to the middle of the regenerated esophagus even after 24 months. Use of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube was shown to be feasible even in the thorax and to allow the regenerated host tissue, consisting of the mucosa, glands, and lamina muscularis mucosae, to replace the esophageal gap.

  15. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  16. BLR1 and FCGR1A transcripts in peripheral blood associate with the extent of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and predict treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenum, Synne; Bakken, Rasmus; Dhanasekaran, S

    2016-01-01

    children with intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB), we performed blood transcriptome kinetic analysis during ATT to explore 1) the association between transcriptional biomarkers in whole blood (WB) and the extent of TB disease at diagnosis and treatment outcomes at 2 and 6 months, and 2) the potential...... of the biomarkers to predict treatment response at 2 and 6 months. We present the first data on the association between transcriptional biomarkers and the extent of TB disease as well as outcome of ATT in children: Expression of three genes down-regulated on ATT (FCGR1A, FPR1 and MMP9) exhibited a positive...

  17. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure device in managing pleural space infection after lung resection: is it an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenasskashani, Alireza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Yan, Tristan D; McCaughan, Brian C

    2011-08-01

    Empyema after lung resection is a challenging condition to manage and is associated with a high mortality. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is recently introduced as an adjunct in the management of this condition. A best evidence topic was constructed to address whether this approach is effective in successful chest closure and reducing hospital stay. Twenty-three papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. All papers were retrospective and included a total of 69 patients treated with intrathoracic VAC. There was only one cohort study and the rest were either case series or case reports. In a cohort of 19 patients reported by Palmen et al. the average duration of an open window thoracostomy in a group of patients with VAC (n=11) was 39 ± 17 days and in those without VAC (n=8) was 933 ± 1422 days. Median length of VAC treatment was 22 days (range 6-66 days) in a series of 28 patients reported by Saadi et al. Some authors excluded patients with a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) from VAC treatment. However, Groetzner et al. have safely used VAC in patients with BPF after covering the bronchus stump with an intrathoracic muscle flap. The mediastinum and the bronchus can be covered using a polyvinyl-alcohol foam. Polyurethane foam is commonly used to fill the intrathoracic cavity up to the superficial wound. The suggested starting level of negative pressure is as low as -25 mmHg to -75 mmHg depending on the presence or absence of signs of mediastinal traction; this negative pressure can gradually be increased to -125 mmHg over time. The recommended interval between VAC changes is two to five days. Accumulated evidence in this article, although limited, suggests that VAC, as an adjunct to the standard treatment, can potentially alleviate the morbidity and decrease hospital stay in patients with empyema after lung resection. VAC can reduce

  18. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  19. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included

  20. Pathology annual. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies

  1. Linfadenitis intratorácica, falla respiratoria y muerte por tuberculosis Fatal respiratory failure due to tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Vélez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Iinfadenitis tuberculosa del adulto afecta los ganglios intratorácicos sólo en 5-7% de los casos y generalmente produce poco compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 21 anos que murió en Insuficiencia respiratoria debida a la obstrucción bronquial causada por grandes adenopatias hiliares y mediastinales y derrame pleural masivo bilateral. La Incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar en Medellín durante 1986 fue de 85.3 casos nuevos por 100.000 habitantes, de los cuales muere aproximadamente 8-9% por ano. De la mortalidad en general, menos del 20¡0 se debe a Insuficiencia respiratoria. No se encontraron Informes en la literatura médica de obstrucción bronquial por Iinfadenopatia tuberculosa como causa de muerte. Se piensa que las malas condIcIones socioeconómicas, el consumo de narcóticos y la coexistencia de enfermedades venéreas, contribuyeron al curso fulminante de esta paciente. Se pretende llamar la atención acerca de esta presentación atípica y agresiva de la tuberculosis, especialmente en pacientes que pudieran estar inmunocomprometidos.

    Tuberculous Iymphadenitis in adults affects intrathoracic lymph nodes in only 5- 7% of the cases and It usually does not produce Important systemic involvement. The case of a 21 year-old woman who died of respiratory insufficiency due to bronchial obstruction caused by large hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies and bilateral massive pleural effusion is presented. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 85.3 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants in 1986, in Medellín, Colombia. Mortality can be calculated between 8-9% per year and, of them, only 2% die as a result of respiratory insufficiency. No previous report9 of fatal bronchial obstruction due to tuberculosis Iymphadenopathy

  2. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. Proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J; McNeeley, David F; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-05-15

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

  3. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J.; McNeeley, David F.; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:22448023

  4. Your Pathology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pathology Tests Breast Cancer News February 20, 2013 Star-gazing software helps fight breast cancer See More ... Phone: (855) 807-6386 email Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Contact Us Privacy Policy Site Credits Terms of ...

  5. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  6. Pathology annual. Part 1/Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.P.; Fechner, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 papers. Some of the titles are: Evaluation of Breast Biopsy Specimens in Patients Considered for Treatment by Conservative Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Female Breast: Current Status and Pathologic Correlations; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: Problems in Differential Diagnosis; and Vascular Lesions Following Radiation

  7. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Rajeev; Vaideeswar Pradeep; Pandit Shobhana

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patien...

  8. {sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT as an imaging tool for early prediction of pathological response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippa, Flavio; Padovano, Barbara; Alessi, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Emilio; Pascali, Claudio; Bogni, Anna [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Agresti, Roberto; Maugeri, Ilaria; Rampa, Mario; Martelli, Gabriele [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Breast Surgery Unit; Sandri, Marco [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Molecular Targeting Unit; Mariani, Gabriella; Bianchi, Giulia; De Braud, Filippo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Medical Oncology Unit; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Pathology Unit; Trecate, Giovanna [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Radiology-RMI Unit

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated whether {sup 18}F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography (FLT PET) can predict the final postoperative histopathological response in primary breast cancer after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). In this prospective cohort study of 15 patients with locally advanced operable breast cancer, FLT PET evaluations were performed before NCT, after the first cycle of NCT, and at the end of NCT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery. Variables from FLT PET examinations were correlated with postoperative histopathological results. At baseline, median of maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the groups showing a complete pathological response (pCR) + residual cancer burden (RCB) I, RCB II or RCB III did not differ significantly for the primary tumour (5.0 vs. 2.9 vs. 8.9, p = 0.293) or for axillary nodes (7.9 vs. 1.6 vs. 7.0, p = 0.363), whereas the Spearman correlation between SUV{sub max} and Ki67 proliferation rate index was significant (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Analysis of the relative percentage change of SUV{sub max}in the primary tumour (∇SUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1})) and axillary nodes (∇SUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1})) after the first NCT cycle showed that the power of ∇SUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) to predict pCR + RCB I responses (AUC = 0.91, p < 0.001) was statistically significant, whereas ∇SUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1}) had a moderate ability (AUC = 0.77, p = 0.119) to separate subjects with ΔSUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) > -52.9 % into two groups: RCB III patients and a heterogeneous group that included RCB I and RCB II patients. A predictive score μ based on ΔSUVT{sub max}(t{sub 1}) and ΔSUVN{sub max}(t{sub 1}) parameters is proposed. The preliminary findings of the present study suggest the potential utility of FLT PET scans for early monitoring of response to NCT and to formulate a therapeutic strategy consistent with the estimated efficacy of NCT. However, these results in a small patient population

  9. [Concept of occupational pathology service development in Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanbekova, A U; Sakiev, K Z; Dzhakupbekova, G M; Ibrayeva, L K

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of occupational medical care management is aimed to preserve workers' health through better prevention, early diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational diseases. Strategic directions of occupational pathology service development are improvement of legislation base on occupational diseases, modernization of occupational pathology service, development of personnel resources system, advancement of research activity in medical ecology, industrial hygiene and occupational pathology and increased efficiency of intra-sectoral and inter-agency interactions about workers' health preservation.

  10. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beomonte Zobel, B.; Tella, S.; Innacoli, M.; D'Archivio, C.; Cardone, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.; Passariello, R.; Cappa, F.

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  11. Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Willemijn J; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies...

  12. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  13. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  14. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18......-65 years) were included if they were referred to a physical therapist to gather pre-operative data and were then diagnosed during arthroscopy. Results of pre-operative patient history and physical tests were collected and compared to arthroscopy. Data of 77 active patients (mean age: 37 years) were...

  15. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computed tomography versus water-soluble contrast swallow in the detection of intrathoracic anastomotic leak complicating esophagogastrectomy (Ivor Lewis): a prospective study in 97 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christiane; Mal, Frederic; Perniceni, Thierry; Bouzar, Nadia; Lenoir, Stephane; Gayet, Brice; Palau, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Water-soluble contrast swallow (CS) is usually performed before refeeding for anastomosis assessment after esophagectomy with intrathoracic anastomosis but the sensitivity of CS is low. Another diagnostic approach is based on analysis of computed tomography (CT) scan with oral contrast and of CT mediastinal air images. We undertook to compare them prospectively. Ninety-seven patients with an esophageal carcinoma operated by intrathoracic anastomosis were included prospectively in a study based on a CT scan at postoperative day 3 (without oral and intravenous contrast) and CT scan and CS at day 7. CT scan analysis consisted of assessing contrast and air leakage. In case of doubt, an endoscopy was done. A diagnosis of anastomotic leak was made in 13 patients (13.4%), in 2 cases before day 7 and in 3 beyond day 7. At day 3, 94 CT scans were performed, but the diagnostic value was poor. In 95 patients with both CS and CT scan at day 7, CS disclosed a leak in 5 of 11, and CT scan was abnormal in 8 of 11. Leakage of contrast and/or presence of mediastinal gas had the best negative predictive value (95.8%). Endoscopy was done in 16 patients with only mediastinal gas at day 7 CT scan. It disclosed a normal anastomosis in 11, fibrin deposits in 4, and a leak in 1. In comparison with CS only, CT at day 7 improves the sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing an anastomotic leak. In case of doubt endoscopy is advisable. This approach provides an accurate assessment of the anastomosis before refeeding.

  17. Lost in Translation: Understanding Students' Use of Social Networking and Online Resources to Support Early Clinical Practices. A National Survey of Graduate Speech-Language Pathology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Jamie B.; McCarthy, John W.

    2018-01-01

    The Internet is a source of many resources for graduate speech-language pathology (SLP) students. It is important to understand the resources students are aware of, which they use, and why they are being chosen as sources of information for therapy activities. A national online survey of graduate SLP students was conducted to assess their…

  18. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  19. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  20. Pathological fractures in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  1. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  2. Forms of pathologization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than...

  3. Anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a patient with large anterior mediastinal tumor presenting as intrathoracic airway compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatish Bevinaguddaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior mediastinal mass is a rare pathology that presents considerable anesthetic challenges due to cardiopulmonary compromise. We present a case that was referred to us in the third trimester of pregnancy with severe breathlessness and orthopnea. An elective cesarean delivery was performed under combined spinal epidural anesthesia with a favorable outcome. We discuss the perioperative considerations in these patients with a review of the literature.

  4. Pathological assessment of liver fibrosis regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bingqiong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common pathological outcome of chronic hepatic diseases. An accurate assessment of fibrosis degree provides an important reference for a definite diagnosis of diseases, treatment decision-making, treatment outcome monitoring, and prognostic evaluation. At present, many clinical studies have proven that regression of hepatic fibrosis and early-stage liver cirrhosis can be achieved by effective treatment, and a correct evaluation of fibrosis regression has become a hot topic in clinical research. Liver biopsy has long been regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, and thus it plays an important role in the evaluation of fibrosis regression. This article reviews the clinical application of current pathological staging systems in the evaluation of fibrosis regression from the perspectives of semi-quantitative scoring system, quantitative approach, and qualitative approach, in order to propose a better pathological evaluation system for the assessment of fibrosis regression.

  5. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  6. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E; Platt, Mia Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K F; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M; McClintock, David S; Kuo, Frank C; Lebo, Matthew S; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  7. Pathological Gambling among Italian Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Della Pelle, Carlo; Simonetti, Valentina; Comparcini, Dania; Sepede, Gianna; Cipollone, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of psychiatric dimensions, behavioral or substance addictions and demographical variables as determinants of pathological gambling among nursing students. Multicenter cross-sectional study. From June to October 2015 a survey was carried out among Italian Nursing students. Data were collected using a six-section tool. Nursing students who completed the survey numbered 1083, 902 (83.3%) had some problems with gambling and 29 (2.7%) showed pathological gambling. Percentage of pathological gambling was significantly associate with illicit drug/alcohol use (65.5%; p=0.001) and with male gender (58.6%) comparing to student nurse with non-pathological gambling (20%) and those with some problem (24.2%). Significant main effect was observed for IAT score (Beta=0.119, t=3.28, p=0.001): higher IAT scores were associated with higher SOGS scores. Italian nursing students have some problems with gambling and pathological gambling problem, and males are those who have more problems. Results might be useful for faculties of health professionals to identify students at risk in an early stage, to direct prevention tailored interventions. Nursing faculties should be aware of the prevalence of Gambling among students. Prevention interventions should be planned to minimize the risk of gambling behavior in the future nurses' health care workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Male breast pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  9. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajeev; Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Pandit, Shobhana P

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%). Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9%) or in bronchiectasis (14.6%). Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis). Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  10. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Rajeev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%. Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9% or in bronchiectasis (14.6%. Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis. Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  11. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  12. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  13. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Thom, M.; Ellison, D. W.; Wilkins, P.; Barnes, D.; Thompson, P. D.; Brown, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. BACKGROUND: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  14. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathological gambling: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  16. [Apoptosis and pathological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Mukhammed Salim Iusef

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs normally for maitenance of tissue homeostasis and play an important role in morphogenesis, embriogenesis and tissue growth. On the other hand, apoptosis may be involved in different pathological processes such as malignancy, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis is regulated by various mediators. Caspases, death receptors, mitochondria, Bcl-2 protoncogenes and tumor supressor genes are considered to be the most important of them. Advance in apoptosis regulation research suggests enormouse facilities for therapy of wide range of human illnesses.

  17. Marketing the pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  18. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  20. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  1. Coronarography in pathologic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg, V.D.; Nepomnyashchikh, L.M.; Borodin, Yu.I.

    1987-01-01

    Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

  2. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method...

  3. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  4. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  5. Pathological responses to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bryant, Richard; Marmar, Charles; Zohar, Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Many important gains have been made in understanding PTSD and other responses to trauma as a result of neuroscience-based observations. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge that currently impede our ability to predict those who will develop pathologic responses. Such knowledge is essential for developing appropriate strategies for mounting a mental health response in the aftermath of terrorism and for facilitating the recovery of individuals and society. This paper reviews clinical and biological studies that have led to an identification of pathologic responses following psychological trauma, including terrorism, and highlights areas of future-research. It is important to not only determine risk factors for the development of short- and long-term mental health responses to terrorism, but also apply these risk factors to the prediction of such responses on an individual level. It is also critical to consider the full spectrum of responses to terrorism, as well as the interplay between biological and psychological variables that contribute to these responses. Finally, it is essential to remove the barriers to collecting data in the aftermath of trauma by creating a culture of education in which the academic community can communicate to the public what is and is not known so that survivors of trauma and terrorism will understand the value of their participation in research to the generation of useful knowledge, and by maintaining the acquisition of knowledge as a priority for the government and those involved in the immediate delivery of services in the aftermath of large-scale disaster or trauma.

  6. Tropical plant pathology: at home and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, H D

    2001-01-01

    I first describe my introduction to plant pathology and early experiences with employment, the environment, diseases, pests, and various plant pathologists. Then I recount a decade of stimulating studies at the University of Minnesota and the route I followed to a career in international agriculture with the Rockefeller Foundation in Colombia and later at Cornell University. My appreciation for and knowledge of traditional farmers and sustainable agriculture occurred as a slow awakening. Comments are made regarding problems, principles, and satisfactions associated with the improvement of efforts to aid food production in developing countries. My curious love affair with root and tuber crops, especially cassava, is explained and readily defended. My favorite pathogens, Phytophthora infestans and Ralstonia solanacearum, among others, are considered. The pleasures and satisfactions of teaching, writing, and sabbatical leaves are related. Finally, thoughts on the balance between basic and applied research in plant pathology are offered with significant nervousness about the future of our discipline.

  7. Central pathology review with two-stage quality assurance for pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the ARTemis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeremy St John; Provenzano, Elena; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet; Blenkinsop, Clare; Grybowicz, Louise; Vallier, Anne-Laure; Gounaris, Ioannis; Abraham, Jean; Hughes-Davies, Luke; McAdam, Karen; Chan, Stephen; Ahmad, Rizvana; Hickish, Tamas; Houston, Stephen; Rea, Daniel; Caldas, Carlos; Bartlett, John Ms; Cameron, David Allan; Hayward, Richard Laurence; Earl, Helena Margaret

    2017-08-01

    The ARTemis Trial tested standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy±bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative early breast cancer. We compare data from central pathology review with report review and also the reporting behavior of the two central pathologists. Eight hundred women with HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer were recruited. Response to chemotherapy was assessed from local pathology reports for pathological complete response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. Sections from the original core biopsy and surgical excision were centrally reviewed by one of two trial pathologists blinded to the local pathology reports. Pathologists recorded response to chemotherapy descriptively and also calculated residual cancer burden. 10% of cases were double-reported to compare the central pathologists' reporting behavior. Full sample retrieval was obtained for 681 of the 781 patients (87%) who underwent surgery within the trial and were evaluable for pathological complete response. Four hundred and eighty-three (71%) were assessed by JSJT, and 198 (29%) were assessed by EP. Residual cancer burden calculations were possible in 587/681 (86%) of the centrally reviewed patients, as 94/681 (14%) had positive sentinel nodes removed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy invalidating residual cancer burden scoring. Good concordance was found between the two pathologists for residual cancer burden classes within the 65-patient quality assurance exercise (kappa 0.63 (95% CI: 0.57-0.69)). Similar results were obtained for the between-treatment arm comparison both from the report review and the central pathology review. For pathological complete response, report review was as good as central pathology review but for minimal residual disease, report review overestimated the extent of residual disease. In the ARTemis Trial central pathology review added little in the determination of pathological complete response but had a role in evaluating low levels of residual disease. Calculation

  8. Social cost of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, R; Boisvert, J M; Pépin, M; Loranger, M; Sylvain, C

    1994-12-01

    Pathological gambling creates enormous problems for the afflicted individuals, their families, employers, and society, and has numerous disastrous financial consequences. The present study evaluates the financial burdens of pathological gambling by questioning pathological gamblers in treatment in Gamblers Anonymous (n=60; 56 males, 4 females; mean age = 40 years old) about personal debts, loss of productivity at work, illegal activities, medical costs and the presence of other dependencies. Results show that important debts, loss of productivity at work and legal problems are associated with pathological gambling. Discussion is formulated in terms of the social cost of adopting a liberal attitude toward the legalization of various gambling activities.

  9. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  10. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeau, I.; Doursounian, L.; Maigne, J.Y.; Guinet, C.; Meary, E.; Buy, J.N.; Touzard, R.C.; Vadrot, D.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2 * -weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2 * -weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  11. Estimation of Pulmonary Motion in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Intrathoracic Tumors Using 3D-Dynamic MRI: Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Heinz Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herth, Felix; Tuengerthal, Siegfried [Clinic of Thoracic Disease, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To estimate a new technique for quantifying regional lung motion using 3D-MRI in healthy volunteers and to apply the technique in patients with intra- or extrapulmonary tumors. Intraparenchymal lung motion during a whole breathing cycle was quantified in 30 healthy volunteers using 3D-dynamic MRI (FLASH [fast low angle shot] 3D, TRICKS [time-resolved interpolated contrast kinetics]). Qualitative and quantitative vector color maps and cumulative histograms were performed using an introduced semiautomatic algorithm. An analysis of lung motion was performed and correlated with an established 2D-MRI technique for verification. As a proof of concept, the technique was applied in five patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 5 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The correlation between intraparenchymal lung motion of the basal lung parts and the 2D-MRI technique was significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Also, the vector color maps quantitatively illustrated regional lung motion in all healthy volunteers. No differences were observed between both hemithoraces, which was verified by cumulative histograms. The patients with NSCLC showed a local lack of lung motion in the area of the tumor. In the patients with MPM, there was global diminished motion of the tumor bearing hemithorax, which improved significantly after chemotherapy (CHT) (assessed by the 2D- and 3D-techniques) (p < 0.01). Using global spirometry, an improvement could also be shown (vital capacity 2.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 3.4 L {+-} 0.6, FEV1 0.9 {+-} 0.2 versus 1.4 {+-} 0.2 L) after CHT, but this improvement was not significant. A 3D-dynamic MRI is able to quantify intraparenchymal lung motion. Local and global parenchymal pathologies can be precisely located and might be a new tool used to quantify even slight changes in lung motion (e.g. in therapy monitoring, follow-up studies or even benign lung diseases)

  12. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  13. NMR imaging of osteoarticular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frocrain, L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Gagey, N.

    1987-01-01

    NMR imaging is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of osteo-articular disorders. Semiological descriptions of the mean pathological disorders of the locomotor system are presented. Some investigation strategies are proposed to compare NMR imaging with other imaging techniques in various pathological states [fr

  14. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  15. Experimental radiation pathology and oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The program goal is to provide basic data for evaluating the hazard to man from radioactive materials deposited within the body. The original objective, to obtain dose-response information and to provide data from several species for extrapolating animal data to man, is receiving less attention at present as effort is being put into determining how radiation causes bone cancer and whether viruses play a role. The program began with the very early radiotoxicologic investigations of materials important in the development of the atomic bomb and the necessity to establish maximum permissible levels of exposure to these materials. With the demonstration that bone cancer is the most sensitive indicator of damage from transuranic elements and some of the fission products, bone pathology became the focus of attention. When it became evident that questions of human hazard cannot be answered unequivocally on the basis of dose-response relationships, different approaches were considered, and one based on knowledge of mechanisms of cancer induction seemed most likely to be successful. The detection of viruses in both radiation-induced and spontaneous bone cancer of mice, and the present evidence for a similar virus in bone cancer of man, support the hypothesis that radiation causes cancer by activating endogenous neoplastic information, which can also be expressed as oncornavirus. Present emphases therefore concern understanding the biological, biochemical, and physical attributes of the five murine oncornaviruses that have now been isolated in the course of the program; demonstrating the existence of a comparable human oncornavirus; and discovering how radiation and virus interact in the induction of bone cancer

  16. Pathology Competencies for Medical Education and Educational Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. C. Knollmann-Ritschel MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Current medical school curricula predominantly facilitate early integration of basic science principles into clinical practice to strengthen diagnostic skills and the ability to make treatment decisions. In addition, they promote life-long learning and understanding of the principles of medical practice. The Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME were developed in response to a call to action by pathology course directors nationwide to teach medical students pathology principles necessary for the practice of medicine. The PCME are divided into three competencies: 1 Disease Mechanisms and Processes, 2 Organ System Pathology, and 3 Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. Each of these competencies is broad and contains multiple learning goals with more specific learning objectives. The original competencies were designed to be a living document, meaning that they will be revised and updated periodically, and have undergone their first revision with this publication. The development of teaching cases, which have a classic case-based design, for the learning objectives is the next step in providing educational content that is peer-reviewed and readily accessible for pathology course directors, medical educators, and medical students. Application of the PCME and cases promotes a minimum standard of exposure of the undifferentiated medical student to pathophysiologic principles. The publication of the PCME and the educational cases will create a current educational resource and repository published through Academic Pathology .

  17. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  18. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatico, Rosana; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yanez, Paulina; Romero, Carlos; Trejo, Mariano; Lambre, Hector

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author) [es

  19. The Nun Study: risk factors for pathology and clinical-pathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, James A

    2012-07-01

    The Nun Study was the first cohort study to enroll and follow a large, well-defined population that included demented and non-demented participants, all of whom agreed to donate their brains for research. The inclusion of systematic neuropathologic analysis in this study has resulted in a greater understanding of the role of Alzheimer and vascular pathology in the expression of memory deficits and dementia and has provided data showing that biomarkers for the pathology may be evident many decades earlier in adult life. Findings related to neuropathology in this study have included the following: (1) Although clinical outcomes were strongly correlated with Alzheimer neuropathology, about one-third of the participants fulfilling criteria for neuropathologic Alzheimer's disease (AD) were not demented at the time of death. (2) Brain infarcts by themselves had little effect on cognitive status, but played an important role in increasing the risk of dementia associated with Alzheimer pathology. (3) Hippocampal volume was strongly correlated with Braak neurofibrillary stage even in participants with normal cognitive function. (4) A linguistic characteristic of essays written in early adult life, idea density, had a strong association with not only clinical outcomes in late life, but the severity of Alzheimer neuropathology as well. (5) The effect of apolipoprotein E-e4 on dementia was mediated through Alzheimer, but not vascular pathology.

  20. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  1. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    . This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....

  2. Pathology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for providing basic data for use in evaluating the hazard to man from exposure to radiation and other energy-related pollutants are reviewed. A computer program was developed that takes the existing mortality and fertility data on a given population and applies dose-response coefficients and estimated increments of exposure to chemical or radioactive effluents and derives the excess deaths by age and sex for 5-year intervals. The program was used in an analysis of the health effects of airborne coal combustion effluents. Preliminary results are reported from a study of the influence of products of fossil fuel combustion on the spontaneous activity patterns and daily metabolic cycles of mice as a factor of age, environment, and genetic constitution. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the early and late effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons on the immune competence of mice. Studies to determine the risk to human populations from radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear energy facilities use relative toxicity and dose response data from laboratory animals of different body size and life span and comparisons of the effects of internal exposure with those of external exposure to fission neutrons or gamma sources

  3. Impact of a second FDG PET scan before adjuvant therapy for the early detection of residual/relapsing tumours in high-risk patients with oral cavity cancer and pathological extracapsular spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lin, Chien-Yu [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (China); Hsueh, Chuen; Lee, Li-Yu [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chih-Hung [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Taoyuan (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) to the cervical lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We prospectively examined the value of FDG PET immediately before postoperative radiotherapy/concurrent chemoradiotherapy (pre-RT/CCRT PET) to detect residual/relapsing disease in the early postsurgical follow-up period in high-risk OSCC patients with ECS. We examined 183 high-risk OSCC patients with ECS who underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT for staging purposes. Of these patients, 29 underwent a second pre-RT/CCRT FDG PET/CT scan. The clinical utility of the second FDG PET/CT was examined using Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Patients who underwent the second FDG PET/CT scan had baseline clinicopathological characteristics similar to those who did not undergo a second scan. Of the patients who underwent the second scan, seven (24 %) had unexpected, newly discovered lesions. Five eventually died of the disease, and two had no evidence of recurrence after a change in RT field and dose. In an event-based analysis at 2 months, rates of neck control (6/29 vs. 6/154, p = 0.001), distant metastases (3/29 vs. 4/154, p = 0.046), and disease-free survival (7/29 vs. 10/154, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in patients who received a second PET scan than in those who did not. The second pre-RT/CCRT PET scan was of particular benefit for detecting new lesions in OSCC patients with both ECS and lymph node standardized uptake value (SUV) of {>=}5.2 in the first PET scan. The present findings support the clinical value of pre-RT/CCRT FDG PET for defining treatment strategy in OSCC patients with both ECS and high nodal SUV, even when FDG PET had already been performed during the initial staging work-up. (orig.)

  4. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  6. Stroop performance in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Lowengrub, Katherine; Aizer, Anat; Nahum, Zeev Ben; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2006-05-30

    Pathological gambling is a relatively prevalent psychiatric disorder that typically leads to severe family, social, legal, and occupational problems and is associated with a high rate of suicide attempts. Understanding the neurobiological basis of pathological gambling is a current focus of research, and emerging data have demonstrated that pathological gamblers may have impaired decision-making because of an inability to inhibit irrelevant information. In this study, we examined pathological gamblers by using the Stroop Color-Word Test, a neurocognitive task used to assess interference control. The "reverse" variant of the Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to a cohort of medication-free pathological gamblers (n=62) and a cohort of age-matched controls (n=83). In the reverse variant of the Stroop task, subjects are asked to read the meaning of the word rather than name the ink color. The reverse Stroop task was chosen because it highly discriminates ability to inhibit interference in a population of psychiatric patients. In our study, performance on the reverse Stroop task in the pathological gamblers was significantly slower and less accurate than in the healthy subjects. A new finding in our study was that for pathological gamblers, the average reaction time in the neutral condition (where the color names are displayed in black letters) was slower than the average reaction time in the incongruent condition (where the meaning of the color name and the color of the printed letters are different). This controlled study extends previous findings by showing that performance on the Stroop task is impaired in a sample of medication-free pathological gamblers.

  7. Profile of the pathological gambler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, R L

    1984-12-01

    Pathological (compulsive) gambling is a serious emotional and social problem that has existed for centuries but has only recently been recognized as a distinct diagnostic entity that can be effectively treated. The development and progression of pathological gambling are outlined. The progression of the disorder through three identifiable phases leads to predictable complications. The treatment of the gambler within the framework of Gamblers Anonymous and/or by mental health professionals is described.

  8. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  9. Radiological and pathological features of nonpalpable breast lesions marked with harpoon guided by mammography as a method for the diagnosis of early breast cancer: descriptive retrospective study of the period between January 2009 and May 2010 at the Hospital San Juan de Dios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Silva, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study, descriptive was performed, whose main objective has been to analyze the radiological and pathological features of nonpalpable breast lesions for which surgical biopsy was performed guided by harpoon in the Servicio de Radiologia at the Hospital San Juan de Dios during the period between January 2009 and May 2010. The study has consisted in reviewing of all biopsies guided radio by harpoon made during this period. For each procedure was recorded the classification BI-RADS, pathological anatomy reports and epidemiological data of patients. The analysis has included the variables of age, presence or absence of previous mammograms for comparison, presence or absence of menopause, presence of early menarche (by reference to women with menarche before age 12), parity of the patients, history of breastfeeding, use or nonuse of hormone replacement therapy, personal history of relevance and a positive history for breast cancer in patients in first, second or third degree of consanguinity. A total of 129 markings were performed in the study period. Three patients were excluded because the classification BI-RADS given was 3 or 0, in which cases the biopsy is not indicated. All markings were done in an analog mammography brand Bennett and chair designed for positioning patients. Prior to the biopsy, the technical specialist in mammography interviewed patients to complete the epidemiological data sheet. Following the verification of the correct placement on the harpoon, the patients were carried to operating room for the realization of the biopsy. Subsequently, the presence or absence of surgical specimen was evaluated to verify the proper extraction of the lesion under study. (author) [es

  10. LAPAROSCOPIC EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ADNEXAL PATHOLOGY AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE CENTRE, MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Milind V; Tushar; Amol

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Laparoscope is a precise diagnostic tool. Laparoscopy represents a considerable advance in the early and accurate diagnosis and management of pelvic pathologic conditions. Laparoscopy now provides the gynecologist valuable information necessary for the choice of treatment in case of adnexal pathology. The present study carried out with the objective to evaluate the role of laparoscopy in diagnosis of adnexal pathology and management of it. METHODOLOGY: The ...

  11. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  12. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.J.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Knol, D.L.; Tijms, B.M.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies.

  13. Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.J.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Knol, D.L.; Tijms, B.M.; Scheltens, P.J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Aarsland, D.; Alcolea, D.; Alexander, M.; Almdahl, I.S.; Arnold, S.E.; Baldeiras, I.; Barthel, H.; Berckel, B.N. van; Bibeau, K.; Blennow, K.; Brooks, D.J.; Buchem, M.A. van; Camus, V.; Cavedo, E.; Chen, K.; Chetelat, G.; Cohen, A.D.; Drzezga, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Fagan, A.M.; Fladby, T.; Fleisher, A.S.; Flier, W.M. van der; Ford, L.; Forster, S.; Fortea, J.; Foskett, N.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Frisoni, G.B.; Froelich, L.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Gill, K.D.; Gkatzima, O.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Gordon, M.F.; Grimmer, T.; Hampel, H.; Hausner, L.; Hellwig, S.; Herukka, S.K.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ishihara, L.; Ivanoiu, A.; Jagust, W.J.; Johannsen, P.; Kandimalla, R.; Kapaki, E.; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, A.; Klunk, W.E.; Kohler, S.; Koglin, N.; Kornhuber, J.; Kramberger, M.G.; Laere, K. Van; Landau, S.M.; Lee, D.Y.; Leon, M.; Lisetti, V.; Lleo, A.; Madsen, K.; Maier, W.; Marcusson, J.; Mattsson, N.; Mendonca, A. de; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Meyer, P.T.; Mintun, M.A.; Mok, V.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Mollergard, H.M.; Morris, J.C.; Mroczko, B.; Mussele, S. Van der; Na, D.L.; Newberg, A.; Nordberg, A.; Nordlund, A.; Novak, G.P.; Paraskevas, G.P.; Parnetti, L.; Perera, G.; Peters, O.; Popp, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Rabinovici, G.D.; Ramakers, I.H.; Rami, L.; Oliveira, C.R.; Rinne, J.O.; Rodrigue, K.M.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral amyloid-beta aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention

  14. Clinico-pathological features of kidney disease in diabetic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Okada, Hirokazu; Narita, Ichiei; Wada, Takashi

    2018-03-21

    Diabetic kidney disease is the major cause of end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. However, the onset of kidney disorder and the progression pattern of kidney dysfunction and proteinuria greatly vary cases by cases. Therefore, risk classification with clinical data and pathological findings is important. Recent clinico-pathological study with kidney biopsy samples from diabetic patients revealed that pathological changes of diabetic nephropathy are characteristic and have special impacts on prognosis in each clinical stage. Moreover, comparison of the clinico-pathological findings of diabetic nephropathy with hypertensive nephrosclerosis revealed that there are few differences in their pathological findings in cases with low albuminuria and preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Because it is so difficult to clearly distinguish pure kidney lesions caused by diabetes and kidney lesions due to effects other than diabetes, it is vital that these overlapped pathological findings be confirmed on kidney biopsy in cases of early stage diabetes. Further research is warranted regarding the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and indication of kidney biopsy in diabetic cases.

  15. Digital pathology in nephrology clinical trials, research, and pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.

  16. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  17. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS, disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease.

  19. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of Incidental Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary sinus can be visualized in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Computed tomography (CT is considered the gold standard method for the examination of maxillary sinus. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT addresses the limitation of CT and provides many dental advantages. It can provide valuable knowledge about the pathology with limited exposure and low cost compared with other imaging used for diagnostic purposes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to analyze the prevalence of pathological changes in maxillary sinus of asymptomatic cases using CBCT for diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 231 patients for incidental maxillary sinus pathologies. Pathological findings were categorized as mucosal thickening, polypoid mucosal thickening, radiopacification, and no pathological findings. Evaluation of pathological findings was done using factors of age and gender. Results: The present study showed 86 cases with maxillary sinus pathology and 145 cases with no pathological findings. Patients with maxillary sinus pathology were mostly diagnosed with mucosal thickening on both sides. In right maxillary sinus, 45 cases (52.3% showed mucosal thickening, and on the left side 36 cases (41.9% were diagnosed with mucosal thickening. Among 86 cases reported, 20 right maxillary sinus (23.3% and 25 left maxillary sinus (29.1% showed no signs of pathology. Conclusion: The incidental maxillary sinus pathologies are highly prevalent in asymptomatic patients. Therefore, oral radiologists should be aware of these incidental findings which will help in early diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  20. Poetry or pathology? Jesuit hypochondria in early modern Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    In their didactic poems on fishing and chocolate, both published in 1689, two Neapolitan Jesuits digressed to record and lament a devastating 'plague' of 'hypochondria'. The poetic plagues of Niccolò Giannettasio and Tommaso Strozzi have literary precedents in Lucretius, Vergil, and Fracastoro, but it will be argued that they also have a real, contemporary significance. Hypochondria was considered to be a serious (and epidemic) illness in the seventeenth century, with symptoms ranging from depression to delusions. Not only did our Jesuit poets claim to have suffered from it, but so did prominent members of the 'Accademia degl'Investiganti', a scientific society in Naples that was at odds with both the religious and medical establishments.

  1. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  2. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  3. CT features of jejunal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, R.; Chalmers, A.

    2007-01-01

    The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography

  4. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics

  5. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral......In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...

  6. Imaging pathologic pulmonary air and fluid accumulation by functional and absolute EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, G; Just, A; Dudykevych, T; Frerichs, I; Hinz, J; Quintel, M; Hellige, G

    2006-05-01

    The increasing use of EIT in clinical research on severely ill lung patients requires a clarification of the influence of pathologic impedance distributions on the validity of the resulting tomograms. Significant accumulation of low-conducting air (e.g. pneumothorax or emphysema) or well-conducting liquid (e.g. haematothorax or atelectases) may conflict with treating the imaging problem as purely linear. First, we investigated the influence of stepwise inflation and deflation by up to 300 ml of air and 300 ml of Ringer solution into the pleural space of five pigs on the resulting tomograms during ventilation at constant tidal volume. Series of EIT images representing relative impedance changes were generated on the basis of a modified Sheffield back projection algorithm and ventilation distribution was displayed as functional (f-EIT) tomograms. In addition, a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) was applied to quantify the resistivity distribution on an absolute level scaled in Omega m (a-EIT). Second, we applied these two EIT techniques on four intensive care patients with inhomogeneous air and fluid distribution and compared the EIT results to computed tomography (CT) and to a reference set of intrathoracic resistivity data of 20 healthy volunteers calculated by SIRT. The results of the animal model show that f-EIT based on back projection is not disturbed by the artificial pneumo- or haematothorax. Application of SIRT allows reliable discrimination and detection of the location and amplitude of pneumo- or haematothorax. These results were supported by the good agreement between the electrical impedance tomograms and CT scans on patients and by the significant differences of regional resistivity data between patients and healthy volunteers.

  7. Fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica: relato de caso Epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiotti Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fratura da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica foi relatada em 1949 por West, em que a fratura era, somente, do tubérculo maior. Desde então, poucos casos foram relatados na literatura, a maioria constituída por pessoas idosas, prevalecendo como indicação terapêutica artroplastia parcial. Os autores relatam o caso de um adolescente de 14 anos de idade, sexo masculino, que apresentou fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica em decorrência de acidente ciclístico e que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com redução, osteossíntese e reinserção do manguito rotador. A recuperação da cabeça do úmero totalmente desvitalizada e o acompanhamento do processo de necrose e revas cularização durante seis anos, em paciente adolescente, parece não terem sido previamente relatados.Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation was reported in 1949 by West, and the fracture was only a fracture of the greater tubercle. Few cases have since been published, and most of them in elderly individuals, partial arthroplasty prevailing as the therapy indication. The authors report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented with an epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation resulting from a bicycle accident. The boy was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction, osteosynthesis, and reinsertion of the rotator cuff. The totally devitalized humeral head recovery and the monitoring of the necrosis and revascularization process for a period of six years in a teenager patient seems to have never been reported before.

  8. Innovations in teaching plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G L

    2003-01-01

    The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods.

  9. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRossi; Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  10. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  11. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  12. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...... demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several...

  13. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  14. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  15. Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

  16. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  17. Pathological Jealousy: An Interactive Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy. Findings were that delusional jealousy is equally prevalent among men and women, with a greater prevalence in the elderly. Antecedents to this condition can be neurologic, drug related, and/or psychological, most often preceded by low self-esteem and excessive dependence on a romantic partner. Pathological jealousy can be triggered by the behavior of the partner and maintained by reasoning biases and by the psychological benefits that it initially bestows on the relationship. In the long run, however, it poses dangerous risks to the patient, the partner, and the imagined rival so that involuntary hospitalization is sometimes required. Treatment recommendations include couple therapy, a strong cognitive focus, antipsychotic medication, and interventions which enhance self-esteem of both partners and which address the solidarity of the existing relationship. Treatment effectiveness does not yet have a firm evidence base.

  18. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  19. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  20. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  1. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  2. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. MODERN CAPABILITIES OF BREAST PATHOLOGY DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vysotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year more than 1 million new cases of breast cancer are being recorded worldwide. Choice of appropriate tactics of treatment depends on the timely diagnosis and correct assessment of the prevalence of cancer.The algorithm of patient»s examination includes clinical examination, X-ray mammography and ultrasonic diagnosis of breast. However, this is not sufficient for a complete interpretation of the patient»s condition in case of non-palpable breast formations, ambiguous interpretation of imaging under structural changes, increased density of breast tissue, etc.In this regard, the introduction of new technologies and their evaluation in terms of practicality is a logical and developing method of early diagnosis of breast pathology.One of the methods that enables enhancing the information capability of ultrasonic diagnosis of breast is elastography. It allows for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant changes not only in the breast tissue, but also in the areas of regional lymph drainage.Promising method of modern diagnostic breast care is digital mammography tomosynthesis. However, in spite of the first and very optimisticdata, this technique is still far from standard.Complex diagnostics of breast pathology, in addition to clinical data and imaging results, are based on information obtained from biopsies. At the present stage core-biopsy is considered as the best way of verification, where the resulting material is subjected to immunohistochemical studies.Thus, the spectrum of diagnostic capabilities is constantly expanding. Highly informative techniques included in the daily practice today enable clinicians to achieve optimal results in curing even greater number of patients.

  4. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    OpenAIRE

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-01-01

    Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  5. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes of...

  6. Ethics and Professionalism in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists spend most of their professional lives beyond direct view of the public, mostly inside the four walls of the lab. It is the clinicians who face the wrath of the public when something goes wrong. However, with the growing awareness of the public into the decisive role played by the Pathologists in the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the pathologists will soon be the target of the aggrieved patients and relatives.1 The issue of ethics can be dealt when professionalism comes before profession. "Professionalism in medicine requires that physician serve the interests of the patient above his or her own selfinterest." Professionalism aspires to philanthropy, answerability, excellence, duty, service and respect for others. "Professionalism in Pathology is based on the same tenets, but has additional dimensions."The qualities of professionalism for pathologists include 1. Communication with the patients and the clinicians. A small phone call with the clinician will solve most of the clinical mysteries not written in the lab requisition forms; 2. Empathy and Compassion towards patients', colleagues', and laboratory personnel's culture, age, gender, and disabilities; 3. Demonstration of passion, respect and understanding towards the patients; 4. Adherence to guidelines and regulations of the regulatory and accrediting bodies; and 5.Profeciency and knowledge in one's work is valued by the patients more than the credentials, which also enables one to identify deficiencies in peer performance. The basic competencies of professionalism are vital to every pathology report, which in turn is the mirror of the ethics practiced by the pathologist. Evaluating oneself is perhaps the most important tool in maintaining professionalism in the practice of pathology. One colleague recently defined professionalism as “all the things one does when no one is watching,” thus placing personal integrity at the top of the list.

  7. Temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis of patients with dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, V; Markand, O; Worth, R

    2004-02-01

    To determine the frequency and types of dual pathology in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to analyze the clinical manifestations and surgical outcome. A total of 240 patients with TLE underwent temporal resections following a comprehensive pre-surgical evaluation. Thirty-seven (15.4%) of these had hippocampal sclerosis (HS) or temporal lobe gliosis in association with another lesion (dual pathology). Eighteen of 37 patients with dual pathology had heterotopia of the temporal lobe, nine had cortical dysplasia, four had cavernous angiomas or arteriovenous malformations, one had a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, one had a contusion and four patients had cerebral infarctions in childhood. 68.5% had abnormal head magnetic resonance imagings, 91.3% had abnormal positron emission tomography scans, and 96% had abnormal ictal SPECT. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) showed impaired memory of the epileptogenic side in 72% of the patients. Twenty patients had left and 17 had right-sided en bloc temporal resections, including the lesion and mesial temporal structures. Twenty-six (70.2%) became seizure-free, eight (21.6%) had rare seizures, two (5.4%) had worthwhile seizure reduction and one (2.7%) had no improvement (range of follow-up 1-16 years, mean = 7.4 years). 15.4% had dual pathology. The dual pathology was almost exclusively seen in patients whose lesions were congenital, or occurred early in life, suggesting that the hippocampus is more vulnerable and more readily develops HS in early childhood. Resections, including the lateral and mesial temporal structures led to a favorable outcome with no mortality and little morbidity.

  8. Comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings of gastric MALToma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of gastric MALToma, and to correlate these with its pathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic slides of gastrectomy and gastroscopic biopsy specimens obtained between 1982 and 1996, and collected nine cases of gastric MALToma. Eight of these had been surgically confirmed, and one had been diagnosed by gastroscopic biopsy. A gastrointestinal series comprised eight cases; five involved sonography and five, CT. The lesions were located at the body in five cases, at the antrum in one, and at the body and antrum in three cases. Pathologic diagnosis was low grade MALToma in four cases, and mixed high and low grade MALToma in five cases. Initial radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in four cases, early gastric carcinoma in three, and advanced gastric carcinoma in two cases. On retrospective analysis, radiologic diagnosis was changed to lymphoma in both cases initially diagnosed as advanced gastric carcinomas. One case showed marked thickening of the gastric wall, with poor enhancement on CT, and the other case showed a very small and shallow ulcer in comparison to diffuse infiltration of tumor in the upper gastrointestinal series. The final radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in six cases, and early carcinoma in three. Radiologic findings of gastric MALToma were EGC II c-like lesion in three cases, marked gastric wall thickening in two, multiple discrete lesions in two, hyperugosity of gastric folds with discrete lesions in one, and diffuse infiltrative lesion with small ulcer in one case. The pathologic diagnosis of gastric MALToma was made by the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions, centrocyte-like cells, reactive follicles, plasma cell infiltration, and follicular colonization. There were no significant correlations between radiologic findings and pathologic results such as depth of tumor invasion, low grade MALToma or mixed high and low grade MALToma. There are no specific radiologic characteristics

  9. Microprobe analysis in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references

  10. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of popliteal artery pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, Andrew; Merrilees, Stephen; Mitchell, Nicola; Hill, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates examples of popliteal artery pathologies imaged with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a single tertiary referral centre. Popliteal artery pathologies were identified in 1710 patients referred over a 6-year period with symptoms suggesting lower limb arterial occlusive disease. Common pathologies such as atherosclerotic occlusive disease, thromboemboli and aneurysm disease are discussed as well as unusual pathologies such as cystic adventitial disease, mycotic aneurysm and arterial entrapment. The combination of CE-MRA and the excellent soft tissue resolution of MRI allow detailed evaluation of arterial and peri-arterial pathologies, and facilitate appropriate management decisions

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of popliteal artery pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Andrew [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: andrewh@adhb.govt.nz; Merrilees, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: smerrilees@adhb.govt.nz; Mitchell, Nicola [Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: nmit010@ec.auckland.ac.nz; Hill, Andrew [Department of Vascular Surgery, Auckland City Hospital, Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 9 (New Zealand)], E-mail: ahill@adhb.govt.nz

    2008-07-15

    This paper illustrates examples of popliteal artery pathologies imaged with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a single tertiary referral centre. Popliteal artery pathologies were identified in 1710 patients referred over a 6-year period with symptoms suggesting lower limb arterial occlusive disease. Common pathologies such as atherosclerotic occlusive disease, thromboemboli and aneurysm disease are discussed as well as unusual pathologies such as cystic adventitial disease, mycotic aneurysm and arterial entrapment. The combination of CE-MRA and the excellent soft tissue resolution of MRI allow detailed evaluation of arterial and peri-arterial pathologies, and facilitate appropriate management decisions.

  13. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  14. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee

    1999-01-01

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  15. Molecular pathology and thyroid FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, D N; Glaysher, S

    2017-12-01

    This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies. This review describes practical examples of molecular techniques as applied to thyroid FNA in routine clinical practice and the value of molecular diagnostics in thyroid FNA. It describes the range of molecular abnormalities identified in thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers with some practical applications of molecular methods to diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  17. The long Tramp from Cellular Pathology to Molecular Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Guski

    2017-05-01

    Derivatives: The observation of principal identity of biological meaningful elements can be agglutinated to a ‘general theory of live’ and its manifestation. All of the investigated elements posses the same regularities, which are altered, destroyed or newly built by external influences such as disease, physical and psychological forces. Not all magnification levels that display with these elements are of the same significance. Already Virchow suggested that ‘smaller elements (molecules might be responsible for changes that are visible ‘in larger elements’ (at cellular level.  The reflection on these ideas can be associated with the implementation of molecular techniques which has been developed in the 20th century and are still ongoing today. Perspectives: Thus, cellular and molecular pathology can be integrated under one umbrella. This umbrella will lead to newly man-formed structures, such as artificial DNA and gene components or functional chip implantations.

  18. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  19. [The characteristics of pathological gambling patients: a study of 105 pathological gamblers treated at a psychiatric institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Although pathological gambling has serious personal and societal consequences, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject in Japan. The purpose of this study was to more fully elucidate the characteristics of pathological gamblers in Japan. A retrospective examination of the medical records of 105 pathological gamblers (mean age: 38.9 years; male: 79%) treated at a psychiatric institution was performed. Several factors were analyzed: sociodemographics; gambling behavior and associated complications; family history; and childhood maltreatment. The mean educational duration was 12.8 years, 18% of the patients were divorced, and 23% were unemployed. Their high education and divorce rates were significantly greater than normal. Furthermore, 30% of the patients suffered from depression, 18% were alcoholics, 48% had a family history of mental illness (addiction, 32%; mood disorder, 12%), 38% grew up in dysfunctional families, and 54% started gambling when they were in their teens. Female patients started gambling significantly later than male patients, but there were no significant differences in the onset of their illness in relation to their duration of gambling between males and females. Over 20% of the patients had lost control over their gambling habits within 2 years of their starting to gamble. In addition, 91% of the patients played pachinko, a Japanese machine which is similar to a slot machine. Additionally, 95% of the patients had debts, and 34% had gone bankrupt. The total amount of debt owed was significantly correlated with the duration of this disorder. This study describes several characteristics of pathological gamblers in Japan. In particular, the author determined that many patients started gambling at a young age, and the duration of pathological gambling was significantly correlated with the amount of debt owed. These findings show the importance of the prevention and early detection of pathological gambling.

  20. ERP-based detection of brain pathology in rat models for preclinical Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouriziabari, Seyed Berdia

    Early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (HP-tau) in the entorhinal cortex and progressive loss of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons. These pathologies are known to remain asymptomatic for many years before AD is clinically diagnosed; however, they may induce aberrant brain processing which can be captured as an abnormality in event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we examined cortical ERPs while a differential associative learning paradigm was applied to adult male rats with entorhinal HP-tau, pharmacological blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or both conditions. Despite no impairment in differential associative and reversal learning, each pathological feature induced distinct abnormality in cortical ERPs to an extent that was sufficient for machine classifiers to accurately detect a specific type of pathology based on these ERP features. These results highlight a potential use of ERPs during differential associative learning as a biomarker for asymptomatic AD pathology.

  1. The relation between dimensions of normal and pathological personality and childhood maltreatment in incarcerated boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I

    2010-12-01

    The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment.

  2. The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-02-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.2-2% in the general population. PG can significantly impact one's ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG, it is important that researchers examine pharmacological and behavioral treatments for their safety and efficacy and that clinicians use empirically validated therapies. Multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and opioids, and related neurocircuitry, particularly ventral cortico-striatal pathways, have been implicated in PG. The neurobiological rationale for therapies, particularly pharmacological ones, is reviewed with a perspective on the generation of improved prevention and treatment strategies for PG.

  3. Role of mitochondria in parvovirus pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.

  4. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  5. Thyroid hormones: Possible roles in epilepsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini; Karimi, Benyamin; Amini, Elham; Golpich, Mojtaba; Dargahi, Leila; Ali, Raymond Azman; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily

  7. Prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital Outpatient Department in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen P. Cairncross

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that glaucoma, cataracts and diabetic retinopathy are prevalent eye conditions among diabetic patients. Offering eye screening at primary healthcare level may contribute to early detection of eye pathology and timeous referral for sight-saving treatment.

  8. Dual pathology: cervicofacial actinomycosis and nicorandil-induced oral ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, H E V; McGahey, D T

    2008-04-01

    Oral ulceration has many causes and is a common presenting symptom in otolaryngology. This article presents an unusual case of dual pathology oral ulceration in an elderly patient. Oral malignancy was initially suspected, but the history, examination and investigation showed that the oral ulceration was caused by actinomycosis infection and by nicorandil use. Cervicofacial acinomycosis is a rare, suppurative bacterial disease in which abscesses can form in the tissues and break through the skin, creating pus-discharging lesions. Nicorandil is a potassium channel blocker used in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. It has been recently recognised as a cause of persistent ulcerative stomatitis. This case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for unusual and reversible causes of oral ulceration, and of dual pathology as a cause. Such vigilance enables early recognition and treatment of potentially reversible conditions.

  9. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  10. Clinical value of detection of intrathoracic metastatic lymph nodes with radioguided technique in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ming; Hu Yongxiao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible clinical feasibility of intraoperative detection of metastatic lymph node with radioguided technique after labeling with 99m Tc-MIBI in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Methods: Gamma-detecting probe was used intra-operatively to examine the radioactivity of lungs, regional and mediastinal nodes in 30 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MIBI (740MBq) 30 minutes before operation for radio-labeling of the nodes. Postoperatively, the radiologically positive but conventionally pathologically negative as well as all the other nodes judged to be negative with conventional standard (altogether 201 groups) were all meticulously examined with serial sections and immunohistologic staining for detection of the presence of micro-metastasis. Results: Altogether 41 groups of nodes specimens were radiologically positive (over twofolds of normal radio-activity measured with γ probe), of which conventional pathological examination revealed metastasis in 32 groups. The remaining 9 groups of specimens were examined further with serial sections and IHC studies and micro-metastasis was found in 3 of them. Thus, the sensitivity of the radioguided technique was 100%, specificity 96.9% and accuracy rate 97.42%. In the remaining 192 radiologically negative groups of lymph nodes studied, no false negative cases (i. e. micrometastasis positive) were demonstrated. Conclusion: The radio-guided technique is very sensitive (100%), highly specific and accurate (98.9%), and 97.4% respectively), without false negativity demonstrated. Its practical clinical application seems to be feasible. (authors)

  11. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  12. Surgical Pathology Bootcamp: A Military Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-17

    CAP 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, March 17-23, 2018 14. ABSTRACT Surgical Pathology Bootcamp: A Military Experience Nathaniel Smith...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17/03/2018 poster 03/17/2018-03/23/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Surgical Pathology ...or its Components. Background A common complaint among pathology department faculty is the variable medical knowledge and histological experience

  13. [Correlation between iridology and general pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demea, Sorina

    2002-01-01

    The research proposal is to evaluate the association between certain irian signs and general pathology of studied patients. There were studied 57 hospitalized patients; there was taken over all their iris images, which were analyzed through iridological protocols; in the same time the pathology of these patients was noted from their records in the hospital, concordant with the clinical diagnosis; all these information were included in a database for a computerised processing. The correlations resulted from, shows a high connection between the irian constitution establish through iridological criteria and the existent pathology. Iris examination can be very useful for diagnosis of a certain general pathology, in a holistic approach of the patient.

  14. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  15. Radiological and pathological response following pre-operative radiotherapy for soft-tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, David; Skamene, Tanya; Nahal, Ayoub; Turcotte, Robert E.; Powell, Tom; Freeman, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report radiological and pathological response to neo-adjuvant radiotherapy for extremity and trunk soft-tissue sarcomas. Materials/methods: Fifty patients were identified retrospectively. All patients had MRI imaging pre and post neo-adjuvant external beam radiotherapy. Tumor volumes were measured in 3D on T1 Gadolinium enhanced sequences. Pathological treatment response was quantified in terms of percentage of treatment-related necrosis for each case. Results: Histopathologic responses to treatment varied from 0% to 100%. The median pathological treatment response was 67.5% for low-grade sarcomas and 50% for high-grade sarcomas. The median decrease in tumor volume was 13.8% for non-myxoid low-grade sarcomas, 82.1% for myxoid liposarcomas and <1% for high-grade sarcomas. A partial response on MRI (volume reduction ≥ 50%) was highly predictive of a good pathological response (p < 0.001). Patients with stable disease on imaging or volumetric progression had wide ranging pathological responses. Conclusions: Soft-tissue sarcomas show significant pathological treatment responses in the form of hyaline fibrosis, necrosis and granulation tissue. Despite this, there is minimal early volumetric response to radiation, especially for high-grade tumors. Although radiological partial response was predictive of pathological response, the significance of radiological progression was unclear. Myxoid liposarcoma tumor type was predictive of both pathological and radiological tumor response.

  16. Personal and Social Disease Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe TRIBUZIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the Ottawa Charter definition of the concept health is integrated and expanded, aiming at enhancing not only the "state" of health, but the "process" that leads to it, taking into account health That is considered a resource through which, the individual becomes an active player in the community. Therefore it considers very important the community aspect and the social existence of the person, it must be that within an active protagonist. Each person, therefore, should feel responsible for their own condition and must be fire "exercise opinions more control over health and over their own their environments, and to make choices conducive to health." To achieve this it is essential to enable people to learn throughout life, to prepare themselves for all of its stages and to be fire cope with injuries and chronic diseases. This should be made possible at school, at home, in the workplace and in all community settings. The purpose of the “Ottawa Charter” are really ambitious if one takes into account that not all western industrialized countries, starting from the USA, put into practice social policies that can raise standards of health, requiring structural reforms of the welfare state. The disease is the tip of the iceberg of a social pathology, which causes discomfort and influence individual, not finding answers in the institutions, become chronic changing for the worse the quality of life.

  17. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Rodrigo S; Cotta, Leonardo R; Neves, Marcelo F; Abelha, David L; Tavora, Jose E

    2006-01-01

    We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA) clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9%) were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39) checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

  18. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Scott A; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-02-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2-2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best.

  19. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0.......0003) and a significantly shorter time from initiation of gambling to meeting the criteria for PG (8.33 [8.7] years compared with 11.97 [9.1] years; p = 0.0476) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. This study presents evidence for a gender-specific course of PG unrelated to psychiatric comorbidities...

  20. Entorhinal Tau Pathology, Episodic Memory Decline, and Neurodegeneration in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Lockhart, Samuel N; Harrison, Theresa M; Bell, Rachel K; Mellinger, Taylor; Swinnerton, Kaitlin; Baker, Suzanne L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Jagust, William J

    2018-01-17

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is an early site of tau accumulation and MTL dysfunction may underlie episodic-memory decline in aging and dementia. Postmortem data indicate that tau pathology in the transentorhinal cortex is common by age 60, whereas spread to neocortical regions and worsening of cognition is associated with β-amyloid (Aβ). We used [ 18 F]AV-1451 and [ 11 C]PiB positron emission tomography, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessment to investigate how in vivo tau accumulation in temporal lobe regions, Aβ, and MTL atrophy contribute to episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults ( n = 83; age, 77 ± 6 years; 58% female). Stepwise regressions identified tau in MTL regions known to be affected in old age as the best predictor of episodic-memory performance independent of Aβ status. There was no interactive effect of MTL tau with Aβ on memory. Higher MTL tau was related to higher age in the subjects without evidence of Aβ. Among temporal lobe subregions, episodic memory was most strongly related to tau-tracer uptake in the parahippocampal gyrus, particularly the posterior entorhinal cortex, which in our parcellation includes the transentorhinal cortex. In subjects with longitudinal MRI and cognitive data ( n = 57), entorhinal atrophy mirrored patterns of tau pathology and their relationship with memory decline. Our data are consistent with neuropathological studies and further suggest that entorhinal tau pathology underlies memory decline in old age even without Aβ. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tau tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques are key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but both pathologies also occur in cognitively normal older people. Neuropathological data indicate that tau tangles in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) underlie episodic-memory impairments in AD dementia. However, it remains unclear whether MTL tau pathology also accounts for memory impairments often seen in elderly people and how Aβ affects this relationship

  1. Pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Gentile, Douglas A; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Liau, Albert K

    2010-11-01

    Increase in internet use and video-gaming contributes to public concern on pathological or obsessive play of video games among children and adolescents worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of pathological symptoms in video-gaming among Singaporean youth and the psychometric properties of instruments measuring pathological symptoms in video-gaming. A total of 2998 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, video-gaming habits, school performance, somatic symptoms, various psychological traits, social functioning and pathological symptoms of video-gaming. After weighting, the survey data were analysed to determine the prevalence of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth and gender differences in the prevalence. The construct validity of instrument used to measure pathological symptoms of video-gaming was tested. Of all the study participants, 8.7% were classified as pathological players with more boys reporting more pathological symptoms than girls. All variables, including impulse control problem, social competence, hostility, academic performance, and damages to social functioning, tested for construct validity, were significantly associated with pathological status, providing good evidence for the construct validity of the instrument used. The prevalence rate of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth is comparable with that from other countries studied thus far, and gender differences are also consistent with the findings of prior research. The positive evidence of construct validity supports the potential use of the instrument for future research and clinical screening on Singapore children and adolescents' pathological video-gaming.

  2. Breast anatomy, physiology and pathology for the physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of early breast cancer detection has spurred improvements in mammographic imaging systems and has lead to an ever-increasing role for the medical physicist. This talk will review the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the breast and discuss from a clinician's viewpoint, the proper technical and processing factors required to produce a quality mammographic study. Correct breast positioning for the MLO and CC views, adequate compression, elimination fo motion artifacts, appropriate film density and other important factors that contribute to an optimal diagnostic mammogram will also be examined. (author)

  3. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands

  4. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Vignaud, J.; Mehdi, M.; Pharaboz, C.; Meyer, B.

    1996-01-01

    Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

  7. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  8. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  9. Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-03-01

    To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family and co-workers is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first, to our knowledge, to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Egocentric social network analysis was used to characterize formally the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks than did non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked and drank than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  11. Pathology as the enabler of human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, James M; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2005-09-01

    Academic Pathology is a key player in human molecular science and in the powerful initiatives of the National Institutes of Health. Pathologists generate data crucial to virtually every molecular study of human tissue, and have the necessary skills and authority to oversee processing of human tissues for research analysis. We advocate that Academic Pathology is optimally positioned to drive the molecular revolution in study of human disease, through human tissue collection, analysis, and databasing. This can be achieved through playing a major role in human tissue procurement and management; establishing high-quality 'Pathology Resource Laboratories'; providing the scientific expertise for pathology data sharing; and recruiting and training physician scientists. Pathology should position itself to be the local institutional driver of technology implementation and development, by operating the resource laboratories, providing the expertise for technical and conceptual design of research projects, maintaining the databases that link molecular and morphological information on human tissues with the requisite clinical databases, providing education and mentorship of technology users, and nurturing new research through the development of preliminary data. We also consider that outstanding pathology journals are available for the publication of research emanating from such studies, to the benefit of the pathology profession as an academic enterprise. It is our earnest hope that Academic Pathology can play a leading role in the remarkable advances to be made as the 21st century unfolds.

  12. Quality assessment and improvements in pathology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Every patient has the right to receive optimal quality health care. With regard to pathology practice, a small (interpretational) difference can have major impact for the patient, because prognosis and treatment selection are often based on the pathology report. Unfortunately, it is inevitable that

  13. Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Vignaud, J [Val de Grace, Hopital d` Instruction du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France); Mehdi, M [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Pharaboz, C [Hopital Begin, Hopital d` Instruction des Armees, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Meyer, B [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service d` ORL, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-10-01

    Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

  15. Shifted risk preferences in pathological gambling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligneul, R.; Sescousse, G.T.; Barbalat, G.; Domenech, P.; Dreher, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by excessive monetary risk seeking in the face of negative consequences. We used tools from the field of behavioral economics to refine our description of risk-taking behavior in pathological gamblers. This

  16. Adult dementia: history, biopsy, pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torack, R M

    1979-05-01

    The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.

  17. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinico pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Butt, N.; Bhutto, A.R.; Gulzar, K.; Munir, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the clinico-pathological and radiological profile of hepatocellular carcinoma. All consecutive patients suspected of having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were admitted and included in this study. Diagnosis of HCC was established by clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and histopathologic findings. Patients with primary carcinoma elsewhere in the body, metastatic in the liver, fibrolamellar carcinoma and benign tumours were excluded from the study. At ultrasonography, the details of tumour size and number, portal vein thrombosis and presence of ascites were recorded. Patients were staged according to Okuda staging system. Results were described in mean and percentage values. There were 82 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma including 58 males and 24 females, with male to female ratio of 2.8:1. The mean age of patients was 56.24 +- 13.65 years. Right hypochondrial pain was the main symptom in 52 (63.4%) patients. The duration of symptoms varied from 1 month to 2 years. Tumour size was larger than 50% of liver size in 42 (51.2%) with portal vein thrombosis in 10 (12.19%). Anti HCV was positive in 44 (53.7%), HBsAg in 26 (31.7%) and both were found positive in 2 (2.44%) patients. Ten patients (12.2/%) found negative both for anti-HCV and HBsAg. According to Okuda staging system 18 patients had stage 1, 50 had stage 2 and 14 had stage 3 hepatocellular carcinoma. The mean age of presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma was younger as compared to western countries with potentially large non-resectable lesions. Chronic hepatitis C and B was found to be the major known factors. Patients with chronic hepatitis C and B should undergo vigorous HCC surveillance to detect early, potentially respectable HCC. (author)

  19. Physiological and pathological effects of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymes, I.

    1983-09-15

    This report deals with man's response to abnormally high levels of thermal radiation. The early sections deal with the properties and biological roles of the skin in some detail as a basis for the definitions and descriptions of pathological damage. The estimation of hazard ranges in thermal radiation exposures requires a moderately accurate knowledge of the intensity and duration of the emitted flux. The (BLEVE) Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion fireball conveniently meets this requirement as well as having the capability to inflict severe burn injuries over considerable distances. Liquid Petroleum Gas fireballs have been used as the source term for the thermal radiation calculations which predict threshold lethality and various categories of burn injury. Inevitably there are areas of uncertainty in such calculations, some contributory factors being atmospheric conditions, fuel container rupture pattern, type of clothing worn etc. The sensitivity of the predicted hazard ranges to these influential parameters is exemplified in several of the graphs presented. The susceptibility of everyday clothing to ignite or melt in thermal fluxes greater than about 70 kW/m/sup 2/ is shown to be a matter of some gravity since burning clothing can thwart escape and inflict serious, if not fatal, burns quite apart from injuries directly received from the incident radiation. The various means by which incident heat fluxes can be reduced or their effects mitigated are reviewed. Two major BLEVE case histories are discussed in some detail and the circumstances compared with those predicted by the theoretical calculations. 38 refs., 36 figs.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy. AOK Johnson. Abstract. Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia exists when the conjugated serum bilirubin level is more than 2 mg/dl or more than 20 per cent of the total serum bilirubin. It is always pathological in early infancy. The causes are many and diverse ...

  1. Innovating undergraduate pathology education through public engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundu Nagesh, Navin; Chiva Giurca, Bogdan; Lishman, Suzy

    2018-05-01

    The trends in modern undergraduate medical education focus on a patient-centred approach through problem-based learning over the traditional modular curriculum. Integrating pathology into this style of learning has resulted in the dilution of core scientific principles which may have contributed to reduced understanding and interest in the subject. We aim to innovate pathology education by utilising National Pathology Week which is organised by the Royal College of Pathologists to develop the public engagement model which empowers students to learn pathology by teaching the public. Through this model, we hope to generate a greater interest in pathology at both undergraduate and postgraduate stages of education. We obtained funding from the Royal College of Pathologists to organise National Pathology Week at Exeter Medical School and the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital. We involved 125 undergraduate student volunteers from health-related courses. We designed a curriculum aiming to educate both students and public on current topics such as cancer screening programmes, antibiotic resistance, diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease and the role of pathologists. We hosted 15 pathologists, biomedical scientists and microbiologists to engage with students, share experiences and offer an insight into their careers. Through this project, we interacted with over 500 members of the public and 150 school students. The medical student volunteers developed a range of skills including competent use of microscopes to visualise pathology slides, effective communication with lay audiences to teach pathology and understanding of the clinical application of pathology. We believe the public engagement model of teaching undergraduate students has the potential to develop a greater interest in pathology whilst benefitting the wider community.

  2. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingchuan; Zheng Yushuang; Wang Shouli; Hui Guozhen; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  3. MRI of pathology-proven peripheral nerve amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Broski, Stephen M.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ringler, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine subtypes of amyloid. Charts were reviewed to gather patient demographics, neurological symptoms and radiologist interpretation. Four men and three women with a mean age of 62 ± 11 years (range 46-76) were identified. All patients had abnormal findings on EMG with mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. All lesions demonstrated diffuse multifocal neural involvement with T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and variable enhancement on MRI. One lesion exhibited superimposed T2 hypointensity. Six of seven patients demonstrated associated muscular denervation changes. Peripheral nerve amyloidosis is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult because of insidious symptom onset, mixed sensorimotor neurologic deficits, and the potential for a wide variety of nerves affected. On MRI, peripheral nerve involvement is most commonly characterized by T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, variable enhancement, maintenance of the fascicular architecture with fusiform enlargement, multifocal involvement and muscular denervation changes. While this appearance mimics other inflammatory neuropathies, MRI can readily detect neural changes and direct-targeted biopsy, thus facilitating early diagnosis and appropriate management. (orig.)

  4. MRI of pathology-proven peripheral nerve amyloidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Broski, Stephen M.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ringler, Michael D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine subtypes of amyloid. Charts were reviewed to gather patient demographics, neurological symptoms and radiologist interpretation. Four men and three women with a mean age of 62 ± 11 years (range 46-76) were identified. All patients had abnormal findings on EMG with mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. All lesions demonstrated diffuse multifocal neural involvement with T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and variable enhancement on MRI. One lesion exhibited superimposed T2 hypointensity. Six of seven patients demonstrated associated muscular denervation changes. Peripheral nerve amyloidosis is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult because of insidious symptom onset, mixed sensorimotor neurologic deficits, and the potential for a wide variety of nerves affected. On MRI, peripheral nerve involvement is most commonly characterized by T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, variable enhancement, maintenance of the fascicular architecture with fusiform enlargement, multifocal involvement and muscular denervation changes. While this appearance mimics other inflammatory neuropathies, MRI can readily detect neural changes and direct-targeted biopsy, thus facilitating early diagnosis and appropriate management. (orig.)

  5. The Deacetylase HDAC6 Mediates Endogenous Neuritic Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Heng Tseng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The initiating events that promote tau mislocalization and pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD are not well defined, partly because of the lack of endogenous models that recapitulate tau dysfunction. We exposed wild-type neurons to a neuroinflammatory trigger and examined the effect on endogenous tau. We found that tau re-localized and accumulated within pathological neuritic foci, or beads, comprised of mostly hypo-phosphorylated, acetylated, and oligomeric tau. These structures were detected in aged wild-type mice and were enhanced in response to neuroinflammation in vivo, highlighting a previously undescribed endogenous age-related tau pathology. Strikingly, deletion or inhibition of the cytoplasmic shuttling factor HDAC6 suppressed neuritic tau bead formation in neurons and mice. Using mass spectrometry-based profiling, we identified a single neuroinflammatory factor, the metalloproteinase MMP-9, as a mediator of neuritic tau beading. Thus, our study uncovers a link between neuroinflammation and neuritic tau beading as a potential early-stage pathogenic mechanism in AD.

  6. “End-Stage” Neurofibrillary Tangle Pathology in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; SantaCruz, Karen S.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Lin, Yushun; Neltner, Janna M.; Smith, Charles D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Among individuals who were cognitively intact before death, autopsies may reveal some Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. The presence of end-stage pathology in cognitively intact persons would support the hypothesis that pathological markers are epiphenomena. We assessed advanced neurofibrillary (Braak stages V and VI) pathology focusing on nondemented individuals. Data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database (n = 4,690 included initially) and from the Nun Study (n = 526 included initially) were analyzed, with antemortem information about global cognition and careful postmortem studies available from each case. Global cognition (final Mini-Mental State Examination scores [MMSE] and clinical ‘dementia’ status) was correlated with neuropathology, including the severity of neurofibrillary pathology (Braak stages and neurofibrillary tangle counts in cerebral neocortex). Analyses support three major findings: 1. Braak stage V cases and Braak VI cases are significantly different from each other in terms of associated antemortem cognition; 2. There is an appreciable range of pathology within the category of Braak stage VI based on tangle counts such that brains with the most neurofibrillary tangles in neocortex always had profound antemortem cognitive impairment; and 3. There was no nondemented case with final MMSE score of 30 within a year of life and Braak stage VI pathology. It may be inappropriate to combine Braak stages V and VI cases, particularly in patients with early cognitive dysfunction, since the two pathological stages appear to differ dramatically in terms of both pathological severity and antemortem cognitive status. There is no documented example of truly end-stage neurofibrillary pathology coexisting with intact cognition. PMID:21471646

  7. Teaching digital pathology: The international school of digital pathology and proposed syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is an interdisciplinary field where competency in pathology, laboratory techniques, informatics, computer science, information systems, engineering, and even biology converge. This implies that teaching students about digital pathology requires coverage, expertise, and hands-on experience in all these disciplines. With this in mind, a syllabus was developed for a digital pathology summer school aimed at professionals in the aforementioned fields, as well as trainees and doctoral students. The aim of this communication is to share the context, rationale, and syllabus for this school of digital pathology.

  8. Sports-related brain injuries: connecting pathology to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.

  9. Pathological jealousy and pathological love: Apples to apples or apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravogiannis, Andrea Lorena da C; Kim, Hyoun S; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Zilberman, Monica L; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-01-01

    Pathological jealousy evokes emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that cause damage to social and interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, pathological love is the uncontrollable behavior of caring for a partner that results in neglecting the needs of the self. The aim of the present research was to assess the similarities and differences between the two psychopathologies of love. To this end, thirty-two individuals with pathological jealousy and 33 individuals with pathological love were compared on demographics, aspects of romantic relationship (jealousy, satisfaction, love style), psychiatric co-morbidities, personality and psychological characteristics (e.g., impulsivity). In a univariate analysis individuals with pathological jealousy were more likely to be in a current relationship and reported greater satisfaction. The avoidant attachment and the ludus love style were associated with pathological jealousy whereas the secure attachment and agape love style was associated with pathological love. Almost three-quarters (72.3%) of the sample met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, however no differences emerged between the pathological jealousy and pathological love groups. In a binary logistic regression, relationship status and impairments in parenting significantly differentiated the groups. While both pathological jealousy and pathological love share similarities, they also present with unique differences, which may have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal.

  11. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  12. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  13. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Y. Naritoku MD, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s. To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1 reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2 identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3 prioritize training accordingly.

  14. Evolution of the Pathology Residency Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne Z.; Black-Schaffer, W. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The required medical knowledge and skill set for the pathologist of 2020 are different than in 2005. Pathology residency training curriculum must accordingly change to fulfill the needs of these ever-changing requirements. In order to make rational curricular adjustments, it is important for us to know the current trajectory of resident training in pathology—where we have been, what our actual current training curriculum is now—to understand how that might change in anticipation of meeting the needs of a changing patient and provider population and to fit within the evolving future biomedical and socioeconomic health-care setting. In 2013, there were 143 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology residency training programs in the United States, with approximately 2400 residents. There is diversity among residency training programs not only with respect to the number of residents but also in training venue(s). To characterize this diversity among pathology residency training programs, a curriculum survey was conducted of pathology residency program directors in 2013 and compared with a similar survey taken almost 9 years previously in 2005 to identify trends in pathology residency curriculum. Clinical pathology has not changed significantly in the number of rotations over 9 years; however, anatomic pathology has changed dramatically, with an increase in the number of surgical pathology rotations coupled with a decline in stand-alone autopsy rotations. With ever-expanding medical knowledge that the graduating pathology resident must know, it is necessary to (1) reflect upon what are the critical need subjects, (2) identify areas that have become of lesser importance, and then (3) prioritize training accordingly. PMID:28725779

  15. Diet, residential origin, and pathology at Machu Picchu, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bethany L; Armelagos, George J

    2012-09-01

    Pathological conditions in human skeletal remains provide a wealth of information about archaeological populations, but many are limited in their interpretive significance by their nonspecific etiologies. This study analyzes three common pathological conditions known to manifest in infancy and childhood in the skeletal population from Machu Picchu, Peru (N = 74) with published carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic data (Turner et al.: J Archaeol Sci 36 (2009) 317-332; Turner et al.: Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena 42 (2010) 515-524) to distinguish early-life diet from residential origins as significantly associated with pathologies among the site's inhabitants. Analyses of variance indicate highly significant variation between enamel δ(18)O values, which serve as a rough proxy of local environment, and both cribra orbitalia (CO) and porotic hyperostosis (PH), generally understood to be markers of anemia. Results tentatively suggest that individuals manifesting these lesions may have lived closer to the arid coasts; however, no significant variation was found in parameters of diet (enamel δ(13) C(carbonate), dentin δ(13) C(collagen), dentin δ(15)N) by either CO or PH, suggesting that the primary factors causing anemia may have been more significantly related to residential origin rather than diet. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) frequency significantly varied by both dietary and residential parameters, supporting models of LEH formation from a synergy of dietary and environmental factors. These results support previous research on the etiology of PH in the Andes; they also represent a useful approach to refining site-specific interpretations of pathological conditions in archaeological populations, and exploring etiological variation between populations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathological narcissism and the obstruction of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-03-01

    Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love.

  18. Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

  19. Fluorescence diagnosis of pre-tumor and tumor pathology of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of fluorescence hysteroscopy with Alasens includes visual assessment of fluorescence of Alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX and local fluorescence spectroscopy. The technique allows to improve the efficacy of early diagnosis for endometrial pathology including early endometrial cancer, to assess definitely an extent of pre-tumor and tumor process. The sensitivity of fluorescence hysteroscopy accounts for 100%, the specificity – 98%. 

  20. Improved assessment of mediastinal and pulmonary pathologies in combined staging CT examinations using a fast-speed acquisition dual-source CT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Franziska M.; Holzner, Veronica; Meinel, Felix G.; Armbruster, Marco; Brandlhuber, Martina; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Sommer, Wieland H. [University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of fast Dual-Source CT (DSCT) and to evaluate the clinical utility in chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT studies. 45 cancer patients with two follow-up combined chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations (maximally ±10 kV difference in tube potential) were included. The first scan had to be performed with our standard protocol (fixed pitch 0.6), the second one using a novel fast-speed DSCT protocol (fixed pitch 1.55). Effective doses (ED) were calculated, noise measurements performed. Scan times were compared, motion artefacts and the diagnostic confidence rated in consensus reading. ED for the standard and fast-speed scans was 9.1 (7.0-11.1) mSv and 9.2 (7.4-12.8) mSv, respectively (P = 0.075). Image noise was comparable (abdomen; all P > 0.05) or reduced for fast-speed CTs (trachea, P = 0.001; ascending aorta, P < 0.001). Motion artefacts of the heart/the ascending aorta (all P < 0.001) and breathing artefacts (P < 0.031) were reduced in fast DSCT. The diagnostic confidence for the evaluation of mediastinal (P < 0.001) and pulmonary (P = 0.008) pathologies was improved for fast DSCT. Fast DSCT for chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations is performed within 2 seconds scan time and eliminates relevant intrathoracic motion/breathing artefacts. Mediastinal/pulmonary pathologies can thus be assessed with high diagnostic confidence. Abdominal image quality remains excellent. (orig.)

  1. Precision Medicine in Gastrointestinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Park, Jason Y

    2016-05-01

    -Precision medicine is the promise of individualized therapy and management of patients based on their personal biology. There are now multiple global initiatives to perform whole-genome sequencing on millions of individuals. In the United States, an early program was the Million Veteran Program, and a more recent proposal in 2015 by the president of the United States is the Precision Medicine Initiative. To implement precision medicine in routine oncology care, genetic variants present in tumors need to be matched with effective clinical therapeutics. When we focus on the current state of precision medicine for gastrointestinal malignancies, it becomes apparent that there is a mixed history of success and failure. -To present the current state of precision medicine using gastrointestinal oncology as a model. We will present currently available targeted therapeutics, promising new findings in clinical genomic oncology, remaining quality issues in genomic testing, and emerging oncology clinical trial designs. -Review of the literature including clinical genomic studies on gastrointestinal malignancies, clinical oncology trials on therapeutics targeted to molecular alterations, and emerging clinical oncology study designs. -Translating our ability to sequence thousands of genes into meaningful improvements in patient survival will be the challenge for the next decade.

  2. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  3. MRI and pathology in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jensen, Karl-Erik; Fiirgaard, Bente

    2009-01-01

    -free unoperated groins scanned. Two blinded observers separately assessed groins using a predefined list of possible MRI pathology and anatomic landmarks. Primary outcomes included interobserver agreement assessed by calculating kappa-coefficients. Secondary outcomes included frequency of MRI pathology in painful...... groins versus unoperated and pain-free groins. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was poor, ranging from kappa = 0.24 to 0.55 ("fair" to "moderate") except for "contrast enhancement in groin" (kappa = 0.69, substantial). Pathologic changes in the form of "contrast enhancement in groin," "edema......," and "spermatic cord caliber increased" were significantly more often seen in painful versus unoperated groins (p pathologic finding was specific or seen in all painful groins. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Types of psychotherapy for pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Timothy W

    2005-05-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder.

  5. PLANT PATHOLOGY: a discipline at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, A R

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Berkeley was destroyed as a consequence of a contentious reorganization. The circumstances that led to the reorganization provide some insight into the challenges facing the discipline of plant pathology. The underlying basis for plant pathology as a science is to address problems of plant disease. This requires a balance between disciplinary and problem-solving research and a continuum from achieving fundamental advances in knowledge to the development and implementation of problem-solving approaches. Changes in colleges and universities have placed extreme stress on this essential structure. The dilemma that must be addressed is how to reestablish the problem-solving continuum where it has been broken and strengthen it where it has been weakened. Plants are essential for life, and they will always be affected by disease. The understanding and management of these diseases is the responsibility and the challenge of plant pathology today and in the future.

  6. Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

    2014-03-01

    Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Pathological hobbies and interests in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I I; Malinochka, S A

    2008-01-01

    Pathological hobbies have been studied in 82 inpatients with schizophrenia, 48 men and 34 women, aged 18-65 years. Inclusion criteria of pathology were (1) overvalued character of a hobby, (2) insufficient criticism towards this hobby, (3) fringe, singularity interests and methods of their realization; (4) inconsistency between the hobby and previous life experience, (5) low efficiency, (6) strong linkage with other psychopathological presentations, (7) chronological coincidence between the onset of pathological hobbies and schizophrenia manifestation or exacerbation, (8) susceptibility to progressive dynamics, (9) distinct social-maladaptive influence. Regarding the content, pathological hobbies are presented by creative art, scientific work, collecting, gambling, sport and health activities, "spiritual" development. Three clinical variants - obsessive-compulsive, overvalued and paranoic can be singled out by clinical presentations. The overvalued variant appears to be more favorable due to the predominantly adaptive social influence and weak relation to the dynamics of schizophrenia. Other variants are less productive exerting mostly decompensation effect with less favorable dynamics.

  8. Golden rules in practice of cancer pathology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.N. El-Bolkainy

    2016-07-21

    Jul 21, 2016 ... Recent 5-year survival data of different cancer sites are presented with a .... Thanks to the break through discoveries of effective therapeutic modalities, ... The author of 111 scientific papers and 16 books on cancer pathology ...

  9. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.

  10. Multislice ct in gut related pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Shaukat, A.; Ahmad, M.W.; Amin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Multislice CT in Gut related pathologies. 50 consecutive patients, referred from surgical and medical departments, with gut pathology suspicion were scanned in this respect on Toshiba MSCT 4 slice Aquilion. Patients were. 100 ml iodinated non ionic IV contrast was given. Preferably water was used as oral contrast and oral iodinated contrast was used only in selective cases. As a result, 33 patients showed positive response and 17 were normal; 23 were females and 10 were males. We found following pathologies Acute Appendicitis 10, Diverticulitis 02, Inflammatory Bowel Disease 03, Small Bowel Obstruction 04, Malignant Gut masses 08, Omental Implants 05, Perforation (Duodenal) 01. It is thus concluded that MDCT has a definite role in gut pathologies especially when the ultrasound is negative. (author)

  11. Osseous scintigraphy in sporting pathology and in micro traumatic lesions of demineralized patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, J.; Brenot-Rossi, I.; Sauvan, R.; Sebahoun, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Coste, J.

    1992-01-01

    Osseous scintigraphy is useful in sporting pathology because of the possibility of fatigue fracture diagnosis. It is a simple and efficient way of doing an early diagnosis of osseous injury. Osseous scintigraphy has the merit to focus the valuation of other methods like tomodensitometry or NMR imaging on a precise area. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle, differential diagnosis pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara A, Enrique; Villamarin, Fernando; Pina Q, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    The congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle is a rare entity, frequently appearing without association to other pathologies and does not cause important limitations in the children. It can confuse with other traumatic pathologies like clavicle fracture. Most of the patients complain about the aesthetics and few times for pain. The treatment is generally surgical there is controversy about of carrying out surgery. We reported two clinical cases with pseudoarthrosis of the right clavicle that they received surgical treatment with satisfactory results.

  13. Review of research on pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1993-06-01

    The literature including a number of review articles was examined for answers to the questions, have distinctive personality test profiles of pathological gamblers been identified, do pathological gamblers have control over their behavior, have studies of alcoholism and addiction increased understanding of compulsive gambling, and has psychotherapy or Gamblers Anonymous been successful for them? Much more information is needed to build on what research on these questions has yielded.

  14. Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Timothy W.

    2005-01-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distor...

  15. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  16. Influence of bromoprid on pathological gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, B.; Brueckner, W.L.; Luderschmidt, C.

    1982-01-01

    In 20 out of 28 patients with pathological reflux, decreased reflux intensity was found in the functional scintiscan after i.v. injection of 10 mg Bromoprid. This way, reflux cases in which successful therapy with so-called motility-influencing substances is highly probable can be identified already during primary diagnosis. In two thirds of all patients with affected oesophagus and pathological reflux accompanying sclerodermatitis, the lower oesophagal sphincter still responded to Bromoprid. (orig.) [de

  17. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  18. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  19. Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile.

    OpenAIRE

    O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.

    2014-01-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...

  20. Influence of bromoprid on pathological gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisner, B.; Brueckner, W.L.; Luderschmidt, C.

    1982-10-28

    In 20 out of 28 patients with pathological reflux, decreased reflux intensity was found in the functional scintiscan after i.v. injection of 10 mg Bromoprid. This way, reflux cases in which successful therapy with so-called motility-influencing substances is highly probable can be identified already during primary diagnosis. In two thirds of all patients with affected oesophagus and pathological reflux accompanying sclerodermatitis, the lower oesophagal sphincter still responded to Bromoprid.

  1. Food insecurity and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Middlemass, Keesha; Taylor, Brigitte; Johnson, Clara; Gomez, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate eating disorder (ED) pathology in those living with food insecurity. A secondary aim was to investigate whether any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry increased as level of food insecurity increased. Participants (N = 503) seeking food from food pantries completed questionnaires assessing level of food insecurity, demographics, ED pathology, dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants with the highest level of food insecurity (i.e., adults who reported having hungry children in their household) also endorsed significantly higher levels of binge eating, overall ED pathology, any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry compared to participants with lower levels of food insecurity. Contrary to hypotheses, compensatory behaviors also increased as level of food insecurity worsened. Overall, 17% of those in the child hunger food insecurity group reported clinically significant ED pathology. This is the first study to assess the full spectrum of ED pathology in a low-income, marginalized population with food insecurity. Given that food insecurity is a global concern, results from this study suggest that greater attention to the association between ED pathology and food insecurity is warranted by researchers around the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  3. Disrupted sensory gating in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Wendy; Karayanidis, Frini; Johnston, Patrick; Bailey, Andrew; Carr, Vaughan; Schall, Ulrich

    2003-08-15

    Some neurochemical evidence as well as recent studies on molecular genetics suggest that pathologic gambling may be related to dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined sensory (motor) gating in pathologic gamblers as a putative measure of endogenous brain dopamine activity with prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink response and the auditory P300 event-related potential. Seventeen pathologic gamblers and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were assessed. Both prepulse inhibition measures were recorded under passive listening and two-tone prepulse discrimination conditions. Compared to the control group, pathologic gamblers exhibited disrupted sensory (motor) gating on all measures of prepulse inhibition. Sensory motor gating deficits of eye-blink responses were most profound at 120-millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the passive listening task and at 240-millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the two-tone prepulse discrimination task. Sensory gating of P300 was also impaired in pathologic gamblers, particularly at 500-millisecond lead intervals, when performing the discrimination task on the prepulse. In the context of preclinical studies on the disruptive effects of dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition, our findings suggest increased endogenous brain dopamine activity in pathologic gambling in line with previous neurobiological findings.

  4. Routine digital pathology workflow: The Catania experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fraggetta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Successful implementation of whole slide imaging (WSI for routine clinical practice has been accomplished in only a few pathology laboratories worldwide. We report the transition to an effective and complete digital surgical pathology workflow in the pathology laboratory at Cannizzaro Hospital in Catania, Italy. Methods: All (100% permanent histopathology glass slides were digitized at ×20 using Aperio AT2 scanners. Compatible stain and scanning slide racks were employed to streamline operations. eSlide Manager software was bidirectionally interfaced with the anatomic pathology laboratory information system. Virtual slide trays connected to the two-dimensional (2D barcode tracking system allowed pathologists to confirm that they were correctly assigned slides and that all tissues on these glass slides were scanned. Results: Over 115,000 glass slides were digitized with a scan fail rate of around 1%. Drying glass slides before scanning minimized them sticking to scanner racks. Implementation required introduction of a 2D barcode tracking system and modification of histology workflow processes. Conclusion: Our experience indicates that effective adoption of WSI for primary diagnostic use was more dependent on optimizing preimaging variables and integration with the laboratory information system than on information technology infrastructure and ensuring pathologist buy-in. Implementation of digital pathology for routine practice not only leveraged the benefits of digital imaging but also creates an opportunity for establishing standardization of workflow processes in the pathology laboratory.

  5. In vivo signatures of nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia caused by FTLD pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Francesca; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Henry, Maya; Gesierich, Benno; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Ogar, Jennifer; Filippi, Massimo; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Sidhu, Manu; Trojanowski, John Q.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina; Seeley, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify early cognitive and neuroimaging features of sporadic nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes. Methods: We prospectively collected clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic data in 11 patients with sporadic nfvPPA with FTLD-tau (nfvPPA-tau, n = 9) or FTLD–transactive response DNA binding protein pathology of 43 kD type A (nfvPPA-TDP, n = 2). We analyzed patterns of cognitive and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy at presentation in the whole group and in each pathologic subtype separately. We also considered longitudinal clinical data. Results: At first evaluation, regardless of pathologic FTLD subtype, apraxia of speech (AOS) was the most common cognitive feature and atrophy involved the left posterior frontal lobe. Each pathologic subtype showed few distinctive features. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-tau presented with mild to moderate AOS, mixed dysarthria with prominent hypokinetic features, clear agrammatism, and atrophy in the GM of the left posterior frontal regions and in left frontal WM. While speech and language deficits were prominent early, within 3 years of symptom onset, all patients with nfvPPA-tau developed significant extrapyramidal motor signs. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-TDP had severe AOS, dysarthria with spastic features, mild agrammatism, and atrophy in left posterior frontal GM only. Selective mutism occurred early, when general neurologic examination only showed mild decrease in finger dexterity in the right hand. Conclusions: Clinical features in sporadic nfvPPA caused by FTLD subtypes relate to neurodegeneration of GM and WM in frontal motor speech and language networks. We propose that early WM atrophy in nfvPPA is suggestive of FTLD-tau pathology while early selective GM loss might be indicative of FTLD-TDP. PMID:24353332

  6. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enterprise Implementation of Digital Pathology: Feasibility, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D J; Pantanowitz, L; McHugh, J S; Piccoli, A L; OLeary, M J; Lauro, G R

    2017-10-01

    Digital pathology is becoming technically possible to implement for routine pathology work. At our institution, we have been using digital pathology for second opinion intraoperative consultations for over 10 years. Herein, we describe our experience in converting to a digital pathology platform for primary pathology diagnosis. We implemented an incremental rollout for digital pathology on subspecialty benches, beginning with cases that contained small amounts of tissue (biopsy specimens). We successfully scanned over 40,000 slides through our digital pathology system. Several lessons (both challenges and opportunities) were learned through this implementation. A successful conversion to digital pathology requires pre-imaging adjustments, integrated software and post-imaging evaluations.

  8. Immunity peculiarities of neonates in case of perinatal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Godovanets

    2018-02-01

    of the evidences of immune system components participation in perinatal pathology pathogenesis is detected correlation between immune disorders severity and clinical manifestation of diseases, as well as immune indices normalization in a long-term organism adaptation formation. Conclusions. Based on the data obtained it has been concluded that immune system status determination is reasonable for diagnostics of disadaptation syndrome severity in early neonatal period.

  9. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions.

  10. The factorial structure of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Z; Blaszczynski, A

    1996-03-01

    Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to investigate relationships between the constructs of impulsivity, psychopathy, DSM-III-R criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder, psychological distress, criminal offending behavior and a range of other common psychological measures employed with pathological gamblers. The sample comprised 115 pathological gamblers, 80 consecutive gamblers seeking treatment from a general hospital psychiatric inpatient behavior therapy unit, and 35 volunteer Gamblers Anonymous attenders. Four primary factors were determined: psychological distress, sensation seeking, crime and liveliness, and impulsive-antisocial. Results suggest that pathological gambling consists of a number of discrete and reproducible factorial structures. The impulsive antisocial factor was found to be associated with gambling behavior and indices of poor psychosocial functioning.

  11. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Moncaster

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21 encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD amyloid precursor protein (APP. Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta, early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Abeta pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Abeta aggregates (approximately 5 to 50 nm identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Abeta in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Abeta with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Abeta

  13. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available pathological mechanisms in the pathway from silica exposure to the development of silicosis have been elucidated. If scientifically acceptable existing biomarkers for silica dust exposure can be identified, industry could utilise these for the early...

  14. Dual Pathology in Rasmussen's Encephalitis: A Report of Coexistent Focal Cortical Dysplasia and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Prayson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Rasmussen’s encephalitis is a well-established, albeit rare cause of medically intractable epilepsy. In a small number of Rasmussen's cases, a second pathology is identified, which independently can cause medically intractable seizures (dual pathology). This paper documents a case of a 13-year-old male who presented with medically intractable epilepsy. The patient underwent a series of surgical resections, early on resulting in a diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia and later yielding a diag...

  15. [Approaches in the treatment of pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1994-06-01

    In the treatment of pathological gambling the diagnosis, treatment of the accessory psychopathology and the somatic condition are important. Motivation training, behavioural and reality-oriented therapy, modification of the lifestyle relaxation techniques and yoga proved useful. There is also experience with dynamically oriented treatment techniques self-esteem reinforcement, training of social skills, strategies which promote impulse control, artetherapy, group therapy, provision of relevant information etc. Family therapy is important both for a pathological gambler and his/her relatives. Very important is contact with the family of the pathological gambler for his own treatment and with regard to the needs of his/her relatives. A therapeutic approach common abroad is participation in a self-help group, Gamblers Anonymous.

  16. Delinquency among pathological gamblers: A causal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G; Fabian, T

    1992-03-01

    In a comprehensive research project on gamblers in self-help groups in West Germany one object of investigation was the question of whether or not pathological gambling has a criminogenic effect. 54.5% of the 437 members of Gamblers Anonymous interviewed stated that they had committed illegal actions in order to obtain money for gambling. Comparisons of this sub-group with those interviewees who did not admit having committed criminal offences show distinct differences: Those who admitted illegal action were more excessive in their gambling behavior and experienced a higher degree of subjective satisfaction through gambling. They also showed a more pronounced problem behavior and more psychosocial problems because of gambling. A multiple regression within the framework of path analysis was computed in order to explore causal links between pathological gambling and delinquency. The results support the hypothesis that pathological gambling can lead to delinquent behavior. Forensic implications are discussed.

  17. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, G.; Bartoli, J.M.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bayle, O.; Distefano-Louineau, D.; Kasbarian, M.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI [fr

  18. A cognitive model of pathological worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541

  19. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, John M.

    2005-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520

  20. Standardization efforts of digital pathology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marcial García; Daniel, Christel; Schrader, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    EURO-TELEPATH is a European COST Action IC0604. It started in 2007 and will end in November 2011. Its main objectives are evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit, and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical specialties in a networked environment. Working Group 1, "Business Modelling in Pathology," has designed main pathology processes - Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy - using Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Working Group 2 has been dedicated to promoting the application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Health terminology standardization research has become a topic of great interest. Future research work should focus on standardizing automatic image analysis and tissue microarrays imaging.

  1. Pathological gambling in women: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Silvia Saboia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980. Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

  2. Muscular pathology: echographic and NMR imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal-Suisse, P.; Beaurain, P.; Mougniot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of echographic techniques and NMR imaging has been done for the diagnosis of muscular trauma and tumor pathologies. In traumatic pathology, the echographic analysis allows to determine the complete assessment of recent muscular injuries. NMR imaging can be used in granuloma or fibrous callosity appreciation and for the analysis of deep injury (muscles and muscles-tendon junctions) and of muscular aponeurosis. Echography must be used together with color coding Doppler technique in the diagnosis of tumor pathology and for the study of slow fluxes. The recently available energy Doppler technique seems to be powerful in the study of vascularization of small expansive formations, but their extension to adjacent bone or tissue can only be appreciated using NMR imaging. (J.S.)

  3. The thin-section CT, pathological and clinical findings of peripheral small squamous cell lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahito; Saito, Haruhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed thin-section CT, pathological, and clinical findings of peripheral lung squamous cell carcinomas, with diameters of less than 20 mm and compared these findings with solid type adenocarcinomas. CT findings of polygonal shapes, notches, pleural thickness, and cavities are more frequently found in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas. The pathological types can be classified in two groups: Solid types, Scirrhous types. The 5 year survival rate after resection is 64.5%, which is poorer than survival rate for solid type adenocarcinomas. It is vital to diagnose and treat peripheral squamous cell carcinomas as early as possible. (author)

  4. Peculiarities of psychological status of liquidators of Chernobyl accident after-effects having psychosomatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskaya, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    Eight hundred and ninety two men aged 25-55 yrs including five hundred and eighty three persons taking part in the Chernobyl accident after-effects liquidation and three hundred and nine persons having similar psychosomatic pathologies but lacking radiation 'anamnesis'. The radiation risk understanding was shown to effect negatively on the disease run and the remission period duration. The psychic process after the radiation exposure was determined to be caused by a radiation effect on the central nervous system as well. The outcomes of the clinical and psychological study evidenced that the psychosomatic pathology including the discirculating encephalopathy developed in the persons exposed to irradiation in the early age. (authors)

  5. Organisational Pathologies Under Conditions of Economic Downswing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasieczny Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of organisational pathology is surprisingly absent in literature on management, especially when bearing in mind the theoretical and practical import of such questions. The intention of the author is to fill in this gap, at least partially. The paper is based on an analysis of literature and an empirical research conducted by the author. The research applied partially structured interviews as its method. These interviews were conducted with entrepreneurs and managers of various levels. They made possible the drawing of conclusions relating to conditions behind the genesis and growth of selected organisational pathologies in a situation of economic downswing. The article briefly presents the concept and influence of pathology on the functioning of an organisation. The author concentrates on the causes of the phenomenon and presents them from various perspectives. It is during times of economic downswing that an increase in unethical behaviour, including corruption, mobbing as well as others, becomes particularly visible. Also noticeable is concentrating on limiting costs, which can sometimes reach pathological scale. This can lead to a permanent loss of pro-development potential by the organisation. Moreover, numerous pathological phenomena emerge at the tangent point of the organisation and its surroundings. The source of many undesirable phenomena in the organisation and in its relations with its surroundings is a fall in trust, which makes its appearance in crisis situations. More often than not, managers facing a situation in which they have no choice perpetuate organisational pathologies, whilst, at the same time, being aware of the lack of validity of their actions. However, a more frequent source of problems is the differences in perspective in perceiving organisational phenomena by various actors and stakeholders.

  6. Benign breast diseases. Radiology, pathology, risk assessment. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinyama, Catherine N.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological and pathological correlation of the full range of benign breast lesions, with emphasis on screen-detected lesions. Detailed discussion of risk assessment. Revised and updated edition, with a new chapter on gynaecomastia. Ideal aid to the management of patients with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele-like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.

  7. Hip pathology in Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Bober, Michael B; Rogers, Kenneth; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen P; Mackenzie, William G

    2014-09-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth failure with microcephaly, characteristic skeletal dysplasia, an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease, and insulin resistance. MOPDII is caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene and is inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner. This study aimed to determine the incidence of hip pathology in patients with molecularly confirmed MOPDII and to describe the functional outcomes of surgical treatment. Thirty-three enrolled patients had a clinical diagnosis of MOPDII. Biallelic PCNT mutations or absent pericentrin protein was confirmed in 25 of these patients. Twelve patients (7 female) had appropriate clinical and radiographic records at this institution and were included in this study. The data collected included age at presentation, age at surgery, sex, body weight and height, weight-bearing status at diagnosis, and the clinical examination. Four patients (31%) had coxa vara: 3 unilateral and 1 bilateral. Three unilateral patients had in situ pinning at a mean age 4 years. The patient with bilateral coxa vara had valgus osteotomy at the age of 5 years. Two children had bilateral hip dysplasia and subluxation with no surgery. One patient had bilateral developmental hip dislocations. The patient was treated by open reduction-spica cast and 2 years after surgery, coxa valga was noted. Another patient was diagnosed at an age of 12 years with bilateral avascular necrosis of the hips. Four patients did not have hip pathology. Hip pathology is common among children with MOPDII; coxa vara is the most frequent diagnosis. Routine clinical and radiographic hip evaluation is important. The capital femoral epiphysis appears to slip down along the shaft, giving the appearance of a proximal femoral epiphysiolysis. A hip diagnosed with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in early life may progress to severe coxa vara. Level IV.

  8. Benign breast diseases. Radiology, pathology, risk assessment. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinyama, Catherine N. [Princess Elizabeth Hospital, Le Vauquiedor, St. Martin' s Guernsey, Channel Islands (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Radiological and pathological correlation of the full range of benign breast lesions, with emphasis on screen-detected lesions. Detailed discussion of risk assessment. Revised and updated edition, with a new chapter on gynaecomastia. Ideal aid to the management of patients with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele-like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.

  9. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etel, C; Tabchi, S; Bou Khalil, R; Hlais, S; Richa, S

    2013-02-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral dependency on hazard games that is classified, in the DSM-IV, among impulse control disorders. According to many studies, the international prevalence of pathological ranges between 2 and 6%. This disorder is often accompanied by a considerable impact on patients' life as well as on the life of people surrounding them. Adolescents and young adults are considered to be a population at risk to develop this kind of behavioral dependency. The problem of pathological gambling is one of the major problems from which the Lebanese population of university students in Lebanese society suffers. The prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students is lacking from the contemporary medical literature. In our study, five of the biggest private universities in Lebanon (Notre-Dame University of Louaizé [NDU], Lebanese American University [LAU], American University of Beirut [AUB], Saint-Joseph University [USJ] and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK]) were surveyed. Each questionnaire was based essentially on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed in these universities. Among the 477 students that completed the questionnaire, 5.87% appeared to be suffering from pathological gambling; 25.15% of responding students presented some problems related to gambling while the rest of them, corresponding to 68.92%, had no problems related to gambling. This is the first study of its kind conducted in the Lebanon. Its interest lies in that it offers an important evaluation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students. According to this study, the prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese university students is high. Prevention programs and sensitization strategies are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of this disorder in the Lebanese young. More studies are needed in this domain in order to

  10. Metallothioneins are multipurpose neuroprotectants during brain pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of cysteine-rich metalloproteins involved in cytoprotection during pathology. In mammals there are four isoforms (MT-I - IV), of which MT-I and -II (MT-I + II) are the best characterized MT proteins in the brain. Accumulating studies have demonstrated MT......-I overexpression demonstrated the importance of MT-I + II for coping with brain pathology. In addition, exogenous MT-I or MT-II injected intraperitoneally is able to promote similar effects as those of endogenous MT-I + II, which indicates that MT-I + II have both extra- and intracellular actions. In injured brain...

  11. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  12. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  13. Understanding adolescent personality pathology from growth trajectories of childhood oddity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; Verbeke, Lize; De Caluwé, Elien; Vercruysse, Tom; Hofmans, Joeri

    2017-10-01

    Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals. Personality pathology was assessed at a fourth assessment point in adolescence. Beyond a general declining trend in oddity characteristics, the results demonstrated that both an early onset and an increasing trend of oddity-related characteristics over time are independent predictors of adolescent PDs. Childhood oddity tends to be the most manifest precursor for PDs with a core oddity feature (i.e., the schizotypal and borderline PD), but also appears to predict most of the other DSM-5 PDs. Results are discussed from an overarching developmental framework on PDs (Cicchetti, 2014), specifically focusing on the principle of multifinality. From a clinical perspective, the significance of increasing or steady-high childhood oddity trajectories for adolescent PDs highlights the relevance of systematic screening processes across time.

  14. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  15. Characterizing speech and language pathology outcomes in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Brooke; Millet, Deborah; Coles, Janice; Gassaway, Julie; Conroy, Brendan; Smout, Randall J

    2005-12-01

    Hatfield B, Millet D, Coles J, Gassaway J, Conroy B, Smout RJ. Characterizing speech and language pathology outcomes in stroke rehabilitation. To describe a subset of speech-language pathology (SLP) patients in the Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Outcomes Project and to examine outcomes for patients with low admission FIM levels of auditory comprehension and verbal expression. Observational cohort study. Five inpatient rehabilitation hospitals. Patients (N=397) receiving post-stroke SLP with admission FIM cognitive components at levels 1 through 5. Not applicable. Increase in comprehension and expression FIM scores from admission to discharge. Cognitively and linguistically complex SLP activities (problem-solving and executive functioning skills) were associated with greater likelihood of success in low- to mid-level functioning communicators in the acute post-stroke rehabilitation period. The results challenge common clinical practice by suggesting that use of high-level cognitively and linguistically complex SLP activities early in a patient's stay may result in more efficient practice and better outcomes regardless of the patient's functional communication severity level on admission.

  16. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L'Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-03-02

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development.

  17. Internet images of the speech pathology profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2017-06-05

    Objective The Internet provides the general public with information about speech pathology services, including client groups and service delivery models, as well as the professionals providing the services. Although this information assists the general public and other professionals to both access and understand speech pathology services, it also potentially provides information about speech pathology as a prospective career, including the types of people who are speech pathologists (i.e. demographics). The aim of the present study was to collect baseline data on how the speech pathology profession was presented via images on the Internet. Methods A pilot prospective observational study using content analysis methodology was conducted to analyse publicly available Internet images related to the speech pathology profession. The terms 'Speech Pathology' and 'speech pathologist' to represent both the profession and the professional were used, resulting in the identification of 200 images. These images were considered across a range of areas, including who was in the image (e.g. professional, client, significant other), the technology used and the types of intervention. Results The majority of images showed both a client and a professional (i.e. speech pathologist). While the professional was predominantly presented as female, the gender of the client was more evenly distributed. The clients were more likely to be preschool or school aged, however male speech pathologists were presented as providing therapy to selected age groups (i.e. school aged and younger adults). Images were predominantly of individual therapy and the few group images that were presented were all paediatric. Conclusion Current images of speech pathology continue to portray narrow professional demographics and client groups (e.g. paediatrics). Promoting images of wider scope to fully represent the depth and breadth of speech pathology professional practice may assist in attracting a more diverse

  18. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and

  19. Anorexia and Attachment: Dysregulated Defense and Pathological Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elisa edelvecchio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  20. MR imaging of the neonatal brain: Pathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, C.B.; Richardson, C.J.; Nicholas, D.A.; Hayden, C.K.; Amparo, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three neonates, aged 29-43 weeks since conception, were studied. US and/or CT correlations were obtained in most infants with pathology. In the first 4-5 days after hemorrhage, US and CT were superior to MR imaging, but after that time MR imaging was the single best modality for imaging blood. In early premature infants with very watery white matter, US detected infarction and brain edema that were poorly seen on both MR imaging and CT. However, in late premature and full-term infants, MR imaging was better than CT in distinguishing between normal white matter and infarction. Only MR imaging disclosed delayed myelination in 13 term infants with hydrocephalus and severe asphyxia. MR imaging with play an important role in imaging neonates once MR imaging-compatible monitors and neonatal head coils become widely available

  1. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

    2011-01-01

    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  3. Brain pathologies in extreme old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Patel, Ela; Poon, Leonard W; Marla, Gearing; Green, Robert C; Davey, Adam; Johnson, Mary Ann; Jazwinski, S Michal; Kim, Sangkyu; Davis, Daron; Woodard, John L; Kryscio, Richard J; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center, incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (n = 49 cases included), Nun Study (n = 17), and University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (n = 11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 (range: 98-107) years overall. Alzheimer's disease pathology was not universal (62% with "moderate" or "frequent" neuritic amyloid plaque densities), whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration was absent. By contrast, some hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (including primary age-related tauopathy) were observed in every case. Lewy body pathology was seen in 16.9% of subjects and hippocampal sclerosis of aging in 20.8%. We describe anatomic distributions of pigment-laden macrophages, expanded Virchow-Robin spaces, and arteriolosclerosis among Georgia Centenarians. Moderate or severe arteriolosclerosis pathology, throughout the brain, was associated with both hippocampal sclerosis of aging pathology and an ABCC9 gene variant. These results provide fresh insights into the complex cerebral multimorbidity, and a novel genetic risk factor, at the far end of the human aging spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Prostate Pathology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Clinical Pathology, Chicago 3. Partin AW, Mangold LA, Lamm DM , Walsh PC, Epstein JI, Pearson JD (2001) Urology 58:843–848 4. De La Taille A, Viellefond...are used to seeing only in optical microscopy,” he recalls. “The crispness , the details were comparable.” In fact, the pixel size is only a half

  5. Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being

  6. Challenges in Transgender Healthcare: The Pathology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarika; Imborek, Katherine L; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    The transgender community is one of the most marginalized sections of our society. The literature is scarce regarding the pathology and laboratory medicine challenges associated with caring for transgender patients. To summarize the available gender-transitioning options and to discuss healthcare challenges, from a pathology/laboratory medicine perspective, in the care of transgender patients. We reviewed the current terminology and epidemiology relevant to the transgender population in preparing our analysis. The main transgender healthcare challenges in pathology/laboratory medicine practice include the inflexibility of electronic medical records in documenting affirmed gender, unfamiliarity among medical and laboratory professional with the needs of and terminology related to the transgender population, lack of reference ranges for laboratory tests, unclear guidelines regarding gender classification for blood donation eligibility criteria, and paucity of experience in handling and interpreting surgical and cytologic specimens from gender-transitioning individuals. Directed efforts to overcome these shortcomings, coupled with a more welcoming posture, are essential to achieving the highest standards of care for the transgender population. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Chemical Pathology Laboratory Tests in Pregnancy | Bolarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, chemical pathology laboratory investigative test results during normal healthy pregnancy show significant differences from the normal reference intervals or ranges (i.e. non-pregnant woman's reference intervals or ranges) thereby causing misinterpretation as inappropriate or odd. This wrong interpretation of the ...

  8. When is the practice of pathology mapractice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.M. Giard (Raimond)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBecause of its complex nature, surgical pathology diagnosis has an appreciable degree of fallibility and is increasingly subject to legal scrutiny. In litigation, the first practical step is to explain why and how this adversity could happen, and the second is the question of

  9. Drama: Transforming the Pathology of Compulsive Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Toni L.

    1998-01-01

    Highlights aspects of Freud's discussions on the "fort-da" game and the process of transference and countertransference in their connection to psychological aspects of dramatic activity. Concludes that from the pathological need to repeat can come therapeutic possibilities in the human tendency for people to restage and reobserve their…

  10. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  11. Urologic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someren, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the kidneys, urinary passages, renal transplantation, male genitalia, and adrenal glands. Each chapter has the same format: congenital conditions are discussed then, inflammatory and nonneoplastic disorders; and, finally, neoplasms. For each disease process, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognosis are discussed

  12. Urologic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someren, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the kidneys, urinary passages, renal transplantation, male genitalia, and adrenal glands. Each chapter has the same format: congenital conditions are discussed then, inflammatory and nonneoplastic disorders; and, finally, neoplasms. For each disease process, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  13. Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as "smartphones." These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facilitation between experts to resource-poor environments. These advances have been received with mixed reviews. For anatomic pathology, mobile technology applications can be broken into 4 broad categories: (a) educational uses, (b) microscope with mobile phone, (c) mobile phone as microscope/acquisition device, and (d) miscellaneous. Using a mobile phone as an acquisition device paired with a microscope seems to be the most interesting current application because of the need for expert consultation with resource-poor environments. However, several emerging uses for mobile technology may become more prominent as the technology matures including image analysis, alternative light sources, and increased opportunities for clinician and patient engagement. The flexibility represented by mobile technology represents a burgeoning field in pathology informatics.

  14. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  15. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  16. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  17. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

  18. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with multiple pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a rarity in developing countries. We report a 30-year old Nigerian farmer seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto with multiple pathological fractures. The diagnosis of PHPT was made based on these bone changes and the elevated ...

  19. Quantifying Pathology in Diffusion Weighted MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caan, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis algorithms are proposed for quantification of pathology in Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) data. Functional evidence for brain diseases can be explained by specific structural loss in the white matter of the brain. That is, certain biomarkers may exist where the

  20. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda based on another specimen with multiple pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Foth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult large-bodied theropods are often found with numerous pathologies. A large, almost complete, probably adult Allosaurus specimen from the Howe Stephens Quarry, Morrison Formation (Late Kimmeridgian–Early Tithonian, Wyoming, exhibits multiple pathologies. Pathologic bones include the left dentary, two cervical vertebrae, one cervical and several dorsal ribs, the left scapula, the left humerus, the right ischium, and two left pedal phalanges. These pathologies can be classified as follows: the fifth cervical vertebra, the scapula, several ribs and the ischium are probably traumatic, and a callus on the shaft of the left pedal phalanx II-2 is probably traumatic-infectious. Traumatically fractured elements exposed to frequent movement (e.g., the scapula and the ribs show a tendency to develop pseudarthroses instead of a callus. The pathologies in the lower jaw and a reduced extensor tubercle of the left pedal phalanx II-2 are most likely traumatic or developmental in origin. The pathologies on the fourth cervical are most likely developmental in origin or idiopathic, that on the left humerus could be traumatic, developmental, infectious or idiopathic, whereas the left pedal phalanx IV-1 is classified as idiopathic. With exception of the ischium, all as traumatic/traumatic-infectious classified pathologic elements show unambiguous evidences of healing, indicating that the respective pathologies did not cause the death of this individual. Alignment of the scapula and rib pathologies from the left side suggests that all may have been caused by a single traumatic event. The ischial fracture may have been fatal. The occurrence of multiple lesions interpreted as traumatic pathologies again underlines that large-bodied theropods experienced frequent injuries during life, indicating an active predatory lifestyle, and their survival perhaps supports a gregarious behavior for Allosaurus. Alternatively, the frequent survival of traumatic events could be

  1. Panning artifacts in digital pathology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Lanciault, Christian; Espig, Kathryn S.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2017-03-01

    In making a pathologic diagnosis, a pathologist uses cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, and search (Pena and Andrade-Filho, 2009). Typically, this involves focus while panning from one region of a slide to another, using either a microscope in a traditional workflow or software program and display in a digital pathology workflow (DICOM Standard Committee, 2010). We theorize that during panning operation, the pathologist receives information important to diagnosis efficiency and/or correctness. As compared to an optical microscope, panning in a digital pathology image involves some visual artifacts due to the following: (i) the frame rate is finite; (ii) time varying visual signals are reconstructed using imperfect zero-order hold. Specifically, after pixel's digital drive is changed, it takes time for a pixel to emit the expected amount of light. Previous work suggests that 49% of navigation is conducted in low-power/overview with digital pathology (Molin et al., 2015), but the influence of display factors has not been measured. We conducted a reader study to establish a relationship between display frame rate, panel response time, and threshold panning speed (above which the artifacts become noticeable). Our results suggest visual tasks that involve tissue structure are more impacted by the simulated panning artifacts than those that only involve color (e.g., staining intensity estimation), and that the panning artifacts versus normalized panning speed has a peak behavior which is surprising and may change for a diagnostic task. This is work in progress and our final findings should be considered in designing future digital pathology systems.

  2. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  3. Genetics and molecular pathology of Stargardt-like macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Vidyullatha; Wong, Paul; Ayyagari, Radha

    2010-05-01

    Stargardt-like macular degeneration (STGD3) is an early onset, autosomal dominant macular degeneration. STGD3 is characterized by a progressive pathology, the loss of central vision, atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and accumulation of lipofuscin, clinical features that are also characteristic of age-related macular degeneration. The onset of clinical symptoms in STGD3, however, is typically observed within the second or third decade of life (i.e., starting in the teenage years). The clinical profile at any given age among STGD3 patients can be variable suggesting that, although STGD3 is a single gene defect, other genetic or environmental factors may play a role in moderating the final disease phenotype. Genetic studies localized the STGD3 disease locus to a small region on the short arm of human chromosome 6, and application of a positional candidate gene approach identified protein truncating mutations in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 gene (ELOVL4) in patients with this disease. The ELOVL4 gene encodes a protein homologous to the ELO group of proteins that participate in fatty acid elongation in yeast. Pathogenic mutations found in the ELOVL4 gene result in altered trafficking of the protein and behave with a dominant negative effect. Mice carrying an Elovl4 mutation developed photoreceptor degeneration and depletion of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ELOVL4 protein participates in the synthesis of fatty acids with chain length longer than 26 carbons. Studies on ELOVL4 indicate that VLCFA may be necessary for normal function of the retina, and the defective protein trafficking and/or altered VLCFA elongation underlies the pathology associated with STGD3. Determining the role of VLCFA in the retina and discerning the implications of abnormal trafficking of mutant ELOVL4 and depleted VLCFA content in the pathology of STGD3 will provide valuable insight in understanding the retinal structure, function, and pathology underlying STGD3

  4. A Century of Plant Pathology: A Retrospective View on Understanding Host-Parasite Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, N T

    2000-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  The twentieth century has been productive for the science of plant pathology and the field of host-parasite interactions-both in understanding how pathogens and plant defense work and in developing more effective means of disease control. Early in the twentieth century, plant pathology adopted a philosophy that encouraged basic scientific investigation of pathogens and disease defense. That philosophy led to the strategy of developing disease-resistant plants as a prima facie disease-control measure-and in the process saved billions of dollars and avoided the use of tons of pesticides. Plant pathology rapidly adopted molecular cloning and its spin-off technologies, and these have fueled major advances in our basic understanding of plant diseases. This knowledge and the development of efficient technologies for producing transgenic plants convey optimism that plant diseases will be more efficiently controlled in the twenty-first century.

  5. Relation between clinical findings and progression of cerebral cortical pathology in MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: proposed staging of cerebral cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mari

    2014-06-15

    In our pathologic observation of the cerebral cortex including the neocortex, hippocampus, and limbic cortex in 43 Japanese patients with MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the earliest pathologic finding was spongiform change and next was gliosis. Subsequently, neuropil rarefaction appeared, followed by neuron loss. On the basis of these observations, we propose the following cortical pathologic staging: Stage I, spongiform change; Stage II, hypertrophic astrocytosis; Stage III, neuropil rarefaction; Stage IV, neuron loss; Stage V, status spongiosus; and Stage VI, large cavity formation. We also suggest a more simple staging classification: Stages I and II, mild; Stages III and IV, moderate; and Stages V and VI, severe involvement. Based on statistical analysis of the cases, strong correlation coefficients were obtained between the neocortical and limbic pathologic stage and both total disease duration and brain weight. We estimated that the first observation times of cortical hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging, myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes on the electroencephalogram approximately correspond to the early phase of Stage II of the neocortex. The time to reach the akinetic mutism state approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage II of the neocortex. Therefore, we think that approximate clinical manifestations at death, total disease duration, and brain weight can be estimated according to the pathologic stage of the neocortex or limbic cortex. Panencephalopathic-type pathology appeared approximately 12 months after disease onset, and this time approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage III of the neocortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Postoperative radiation for cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Kimberly; Han, Ihn; Deppe, Gunter; Malviya, Vinay; Malone, John; Christensen, Carl; Chuba, Paul; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of 83 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy at our facility from March 1980 to November 1993 for early stage cervix cancer with positive surgical margins, positive pelvic or periaortic lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, deep invasion, or for disease discovered incidentally at simple hysterectomy. Twenty-eight patients received low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary radiation with or without external beam pelvic irradiation and 55 patients received external beam pelvic irradiation with high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary implants. Of these 83 patients, 66 were evaluable--20 LDR and 46 HDR patients. All patients received 45-50 Gy external beam irradiation and 20 Gy LDR equivalent intracavitary irradiation prescribed to 0.5 cm below the mucosa. Ninety percent of the LDR group and 92% of the HDR group completed treatment within < 56 days. Treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the GOG toxicity scale. Mean and median follow-up times were 101 months and 111 months (3-172 months) for the LDR group and 42 and 40 months (3-98 months) for the HDR group. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 89% for the LDR group and 72% for the HDR group. Local control was observed in 90% (18 out of 20) of the LDR patients and 89% (41 out of 46) of the HDR patients for an overall local control rate of 89.5%. Two of 20 LDR patients (10%) experienced recurrence (two pelvic with distant metastasis). Nine of 46 HDR patients (22%) had recurrence of disease (three pelvic, four distant metastasis, and two pelvic with distant metastasis). In the HDR group, 6 out of 16 (38%) with positive lymph nodes died of disease whereas, 27 out of 30 (90%) of the patients with negative lymph nodes remain free of disease. Three of 20 (15%) LDR patients and 4 out of 46 (9%) HDR patients experienced

  7. New developments in digital pathology: from telepathology to virtual pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Kayser, Gian; Radziszowski, Dominik; Oehmann, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    To analyse the present status and future development of computerized diagnostic pathology in terms of work-flow integrative telepathology and virtual laboratory. Telepathology has left its childhood. The technical development of telepathology is mature, in contrast to that of virtual pathology. Two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories are emerging: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (>=1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists working in a centralized laboratory. Both are under technical development. Telepathology can be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology Pathology (www.pathology-online.org). A virtual pathology institution (mode a) accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size of images has to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. First experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server (Dr. L. Banach, Dr. G. Haroske, Dr. I. Hurwitz, Dr. K. Kayser, Dr. K.D. Kunze, Dr. M. Oberholzer,) working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized virtual pathology institution (mode b) depends upon the digitalisation of a complete slide, and the transfer of large sized images to different pathologists working in one institution. The technical performance of complete slide digitalisation is still under

  8. Early X-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femurhead and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign shows to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis. (orig.) [de

  9. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  10. BILATERAL PATHOLOGICAL HIP DISLOCATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy E. Garkavenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pathological dislocation of the hip is one of the most severe complications of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. The program of treatment for children with pathological hip dislocation is complex, but it has been sufficiently developed and implemented very successfully. At the same time, the available literature provides no cases of treating children with bilateral pathological hip dislocations after hematogenous osteomyelitis. There is no information on the incidence of such cases or in regards to remote functional results. Materials and methods. The results of the treatment of 18 children with bilateral pathological dislocation of the hip after hematogenous osteomyelitis are presented, which constituted 23.1% of the total number of patients (78 who underwent surgery in 2000–2016 for the diagnosis of pathological hip dislocation. Both hip joints were surgically operated on in 12 patients, while one hip joint was operated on in 6 patients. To assess the anatomical and functional state of hip joints, the clinical and roentgenological diagnostic techniques were used. Results and discussion. To stabilize and restore the function of the hip joints, 18 children underwent 30 surgical interventions: simple open hip reduction (19 and open hip reduction with hip arthroplasty with one (6 or two (5 demineralized osteochondral allogeneic grafts. The decision regarding the possibility of performing surgical intervention on the second hip joint was made only after a child's check-up examination was complete and after positive information about the anatomical and functional state of the operated hip joint was obtained. According to these criteria, 14 (77.8% children underwent surgical treatment of the second hip joint 1–1.5 years after the course of conservative measures to restore the range of motion in the previously operated hip joint. Over a period of 1–12 years, 17 patients were examined, 10 of which underwent an operation on both

  11. Future-proofing pathology: the case for clinical adoption of digital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bethany Jill; Bottoms, David; Treanor, Darren

    2017-12-01

    This document clarifies the strategic context of digital pathology adoption, defines the different use cases a healthcare provider may wish to consider as part of a digital adoption and summarises existing reasons for digital adoption and its potential benefits. The reader is provided with references to the relevant literature, and illustrative case studies. The authors hope this report will be of interest to healthcare providers, pathology managers, departmental heads, pathologists and biomedical scientists that are considering digital pathology, deployments or preparing business cases for digital pathology adoption in clinical settings. The information contained in this document can be shared and used in any documentation the reader wishes to present for their own institutional case for adoption report or business case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus: an autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available First described by Berti in 1866, gastric volvulus (GV is an uncommon and potentially lethal entity. GV occurs when the stomach twists by more than 180º resulting in obstruction of the alimentary tract, visceral ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. It is classified according to the rotation axis in organoaxial, mesenteroaxial or a combination of both. The clinical presentation can be acute, and is usually severe or chronic, which sometimes may be asymptomatic. It predominantly occurs in the fifth decade of life, but children, mainly those under the age of 1 year, may be affected. No ethnicity or gender was observed to show predominance. This entity is related to gastric, diaphragmatic disorders as well as laxity of gastric ligaments. Acute GV may complicate with incarceration and strangulation of the stomach when gastric necrosis ensues. These cases show a mortality rate of 60%. The authors report the fatal case of a surgically treated GV in a 43-year-old female patient who looked for medical care only after 1 month of initial symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed with a thoracic and abdominal axial computed tomography. Besides the entire stomach being herniated and twisted into the thoracic cavity, the pancreas was pulled up through the hiatal orifice, provoking acute pancreatitis. Because of gastric necrosis and perforation, gastroenteric fluid drained into the mediastinum and left pleural space. The postoperative outcome was unfavorable resulting in the patient’s death. The authors call attention to the severeness of the disease, and therefore the need of precocity of diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  13. Transposed intrathoracic stomach: Functional evaluation | Jain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: Children who had undergone gastric transposition more than 5 years ago were evaluated for symptoms, anthropometry, anaemia, duodenogastric refl ux, pulmonary function, gastric emptying, gastric pH, gastroesophageal refl ux and stricture, gastric motility, and gastritis and atrophy on histological

  14. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    hepatitis A antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody), urine tests (drug screen I-abuse, marijuana, and a pregnancy test), and a 12-lead... sodium chloride; 250 mL over 2.5 minutes) were administered if systolic BP < 85 mmHg. Blood pressure, other hemodynamics, UO, and total amount of

  15. Pathological changes in the white matter after spinal contusion injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Joakim Ek

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that after spinal cord injury, the loss of grey matter is relatively faster than loss of white matter suggesting interventions to save white matter tracts offer better therapeutic possibilities. Loss of white matter in and around the injury site is believed to be the main underlying cause for the subsequent loss of neurological functions. In this study we used a series of techniques, including estimations of the number of axons with pathology, immunohistochemistry and mapping of distribution of pathological axons, to better understand the temporal and spatial pathological events in white matter following contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. There was an initial rapid loss of axons with no detectable further loss beyond 1 week after injury. Immunoreactivity for CNPase indicated that changes to oligodendrocytes are rapid, extending to several millimetres away from injury site and preceding much of the axonal loss, giving early prediction of the final volume of white matter that survived. It seems that in juvenile rats the myelination of axons in white matter tracts continues for some time, which has an important bearing on interpretation of our, and previous, studies. The amount of myelin debris and axon pathology progressively decreased with time but could still be observed at 10 weeks after injury, especially at more distant rostral and caudal levels from the injury site. This study provides new methods to assess injuries to spinal cord and indicates that early interventions are needed for the successful sparing of white matter tracts following injury.

  16. The risk factors of laryngeal pathology in Korean adults using a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting laryngeal pathology in the Korean population and to evaluate the derived prediction model. Cross-sectional study. Data were drawn from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The subjects were 3135 persons (1508 male and 2114 female) aged 19 years and older living in the community. The independent variables were age, sex, occupation, smoking, alcohol drinking, and self-reported voice problems. A decision tree analysis was done to identify risk factors for predicting a model of laryngeal pathology. The significant risk factors of laryngeal pathology were age, gender, occupation, smoking, and self-reported voice problem in decision tree model. Four significant paths were identified in the decision tree model for the prediction of laryngeal pathology. Those identified as high risk groups for laryngeal pathology included those who self-reported a voice problem, those who were males in their 50s who did not recognize a voice problem, those who were not economically active males in their 40s, and male workers aged 19 and over and under 50 or 60 and over who currently smoked. The results of this study suggest that individual risk factors, such as age, sex, occupation, health behavior, and self-reported voice problem, affect the onset of laryngeal pathology in a complex manner. Based on the results of this study, early management of the high-risk groups is needed for the prevention of laryngeal pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on in vivo shoulder motion and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Timothy G; Dischler, Jack; Mende, Veronica; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears has been reported to range from 15% to 39%, but the influence of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on shoulder function is not well understood. This study assessed the effects of asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology on shoulder kinematics, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. A clinical ultrasound examination was performed in 46 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 60.3 ± 7.5 years) with normal shoulder function to document the condition of their rotator cuff. The ultrasound imaging identified the participants as healthy (n = 14) or pathologic (n = 32). Shoulder motion was measured with a biplane x-ray imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc., Shirley, NY, USA), and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale pain scores. Compared with healthy volunteers, those with rotator cuff pathology had significantly less abduction (P = .050) and elevation (P = .041) strength, their humerus was positioned more inferiorly on the glenoid (P = .018), and the glenohumeral contact path length was longer (P = .007). No significant differences were detected in the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, visual analog scale, range of motion, or acromiohumeral distance. The differences observed between the healthy volunteers and those with asymptomatic rotator cuff pathology lend insight into the changes in joint mechanics, shoulder strength, and conventional clinical outcomes associated with the early stages of rotator cuff pathology. Furthermore, these findings suggest a plausible mechanical progression of kinematic and strength changes associated with the development of rotator cuff pathology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 105-112

  19. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression.