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Sample records for intrathoracic neoplasia epidemiology

  1. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m 2 in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms

  3. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  4. Primary Intrathoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular goiter is a common disease in Taiwan, and substernal or intrathoracic goiters are not infrequent. However, intrathoracic goiters are mainly of the secondary type and primary intrathoracic goiters are rarely seen. We report a 55-year-old woman who was incidentally found to have an ectopic goiter located in the anterior upper mediastinum with the initial presenting symptom of productive cough. Imaging studies including chest X-ray and computed tomography identified the lesion, and 131I-uptake scan showed weak uptake in the thorax. Surgical removal via thoracotomy was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. A primary intrathoracic goiter, although rare, should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumor.

  5. Epidemiología descriptiva de las neoplasias malignas en niños

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    Fajardo-Gutiérrez Arturo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en los niños menores de 15 años a nivel mundial y nacional. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional de los artículos publicados sobre cáncer en los niños, seleccionando aquellos que trataran los aspectos epidemiológicos de tiempo, lugar y persona y analizándose tanto la incidencia como la mortalidad por cáncer en niños. La incidencia mundial es de 100 a 150 casos x 10(6 niños/año. La incidencia específica varía de acuerdo al tipo cáncer, el país o región que se estudie. El patrón latinoamericano de neoplasias lo constituyen las leucemias, los linfomas y los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC; en el norteamericano y europeo los TSNC ocupan el segundo lugar; y en el africano predominan los linfomas. La incidencia es mayor en los menores de 5 años en el medio urbano y existe un incremento de 1% anual de cánceres en los niños de Estados Unidos de América. La mortalidad por cáncer en niños ha disminuido de forma importante principalmente en los países desarrollados, como Estados Unidos e Inglaterra; en los subdesarrollados permanece estable o hay una leve disminución. La incidencia es mayor en países desarrollados; sin embargo, en los países subdesarrollados puede estar subestimada. Aún hay muchos datos que se desconocen sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en el niño, por lo que son necesarios más estudios.

  6. Intrathoracic gossypiboma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalen Junior, Roberto Antonio; Bosi, Thiago Carneiro da Cunha; Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Andrade, Fernando Coelho Goulart de; Candido, Daniela; Lopes, Gesner Pereira; Melo, Ana Lucia Kefalas Oliveira; Fatureto, Marcelo Cunha

    2006-01-01

    The authors report three cases of intrathoracic foreign body that is defined as a cotton matrix mass, mostly retained surgical sponge, a rare complication of a thoracic surgery. The patients were evaluated by chest radiography and computed tomography with the imaging findings confirmed after thoracotomy and anatomopathological study. The mainly imaging findings consisted of intrathoracic masses in patients with previous thoracic surgery that return to hospital with lower respiratory tract symptoms in different period after surgery procedure. The three cases were related with a brief review of the literature. (author)

  7. Epidemiología de las neoplasias linfoides. Incidencia atribuible al SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada En los últimos 20-30 años se ha descrito una aumento significativo de la incidencia de las neoplasias linfoides, si bien las causas de dicho incremento no son del todo conocidas, parece que la mejora diagnóstica de dichas enfermedades y la epidemia del SIDA han contribuido en parte a la creciente incidencia reportada recientemente, pero en la gran mayoría de los casos los factores de riesgo son aún desconocidos. Los obje...

  8. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Bochdalek hernia with intrathoracic kidney

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    Arti D Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic defect that allows abdominal viscera to herniate into the thorax. Intrathoracic kidney is a very rare finding representing less than 5% of all renal ectopias. A 20 year old female presented with complaints of dry cough since 15 days and intermittent fever of 4 days duration. As part of routine investigation chest X-ray was done which showed a left retro-cardiac homogenous opacity, rest of the lung field appeared normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed the right kidney to be normal, left kidney was not visualized. Computed tomography scan demonstrated left-sided Bochdalek hernia with the left kidney within the thorax. An IVP was done to confirm the diagnosis. Many a times intrathoracic kidney is confused with a thoracic mass and the patient undergoes a battery of unnecessary investigations, surgical interventions and image guided biopsies for the same, hence to avoid this we are reporting this case.

  10. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

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    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  11. Intrathoracic desmoid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.M.; Schey, W.L.; Bassuk, A.; Shrock, P.

    1985-01-01

    The case history of a child with an intrathoracic desmoid tumor is presented. The insidious nature of the tumor's development and its possible relationship to previous surgery are noted. Desmoid tumors are rare in the childhood population and an intrathoracic site as the origin of one has not been reported previously. (orig.)

  12. CT metrizamide myelography in intrathoracic meningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Man; Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, Ok Bae; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1985-01-01

    Intrathoracic meningocele is a protrusion of the spinal meninges through an intervertebral foramen into the thoracic cavity. The majority occur in association with neurofibromatosis. The authors experienced a case of intrathoracic meningocele in 26 years old male patient associated with neurofibromatosis, and present conventional CT and CT metrizamide myelographic findings

  13. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  14. Intrathoracic lipoma masquerading as subclavian artery trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munro, P T

    2012-02-03

    A 58 year old man was admitted to the accident and emergency department following an industrial accident in which he sustained a three part fracture dislocation of his right humerus. Chest radiography revealed a large mass in the right upper hemithorax and, when the patient became hypotensive, an emergency thoracotomy was performed. The mass was found to be a massive intrathoracic lipoma. This case shows how preexisting intrathoracic lesions may be mistaken for subclavian or great vessel trauma following violent shoulder girdle injury. The differential diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic intrathoracic mass lesions in chest radiography should be considered carefully.

  15. Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour. G R Alexander. Abstract. Intrathoracic desmoid tumours are rare soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures, accounting for less than 0.03% of all neoplasms. Most cases in fact represent intrathoracic extension of chest wall ...

  16. Intrathoracic manifestations of sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.; Pfeiffer, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with sickle cell disease was performed. The majority of patients was admitted because of sickle cell crisis, pneumonia or congestive heart failure. Global casdiomegaly, pulmonary vascular engorgement, pneumonia and infiltrative lung parenchymal abnormalities were encountered. Our study shows a very high prevalence of intrathoracic abnormalities in patients afflicted with sickle cell disease. (orig.) [de

  17. Epidemiologic and mucosal immunologic aspects of HPV infection and HPV-related cervical neoplasia in the lower female genital tract: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiong, M. Y.; Out, T. A.; ter Schegget, J.; Burger, M. P.; van der Vange, N.

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia. Considering the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer, infection with HPV can be regarded as a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. Currently, many studies

  18. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Types Type 1 disease Type 2A disease Type 2B disease Diagnosis Treatment Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  19. Increased intrathoracic pressure affects cerebral oxygenation following cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars M; Nielsen, Jonas; Østergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral oximetry reflects circulatory stability during surgery. We evaluated whether frontal lobe oxygenation is influenced by a transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as induced by a lung recruitment manoeuvre.......Cerebral oximetry reflects circulatory stability during surgery. We evaluated whether frontal lobe oxygenation is influenced by a transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as induced by a lung recruitment manoeuvre....

  20. Aggressive treatment of intrathoracic recurrences of thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgesi, A.; Monetti, U.; Rossi, G.; Ricardi, U.; Sannazzari, L. (Turin University (Italy). Department of Radiation Therapy); Maggi, G. (Turin University (Italy). Department of Thoracic Surgery)

    1992-08-01

    Between 1974-1988, 21 patients with intrathoracic recurrences of thymoma received radiotherapy with radical intent; surgery was always attempted when considered feasible: 11 patients were partially (6 cases) or totally (5 cases) resected before irradiation, while in the other 10 radiotherapy was the only treatment. In 7 cases the recurrence was confined to the anterior mediastinum, 9 had pleural nodules without mediastinal lesions and 5 had both mediastinal and pleural lesions. Mediastinal recurrences were treated by opposed parallel mediastinal field with 2/3 of the dose delivered through the anterior port: doses ranged between 38-44 Gy; a boost of 10-16 Gy was given in patients not radically resected. Pleural nodules were treated with a variety of techniques according to the extent of the lesions. The 7-year survival of the whole group was 70%; 5 patients died; 4 with intrathoracic progression and one with distant metastases. the survival was 74% in the 11 patients having received surgery, either radical or subtotal, and 65% in the 10 patients treated with radiotherapy alone: the difference is not significant. Patients with Karnofsky index >70 had a significantly better survival (100%, versus 28%, p=0.0015). This is a selected series of patients presenting recurrences still amenable to a radical treatment either by surgery and radiotherapy or by radiotherapy alone: the results confirm that an aggressive approach is warranted in patients in good general conditions with recurrences confined to the mediastinum and/or 1 hemithorax. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs.

  1. Intrathoracic Kidney after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Fikret Halis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma is responsible for most genitourinary injuries. The incidence of renal artery injury and intrathoracic kidney is quite low in patients who present with blunt trauma experiencing damage. There are four defined etiologies for intrathoracic kidney, which include real intrathoracic ectopic kidney, eventration of the diaphragm, congenital diaphragmatic herniation, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. The traumatic intrathoracic kidney is an extremely rare case. We presented intrathoracic kidney case after traumatic posterior diaphragmatic rupture.

  2. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

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    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  3. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  4. The primary intrathoracic tumor in pediatric group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyoo Ok; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Chang Yun

    1985-01-01

    The increased frequency with which intrathoracic masses have been discovered in the pediatric age group seems to correspond to the increased utilization a typical location and appearance, the range of possibilities is so great that the diagnosis is rarely made with any certainty before operation. For evaluation of clinical and radiological aspect of these tumors, we reviewed in pediatric age group 28 cases of primary intrathoracic tumor which were diagnosed pathologically at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine since 1971. The results: 1. The mediastinal tumors are predominant: 25 cases of mediastinal tumors and 3 cases of pulmonary tumor. 2. The incidence of tumors according to pathologic type is as follows: The malignant lymphoma is most common (12 cases, 45%), next is neurogenic tumor (7 cases, 25%), and Rhabdomyosarcoma 2 cases, benign teratoma 2 cases, thymoma 1 case, bronchogenic cyst of mediastinum 1 case. Pulmonary lesion as follow: 2 cases of mal. mesenchynoma, and 1 case of bronchogenic cyst lung. 3. The sex incidence in out series shows male predominence (22 : 6) under 6 years of age, neurogenic tumor and malignant mesenchymoma are predominant, between 11 to 15 years of age malignant lymphoma is predominant and between 6 to 10 years age variable types of tumor are observed. 4. The radiological findings are as follows; a. Malignant lymphoma are located at the anterior and/or mid mediastinum with unilateral or bilateral mediastinal widening. The majority show smooth margin and lobulations on their borders. b. Neurogenic tumors are located in posterior mediastinum. Their margin are sharp or ill-defined. Specimen radiolography found minimal calcification in 1 case. Rib erosion and intercostal widening are noted in 2 cases. c. Teratoma are all located in anterior mediastinum with well defined smooth margin. Curvilinear calcification in 1 case. d. Malignant mesenchymoma are manifested as irregular shaggy bordered mass in lung parenchyme. 1

  5. Intrapericardial extralobar pulmonary sequestration presenting as a prenatal intrathoracic mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede, I.; Bilardo, C. M.; van Rijn, R. R.; Clur, S. A. B.; Heij, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    An intrathoracic mass, which persisted during the remaining pregnancy, was first seen during routine ultrasound examination performed at 20 weeks gestation. After birth, the child was asymptomatic. Echocardiography showed the mass to be located intrapericardially. The mass was electively resected

  6. Hemothorax in Three Dogs with Intrathoracic Extracardiac Hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Lynda; Stell, Anneliese; Smith, Ken; Kulendra, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic extracardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is rare in dogs. This report describes three dogs with acute onset dyspnea due to hemorrhagic pleural effusion resulting from intrathoracic extracardiac masses, which were confirmed as HSA by histopathology. The dogs were stabilized with thoracocentesis and intravascular fluid resuscitation. Computed tomography identified intrathoracic masses, which were not originating from the heart or pulmonary parenchyma. Surgical exploration was performed in all cases. Case 1 was euthanized intraoperatively as the tumor could not be dissected from the aorta. In cases 2 and 3, hemostasis and resection of the tumors was successful. Case 2 was euthanized 1 mo after surgery and case 3 was alive at the time of writing, 5 mo postoperatively. Intrathoracic extracardiac HSA should be considered as a differential for nontraumatic hemothorax and surgical treatment can be palliative.

  7. Recent trends in feline intestinal neoplasia: an epidemiologic study of 1,129 cases in the veterinary medical database from 1964 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissetto, Kerry; Villamil, J Armando; Selting, Kim A; Tyler, Jeff; Henry, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiologic study evaluated 1,129 feline intestinal tumor patients via data entered into the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) from 1964 to 2004. Cases were analyzed by breed, age, yr of diagnosis, tumor type, and location. The VMDB incidence of all intestinal tumors reported during this 40 yr period was 0.4%, with small intestinal tumors predominating. The most common intestinal tumor was lymphoma, but the most common nonlymphoid tumor was adenocarcinoma. The Siamese breed and increasing age after 7 yr conferred an increased risk. Intact males and females appeared to have a decreased risk compared with neutered patients, but this may be explained by the age difference among these patients as older patients were more likely to be neutered. Prospective studies evaluating neuter status predilection and prognosis are warranted.

  8. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahminan Suut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting.

  9. Management of Intrathoracic Benign Schwannomas of the Brachial Plexus

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    Alessandro Bandiera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumours of the brachial plexus are rare entities. They usually present as extrathoracic masses located in the supraclavicular region. This report describes two cases of benign schwannomas arising from the brachial plexus with an intrathoracic growth. In the first case the tumour was completely intrathoracic and it was hardly removed through a standard posterolateral thoracotomy. In the second case the tumour presented as a cervicomediastinal lesion and it was resected through a one-stage combined supraclavicular incision followed by left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. A brachial plexus tumour should be suspected not only in patients with a supraclavicular or cervicomediastinal mass but also in those with intrathoracic apical lesions. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging study of brachial plexus should be performed in such cases in order to plan the correct surgical approach.

  10. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

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    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  12. Detection of colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib J.; Rasmussen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed eight cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA...

  13. Ionizing radiation and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Among the well accepted causes of neoplasia, ionizing radiation is quite prominent. Its oncogenic role was suspected by a few pioneers in the field of radiation biology, and some evidence for its oncogenicity has been available for almost 80 years. Since then unquestionable and abundant proof, statistical and experimental, has linked radiation with multiple tumors in mammals. Other forms of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet) are also causally related to neoplasia. This review, however, refers only to the tumors associated with ionizing radiation, either electromagnetic (i.e., gamma and x-rays) or particulate (alpha particles, neutrons, etc.). The field of radiation oncogenesis can be compared to a sea of hypotheses, with a few solid islands of facts. This paper considers the facts (specific radiation-induced neoplasms, risk data, etc.) and then considers some of the hypotheses (possible mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis)

  14. [Intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Yanire; Domínguez-Báez, Jaime; Lazo-Fernández, Eglis; Pérez Del Rosario, Pedro Antonio; Zanabria-Ortiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The intrathoracic complications from ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are very rare. However, they are potentially serious if not treated. We report the case of thoracic migration of a peritoneal catheter after ventriculoperitoneal shunt and we also review the literature references with discussion of the different mechanisms of shunt-tip migration described. No case of previous sternotomy as in our patient has been found published. All reports recommend early catheter repositioning into the peritoneal cavity after diagnosing the migration described, to prevent worse complications. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that intrathoracic migration can happen and it is necessary to palpate the catheter continuously during passage through subcutaneous tunnelling to prevent it. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Current indications and results for thoracoplasty and intrathoracic muscle transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassas, Athanase; Grima, Renaud; Bagan, Patrick; Badia, Alain; Arame, Alex; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Riquet, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Thoracoplasty has lost much of its popularity and is being supplanted by space-reduction operations using muscle flaps. Our purpose is to retrospectively study the remaining indications and the evolving modifications of this ancient technique in our current surgical practice. From 1994 to 2008, 35 patients underwent a thoracoplasty procedure in a single thoracic surgery centre for treatment of infectious complications of previous thoracic surgery. The number and length of ribs excised were dictated by the size and location of the thoracic cavity to obliterate. Muscle flaps were used to buttress bronchial fistulas and to fill out residual spaces. We reviewed the immediate and long-term results concerning infection control and procedure tolerance. The infectious complications of previous thoracic surgery were related to cancer in 25, tuberculosis in six, oesophageo-pleural fistula in two, ruptured lung abscess and pleural thickening in one each. The thoracoplasty procedure was performed for: (1) post-pneumonectomy empyema, n=20 (bronchial fistula, n=11; open window thoracostomy, n=14; mean number of resected ribs, n=7.5; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition, n=12; postoperative death, n=3); (2) post-lobectomy empyema, n=8 (bronchial fistula n=8; open window thoracostomy n=1; mean number of resected ribs n=3.6; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition n=7; no death); (3) other indications, n=7 (mean number of resected ribs n=4.8; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition n=3; no death). All patients discharged from the hospital except one were cured and did not complain of symptoms of secondary lung function and shoulder impairment. Although thoracoplasty is rarely indicated nowadays, this does not imply that the procedure should be avoided. Thoracoplasty may be associated with myoplasty, which permits achieving complete space obliteration by combining resection of a few rib segments and limited intrathoracic muscle transposition. Copyright 2009

  16. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  17. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.W.; McCarthy, S.; Scoutt, L.M.; Lange, R.; Kohorn, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to assess the specificity of MR findings in persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) compared with common causes of elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels, such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion. Seventeen women with elevated HCG (12 with persistent GTN, five with missed abortion or ectopic pregnancy) were examined with a 1.5-T imager. Images (spin-echo and gradient-echo) were analyzed and results tested via 2 analysis for TIUV; integrity and signal intensity of the junctional zone, endometrium, and myometrium; vessel conspicuity; presence of theca lutean cysts; extrauterine mass; and cul de sac fluid

  18. [Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Terris, Benoît; Fléjou, Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract have peculiar microscopic and molecular features that are still incompletely described. Some serrated polyps seem to be involved in a new carcinogenic pathway in the colon: the serrated neoplasia pathway, with hypermethylation of the cytosine-guanine dinucleotides, located in the promoter of some genes such as h-MLH1, BRAF and MGMT. The natural history of the serrated polyps and their risk for progression to malignancy are still unclear. There is no official guideline for the management of serrated polyps. The aim of this article is to describe the epidemiological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of the serrated neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: hyperplastic polyps, "traditional" serrated adenomas, mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, hyperplastic polyposis and serrated adenocarcinomas.

  19. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication for intrathoracic migration of wrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic fundoplication is fast emerging as the treatment of choice of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, a complication peculiar to laparoscopic surgery for this disease is the intrathoracic migration of the wrap. This article describes a case of a male patient who developed this particular complication after laparoscopic total fundoplication. Following a trauma, wrap migration occurred. The typical history and symptomatology is described. The classical Barium swallow picture is enclosed. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication was carried out. The difficulties encountered are described. Postoperative wrap migration can be suspected clinically by the presence of a precipitating event and typical symptomatology. Confirmation is by a Barium swallow. Treatment is by redo surgery.

  20. Skeletal changes mimicking intrathoracic disease on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelderen, WFC van

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various chest radiographs are illustrated to demonstrate features where bony changes may mimic intrathoracic disease. To confirm the skeletal origin and nature, further conventional radiographs often suffice, and the need for CT or scintigraphy may therefore be obviated. At the time of presentation for radiography of the chest, further pertinent clinical details can be obtained from the patient by the department staff, as required. All previous radiographs and radiological reports should be readily available. In order to add to the educational value of the 13 cases illustrated, all are presented in quiz format, with the answers and further images included in the text.

  1. [Intrathoracic goiter as a cause of superior vena cava syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, S; Barczyński, M; Rogula, T

    1998-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1997 year 4985 patients underwent surgical treatment due to various thyroid gland diseases, among them were 28 (0.6%) patients with intrathoracic goitre, but only in one case (0.002%) the signs of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) were observed: oedema and lividity of the face, enlargement of jugular veins and superior limbs' veins. In addition the patient manifested subsequently growing dyspnoea, dysphagia and hoarseness. In diagnose essential were X-ray examination of the chest (widening of mediastinal shadow), X-ray examination of the trachea (dislocation and compression of the trachea), X-ray of esophagus with contrast (compression from the outside), ultrasonography of thyroid gland. Intraoperatively, after it was confirmed that the SVCS was caused by compression of the intrathoracic right lobe of thyroid gland, the oblong sternotomy was performed to provide the proper surgical access for subtotal thyroidectomy. The weight of resected tissues of thyroid gland was 1036 g. In histopathological examination the diagnosis of multinodular toxic goitre was confirmed.

  2. Dietary habits of colorectal neoplasia patients in comparison to their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlikova, Ivana Mikoviny; Vitek, Petr; Chalupa, Josef; Dite, Petr

    2014-05-07

    To compare the dietary habits between colorectal neoplasia patients, their first-degree relatives, and unrelated controls. From July 2008 to April 2011, we collected epidemiological data relevant to colorectal cancer from patients with colorectal neoplasias, their first-degree relatives, and also from a control group consisting of people referred for colonoscopy with a negative family history of colorectal cancer and without evidence of neoplasia after colonoscopic examination. The first-degree relatives were divided into two groups following the colonoscopic examination: (1) patients with neoplasia or (2) patients without neoplasia. Dietary habits of all groups were compared. A χ (2) test was used to assess the association between two dichotomous categorical variables. The study groups consisted of 242 patients with colorectal neoplasias (143 men, 99 women; mean age: 64 ± 12 years) and 160 first-degree relatives (66 men, 94 women; mean age: 48 ± 11 years). Fifty-five of the first-degree relatives were found to have a neoplastic lesion upon colonoscopy, while the remaining 105 were without neoplasia. The control group contained 123 individuals with a negative family history for neoplastic lesions (66 men, 57 women; mean age: 54 ± 12 years). Two hypotheses were tested. In the first, the dietary habits of first-degree relatives with neoplasia were more similar to those of patients with neoplasia, while the dietary habits of first-degree relatives without neoplasia were similar to those of the control group. In the second, no sex-related differences in dietary habits were expected between the particular groups. Indeed, no significant differences were observed in the dietary habits between the groups of patients, controls and first-degree relatives with/without neoplastic lesions. Nevertheless, statistically significant sex-related differences were observed in all groups, wherein women had healthier dietary habits than men. In all groups examined, women had

  3. Horner Syndrome Due to Intrathoracic Multinodular Goiter (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Korkmaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Horner syndrome is characterized by miosis, ptosis, facial anhydrosis and enophtalmus and is caused by a lesion along the oculosymphathetic pathway from the hypothalamus to the eye. The long course of the oculosympathetic pathway predisposes it to a wide variety of pathologic processes, ranging from harmless vascular headaches to life-threatening conditions such as carotid artery dissection or malignancy. Thyroid neoplasms, benign or malign, are among unusual causes of Horner syndrome and represent 1.3 - 7.8% of cases. Especially, early diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasms such as multinodular goiter has particular importance because of its reversiblity with appropriate treatment. We report a case of Horner syndrome which has been developed as a complication of intrathoracic multinodular goiter

  4. Aorto-aortic intrathoracic bypass in surgical treatment of aortic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Perez, F.; Duran Reyes, A.; Bigalli, D.; Filgueira Berobide, J.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of coarctation of the aorta is 6.5 percent of all congenital heart defects, according to national and international data. There is a restenosis rate of patients after surgery. Factors that influence this evolution depends on the age at which patients underwent surgery for the first time the anatomy of the aortic arch and type of surgical technique. Several procedures can be used to correct the coarctation, which include surgery and balloon catheter dilation. We present here a case of a patient of 22 years old, with a recurrent coarctation of the aorta studied by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgery a third time. We used an anterior approach (median sternotomy) and performed an aortic bypass graft, intrathoracic, under cardiopulmonary bypass. Evolved favorably and was discharged on the sixth day of post operative day (Author) [es

  5. A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Ben J.; Gie, Robert P.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Donald, Peter R.; Beyers, Nulda; Starke, Jeff R.

    2004-01-01

    One of the obstacles in discussing childhood tuberculosis (TB) is the lack of standard descriptive terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of disease. Accurate disease classification is important, because the correct identification of the specific disease entity has definite prognostic significance. Accurate classification will also improve study outcome definitions and facilitate scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide practical guidelines for the accurate radiological classification of intra-thoracic TB in children less than 15 years of age. The proposed radiological classification is based on the underlying disease and the principles of pathological disease progression. The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus. (orig.)

  6. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  7. Recognition of a rare intrathoracic rib with computed tomography: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Bayat, Mohammad; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Abbaszadeh, Hojjat-Allah

    2017-01-01

    One of the uncommon congenital variations is intrathoracic rib which a normal, a bifid, or an accessory rib lies within the thoracic cavity that is founded accidentally. Clinically, in most cases they are without symptoms; however, it may cause intrathoracic problems therefore it is important for radiologists and physicians to identify to prevent of excessive intervention and treatment during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic problems. In this report, we provide the case of a rare presentation of an intrathoracic rib in a 3-year-old boy arising from the inferior portion of a second rib based on findings from computed tomography. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of this type of intrathoracic rib that demonstrated with computed tomography. PMID:28417058

  8. Long-term epidemiological study of disseminated neoplasia of cockles in Galicia (NW Spain): temporal patterns at individual and population levels, influence of environmental and cockle-based factors and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, S; Iglesias, D; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of disseminated neoplasia (DN) affecting cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) in Galicia was addressed at individual and population levels. Early stage of DN was characterized by isolated neoplastic cells occurring in branchial vessels or in the connective tissue of gills, mantle, gonad or digestive gland. As disease progressed, the neoplastic cells appeared loose in foci and became widely distributed throughout the organs. In advanced stages, the connective tissue of most organs was infiltrated by neoplastic cells, which displaced normal cells, leading to the loss of the normal tissue/organ architecture. Host defence reaction was occasionally observed. A field survey performed for 7 years, in two cockle beds located in different Galician Rías, showed that DN is a hyperendemic disease usually present all year-round at high prevalence in adult cockles but with annual prevalence minima in spring likely due to the death of heavily affected cockles, concurrently with gonad ripeness-spawning. DN was detected in the cockles ranging from 10 to 39 mm in size; the highest DN prevalence and severity corresponded to the cockles of intermediate size/age (22-29 mm/0.7-1 year old). Sex did not appear to influence DN occurrence. An inhibitory effect of DN on cockle gametogenesis was detected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Recognition of a rare intrathoracic rib with computed tomography: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Abdi, Shabnam; Bayat, Mohammad; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Abbaszadeh, Hojjat-Allah

    2017-01-01

    One of the uncommon congenital variations is intrathoracic rib which a normal, a bifid, or an accessory rib lies within the thoracic cavity that is founded accidentally. Clinically, in most cases they are without symptoms; however, it may cause intrathoracic problems therefore it is important for radiologists and physicians to identify to prevent of excessive intervention and treatment during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic problems. In this report, we provide the case of a rare pre...

  10. Ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant intrathoracic tumor : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    北田, 正博; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Yoshinari; Hayashi, Satoshi; Tokusashi, Yoshihiko; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Sasajima, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ectopic thymoma rarely presents as an intrathoracic tumor. We report a case of ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant right intrathoracic tumor that was treated with resection. The patient was a 50-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the chief complaint of chest pain. Detailed examination revealed a solid tumor measuring 15 × 10 × 8 cm in diameter, with a clear border. The Imaging findings suggested a solitary fibrous tumor, and surgery was performed. At surgery, the tumor was ...

  11. Vacuum-assisted closure device: a useful tool in the management of severe intrathoracic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Alend; Perentes, Jean Yannis; Gonzalez, Michel; Tempia, Adrien Caliera; Wang, Yabo; Demartines, Nicolas; Ris, Hans-Beat; Krueger, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    This study is an evaluation of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy for the treatment of severe intrathoracic infections complicating lung resection, esophageal surgery, viscera perforation, or necrotizing pleuropulmonary infections. We reviewed the medical records of all patients treated by intrathoracic VAC therapy between January 2005 and December 2008. All patients underwent surgical debridement-decortication and control of the underlying cause of infection such as treatment of bronchus stump insufficiency, resection of necrotic lung, or closure of esophageal or intestinal leaks. Surgery was followed by intrathoracic VAC therapy until the infection was controlled. The VAC dressings were changed under general anesthesia and the chest wall was temporarily closed after each dressing change. All patients received systemic antibiotic therapy. Twenty-seven patients (15 male, median age 64 years) underwent intrathoracic VAC dressings for the management of postresectional empyema (n=8) with and without bronchopleural fistula, necrotizing infections (n=7), and intrathoracic gastrointestinal leaks (n=12). The median length of VAC therapy was 22 days (range 5 to 66) and the median number of VAC changes per patient was 6 (range 2 to 16). In-hospital mortality was 19% (n=5) and was not related to VAC therapy or intrathoracic infection. Control of intrathoracic infection and closure of the chest cavity was achieved in all surviving patients. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy is an efficient and safe adjunct to treat severe intrathoracic infections and may be a good alternative to the open window thoracostomy in selected patients. Long time intervals in between VAC changes and short course of therapy result in good patient acceptance. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of normal intrathoracic trachea during dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jishu; Yang Ming; Chen Qihang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the diameters and cross-sectional areas, as well as the shape of normal adult intrathoracic trachea during forced respiration in the Chinese. Materials and methods: 25 male volunteers were studied with dynamic CT, using electron beam CT scanner, at a level 2 cm above aortic arch, with 3 mm collimation. Ten 100-msec dynamic scans were obtained at 500-msec intervals during 5.5-second period as the volunteers performed forced inspiration and expiration vital capacity maneuvers. Results: The mean cross-sectional area, sagittal and coronal diameter of the trachea decreased dynamically from 228.36 mm 2 , 18.28 mm and 16.97 mm at end inspiration to 191.24 mm 2 , 15.62 mm and 16.19 mm at end expiration respectively. The average cross-section area decreased by 15.48% +- 9.6% between inspiration and expiration. The shape of trachea was rounded or elliptical on inspiration image and horseshoe shaped on end of expiration. Conclusion: The dynamic CT is ideally suited for the study of tracheal dimensions and shape during respiration maneuvers. Among the Chinese, if the cross-sectional area of trachea decrease by more than 50% from inspiration to expiration, diagnosis of tracheomalacia can be established

  14. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  15. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, Stephen E.; Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D.; Feldman, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  16. Peptidergic modulation of efferent sympathetic neurons in intrathoracic ganglia regulating the canine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1989-05-01

    When either substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was injected into an acutely decentralized intrathoracic sympathetic ganglion, short-lasting augmentation of cardiac chronotropism and inotropism was induced. These augmentations were induced before the fall in systemic arterial pressure occurred which was a consequence of these peptides leaking into the systemic circulation in enough quantity to alter peripheral vascular resistance directly. When similar volumes of normal saline were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no significant cardiac changes were induced. When substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was administered into an intrathoracic ganglion, similar cardiac augmentations were induced either before or after the intravenous administration of hexamethonium. In contrast, when these peptides were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion in which the beta-adrenergic blocking agent timolol (0.1 mg/0.1 ml of normal saline) had been administered no cardiac augmentation occurred. These data imply that in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade intraganglionic administration of substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide does not modify enough intrathoracic neurons to alter cardiac chronotropism and inotropism detectably. When neuropeptide Y was injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no cardiac changes occurred. However, when cardiac augmentations were induced by sympathetic preganglionic axon stimulation these were enhanced following the intraganglionic administration of neuropeptide Y. As this effect occurred after timolol was administered into the ipsilateral ganglia, but not after intravenous administration of hexamethonium, it is proposed that the effects of neuropeptide Y are dependent upon functioning intrathoracic ganglionic nicotinic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of either morphine or [D-ala2,D-leu5]enkephalin acetate did not alter the capacity of the preganglionic sympathetic axons to augment the heart

  17. Incidents malignant neoplasias maxillofacial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Haddad, Marcela Filié; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéres Alves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-07-01

    Cancer is regarded as abnormal cellular multiplication; it is not controlled by the organism, and its cells present a differentiated DNA. Initially, the disease does not show clinical signs, but it can be diagnosed by laboratory examinations. When tumors are present in the maxillofacial area, the carrier can lose structures in this area, resulting to the carrier's social environment exclusion. This article aims to show incidences and causes of malignant neoplasias in the maxillofacial area.

  18. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal mod...

  19. Intrathoracic airway obstruction and gastroesophageal reflux: a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R; Pagala, M; Vaynblat, M; Marcus, M; Kazachkov, M

    2012-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in children with airway disorders. Previous studies have shown an association between upper airway obstruction and GER in experimental animal models. However, the cause and effect relationship between intrathoracic airway obstruction (IAO) and GER is obscure. The goal of this study is to investigate the association between IAO and GER using the canine model. In sedated dogs, a telemetric implant was placed subcutaneously (with one pressure sensor tip each in intrapleural space and abdomen) to monitor intrapleural pressure (IPP) and intrabdominal pressure (IAP). The IPP and the IAP were monitored intraoperatively and in conscious dogs on the 7th to 10th postoperative days. GER was assessed by determining the reflux index (RI), based on the intraesophageal pH recording performed continuously for a 24 hr period using a pH probe. After 2-3 weeks following placement of the telemetric implant, IAO was surgically created in the dog. After maintaining IAO for 2 weeks, the IPP, IAP, and pH measurements were monitored again following the same protocol as before IAO. After the creation of IAO, there was no significant change observed in the mean RI either in the distal (P = 0.716) or proximal (P = 0.962) esophageal lumens. The IPP became significantly more negative (P = 0.006) and the IAP turned significantly negative (P < 0.001) from being positive compared to the respective values before IAO. However, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) did not change significantly (P = 0.08). We conclude that moderate IAO does not cause GER in our animal model. It can be explained by the absence of significant change in Pdi after creation of IAO. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Robotic-assisted minimally invasive abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with intrathoracic anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, J-H; Aselmann, H; Schafmayer, C; Jünemann, K-P; Becker, T

    2014-02-01

    Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy is one of the approaches used worldwide for treating oesophageal cancer. The adoption of minimally invasive oesophagectomy has increased worldwide since its first description more than 15 years ago. However, minimally invasive oesophagectomy with a chest anastomosis has advantages. By using a four-arm robotic platform, not only the preparation of the gastric tube and mobilisation of the oesophagus but also the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. The indication for oesophageal resection is oesophageal cancer. The operative procedure comprises robotic-assisted abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with reconstruction by a gastric tube and intrathoracic anastomosis (Ivor Lewis procedure). Robotic abdominal and thoracic minimally invasive esophagectomy is feasible, and safe with a complete lymph node dissection. Especially the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  2. Tobacco, alcohol, and p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Waye, Jerome; Harpaz, Noam; Hibshoosh, Hanina

    2003-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. While the effect of p53 mutations on colorectal cancer prognosis has been heavily studied, less is known about how epidemiologic risk factors relate to p53 status, particularly in early colorectal neoplasia prior to clinically invasive colorectal cancer (including adenomas, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and intramucosal carcinoma). We examined p53 status, as measured by protein overexpression, in 157 cases with early colorectal neoplasia selected from three New York City colonoscopy clinics. After collecting paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-p53 monoclonal mouse IgG 2 a [BP53-12-1] antibody. We analyzed whether p53 status was different for risk factors for colorectal neoplasia relative to a polyp-free control group (n = 508). p53 overexpression was found in 10.3%, 21.7%, and 34.9%, of adenomatous polyps, CIS, and intramucosal cases, respectively. Over 90% of the tumors with p53 overexpression were located in the distal colon and rectum. Heavy cigarette smoking (30+ years) was associated with cases not overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9) but not with those cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.4–2.6). Heavy beer consumption (8+ bottles per week) was associated with cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.3–12.0) but not with cases without p53 overexpression (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.7–3.7). Our findings that p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia may be positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with cigarette smoking are consistent with those of several studies of p53 expression and invasive cancer, and suggest that there may be relationships of smoking and alcohol with p53 early in the adenoma to carcinoma sequence

  3. A Clinical and Pathological Overview of Vulvar Condyloma Acuminatum, Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Léonard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma are three relatively frequent vulvar lesions. Condyloma acuminatum is induced by low risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and squamous cell carcinoma have different etiopathogenic pathways and are related or not with high risk HPV types. The goal of this paper is to review the main pathological and clinical features of these lesions. A special attention has been paid also to epidemiological data, pathological classification, and clinical implications of these diseases.

  4. Developmental arrest of germ cells in the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Brøndum-Nielsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical observations and epidemiological evidence suggest that important aetiopathological events that cause neoplastic transformation of the male germ cell may occur in fetal life or early infancy. The incidence of germ cell neoplasia is high in individuals with various disorders of gonadal...... frequency mosaicism XY/XO) which can also be found in patients with testicular cancer. The variety of conditions that predispose to testicular neoplasia and the rise in its incidence in many countries speaks for the influence of environmental factors which may affect genetically predisposed individuals. We...

  5. Robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Runsen; Xiang, Jie; Han, Dingpei; Zhang, Yajie; Li, Hecheng

    2017-11-01

    This video clip demonstrated a performance of robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis. The patient had an esophageal mass located approximately 33 cm away from incisor, and robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was applied for him. Importantly, a double-layer esophago-gastric anastomosis was made by robotic hand-sewn suture. Our early experience demonstrated that the robot-sewn intrathoracic anastomosis is feasible and safe with a lower complication rate and the absence of anastomotic leakage.

  6. Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after gastroesophageal cancer resection is associated with increased risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen C; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone S

    2015-01-01

    rate. METHODS: This nationwide study included consecutively collected data on patients undergoing curative surgical resection with intrathoracic anastomosis, alive 8 weeks postoperatively, between 2003 and 2011. Patients with incomplete resection, or metastatic disease intraoperatively, were excluded......OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after intended curative resection for cancer in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction has a negative impact on long-term survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anastomotic leakage was associated with an increased recurrence......]: 1.17-2.29, P = .004) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.23-2.05, P resection....

  7. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  8. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  9. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  10. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair.

  11. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Collins, James M. P.; Coret, Elbertus H.; Schröder, Peter J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  12. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women ...

  13. Intrathoracic meningocele in association with neurofibromatosis type-1 (report of a case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CastaNo, C.H.; Aguilera, C.; Jori, F.J.; Pons, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes as intrathoracic meningocele incidentally found in a woman with neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient was asymptomatic for spinal cord dysfunction. The literature are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging seems the most valuable method in diagnosis and follow-up. 26 refs

  14. Late return of function after intrathoracic torsion of the spleen in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Pedersen, P V

    1986-01-01

    , and the spleen were intrathoracic. There was a 720 degree torsion of the splenic pedicle. After reduction, the spleen was placed in the abdomen. At scintiscans 12 days and 14 weeks after operation, no certain splenic function was demonstrated, but at follow-up up 21/2 years later the splenic scan was normal....

  15. Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Cuevas, Luis E; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Browning, Renee; Casenghi, Martina; Detjen, Anne K; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Hesseling, Anneke C; Kampmann, Beate; Mandalakas, Anna; Marais, Ben J; Schito, Marco; Spiegel, Hans M L; Starke, Jeffrey R; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J

    2015-10-15

    Consensus case definitions for childhood tuberculosis have been proposed by an international expert panel, aiming to standardize the reporting of cases in research focusing on the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. These definitions are intended for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation studies of symptomatic children with clinical suspicion of intrathoracic tuberculosis, and were not intended to predefine inclusion criteria into such studies. Feedback from researchers suggested that further clarification was required and that these case definitions could be further improved. Particular concerns were the perceived complexity and overlap of some case definitions, as well as the potential exclusion of children with acute onset of symptoms or less severe disease. The updated case definitions proposed here incorporate a number of key changes that aim to reduce complexity and improve research performance, while maintaining the original focus on symptomatic children suspected of having intrathoracic tuberculosis. The changes proposed should enhance harmonized classification for intrathoracic tuberculosis disease in children across studies, resulting in greater comparability and the much-needed ability to pool study results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE CÃES COM NEOPLASIAS ORAIS ATENDIDOS NO HOSPITAL DE CLÍNICAS VETERINÁRIAS DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE DOGS WITH ORAL TUMORS ATTENDED IN THE VETERINARY HOSPITAL OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Cavalcanti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores orais em cães representam cerca de 6% de todas as neoplasias dessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo epidemiológico dos cães com tumores orais atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul durante o período de julho de 2003 a julho de 2007. Realizou-se a pesquisa nos arquivos do Laboratório de Histopatologia e nas fichas clínicas dos animais, para avaliação de dados como raça, sexo, idade e o tipo histológico dos tumores. Procedeu-se à análise de 79 cães, dentre os quais 39 (49,37% eram machos e 40 (50,63% eram fêmeas, com idades variando entre um e dezesseis anos (média de 7,7 anos. Os cães mais acometidos foram os sem raça definida, com dezesseis casos (19,76%, seguido pela raça Poodle, com doze casos (14,82%. As neoplasias malignas representaram 50,63% dos casos e as benignas 49,37%%. Os tumores mais comumente encontrados foram o melanoma e o épulis acantomatoso, com dezenove casos cada (23,46%, seguidos pelo fibrossarcoma e o épulis fibromatoso, com nove casos cada (11,11%, plasmocitoma com oito casos (9,88%, ameloblastoma com quatro casos (4,94%, carcinoma epidermoide e osteossarcoma com três casos cada (3,7%. Por meio deste estudo, verificou-se que os tumores malignos apresentam uma maior incidência, e os tipos histológicos mais frequentes foram o melanoma, o fibrossarcoma, o épulis acantomatoso e fibromatoso.
     
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Câncer, cães, tumores orais. Oral tumors reach about 6% of all the neoplasm in dogs. The objective of this research was to form an epidemiological study on dogs with oral tumors that have been treated at the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of rio Grande do Sul from July 2003 to July 2007. The research was conducted within the archives of the histopathology laboratory, using the animals’ clinical files, in which they had been categorized by breed, sex, age and the tumors

  17. CD44 in hematological neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertweck, Magdalena Katharina; Erdfelder, Felix; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2011-05-01

    The CD44 protein family spans a large group of transmembrane glycoproteins acquired by alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. The great heterogeneity in molecular structure is reflected in its various important functions: CD44 mediates (1) interaction between cell and extracellular matrix, (2) signal submission, e.g., by acting as co-receptor for membrane-spanning receptor tyrosine kinases or by association with intracellular molecules initiating several signaling pathways, and (3) anchor function connecting to the cytoskeleton via the ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family. The expression pattern of the different CD44 isoforms display strong variations dependent on cell type, state of activation, and differentiation stage. In hematopoietic cells, CD44 mediates interaction of progenitor cells and bone marrow stroma during hematopoiesis, regulates maturation, and activation-induced cell death in T cells, influences neutrophil and macrophage migration as well as cytokine production, and participates in lymphocyte extravasation and migration. CD44 is involved in development and progress of hematological neoplasias by enhancement of apoptotic resistance, invasiveness, as well as regulation of bone marrow homing, and mobilization of leukemia-initiating cells into the peripheral blood. Thereby altered CD44 expression functions as marker for worse prognosis in most hematological malignancies. Additionally, CD44 expression levels can be used to distinguish between different hematological neoplasias and subtypes. Concerning new treatment strategies, CD44 displays promising potential either by direct targeting of CD44 expressed on the malignant cells or reversing an acquired resistance to primary treatment mediated through altered CD44 expression. The former can be achieved by antibody or hyaluronan-based immunotherapy.

  18. [Intratubular germ cell neoplasia--review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hes, O; Michal, M; Hora, M

    2007-10-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor lesion for germ cell testicular tumors. It is defined as presence of germ cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm and large irregular nuclei with nucleoli within seminiferous tubules. The whole morphologic spectrum of intratubular germinal tumors is discussed. Placental alcaline phosphatase, OCT 3/4 can be demonstrated in majority of the cases. Ultrastructural examination does not play a substantial role in differential diagnosis. Gain of chromosome 12p, which is typical for invasive germ cell tumors is absent in pure intratubular germ cell neoplasia. Spermatogonic arrest and rare reactive changes within seminiferous tubuli have to be distinguished from intratubular germ cell neoplasia.

  19. Aneuploidy and proliferation in keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, T.; Olthuis, D.; Blokx, W.A.M.; Kleinpenning, M.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous (pre)malignancies can be classified according to the keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia (KIN) classification. Aneuploidy can be seen as the result of chromosomal aberrations leading to altered DNA content and has been strongly associated with malignancy. Hyperproliferation is

  20. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CANINE PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumours in dogs, and is a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up, for diagnosis, staging and planning therapy in neoplastic disease. Nasal diseases, either neoplastic or non-neoplastic diseases, oral neoplasia, brain disease, thyroid or carotid body neoplasia have been extensively studied. However little information are available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. In this thesis, cases of dogs affected by pharyngeal neoplas...

  1. Schwannoma intercostal simulando neoplasia pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma é uma neoplasia mesenquimal, usualmente solitária, encontrada no mediastino, retroperitônio ou pelve, sendo rara sua apresentação na parede torácica. OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um paciente masculino, tabagista, com um nódulo pulmonar direito com características de malignidade, detectado em radiografia de tórax de rotina, cujo diagnóstico anatomopatológico foi de schwannoma benigno de nervo intercostal. MÉTODOS: Revisaram-se os dados referentes ao quadro clínico, exames laboratoriais e de imagem (radiografia e tomografia computadorizada de tórax do caso em estudo, assim como os exames anatomopatológico e imuno-histoquímico do espécime cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: O paciente foi submetido à toracotomia direita diagnóstica com ressecção da tumoração. O exame anatomopatológico convencional mostrou células tumorais de aspecto fusiforme, dispostas em paliçada, formando os corpos de Verocay, compatível com schwannoma intercostal. A imuno-histoquímica foi positiva para proteína S-100, vimentina e enolase, e negativa para neurofilamentos. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico definitivo de schwannoma só é possível por meio da análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica da lesão. Seu aspecto celular, associado à atividade mitótica e a áreas de pleomorfismo, pode levar ao diagnóstico incorreto de malignidade. A imuno-histoquímica, por meio da proteína S-100, é útil na caracterização da benignidade da lesão, já que não é detectada nas lesões malignas. Os schwannomas de parede torácica podem simular neoplasias pulmonares na radiografia e tomografia computadorizada de tórax.

  2. [Intraperitoneal and intrathoracic administration of hydroxyapatite-carboplatin (HAp-CBDCA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, N; Mizuno, I; Akamo, Y; Takeyama, H; Manabe, T

    1999-10-01

    We have investigated the efficacy of intraperitoneal or intrathoracic administration of hydroxyapatite particles (HAp) loaded carboplatin (CBDCA). HAp-CBDCA (HAp; 200 mg, CBDCA; 4 mg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis. The area under the curve of the ascitic platinum (Pt) increased significantly with rats given HAp-CBDCA, and the omental Pt levels in the HAp-CBDCA group remained higher and longer. Additionally, the HAp-CBDCA group showed a trend toward longer survival when compared with the CBDCA alone group. In clinical use, HAp-CBDCA (HAp; 5 g, CBDCA; 150 mg) was administered intrathoracically to a patient who had undergone esophagectomy. The Pt in serum was detected until 7 days after administration of HAp-CBDCA.

  3. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  4. Ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant intrathoracic tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Yoshinari; Hayashi, Satoshi; Tokusashi, Yoshihiko; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Sasajima, Tadahiro

    2011-06-28

    Ectopic thymoma rarely presents as an intrathoracic tumor. We report a case of ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant right intrathoracic tumor that was treated with resection. The patient was a 50-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the chief complaint of chest pain. Detailed examination revealed a solid tumor measuring 15 × 10 × 8 cm in diameter, with a clear border. The Imaging findings suggested a solitary fibrous tumor, and surgery was performed. At surgery, the tumor was found to be adherent to the diaphragm, mediastinal pleura, and lower lobe of the lung, although it could be dissected with relative ease and was removed. Pathological diagnosis indicated a type B1 tumor with no capsular invasion according to the World Health Organization classification, and a diagnosis of Masaoka stage I thymoma was made. No continuity with the normal thymus tissue was seen, and the thymoma was considered to be derived from ectopic thymic tissue in the pleura.

  5. Imaging features of primary and recurrent intrathoracic synovial sarcoma: a single-institute experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Akshay D; Sewatkar, Rani; Hornick, Jason L; Saboo, Sachin S; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Tirumani, Sree Harsha

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the imaging features of primary and metastatic intrathoracic synovial sarcoma (ISS). We reviewed the imaging of 42 patients with ISS (31 pleural, 7 intrapulmonary, 4 mediastinal), with baseline imaging of 19 patients and follow-up imaging in all. Primary tumors (n=19) were well circumscribed (15/19), homogeneous or heterogeneously enhancing, with mean size 9.1 cm (range: 1.8-25 cm). Recurrent/metastatic disease developed in 28/42 patients (67%). Lung was the most common site of metastases (21/28), with most of them predominantly pleural (11/21). On pathology, 30 patients had monophasic tumors, and 6 each had biphasic tumors and poorly differentiated tumors. Intrathoracic SS most commonly presents as a large heterogeneous pleural mass without associated adenopathy. Lung metastases are often pleural based and ipsilateral. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1: institution, management, and data analysis of a nationwide multicenter patient database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Boaretto, Francesca; Cetani, Filomena; Cioppi, Federica; Colao, Annamaria; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Ferolla, Piero; Ferone, Diego; Fossi, Caterina; Giudici, Francesco; Gronchi, Giorgio; Loli, Paola; Mantero, Franco; Marcocci, Claudio; Marini, Francesca; Masi, Laura; Opocher, Giuseppe; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Scillitani, Alfredo; Sciortino, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Tomassetti, Paola; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate European epidemiological data on patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 by creating an Italian registry of this syndrome, including clinical and genetic characteristics and therapeutic management. Clinical, familial and genetic data of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, diagnosed, treated, and followed-up for a mean time of 11.3 years, in 14 Italian referral endocrinological centers, were collected, over a 3-year course (2011-2013), to build a national electronic database. The Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 database includes 475 patients (271 women and 204 men), of whom 383 patients (80.6%) were classified as familial cases (from 136 different pedigrees), and 92 (19.4%) patients were sporadic cases. A MEN1 mutation was identified in 92.6% of familial cases and in 48.9% of sporadic cases. Four hundred thirty-six patients were symptomatic, presenting primary hyperparathyroidism, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary tumors in 93, 53, and 41% of cases, respectively. Thirty-nine subjects, belonging to affected pedigrees positive for a MEN1 mutation, were asymptomatic at clinical and biochemical screening. Age at diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 probands was similar for both familial and simplex cases (mean age 47.2 ± 15.3 years). In familial cases, diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in relatives of affected probands was made more than 10 years in advance (mean age at diagnosis 36.5 ± 17.6 years). The analysis of Italian registry of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients revealed that clinical features of Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients are similar to those of other western countries, and confirmed that the genetic test allowed multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis 10 years earlier than biochemical or clinical diagnosis.

  7. Sonographic Identification of Tube Thoracostomy Study (SITTS: Confirmation of Intrathoracic Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. Jenkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thoracostomy tubes (TT are commonly placed in the management of surgical, emergency, and trauma patients and chest radiographs (CXR and computed tomography (CT are performed to confirm placement. Ultrasound (US has not previously been used as a means to confirm intrathoracic placement of chest tubes. This study involves a novel application of US to demonstrate chest tubes passing through the pleural line, thus confirming intrathoracic placement.Methods: This was an observational proof-of-concept study using a convenience sample of patients with TTs at a tertiary-care university hospital. Bedside US was performed by the primary investigatorusing first the low-frequency (5–1 MHz followed by the high-frequency (10–5 MHz transducers, in both 2-dimensional gray-scale and M-modes in a uniform manner. The TTs were identified in transverse and longitudinal views by starting at the skin entry point and scanning to where the TT passed the pleural line, entering the intrathoracic region. All US images were reviewed by US fellowship-trained emergency physicians. CXRs and CTs were used as the standard for confirmation ofTT placement.Results: Seventeen patients with a total of 21 TTs were enrolled. TTs were visualized entering the intrathoracic space in 100% of cases. They were subjectively best visualized with the high-frequency (10–5 MHz linear transducer. Sixteen TTs were evaluated using M-mode. TTs produced a distinct pattern on M-mode.Conclusion: Bedside US can visualize the TT and its entrance into the thoracic cavity and it can distinguish it from the pleural line by a characteristic M-mode pattern. This is best visualized with the high-frequency (10–5 MHz linear transducer. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(4:305–311.

  8. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  9. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  10. Intrathoracic impedance and ultrasound lung comets in heart failure deterioration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, Massimiliano; Catanzariti, Domenico; Angheben, Carlo; Valsecchi, Sergio; Comisso, Jennifer; Vergara, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Echographic examination of the lung surface may reveal multiple ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) originating from water-thickened interlobular septa. These images were demonstrated to be useful for noninvasive assessment of interstitial pulmonary edema. Similarly, the correlation between implantable defibrillator-measured intrathoracic impedance and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was demonstrated in heart failure (HF) patients. The aims of this analysis were to assess the agreement between defibrillator-detected impedance decrease and the presence of ULCs, as well as to compare the performance of the impedance-detection algorithm and the ULCs assessment in predicting HF worsening. We studied 23 HF patients implanted with a defibrillator capable of intrathoracic impedance measurement and alerting for fluid accumulation diagnosis. At regular follow-up and at visits for HF decompensation or device alert, clinical status was assessed, chest ultrasound was performed, and PCWP was noninvasively estimated with Doppler echocardiography. During 23 ± 11 months of follow-up, 45 paired assessments of defibrillator-measured intrathoracic impedance and ULCs were performed. The number of ULCs resulted significantly correlated to the paired PCWP estimations (r = 0.917, P < 0.001) and to the impedance fluid index (r = 0.669, P < 0.001). During follow-up, 12 episodes of HF decompensation were reported in 12 patients. The impedance alert detected clinical HF deterioration with 92% sensitivity and 69% positive predictive value. The presence of ≥5 ULCs showed 83% sensitivity and 91% positive predictive value. These data demonstrate the correlation between intrathoracic impedance and the number of ULCs at chest ultrasound, and a good agreement between the defibrillator warning for fluid index and the detection of multiple ULCs. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tobacco, alcohol, and p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansukhani Mahesh

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. While the effect of p53 mutations on colorectal cancer prognosis has been heavily studied, less is known about how epidemiologic risk factors relate to p53 status, particularly in early colorectal neoplasia prior to clinically invasive colorectal cancer (including adenomas, carcinoma in situ (CIS, and intramucosal carcinoma. Methods We examined p53 status, as measured by protein overexpression, in 157 cases with early colorectal neoplasia selected from three New York City colonoscopy clinics. After collecting paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-p53 monoclonal mouse IgG2a [BP53-12-1] antibody. We analyzed whether p53 status was different for risk factors for colorectal neoplasia relative to a polyp-free control group (n = 508. Results p53 overexpression was found in 10.3%, 21.7%, and 34.9%, of adenomatous polyps, CIS, and intramucosal cases, respectively. Over 90% of the tumors with p53 overexpression were located in the distal colon and rectum. Heavy cigarette smoking (30+ years was associated with cases not overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9 but not with those cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.4–2.6. Heavy beer consumption (8+ bottles per week was associated with cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.3–12.0 but not with cases without p53 overexpression (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.7–3.7. Conclusion Our findings that p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia may be positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with cigarette smoking are consistent with those of several studies of p53 expression and invasive cancer, and suggest that there may be relationships of smoking and alcohol with p53 early in the adenoma to carcinoma sequence.

  12. Autoaspiration versus manual aspiration in transbronchial needle aspiration in diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Pongtippan, Atcharaporn; Juthakarn, Sabaitip; Boonsarngsuk, Wison; Kurimoto, Noriaki

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, aspiration with high negative pressure is recommended to obtain a specimen in transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Undeniably, however, the assistant experiences difficulty in the generation of the negative pressure and precise control of the syringe while performing the procedure. To evaluate the effectiveness of the autoaspiration method created by our plunger lock in comparison with the conventional manual aspiration in the diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy by TBNA. A prospective study was conducted on all patients referred for diagnostic TBNA of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes. Both automatic and manual aspiration techniques were performed after the needle had been completely inserted into the nodes. The diagnostic yield and the numbers of diagnostic cells or benign lymphoid cells obtained by each technique were compared in the same node. A total of 31 intrathoracic lymph nodes in 24 patients were prospectively studied. Twenty-four nodes (77.4%) were malignancies whereas 7 nodes (22.6%) were benign disease. Adequate lymph node samples were obtained in 30 targets (96.8%), and TBNA revealed definite diagnosis for 25 nodes (80.6%). Both aspiration techniques showed exactly the same diagnostic yield. However, the autoaspiration technique provided significantly more adequate samples than manual aspiration techniques did (P=0.003). The autoaspiration method using our plunger lock was superior to the manual method in obtaining the numbers of adequate samples in TBNA procedures.

  13. Intrathoracic fracture-dislocation of the humerus - case report and literature review

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    Wilson Carlos Sola Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shoulder fracture-dislocations are uncommon. Those associated with intrathoracic dislocation are very rare conditions, resulting from high-energy trauma; usually, the affected limb is in an abduction position. In Brazil, there is only one report of a teenager with displacement of the epiphysis into the chest cavity; the present is the first adult patient report of intrathoracic dislocation of the humerus. The authors present the case of a patient female, aged 56 years, who was hit by motorcycle and thrown approximately 5 meters away. She was rescued on site with thoracic, pelvic, and right upper limb trauma. Her chest was drained due to pneumothorax and multiple fractures of ribs; she was diagnosed with fracture-dislocation in four parts, with intrathoracic dislocation of the humeral head. Displaced forearm bones fracture was also diagnosed; the olecranon, scaphoid, and ischiopubic fractures were not displaced. The patient underwent a joint procedure with a cardiothoracic surgery team to remove the humeral head through thoracotomy and chest drainage; subsequently, a partial arthroplasty of the humerus was performed, with graft from the humeral head and fixation of forearm fractures. Conservative treatment was chosen for the other fractures. After three months, all fractures were healed with gradual functional improvement. The patient remained in physiotherapy and orthopedic monitoring, having been discharged from the thoracic surgery; in a severe depressive episode, the patient committed suicide after 11 months of the trauma.

  14. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation obtunds the capacity of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons to transduce myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Jeffrey L; Cardinal, René; Vermeulen, Michel; Armour, J Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Populations of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons transduce myocardial ischemia, thereby contributing to sympathetic control of regional cardiac indices during such pathology. Our objective was to determine whether electrical neuromodulation using spinal cord stimulation (SCS) modulates such local reflex control. In 10 anesthetized canines, middle cervical ganglion neurons were identified that transduce the ventricular milieu. Their capacity to transduce a global (rapid ventricular pacing) vs. regional (transient regional ischemia) ventricular stress was tested before and during SCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms duration at 90% MT) applied to the dorsal aspect of the T1 to T4 spinal cord. Rapid ventricular pacing and transient myocardial ischemia both activated cardiac-related middle cervical ganglion neurons. SCS obtunded their capacity to reflexly respond to the regional ventricular ischemia, but not rapid ventricular pacing. In conclusion, spinal cord inputs to the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system obtund the latter's capacity to transduce regional ventricular ischemia, but not global cardiac stress. Given the substantial body of literature indicating the adverse consequences of excessive adrenergic neuronal excitation on cardiac function, these data delineate the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system as a potential target for neuromodulation therapy in minimizing such effects.

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

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    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  16. Tolerance and dose-volume relationship of intrathoracic stomach irradiation after esophagectomy for patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Cai, Xu-Wei; Fu, Xiao-Long; Chen, Jun-Chao; Xiang, Jia-Qing

    2015-10-13

    To identify the tolerance of radiation with a high prescribed dose and predictors for the development of intrathoracic stomach toxicity in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after esophagectomy followed by gastric conduit reconstruction. From 2011 to 2013, 105 patients after esophagectomy were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. The intrathoracic stomach was outlined with the calculation of a dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the initial intended treatment of 6020 cGy or 6300 cGy. The volume of the intrathoracic stomach receiving each dose was recorded at 10-Gy intervals between 10 and 40 Gy and at 5-Gy intervals between 40 and 60 Gy. The grade of toxicities was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0. The mean and maximum doses of the intrathoracic stomach were 2449 ± 986 cGy and 6519 ± 406 cGy, respectively. Sixteen (15.2%) and three (2.9%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 and Grade 3 acute gastric toxicity. There were no Grade 4 toxicities. Fourteen patients (13.3%) exhibited late gastric complications possibly related to radiation. The volume percent of the intrathoracic stomach receiving at least 50 Gy (V50) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity (p = 0.024, respectively). Multivariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicities. The intrathoracic stomach is well tolerated with a high-dose irradiation for patients with esophageal SCC receiving radiotherapy after esophagectomy. A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 2 acute intrathoracic stomach toxicity in our study.

  17. The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry

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    Bak M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marie Bak,1 Else Helene Ibfelt,2 Thomas Stauffer Larsen,3 Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen,4 Niels Pallisgaard,5 Ann Madelung,6 Lene Udby,1 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,1 Ole Weis Bjerrum,7 Christen Lykkegaard Andersen1,7 1Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, 2Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, 3Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 4Department of Hematology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, 5Department of Surgical Pathology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, 6Department of Surgical Pathology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Næstved, 7Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital departmental levels and serve as a platform for research. Study population: The DCMR has nationwide coverage and contains information on patients diagnosed at hematology departments from January 2010 onward, including patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Main variables: Data are collected using standardized registration forms (so far up to four forms per patient, which are consecutively filled out online at time of diagnosis, after 2-year and 5-year follow-ups, and at end of follow-up. The forms include variables that describe clinical/paraclinical assessments, treatment, disease progression, and survival – disease-specific variables – as well as variables that are identical for all chronic myeloid malignancies. Descriptive

  18. Magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging of minimal superficial esophageal neoplasia-indicators to differentiate intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Saito, Yasuharu; Kobori, Ayako; Ban, Hiromitsu; Shioya, Makoto; Nishimura, Takashi; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2012-12-01

    Clinical application of narrow band imaging facilitates diagnosis of esophageal neoplasia. However, no previous investigation has been conducted on magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging in detection of minimal superficial esophageal neoplasia, which is defined as neoplasia neoplasia. Between January 2005 and November 2011, 53 minimal superficial esophageal neoplasias in 40 patients were diagnosed by screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with narrow band imaging at our hospital. We investigated findings including brownish dots, brownish epithelium, and demarcation line of minimal superficial esophageal neoplasia diagnosed histopathologically as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma. Significantly more brownish dots (P neoplasia compared with low-grade neoplasia. When minimal superficial esophageal neoplasia was diagnosed as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 88.9, 42.9, 44.4, and 88.2%, respectively, for brownish dots; 94.4, 51.4, 50.0, and 94.7%, respectively, for brownish epithelium; and 66.7, 62.9, 48.0, and 78.6%, respectively, for demarcation line. The combined technique was useful in the differential diagnosis of minimal superficial esophageal neoplasia.

  19. Papilomavírus humano e neoplasia cervical Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia

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    Maria Inês da Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é um fator etiológico bem estabelecido para o câncer cervical. Esse vírus de DNA infecta primariamente o epitélio e pode induzir lesões benignas ou malignas na pele e na mucosa. Alguns HPVs são considerados de alto risco, responsáveis pela progressão das lesões precursoras até câncer cervical. A infecção genital pelo HPV é comum em mulheres jovens e geralmente é transitória. Uma pequena proporção de mulheres infectadas desenvolve câncer cervical, implicando o envolvimento de fatores ambientais e fatores genéticos na carcinogênese. Essa revisão aborda a estrutura viral, classificação e patologia do HPV, história natural e fatores de risco para neoplasia cervical e perspectivas futuras com a vacina anti-HPV.Human papillomavirus (HPV has been established as an important etiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. This DNA virus primarily infects the epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Some HPVs are considered high risk due to their role in malignant progression of cervical tumors. Genital HPV infections are common and usually transient among young sexually active women. Only a small fraction of infected women develop cervical cancer, implying the involvement of environmental and genetic cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. Classification, virology, pathology, natural history, epidemiological features of genital HPV infection, and future prospects for cervical cancer prevention with HPV vaccines will be reviewed here.

  20. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

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    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  1. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome...... developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no significant...

  2. Pharmacological Intervention through Dietary Nutraceuticals in Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Husain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Hadi, S M; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-07-03

    Neoplastic conditions associated with gastrointestinal (GI) tract are common worldwide with colorectal cancer alone accounting for the third leading rate of cancer incidence. Other GI malignancies such as esophageal carcinoma have shown an increasing trend in the last few years. The poor survival statistics of these fatal cancer diseases highlight the need for multiple alternative treatment options along with effective prophylactic strategies. Worldwide geographical variation in cancer incidence indicates a correlation between dietary habits and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that populations with high intake of certain dietary agents in their regular meals have lower cancer rates. Thus, an impressive embodiment of evidence supports the concept that dietary factors are key modulators of cancer including those of GI origin. Preclinical studies on animal models of carcinogenesis have reflected the pharmacological significance of certain dietary agents called as nutraceuticals in the chemoprevention of GI neoplasia. These include stilbenes (from red grapes and red wine), isoflavones (from soy), carotenoids (from tomatoes), curcuminoids (from spice turmeric), catechins (from green tea), and various other small plant metabolites (from fruits, vegetables, and cereals). Pleiotropic action mechanisms have been reported for these diet-derived chemopreventive agents to retard, block, or reverse carcinogenesis. This review presents a prophylactic approach to primary prevention of GI cancers by highlighting the translational potential of plant-derived nutraceuticals from epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, for the better management of these cancers through consumption of nutraceutical rich diets and their intervention in cancer therapeutics.

  3. Management outcome of ocular surface conjunctival neoplasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN)are aspectrum of lesions that arise from the squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva and cornea. They form the most frequent indication for orbital exenteration in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. Poor management of early lesions leads to high rates of tumour ...

  4. Risk Factors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

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    Estrella de la Caridad Armenteros Espino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: cervix cancer constitutes the second cause of death worldwide, with new diagnosis each year. Objective: to determine the risk factors of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the municipality of Cruces. Methods: it was developed an analytical research with case and control design from November 2013 to November 2014. The group of cases was formed of the 34 women with this diagnosis. There were selected 64 females from the same environment with the same age for the control group. The data obtained by surveys and clinical records reviews were presented in absolute numbers and percentages. It was used Chi-squared test and odd ratio. Results: 52 % of women with neoplasia were less than 25 years old. Significant differences were found which associate neoplasia with early sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections by Papilloma virus, Plane genital condyloma, and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Multiple sex partner was a frequent antecedent. Conclusion: risk factors associated to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the group of women studied in the Cruces municipality were early sexual intercourse, mainly before 15 years old, multiple sex partner, sexually communicated diseases and the use of oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years.

  5. Microparticles and Exosomes in Gynecologic Neoplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, Rienk; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Lok Gemma, Christianne A. R.; Kenter, G.; Sturk, Augueste

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the functions of microparticles and exosomes in gynecologic neoplasias. Growing evidence suggests that vesicles released from cancer cells in gynecologic malignancies contribute to the hypercoagulable state of these patients and contribute to tumor progression by

  6. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

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    Nakajima Akira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

  7. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  8. Ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant intrathoracic tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyokawa Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ectopic thymoma rarely presents as an intrathoracic tumor. We report a case of ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant right intrathoracic tumor that was treated with resection. The patient was a 50-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the chief complaint of chest pain. Detailed examination revealed a solid tumor measuring 15 × 10 × 8 cm in diameter, with a clear border. The Imaging findings suggested a solitary fibrous tumor, and surgery was performed. At surgery, the tumor was found to beadherent to the diaphragm, mediastinal pleura, and lower lobe of the lung, although it could be dissected with relative ease and was removed. Pathological diagnosis indicated a type B1 tumor with no capsular invasion according to the World Health Organization classification, and a diagnosis of Masaoka stage I thymoma was made. No continuity with the normal thymus tissue was seen, and the thymoma was considered to be derived from ectopic thymic tissue in the pleura.

  9. Canine oral cavity neoplasias - Brief review

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    João Filipe Requicha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Requicha J.F., Pires M. dos A., Albuquerque C.M. & Viegas C.A. [Canine oral cavity neoplasias - Brief review.] Neoplasias da cavidade oral do cão - Breve revisão. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:41-46, 2015. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal e Department of Veterinary Sciences, School of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, P.O. Box 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal. E-mail: jfrequicha@gmail.com Oral proliferative lesions are relatively common in domestic carnivores but, fortunately, a lot of these lesions are benign. The oral cavity is place of 6% of all tumours in dogs, being the sixth most important localization of neoplasias in this specie. The non-odontogenic tumors arise from structures of the oral cavity, except from dental tissue, and they are mostly malignant. Odontogenic tumors are those originated from the dental structures. In the case of tumors of non-odontogenic, will be described the oral papillomatosis, the melanoma, the squamous cell carcinoma, and the fibrosarcoma. Among the odontogenic tumors, the focus will be on the epulides, ameloblastoma, odontoma and dentigerous cysts.

  10. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagr......The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity...... and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce...... the reasoning for uniting behind a new name, endorsed unanimously at the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification 2016: germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)....

  11. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder; Singh, Sarman; Friis, Henrik; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Saini, Savita; Kabra, Sushil K; Grewal, Harleen M S

    2014-11-01

    Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo with either zinc alone, micronutrients without zinc, micronutrients in combination with zinc, or a placebo. Main outcomes were weight gain and an improvement in a chest X-ray (CXR) lesion assessed at 6 mo of treatment. A total of 403 children were enrolled and randomly assigned. A microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 179 children (44.4%). The median (95% CI) increase in weight-for-age z score at 6 mo was not significantly different between subjects who received micronutrients [0.75 (0.66, 0.84)] and those who did not receive micronutrients [0.76 (0.67, 0.85)] and between subjects who received zinc [0.76 (0.68, 0.85)] and those who did not receive zinc [0.75 (0.66, 0.83)]. An improvement in CXR was observed in 285 children, but there was no difference between those receiving zinc and no zinc or between those receiving micronutrients and no micronutrients after 6 mo of ATT. However, children who received micronutrients had a faster gain in height over 6 mo than did those who did not receive micronutrients (height-for-age z score Δ = 0.08; P = 0.014). Micronutrient supplementation did not modify the weight gain or clearance of lesions on CXR in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis. However, micronutrient supplementation during treatment may improve height gain in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00801606.

  12. Intrathoracic impedance changes reflect reverse left ventricular remodeling in response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Takashi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2012-01-01

    Intrathoracic impedance monitoring has been reported to be useful for prediction of worsening chronic heart failure (CHF). However, it has not revealed the relation between changes in intrathoracic impedance and improvement of cardiac function in CHF patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation. Therefore, we investigated whether intrathoracic impedance change reflects reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in response to CRT in patients with CHF. The study subjects consisted of 29 CHF patients (23 males, mean age 64 ± 12 years) with CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether the Opti-vol Fluid Index® reached over 60 ohms (group A, n = 7) or not (group B, n = 22) within 6 months of observation after CRT-D implantation. Levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured, and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated before and 6 months after CRT-D implantation. In group B, BNP (556 ± 88 pg/mL versus 330 ± 70 pg/mL, P < 0.05), LVEDV (177 ± 18 mL versus 149 ± 14 mL, P < 0.01), and LVESV (128 ± 14 mL versus 100 ± 12 mL, P < 0.01) were significantly decreased 6 months after CRT-D implantation. LVEF (28 ± 2% versus 35 ± 2%, P < 0.01) was significantly increased after CRT-D implantation. On the other hand, no significant changes were detected in any parameters in group A. These data showed intrathoracic impedance changes reflected reverse LV remodeling in response to CRT in patients with CHF. Therefore, the monitoring of changes in intrathoracic impedance is useful for predicting CRT responders in patients with CHF.

  13. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan

  14. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  15. Intrathoracic Anastomotic Leakage after Gastroesophageal Cancer Resection Is Associated with Reduced Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2014-01-01

    and consecutively, nationwide collected patients who underwent gastroesophageal cancer resection between 2003 and 2011 in Denmark. The operation was carried out as an Ivor Lewis procedure. Only patients with intrathoracic anastomosis were included in the analysis. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2011, 1,296 patients......BACKGROUND: Most likely because of low statistical power, no previous studies have shown any significant association between long-term survival and anastomotic leakage in patients who have undergone gastroesophageal cancer resection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included, prospectively...... underwent gastroesophageal resection, and 128 (9.9 %) of these experienced anastomotic leakage. The overall 5-year survival rates in patients with and without anastomotic leakage were 20 and 35 % (P

  16. Right-sided intra-thoracic kidney associated to Bochdalek hernia in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jarry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic hernia of Bochdalek (BH and intra-thoracic kidney (IK are both rare congenital, developmental anomalies. In some extremly rare occasion, these two congenital anomalies can be associated in the same patient. The kidney typically exits the retroperitoneal space through the foramen of Bochdalek. The majority of IK and BH are discovered incidentally. A conservative approach can be proposed in asymptomatic cases. In this report, the case of a 35-year-old man presenting with 1-week of acute abdominal pain is presented. Chest radiography revealed a posterior mass in the right hemithorax, which was later confirmed by chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to be a congenital IK associated with a BH.

  17. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo...... diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 179 children (44.4%). The median (95% CI) increase in weight-for-age z score at 6 mo was not significantly different between subjects who received micronutrients [0.75 (0.66, 0.84)] and those who did not receive micronutrients [0.76 (0.67, 0.85)] and between...

  18. Intrathoracic Endotracheal Metastasis from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma:A First Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic endotracheal metastasis from a very distant site is extremely rare. We report the first case of such a disease in a 68-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who presented with a cough and hemoptysis 34 months after finishing radiotherapy. Prior to tracheal metastasis, he developed a solitary metastasis in the lung and underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Computed tomography showed the presence of an enlarged lymph node in the para-aortic arch. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endotracheal tumor 1 cm above the carina. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed its nasopharyngeal origin. He was treated with conventional radiotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; complete tumor remission was achieved. He died of nonmalignant disease with no signs of tumor recurrence 2 years after treatment completion. Radiotherapy may be an appropriate management approach to achieve long-term tumor control for this disease.

  19. An intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising from the chest wall with massive pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoshiaki; Eguchi, Takashi; Shiina, Takayuki; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Amano, Jun; Asaka, Shiho; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of an intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising from the chest wall and associated with massive pleural effusion. A 70-year-old man presented with a persistent cough. A chest computed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the right pleural cavity with massive pleural effusion. No malignant cells were recognized in the pleural effusion by thoracentesis. A malignant soft tissue tumor was suspected, and surgery was performed. The tumor arose from the posterior chest wall and was resected with the connected chest wall. The definitive diagnosis was a low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Because the posterior margin of the chest wall was microscopically tumor positive, postoperative irradiation was performed. The patient has now been followed up for 30 months with no evidence of recurrence.

  20. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  1. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  2. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  3. Osteoartropatia hipertrófica secundária a neoplasia pulmonar: Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Ferreira da Silva Junior

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A osteoartropatia hipertrófica secundária é uma alteração sistémica que acomete os ossos, as articulações e as partes moles, sendo secundária a alguma patologia intratorácica. É uma síndroma de periostite proliferativa crónica dos ossos longos, baqueteamento dos dedos das mãos, dos pés ou ambos, e oligoartrite ou poliartrite. Relatamos um caso de osteoartropatia hipertrófica num doente com uma massa pulmonar volumosa com o diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma.Rev Port Pneumol 2009; XV (4: 705-711 Abstract: The secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a systemic change that affects the bones, joints and soft tissues and is secondary to any intrathoracic pathology. It is a syndrome of chronic proliferative periostitis of the long bones, clubbing of the fingers of the hands, feet or both, and olyarthritis or polyarthritis. We report one case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a patient with lung mass with bulky diagnostic anatomopathological, adenocarcinoma.Rev Port Pneumol 2009; XV (4: 705-711 Palavras-chave: Osteoartropatia hipertrófica, neoplasia pulmonar, baqueteamento digital, Key-words: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, lung cancer, digital clubbing

  4. Outcomes from a prospective trial of endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of early squamous cell neoplasia of the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Zhang, Yue-Ming; He, Shun; Weusten, Bas; Xue, Liyan; Fleischer, David E.; Lu, Ning; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Wang, Gui-Qi

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is safe and effective for eradicating neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. To evaluate RFA for eradicating early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) defined as moderate-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (MGIN) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia

  5. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Tariq Farooq; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Hussain, Mahfooz; Shah, Shafaqat Ali; Khan, Mohammad Younas; Khan, Mohammad Daud

    2007-06-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. An observational case series. Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, from April 2003 till August 2006. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality.

  6. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  7. What is your diagnosis? [Intestinal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlinger, P.; Glaus, T.; Stoeckli, R.; Flueckiger, M.; Leuch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Iron lack anemia due to chronic blood loss was diagnosed in a 12-year-old dog. Clinical abnormalities included weakness and episodic vomiting. Typical hematological abnormalities were moderate regenerative anemia (Hct 21 %) and microcytosis (MCV 39 fl.). Chronic occult blood loss in adult dogs most commonly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, associated with ulcus or neoplasia. Possible diagnostic steps include radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, gastroduodenoscopy, and exploratory laparotomy. In the present case gastric and duodenal adenocarcinomata were found during necropsy, confirming the clinical suspicion of a bleeding gastrointestinal malignancy

  8. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  9. [Diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, C; Feichter, G; Tzankov, A; Obermann, E C

    2012-03-01

    Diagnosing and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) are part of the routine practice of pathologists. However, discriminating between reactive changes and CIN1 and determining the different degrees of CIN may be challenging. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the proliferation markers Ki-67 and Mcm2 as well as p16 for their potential to aid in the assessment of CIN. 297 samples of normal epithelium, CIN1, CIN2, and CIN3 were assessed for expression of the above mentioned markers using tissue microarrays. There was an increase in the expression of Ki67 and Mcm2 from normal epithelium, CIN1, CIN2 to CIN3 (pneoplasia.

  10. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  11. Plasma proteome analysis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    is preceded by dysplasia that is also described as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or ... 3Department of Clinical Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry;. 4Department of ... cELISA, competitive ELISA; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; FIGO, Federation of International Gynecologists and Obstetricians;. HRP, horseradish ...

  12. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhaff, C.J.; Mooney, S.

    1985-01-01

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  13. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  14. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  15. Pancreatic paracoccidioidomycosis simulating malignant neoplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Talles Bazeia; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Yamashiro, Fábio da Silva; Franzoni, Letícia de Campos; Sassaki, Lígia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes

    2013-09-14

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by fungus, and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors in endemic areas. We report a rare case of paracoccidioidomycosis in the pancreas. A 45-year-old man was referred to our institution with a 2-mo history of epigastric abdominal pain that was not diet-related, with night sweating, inappetence, weight loss, jaundice, pruritus, choluria, and acholic feces, without signs of sepsis or palpable tumors. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed a solid mass of approximately 7 cm × 5.5 cm on the pancreas head. Abdominal computerized tomography showed dilation of the biliary tract, an enlarged pancreas (up to 4.5 in the head region), with dilation of the major pancreatic duct. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and the surgical description consisted of a tumor, measuring 7 to 8 cm with a poorly-defined margin, adhering to posterior planes and mesenteric vessels, showing an enlarged bile duct. External drainage of the biliary tract, Roux-en-Y gastroenteroanastomosis, lymph node excision, and biopsies were performed, but malignant neoplasia was not found. Microscopic analysis showed chronic pancreatitis and a granulomatous chronic inflammatory process in the choledochal lymph node. Acid-alcohol resistant bacillus and fungus screening were negative. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed under US guidance. The smear was compatible with infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We report a rare case of paracoccidioidomycosis simulating a malignant neoplasia in the pancreas head.

  16. Radiological signs of bone infection and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, C.

    1994-01-01

    Infection of equine bone is relatively common but neoplasia is rare. Infective organisms can center bone by direct contamination through penetrating wounds, spreads from adjacent infected structures or via the circulation as a consequence of septicaemic illness. Heamatogenous osteomyelitis is most likely to occur in young foals, but it has been suggested that in conjuction with a compromise in the vascular supply, bacteraemia may be a contributory factor to the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis of the proximal sesamoid bones in adult horses (Wisner et al. 1991). The radiographic changes associated with bone infection and neoplasia are often neither specific nor definitive. This is because bone has only a limited capacity to react to pathological insult, which is either to proliferate or be resorbed. The proportions in which these two processes occur and the resulting radiographic patterns which develop are as likely to be a reflection of the site of the lesion and the anatomy of the bone involved as to the type of disease which causes them. This means that radiological signs of bone disturbance should always be interpreted in conjuction with all other clinical information available

  17. Psychosocial stress and cervical neoplasia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Bond, Sharon; Madeleine, Margaret M; Luchok, Kathryn; Pirisi, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the association between psychosocial stress and preinvasive cervical neoplasia development controlling for HR-HPV infection. This case-control study enrolled low-income women receiving family planning services at health department clinics. There were 59 cases with biopsy confirmed HSIL and 163 with low-grade SIL and 160 controls with normal cervical cytology. A modified SLE scale was used to measure stressful events and the perceived impact of the event in the prior 5 years. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess SIL risk and stressful events scores and by subscales. After adjusting for age, HR-HPV infection, and lifetime number of sex partners, the SLE count score was associated with an increased risk of SIL among white women (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.38) yet not among African American women (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.19). The relationship stress subscale (divorce, infidelity, an increase in the number of arguments, and psychological and physical partner violence) was the only one of four subscales (loss, violence, and financial stress) associated with SIL, again, only among white women (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.96). These data suggest that psychosocial stress may play a role in SIL development. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings, to explore racial difference in reporting stress, and to explore the mechanism through which psychosocial stress may affect cervical neoplasia risk.

  18. GLUT-1 Expression in Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Olca; Singh, Rajendra; Kaygusuz, Ecmel; Balci, Serdar; Dursun, Nevra; Culhaci, Nil; Adsay, N. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives GLUT-1 has been found to have an important role in the upregulation of various cellular pathways and implicated in neoplastic transformation correlating with biological behavior in malignancies. However, literature regarding the significance of GLUT-1 expression in pancreatic neoplasia has been limited and controversial. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1 was tested in a variety of pancreatic neoplasia including ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and serous cystadenomas. Results There was a progressive increase in the expression of GLUT-1 from low- to higher-grade dysplastic lesions: All higher-grade PanINs/IPMNs (the ones with moderate/high-grade dysplasia) revealed noticeable GLUT-1 expression. Among the 94 DAs analyzed, there were minimal/moderate expression in 46 and significant expression in 24 DAs. However, all 4 clear-cell variants of DAs revealed significant GLUT-1 immunolabeling, as did areas of clear-cell change seen in other DAs. Moreover, all 12 serous cystadenomas expressed significant GLUT-1. GLUT-1 expression was also directly correlated with DA histological grade (P = 0.016) and tumor size (P = 0.03). Conclusions GLUT-1 may give rise to the distinctive clear-cell appearance of these tumors by inducing the accumulation of glycogen in the cytoplasm. Additionally, because GLUT-1 expression was related to histological grade and tumor size of DA, further studies are warranted to investigate the association of GLUT-1 with prognosis and tumor progression. PMID:21206329

  19. Solid tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Madson Q; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-11-01

    We present an update on molecular and clinical genetics of solid tumors associated with the various multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) syndromes. MEN type 1 (MEN1) describes the association of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors with a variety of many other lesions. MEN type 2 (MEN2) conditions represent at least four different syndromes that associate pheochromocytoma with medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and a number of other manifestations. Other pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes include von Hippel-Lindau disease; neurofibromatosis 1; the recently defined paraganglioma syndromes type 1, 3, and 4; Carney-Stratakis syndrome; and the Carney triad. Carney-Stratakis syndrome is characterized by the association of paragangliomas and familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In the Carney triad, patients can manifest gastrointestinal stromal tumors, lung chondroma, paraganglioma, adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, esophageal leiomyoma, and other conditions. The Carney complex is yet another form of MEN that is characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, schwannomas, and various endocrine neoplasias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formations, anomalies and variants of the mediastinum and the lung roots in children, simulating enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Borisova, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Timely detection of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes is of great importance in pediatric practice. Meanwhile there exist various mediastinal and lung root as well as anomalies and variants of their development, which could imitate the mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia. Their diagnosis is individually designed employing a complex of X-ray methods. In recent years the anatomo-physiological development of thoracic organs in children and teenagers has been affected by the acceleration process. Under the latters' impact the phenomenon of an increase in the large pulmonary vessels appeared in children with signs of high physical development, which caused lung root dilatation and produced an impression of the intrathoracic lymph node enlargement. The Valsalva functional tests should be used in combination with X-ray research methods

  1. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, Yi-Don; HAN, Hyun-Jung

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with ...

  2. Application of interstitial brachytherapy using afterloading technique for the intrathoracic deep-seated residual malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Iwao

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy using afterloading technique was preformed in eleven patients with intrathoracic deep-seated neoplasma which were surgically not completely resected because of invasion to adjacent organs; six cases with lung cancer, three with esophageal cancer, one with metastatic chest wall tumor and one with carcinoma of gastric cardia. The closed-ended guide tubes were aligned and fixed with catgut on the residual tumors and the open sides of these tubes were led to the outside of the chest wall. Two weeks after the operation, brachytherapy with 192 Ir seed-assemblies was performed for five or seven days. Eight patients were dead and three patients are alive. Local control was obtained in ten of these eleven patients. Autopsies were performed in two patients of esophageal carcinoma with aortic invasion, and no residual tumors of the aortic wall were histologically revealed. This procedure may be effective to the patients with the residual tumors of aortic wall, brachial plexus and another inaccessible deep-seated organs that are difficult to remove. (author)

  3. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  4. A systematic approach to diagnosing intra-thoracic tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Roya-Pabon, Claudia L; Marais, Ben J

    2017-06-01

    Children suffer a huge and often underappreciated burden of disease in tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries. Major hurdles include limited awareness among health care workers, poor integration of TB into maternal and child health approaches, diagnostic difficulties and a lack of child-friendly treatment options. Accurate disease diagnosis is particularly difficult in young and vulnerable children who tend to develop paucibacillary disease and are unable to produce an expectorated sputum sample. In addition, access to chest radiography is problematic in resource-limited settings. Differentiating between TB exposure and M. tuberculosis infection, and especially between M. tuberculosis infection and TB disease is crucial to guide clinical management. TB represents a dynamic continuum from well-contained "latent" infection to incipient and ultimately severe disease. The clinical spectrum of disease in children is broad and can be confused with a myriad of common infections. We provide a pragmatic 4-step approach to diagnose intra-thoracic TB in children and demonstrate how classifying clinical, radiological and laboratory findings into recognised clinical syndromes may provide a more refined diagnostic approach, even in resource-limited settings. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ectopic thymoma presenting as a giant intrathoracic mass: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Tomoyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymoma is an epithelial neoplasm of the thymus, which commonly lies in the anterior mediastinum and, therefore, an intrathoracic origin is considered to be rare. This report presents a case of giant thymoma arising in the thoracic cavity. A 61-year-old male presented with a chronic cough and breathlessness. Chest CT revealed a well enhanced giant mass approximately 18 cm in diameter in the right thoracic cavity. FDG-PET showed that the SUVmax of the tumor was 5.0 in the center and almost 2.5 in the surrounding area. A trans- bronchial needle biopsy was performed to find atypical cells. Surgery was scheduled based on the radiological and histological findings. A well-defined giant mass in the thoracic cavity, measuring 18 × 14.5 × 11 cm had undergone expansive growth without apparent invasion. The tumor was completely resected without combined resection of the other organs. The weight of the tumor was 1350 g. The tumor was histologically diagnosed to be type AB thymoma according to the World Health Organization classification and Masaoka stage IIB.

  6. The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Marie; Ibfelt, Else Helene; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. MAIN VARIABLES: Data are collected using standardized registration forms (so far up to four forms per patient), which are consecutively filled out online at time of diagnosis, after 2-year and 5-year follow-ups, and at end......AIM: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR) is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital...... of follow-up. The forms include variables that describe clinical/paraclinical assessments, treatment, disease progression, and survival - disease-specific variables - as well as variables that are identical for all chronic myeloid malignancies. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: By the end of 2014, the DCMR contained data...

  7. Dermatologic symptoms associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Młynarczyk-Bonikowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tumors are among the most common neoplastic causes of death worldwide. Presence of characteristic skin lesions can allow faster diagnosis and therapy and this way can increase the probability of a cure. In the paper we present the most important paraneoplastic syndromes that can coexist with gastrointestinal malignancy including colon, gastric, esophagus and pancreatic cancers. We take into account genetic syndromes such as Cowden syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM (melanoma/pancreatic cancer, Clarke Howel-Evans, Peutz-Jeghers, Muir-Torre, Gardner syndromes and acquired syndromes such as acantosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, Leser-Trelat, Bazex, hypertrichosis languinosa, erythema gyratum repens , carcinoid and glucagonoma syndrome. We also include cutaneous metastases and coexistence of neoplasia in some cases of dermatomyositis.

  8. Genitoanal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus infection; about 40 out of 150 known HPV genotypes have been associated with genitoanal lesions in the female and male. They have been divided into low-risk (LR) and high-risk (HR) HPV types according to the association of each HPV genotype with genitoanal benign warts, genitoanal cancer and precursor lesions. For the most part, genitoanal HPV infection is equally common in men and in women. Genitoanal HPVs are predominantly transmitted by sexual intercourse. In a minor number of individuals where HR HPV infection has persisted, malignant squamous-cell tumors may develop. There are 15 mucosal oncogenic HPV types which are the etiological factor of cervical cancer and other genitoanal cancers. DNAs of HR HPV types are present in 100% of all cervical carcinomas and in 100% of the precursor lesions, the cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 2 and 3. HPV-16 and -18 alone account for 70% of the oncogenic mucosal HPV types identified. HR HPV types, mostly HPV-16 and -18, are the causes of vaginal and vulvar cancers in females, anal cancers in both genders and cancer of the penis in men. While anal cancers are linked to HR HPVs in more than 80% of cases, only 40% of vulvar cancers and 50% of penile cancers are HPV positive. Genitoanal cancers have a similar anatomy, histology and similar risk factors as well as natural histories. About 60% of vulvar and 50% of penile cancers are HPV negative, but associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, mainly lichen sclerosus. Clinical manifestations of LR HPVs in both sexes are genitoanal warts (condylomata acuminata), which are benign highly infectious tumors. The highest rate of warts is observed in females 16-24 years of age. In males the peak is at the age of 20-24 years. Diagnosis of genitoanal warts should exclude other sexually transmitted infections and diseases. A high number of genitoanal dermatoses, benign tumors, malignant squamous

  9. Management of hemopoietic neoplasias during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydas, Semra

    2016-08-01

    Hemopoietic neoplasias are unique cancers generally affecting bone marrow, and requires a special attention for disease control and also their complications. When these neoplastic disorders accompany to pregnancy there are many risks both for mother and foetus. Diagnostic difficulties due to the limited use of imaging modalities is essential in pregnant women. On the other hand suboptimal using of the anti-neoplastic drugs and their higher toxicity in mother and foetus must be considered in the management of these neoplastic disorders. Due to the lack of therapeutic guidelines in these cases, team approach is essential and therapy requires to the use the art of medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative phosphorylation as a target to arrest malignant neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Meneses, Abelardo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Since Warburg proposed in 1956 that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis due to mitochondrial damage, numerous researchers have assumed that glycolysis is the predominant ATP supplier for cancer cell energy-dependent processes. However, chemotherapeutic strategies using glycolytic inhibitors have been unsuccessful in arresting tumor proliferation indicating that the Warburg hypothesis may not be applicable to all existing neoplasias. This review analyzes recent information on mitochondrial metabolism in several malignant neoplasias emphasizing that, although tumor cells maintain a high glycolytic rate, the principal ATP production may derive from active oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, anti-mitochondrial drug therapy may be an adequate adjuvant strategy to arrest proliferation of oxidative phosphorylation-dependent neoplasias.

  11. Inmunología tumoral y neoplasias del sistema inmune

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Fernández, María Luz de la; Sempere Ortells, José Miguel; Marco, Francisco M.; Vázquez Araujo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Inmunología tumoral: vigilancia inmunológica, antígenos tumorales, respuesta inmune antitumoral, escape tumoral. Inmunología y diagnóstico. Inmunoterapia. Neoplasias del sistema inmune: leucemias y linfomas.

  12. Diagnosis by Endoscopy and Advanced Imaging of Barrett's Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swager, Anne-Fré; Curvers, Wouter L.; Bergman, Jacques J.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) using dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number of patients with a diagnosis of early neoplasia compared with high-definition white

  13. Modeling human endothelial cell transformation in vascular neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Victoria W; MacKenzie, Karen L

    2013-09-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-derived neoplasias range from benign hemangioma to aggressive metastatic angiosarcoma, which responds poorly to current treatments and has a very high mortality rate. The development of treatments that are more effective for these disorders will be expedited by insight into the processes that promote abnormal proliferation and malignant transformation of human ECs. The study of primary endothelial malignancy has been limited by the rarity of the disease; however, there is potential for carefully characterized EC lines and animal models to play a central role in the discovery, development and testing of molecular targeted therapies for vascular neoplasias. This review describes molecular alterations that have been identified in EC-derived neoplasias, as well as the processes that underpin the immortalization and tumorigenic conversion of ECs. Human EC lines, established through the introduction of defined genetic elements or by culture of primary tumor tissue, are catalogued and discussed in relation to their relevance as models of vascular neoplasia.

  14. Can the Ni classification of vessels predict neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Rosenberg, Tine; Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    of the Ni classification to predict laryngeal or hypopharyngeal neoplasia and to investigate if a changed cutoff value would support the recent European Laryngological Society (ELS) proposal of perpendicular vascular changes as indicative of neoplasia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus......OBJECTIVES: The Ni classification of vascular change from 2011 is well documented for evaluating pharyngeal and laryngeal lesions, primarily focusing on cancer. In the planning of surgery it may be more relevant to differentiate neoplasia from non-neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate the ability....... The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the Ni classification with two different cutoffs were calculated, and bubble and summary receiver operating characteristics plots were created. RESULTS: The combined sensitivity of five studies (n = 687) with Ni type IV-V defined as test-positive was 0.89 (95...

  15. Molecular biological factors in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Ponomareva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a complex analysis of the molecular biological factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. They have revealed that infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with suppressed apoptosis and enhanced cellular proliferative activity, which can be effectively used in the diagnosis and prediction of cervical neoplasias to optimize management tac- tics and to improve the results of treatment.

  16. Risk for gastric neoplasias in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: a critical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-03-28

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias.

  17. Early regenerative response in the intrathoracic porcine esophagus-the impact of the inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Linus; Friberg, Lars-Göran; Gatzinsky, Vladimir; Jennische, Eva; Sandin, Anders; Abrahamsson, Kate

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve the treatment of children born with long-gap esophageal atresia, a porcine model was developed for studying esophageal regrowth using a bridging graft composed of a silicone stented Biodesign mesh. The aim of the study was to investigate how leakage and contact between the native muscle and Biodesign mesh affected the early healing response. Resection of 3 cm of intrathoracic esophagus was performed in 10 newly weaned piglets. They were fed through a gastrostomy 8-10 days prior to sacrifice. In order to achieve nonleaking anastomoses, the silicone stent and suturing technique had to be adjusted between the first four and second six piglets. The technical adjustment decreased leakage. A nonleaking anastomosis could not be achieved when the native muscle layers were sewn less central on the bridging graft compared with the mucosa. If there was leakage, the inflammatory response increased, with islets of perivascular T-lymphocytes and infiltration of macrophages in the native muscle layers. In the bridging area, new vessels were seen in the submucosa in 9 of 10 piglets between 4 and 10 days after surgery. Smooth muscle cells also appeared to move from the cut muscle edges of both the muscularis mucosa and the lamina muscularis and were seen as a layer of several cells under newly formed mucosa. Double staining of the basal membrane of the ingrowing vessels and the pericytes showed that the basal membrane was thinner over some of the pericytes, but there was no accumulation of immature-looking cells in the submucosa of the bridging area. In this porcine model, where esophageal regrowth was studied by using a bridging graft composed of a silicone stented Biodesign mesh, we can conclude that leakage increased the inflammatory response in early healing. Ingrowth of new vessels was seen in the bridging area and movement of smooth muscle cells was found under newly formed mucosa. Copyright © 2013 International Center for Artificial Organs and

  18. Hematopoiese extramedular intratorácica: relato de um caso Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Beatriz Melo Moreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 40 anos de idade, portador de anemia falciforme, que desenvolveu a forma intratorácica de hematopoiese extramedular, apresentando lesões expansivas com densidade de partes moles, localizadas posteriormente, nas goteiras paravertebrais, na radiologia convencional. A tomografia computadorizada do tórax demonstrou massas bem delimitadas, de contornos lobulados, com densidade heterogênea à custa de áreas de tecido gorduroso e de densidade de partes moles, localizadas no terço inferior das goteiras paravertebrais. Os pulmões tinham coeficientes de atenuação preservados. A tomografia computadorizada de abdome revelou importante aumento da densidade e do volume do fígado, atribuídos à hemossiderose, e baço atrófico e calcificado devido a infartos esplênicos de repetição.The authors report a case of a 40-year-old male patient with sickle cell disease who presented with intra-thoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis and paravertebral expansive lesions that appeared as soft tissue density masses on conventional x-ray films. A computed tomography of the chest demonstrated soft tissue density masses in the lower third of the paravertebral spaces. These masses presented well-defined limits, lobulated edges and were heterogeneous due to areas of interposed adipose and soft density tissues. The lung parenchyma had no abnormalities. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse hiperdensity and enlargement of the liver that was attributed to hemosiderosis, and an atrophic and calcified spleen due to repeated episodes of infarction.

  19. Postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma. Prognostic value of pleural invasion for intrathoracic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Kamata, Minoru; Koja, Kageharu [Ryukyus Univ., Uehara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Genga, Keiichiro

    1999-10-01

    Optimal management of postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma remains controversial. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of postoperative mediastinal irradiation in patients with completely resected invasive thymoma. Between 1981 and 1996, 21 patients with completely resected invasive thymoma were referred for postoperative mediastinal irradiation. The distribution of Masaoka stages was stage II in 14 patients and stage III in seven patients. Nine patients had pleural invasion by the tumor. Thirteen patients were treated with a localized field and eight were treated with the whole mediastinal field with boost. The total dose to the primary tumor was 40-61 Gy (median: 52 Gy). The median follow-up time of the 16 living patients was 67 months (range: 29-202 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates in all patients were both 77%. Relapses were observed in five patients, in all of whom the sites of the first relapse involved pleural dissemination. There were no relapses within the irradiated field in any of the 21 cases. Five of nine (56%) patients with pleural invasion had relapse of pleural dissemination, while 0 of 12 (0%) patients without pleural invasion had relapse. In univariate analysis, pleural invasion had a statistically significant impact on intrathoracic control (P=0.01). The results indicated that pleural invasion might be predictive of pleural-based relapse for completely resected invasive thymoma. In patients with pleural invasion, mediastinal irradiation alone might be insufficient to avoid pleural-based relapse even after complete resection. (author)

  20. Treatment and outcome of patients with localized intrathoracic and chest wall rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jörg; Urla, Cristian; Sparber-Sauer, Monika; Schuck, Andreas; Leuschner, Ivo; Klingebiel, Thomas; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Seitz, Guido; Koscielniak, Ewa

    2018-02-20

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. In 7% of the cases it is localized at the chest wall or intrathoracically. The aim of this study was to analyze the multimodal treatment concepts and outcomes of children suffering from intrathoracic and chest wall RMS treated within three different Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma (CWS) trials and one registry (Soft Tissue Sarcoma Registry, SoTiSaR). Data of 51 patients with thoracic RMS enrolled in three different CWS trials (CWS-86, -91, -2002P) and one registry (SoTiSaR) were analyzed retrospectively. Surgery and its influence on outcome were assessed. Median follow-up was 37.5 months (0.9-152.5). Median age of the patients was 8.8 years (range 0-19 years). The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was 57% (95%-CI 49-65) and the 5-year event-free survival rate (EFS) was 45% (38-52). Thirty-five patients had tumors located at the chest wall (EFS: 51%, 43-59), and 16 patients had intrathoracic tumors (EFS: 26%, 13-39). Seventeen patients with tumors ≤ 5 cm had a better outcome (EFS: 64%, 52-76) compared to patients with tumors larger than 5 cm (EFS: 36%, 27-45). Radiotherapy (RT) significantly improved the survival of patients with alveolar RMS compared to patients with embryonal histology (EFS: 66%, 52-80 vs. 32%, 21-43 p = 0.02). Complete tumor excision during delayed surgery was the main prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.045). Thoracic RMS is a rare tumor entity. Completeness of tumor resection significantly improved survival of the patients.

  1. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  2. Usefulness of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Goiter versus Metastases From Cancer of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred because of local reoccurrence of cancer of the breast. Chest x-ray showed a mediastinal tumor with dislocation of the trachea to the right. A Tc-99m pertechnetate scan showed irregular tracer uptake in an enlarged left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound confirmed...... the diagnosis of a nodular goiter with intrathoracic growth of the left lobe. A SPECT/CT scan of the mediastinum clearly showed that the soft tissue tumor was the left lobe of the thyroid gland, and not lymphatic metastases....

  3. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; la Riva-Pérez, Pablo Antonio de; Calvo-Morón, Cinta; Buján-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montaño, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results.

  4. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Sziklavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC techniques. Methods We investigated 43 consecutive (preseptic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 % and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC, and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill. Results The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5–48 days. Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days was significantly shorter (p = 0.001 than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days. No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026. Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS was 21 days (median 18, 6–51 days. LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027 in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8 than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5. Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43 and 9.3 % (4/43, and none of the deaths was related to infection. Conclusions For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  5. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Neu, Reiner; Schemm, Rudolf; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-10-21

    This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) techniques. We investigated 43 consecutive (pre)septic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 %) and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases) or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC) with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC), and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill). The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5-48 days). Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days) was significantly shorter (p = 0.001) than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT)-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days). No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026). Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS) was 21 days (median 18, 6-51 days). LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027) in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8) than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5). Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43) and 9.3 % (4/43), and none of the deaths was related to infection. For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  6. Lobular neoplasia: frequency and association with other breast lesions

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    Gobbi Helenice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using new molecular biology techniques, recent studies have implicated a common evolutionary pathway between lobular neoplasia, lobular carcinomas, and columnar cell lesions. Our aims were to assess the frequency of lobular neoplasia in a series of breast biopsies that were performed and examined in the same institution and to analyze the association between subtypes of lobular neoplasia and benign and malignant breast lesions. Methods Cases were selected after reviewing archived pathological reports in the Breast Pathology Laboratory, School of Medicine of Federal University of Minas Gerais (1999-2008. Cases of lobular neoplasia were reviewed and classified as atypical lobular hyperplasia, ductal involvement by cells of atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ. Coexistence of lobular neoplasia with other breast lesions, including columnar cell lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma, was evaluated. The association between lobular neoplasia and breast lesions was analyzed by Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for linear trend. Results We analyzed 5650 breast specimens, selecting 135 breast specimens (2.4% that had a diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, corresponding to 106 patients. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were available for 84 cases, 5 of which were excluded because they contained only "indeterminate" in situ lesions. Of the 79 remaining cases, columnar cell lesions were present in 78.5%, primarily with columnar cell changes without atypia (67.7%. Invasive carcinoma was present in 45.6% of cases of lobular neoplasia--a similar frequency (47.2% as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. We noted a significant linear trend (p in situ compared with atypical lobular hyperplasia. Invasive lobular carcinomas were associated with lobular carcinoma in situ in 33% of cases, compared with 2.8% of atypical lobular

  7. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Dode, Adilza C., E-mail: adilzadode@terra.com.br [Minas Methodist University Center Izabela Hendrix, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Municipal Government of Belo Horizonte, Municipal Health Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Leao, Monica M.D., E-mail: monica@desa.ufmg.br [UFMG-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Belo Horizonte, Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Tejo, Francisco de A.F. [UFCG-Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Center of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Academic Unit of Electrical Engineering, Paraiba State (Brazil); Gomes, Antonio C.R. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Dode, Daiana C. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medicine-Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Dode, Michael C. [MRE Engenharia (Electromagnetic Radiations Measurement-Engineering), Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Moreira, Cristina W.; Condessa, Vania A.; Albinatti, Claudia [Municipal Government of Belo Horizonte, Municipal Health Department, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil); Caiaffa, Waleska T. [UFMG-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Belo Horizonte, Urban Health Observatory, Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State (Brazil)

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ('Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes': 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ('Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica': 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the 'Centro-Sul' ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 {mu

  8. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report

  9. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazi Elorza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population.

  10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    .99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.02), whereas screening frequency was slightly increased in women with UC (IRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08). A total of 561 patients with UC were diagnosed with dysplasia during a median follow-up time of 7.8 years, and 28 patients with UC developed cervical cancer......, compared with 1918 controls. A total of 407 patients with CD were diagnosed with dysplasia during a median follow-up time of 8.3 years, and 26 patients with CD developed cervical cancer, compared with 940 controls. Patients with UC had increased risk of low-grade (IRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32) and high-grade...... established a national cohort of women diagnosed with UC (n = 18,691) or CD (n = 8717) between 1979 and 2011 and a control cohort of individually matched women from the general population (controls, n = 1,508,334). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of screening activity and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia in women...

  11. Developmental arrest of germ cells in the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Brøndum-Nielsen, K

    1998-01-01

    , primordial germ cells, human embryonal carcinoma cells and closely related primate embryonal stem cells reveals various similarities but also differences. We speculate that phenotypical heterogeneity of CIS cells may be associated with their potential to give rise to different tumour types, and may......Clinical observations and epidemiological evidence suggest that important aetiopathological events that cause neoplastic transformation of the male germ cell may occur in fetal life or early infancy. The incidence of germ cell neoplasia is high in individuals with various disorders of gonadal...... hypothesise that if the development of the testis is disturbed or delayed, primordial germ cells or gonocytes undergo maturation delay or differentiation arrest which may render them susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Morphologically homogenous premalignant carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells have...

  12. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis after resection of esophageal cancer: a matched pair analysis of 72 patients in a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Christian D; Binnebösel, Marcel; Otto, Jens; Boehm, Gabriele; von Trotha, Klaus T; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Conze, Joachim; Neumann, Ulf P; Jansen, Marc

    2012-08-06

    The aim of this study was to analyze the early postoperative outcome of esophageal cancer treated by subtotal esophageal resection, gastric interposition and either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis in a single center study. 72 patients who received either a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis after esophageal resection for esophageal cancer were matched by age and tumor stage. Collected data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively regarding morbidity and mortality rates. Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly lower in the intrathoracic anastomosis group than in the cervical anastomosis group (4 of 36 patients (11%) vs. 11 of 36 patients (31%); p = 0.040). The hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intrathoracic anastomosis group compared to the cervical anastomosis group (14 (range 10-110) vs. 26 days (range 12 - 105); p = 0.012). Wound infection and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurred significantly more often in the cervical anastomosis group compared to the intrathoracic anastomosis group (28% vs. 0%; p = 0.002 and 11% vs. 0%; p = 0.046). The overall In-hospital mortality rate was 6% (4 of 72 patients) without any differences between the study groups. The present data support the assumption that the transthoracic approach with an intrathoracic anastomosis compared to a cervical esophagogastrostomy is the safer and more beneficial procedure in patients with carcinoma of the lower and middle third of the esophagus due to a significant reduction of anastomotic leakage, wound infection, paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and shorter hospital stay.

  13. Histological Characterization of Biliary Intraepithelial Neoplasia with respect to Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN is a precursor lesion of hilar/perihilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. BilIN represents the process of multistep cholangiocarcinogenesis and is the biliary counterpart of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN. This study was performed to clarify the histological characteristics of BilIN in relation to PanIN. Using paraffin-embedded tissue sections of surgically resected specimens of cholangiocarcinoma associated with BilIN and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with PanIN, immunohistochemical staining was performed using primary antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, cyclin D1, p21, p53, and S100P. For mucin staining, Alcian blue pH 2.5 was used. Most of the molecules examined here showed similar expression patterns in BilIN and PanIN, in which their expression tended to increase along with the increase in atypia of the epithelial lesions. Significant differences were observed in the increase in mucin production and the expression of S100P in PanIN-1 and the expression of p53 in PanIN-3, when compared with those in BilIN of a corresponding grade. These results suggest that cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma share, at least in part, a common carcinogenic process and further confirm that BilIN can be regarded as the biliary counterpart of PanIN.

  14. [Heredity in renal and prostatic neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer Galetti, T; D'Arrigo, L; De Zorzi, L; Patarnello, T

    1997-09-01

    There is an ever growing report of data supporting the evidence that accumulated genetic changes underlie the development of neoplasia. The paradigma of this multistep process is colon cancer were cancer onset is associated, over decades, with at least seven genetic events. The number of genetic alterations increases moving from adenomatous lesions to colon cancer and, although the genetic alterations occur according to a preferred sequence, the total accumulation of changes rather than their sequential order is responsible of tumor biological behavior. It is noteworthy that, at least for this neoplasia, carcinogenesis appears to arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In some cases mutant suppressor genes appear to exert a phenotypic effect even when present in the heterozygous state thus been non "recessive" at the cellular level. The general features of this model may apply also to renal cell cancer (RCC) and prostate cancer (CaP). Extensive literature exists on the cytogenetic and molecular findings in RCC. Only 2% of RCC are familiar, but molecular genetic studies of these cancers have provided important informations on RCC pathogenesis. As with other cancers, familiar RCC is characterized by an early age of onset and frequent multicentricity. A pathological classification useful in studying these patients subdivide renal cancers in papillary (pRCC) and non papillary (RCC) neoplasms. The most common cause of inherited RCC is the Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterized by retinal and cerebellar hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic cysts and RCC. Over 70% of these patients will develop an RCC by their sixth decade. In 1993 the isolation of the tumor suppressor gene in VHL disease at the level of chromosome 3p25-p26 have lead to a better understanding of RCC. Most missense mutations are associated with high risk of

  15. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

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    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  16. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  17. Immunohistochemistry for cell polarity protein lethal giant larvae 2 differentiates pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovsky, Mikhail; Dresser, Karen; Woda, Bruce; Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor to ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas that shows gastric differentiation. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 has the highest potential to progress to adenocarcinoma, and its distinction from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias is important for clinical management. However, morphologic grading of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia suffers from significant interobserver variability. A product of cell polarity gene lethal giant larvae 2 is a marker of gastric foveolar epithelium expressed in a basolateral fashion, which is lost or mislocalized in gastric epithelial dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated a role of lethal giant larvae 2 expression in differentiating low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, that is, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1 and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-2, from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemical patterns of lethal giant larvae 2 expression were examined in normal pancreatic ducts, 48 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of all histologic grades, and 91 adenocarcinomas on a tissue microarray or conventional sections. The expression pattern was recorded as basolateral, cytoplasmic, negative, or combinations of any of them. Whereas normal duct epithelia did not exhibit lethal giant larvae immunoreactivity, all but one lesion of low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed basolateral lethal giant larvae staining. Conversely, all lesions of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma showed loss of lethal giant larvae 2 staining and/or its cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, a basolateral expression was focally seen in 4 adenocarcinomas with a foamy gland pattern and was always admixed with negatively stained areas. In conclusion, our results show that low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias express lethal giant larvae 2

  18. Cutaneous neoplasia following PUVA therapy for psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, K.E.; Handley, J.; McGinn, S.; Allen, G. [Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology; Patterson, C.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    To determine the risk of cutaneous neoplasia following photochemotherapy (PUVA), we reviewed patients with psoriasis treated at out unit between 1979 and 1991. Two hundred and forty-five patients were assessed, with a median duration of follow-up of 9.5 years. Fifty-nine per cent were male, and 41% female. The median number of exposures was 59, and the median total dose was 133J/cm{sup 2} for the group as a whole. Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) occurred in six individuals (2.4%), basal cell carcinoma occurred in all six and one individual also developed four squamous cell carcinomas and Bowen`s disease of the penis. No cases of malignant melanoma were recorded. Patients who developed NMSC received a median number of 225 exposures and a median cumulative dose of 654J/cm{sup 2}. Compared with a control study population in West Glamorgan, Wales, there was a 1.4 (95% confidence limits (CL) 0.5 and 3.1) times increased risk of NMSC. A statistically significant increased incidence of NMSC was found for patients who had received 100 or more exposures, and 250 or more J/cm{sup 2}, with risks of 3.7 (95% CL 1.0 and 9.5), and 4.0 (95% CL 1.1 and 10), respectively. A PUVA dose of < 250 J/cm{sup 2} or < 100 exposures conferred a minimal increase in risk of NMSC in our study population. (author).

  19. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process

  20. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (≥5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  1. Neoplasias malignas: caracterización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Hernández Cisneros

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes con neoplasias malignas en un área de salud desde marzo de 1994 hasta agosto del mismo año; el universo de estudio estuvo representado por 75 pacientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de afección maligna y el registro primario de los datos, por una encuesta con variables seleccionadas; se procesó la información de una forma computadorizada. Se encontraron como resultados más importantes: una mayor incidencia en el grupo de edad de 50 años y más; un 56 % fumaba y un 17,33 % ingería bebidas alcohólicas; las 3 localizaciones más frecuentes fueron: mama, cuello del útero y piel, y se detectaron deficiencias llamativas en la promoción y la prevención de estas enfermedades.: A cross-sectional study was carried out, with the aim of characterizing the patients with malignant neoplasms in a health area, from March 1994 to August of the same year; the universe of study was represented by 75 patients diagnosed with some kind of malignant disease, and the primary score of the data, by means of a survey with selected variables; information was processed in a computed way. The most important results found, were: the highest incidence in the 50 years old or more age group; the 56 % smoked, and the 17.33 % drank alcoholic beverages; the three most frequent sites, were: breast, cervix uteri and skin, and also outstanding defficiencies were detected in the promotion and prevention of these diseases.

  2. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process

  3. Diagnosis by Endoscopy and Advanced Imaging of Barrett's Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fré; Curvers, Wouter L; Bergman, Jacques J

    Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) using dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number of patients with a diagnosis of early neoplasia compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) with random biopsy analysis. These newer imaging techniques are not more effective in standard surveillance of patients with BE because the prevalence of early neoplasia is low and HD-WLE with random biopsy analysis detects most cases of neoplasia. The evaluation and treatment of patients with BE and early stage neoplasia should be centralized in tertiary referral centers, where procedures are performed under optimal conditions, by expert endoscopists. Lesions that require resection are almost always detected by HD-WLE, although advanced imaging techniques can detect additional flat lesions. However, these are of limited clinical significance because they are effectively eradicated by ablation therapy. No endoscopic imaging technique can reliably assess submucosal or lymphangio invasion. Endoscopic resection of early stage neoplasia in patients with BE is important for staging and management. Optical chromoendoscopy can also be used to evaluate lesions before endoscopic resection and in follow-up after successful ablation therapy.

  4. p53 tumor suppressor gene: significance in neoplasia - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p13.1. Its function includes cell cycle control and apoptosis. Loss of p53 function, either due to decreased level or genetic transformation, is associated with loss of cell cycle control, decrease, apoptosis and genomic modification, such mutation of p53 gene is now assessed and the indicator of neoplasia of cancer of several organs and cell types, p53 has demonstrated to have critical role in defining various progressive stages of neoplasia, therapeutic strategies and clinical application. The present review briefly describes function of p53 in addition to its diagnostic and prognostic significance in detecting several types of neoplasia. (author)

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.......High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  6. Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1–0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer. Case presentation A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia. Conclusions The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating

  7. Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limite, Gennaro; Esposito, Emanuela; Sollazzo, Viviana; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; De Rosa, Dario; Forestieri, Pietro

    2013-07-12

    Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1-0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer. A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia. The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating follow-up. According to our experience

  8. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2). Copyright

  9. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether or not surgical strategy has an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia in cases of cryptorchidism. We made a database study of the incidence of testicular neoplasia at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood, and evaluated if such abnormalities were found...... in special categories of patients, and also of the incidence of testicular neoplasia after orchiopexy with a simultaneous testicular biopsy in childhood. At surgery for cryptorchidism the risk of testicular neoplasia was 7/182 (4%) in cases with intra-abdominal testis, abnormal external genitalia other than......, p neoplasia was 7/830 (1%). The relative risk of testicular neoplasia was about 4. Conclusion: Based on our data and the literature we recommend: 1) Taking a testicular biopsy at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood in intra-abdominally placed...

  10. [Development of the registry for Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasia in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, Péter; Illés, Árpád; Demeter, Judit; Homor, Lajos; Simon, Zsófia; Udvardy, Miklós; Egyed, Miklós

    2016-01-17

    The establishment and operation of disease registry can be used to collect data on epidemiology cases. In addition, the registry can help to work out medical and health economical and political decisions for longer term. The aim of the authors was to collect and analyse data of patients with Philadelphia negative neoplasia in Hungary and draw conclusions about the basic types and features of the relevant disease. An online electronic data collection system has been established, based on the permission of the Regional and Institutional Committee of Science and Research Ethics obtained in April 8, 2013. Data collection has been initiated by hematology centres in Hungary. In addition to collection of the epidemiologic data, blood and bone marrow analysis data have been collected, as well. Also, based on cardiovascular factors, risk stratification has been established. Finally, the authors have investigated the method and practice of patient treatment in Hungary. Data of 901 patients from 15 Hungarian haematology centres have been recorded up to the date of June 30, 2015. After clarification of the data, 426 polycythaemia vera, 350 essential thrombocythaemia and 82 myelofibrosis cases were used for analysis. An online registry has been established which helps to clarify and analyse the basic features of certain medical cases and their treatment in Hungary. Including additional medical centres could help to improve the accuracy of medical analysis.

  11. Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-01-01

    Jan 1, 1998 ... R J Pegoraro, 0 J Hacking, R H Buck, L Rom,. P A Lanning, G M B Berger. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects. A three-generation kindred with clinically and.

  13. RESEARCH Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa (SA) has a dual burden of cancer of the cervix and HIV infection.1,2 The prevalence of abnormal ... neoplasia (CIN), the risk of developing cancer is still 2.8 times greater than in the general population, and may be more ..... and duration of contraception use was not collected. A further limitation was that cytology ...

  14. Genetic diagnosis of a Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Approximately 98% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) have an identifiable RETmutation. Prophylactic or early total thyroidectomy or pheochromocytoma/parathyroid removal in patients can bepreventative or curative and has become standard management. The general strategy for RET ...

  15. Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark 1991 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The number of invasive cervical cancers peaked in Denmark in 1966 with 963 cases. Cervical cancer is prevented by treatment of screen-detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We assessed the trend in CIN treatments in Denmark. Material and Methods: From highly...

  16. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative incidences of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer were studied in black and white patients at the academic hospitals of the University of the Orange Free State. A statistically highly significant difference was found between black and white patients, with a higher incidence of ...

  17. Pitfalls in the management of infantile renal neoplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neoplasia. Nishith K. Jetley a. , Abdulla S. Al Helal a and Mufareh H. Al-Mazkary b. This article addresses questions posed by a renal mass in early infancy. Are changes required in the standard approach to a renal mass in this age group? Are diagnostic possibilities transformed enough to warrant a change of approach in a ...

  18. Genetic diagnosis of a Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhen-Fang Du

    2017-05-11

    May 11, 2017 ... 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 38 Guangji Road, Hangzhou 310022,. Zhejiang ... Keywords. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A; polymorphisms; RET proto-oncogene; whole genome sequencing ... and 95% of patients carry RET germline mutations in codons.

  19. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470238

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  20. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  1. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yi-Don; Han, Hyun-Jung

    2017-08-10

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with pyothorax induced by a foreign body, and was treated successfully by surgical removal of the foreign body, partial lung lobectomy, thoracic lavage, and antibiotics. The foreign body was identified as a popsicle stick that the dog had eaten.

  2. GeneXpert MTB/RIF on bronchoalveolar lavage samples in children with suspected complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elisabetta; Goussard, Pierre; Bosch, Corne; Hesseling, Anneke C; Gie, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Children with complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) require rapid confirmation of TB diagnosis and of drug susceptibility to institute appropriate therapy. In a pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility and potential utility of GeneXpert (Xpert) on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in children undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. We included children Children's Hospital, October 1, 2012-May 15, 2013. A minimum of two respiratory specimens in addition to BAL were obtained from each child. In addition to fluorescent smear microscopy and automated liquid culture performed on all samples, BAL samples were analyzed by Xpert. Drug susceptibility was confirmed by GenoType(®) MTBDRplus. Fourteen children (2 HIV positive, median age 16 months) were included. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test was positive in 11. On chest radiograph, six children had expansile pneumonia and nine had airway compression (one had both). The median duration of TB treatment before bronchoscopy was 8 days. TB was confirmed by either culture or Xpert from any sample in 11 (78%) children. Among 9/14 (64%) cases confirmed by culture, BAL Xpert was positive in 7 (78% sensitivity); in addition, Xpert confirmed 2 cases who had negative culture (14% additional diagnostic yield). Two drug resistant cases were identified: one by BAL Xpert and one from genotypic testing of a culture from gastric aspirate. All children were initiated on anti-TB treatment and responded well to therapy. BAL Xpert resulted in additional diagnostic yield and also in the rapid detection of drug resistance in children with complicated intrathoracic TB. The clinical impact of this modality should be further evaluated in children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA, provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e a recidiva é comum. Em geral, as formas de tratamento podem de ser divididas em tópicas, entre elas, ácido tricloroacético, podofilina, podofilotoxina, imiquimod, terapia fotodinâmica, e ablativas, ou seja, excisão cirúrgica, ablação pelo LASER, coagulação pelo infravermelho e eletrofulguração. Há, ainda, os que consideram aceitável a conduta expectante. O tratamento tópico se justifica pelo caráter multifocal da lesão e os ablativos têm taxas de complicação e recidiva muito semelhantes. De qualquer forma, doentes com qualquer anormalidade histológica necessitam de seguimento adequado, principalmente com colposcopia e citologia anal.Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN, provoked by HPV, is considered as an anal cancer precursor. Some articles noticed that it occurred among 11% and 52% of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV and, among seronegatives, from 6% to 20% of men and from 1% to 2.8% of women. From 8.5% to 13% of high grade AIN will evolve to invasive carcinoma, needing follow-up and screening for prevention. There is no satisfactory treatment with low morbidity and recurrence is frequent. There are two main forms of treatment: topics (trichloroacetic acid, podophylin, podophylotoxin, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and ablatives (chirurgical excision, LASER, infrared, eletrocautery. Others consider acceptable an expectant management. Topical therapy is justified because of multifocal presentation of HPV

  4. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  5. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy......Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-associated cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasia and multifocal cholesterol granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriko; Komuro, Kazuteru; Uchino, Shinya; Yagihashi, Soroku; Ishidate, Takuzo; Ishizaka, Masanori

    2010-04-01

    A novel combination of tumors was found in a 68 year-old female with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type-1 (MEN 1) that included a cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasm (CPEN), a pituitary adenoma, and multifocal cholesterol granulomas (MCGs) in the breast, pleura, and the extremities. The pancreatic tumor displayed a single central locule surrounded by a thin rim of neoplastic parenchyma. The tumor showed heterogeneity in the architecture that included glandular, trabecular and solid patterns. The tumor cells of the pancreas were immunohistochemically positive for both endocrine and pancreatic acinar markers including chromogranin A, synaptophysin, glucagon, lipase, and reg protein. Electron microscopy revealed that there were numerous smaller dense-cored neurosecretory granules, larger zymogen-like granules and microvilli on the apical side of the tumor cells. The pancreatic tumor was diagnosed as CPEN with acinar cell features. Analysis of the DNA extracted from the tissues revealed that there is a MEN1 germline mutation in exon 10 codon 527, and somatic mutation in exon 2 codon 32 in the pancreatic tumor, and one base pair deletion in exon 2 codon 79 in the pituitary adenoma. Here, we report the case and discuss possible pathogenesis of CPEN and MCGs in a patient with MEN 1.

  7. Can monitoring of intrathoracic impedance reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure? Rationale and design of the Diagnostic Outcome Trial in Heart Failure (DOT-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunschweig, Frieder; Ford, Ian; Conraads, Viviane; Cowie, Martin R.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Kautzner, Josef; Lunati, Maurizio; Aguilera, Roberto Munoz; Yu, Cheuk Man; Marijianowskii, Monique; Borggrefe, Martin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    Background: Chronic heart failure is associated with frequent hospitalisations which are often due to volume-overload decompensation. Monitoring of intrathoracic impedance, measured from an implanted device, can detect increases in pulmonary fluid retention early and facilitate timely treatment

  8. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  9. Clinical significance of farnesoid X receptor expression in thyroid neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Dana, Eugene; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in thyroid neoplasia. FXR expression was assessed immunohistochemically on 88 thyroid neoplastic tissues (benign = 44, malignant = 44). Enhanced FXR was more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared with hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0489). In malignant lesions, elevated FXR was associated with capsular (p = 0.0004) and vascular invasion (p = 0.0056) and increased follicular cells' proliferative rate (p < 0.0001). Elevated FXR expression was also associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0086), presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0239) and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.0086) and increased recurrence rate risk (p = 0.0239). FXR may be associated with tumor aggressiveness that affects patients' survival in thyroid neoplasia.

  10. Deregulation of microRNA expression in thyroid neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Battista, Sabrina; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of powerful gene expression regulators. Acting at the post-transcriptional level, miRNAs modulate the expression of at least one-third of the mRNAs that are encoded by the human genome. The expression of a single gene can be regulated by several miRNAs, and every miRNA has more than one target gene. Thus, the miRNA regulatory circuit, which affects essential cellular functions, is of enormous complexity. Moreover, a fundamental role for miRNAs has been determined in the onset and progression of human cancers. Here, we summarize the main alterations in miRNA expression that have been identified in thyroid neoplasias and examine the mechanisms through which miRNA deregulation might promote thyroid cell transformation. We also discuss how the emerging knowledge on miRNA deregulation could be harnessed for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasias.

  11. Neoplasias mamárias em canídeos

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Madalena; Esteves, Fernando; Paiva, Rita Cruz; Santos, Carla Arede; Vala, Helena

    2016-01-01

    As neoplasias em pequenos animais têm grande relevância na clínica de animais de companhia, não só pela sua incidência crescente, como pela sua gravidade. O presente trabalho pretende ser uma revisão sobre o tema, associado a informações obtidas do Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica da Escola Superior Agrária de Viseu. As neoplasias mamárias têm maior incidência nas fêmeas, não esterilizadas, geriátricas, sendo raras em animais com menos de 7 anos. A maioria dos ...

  12. Gender difference in the association of insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis with colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, T; Iwasaki, M; Sasazuki, S; Tsugane, S

    2012-03-01

    Accumulating evidence has implicated insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in colorectal carcinogenesis. Of interest, adiposity is likely to impose a greater risk on men than on women, which indicates that the association of insulin and the IGF axis with colorectal neoplasia may differ by gender. However, epidemiological evidence for this possible gender difference is limited to date. We measured plasma concentrations of C-peptide, IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 and 3 in 1520 healthy volunteer examinees who underwent total colonoscopy between February 2004 and February 2005, and cross-sectionally investigated the association of these biomarkers with colorectal adenoma by gender. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal adenoma after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a positive association of C-peptide and IGF-I (P (trend)gender difference was statistically significant for C-peptide (P (interaction)=0.03) and marginally significant for IGF-I and IGFBP-1 (P (interaction)=0.14 and 0.12, respectively). Our observations suggest that insulin and the IGF axis act differently by gender in colorectal carcinogenesis, at least in its early stage. The findings of this study further our understanding of the complexities of the gender difference in the association between adiposity and colorectal neoplasia.

  13. Effect of regulating airway pressure on intrathoracic pressure and vital organ perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a non-randomized interventional cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Younghoon; Debaty, Guillaume; Puertas, Laura; Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; McKnite, Scott; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Lurie, Keith

    2015-10-28

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate changes in intrathoracic pressure (Ppl), airway pressure (Paw) and vital organ perfusion pressures during standard and intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR)-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Multiple CPR interventions were assessed, including newer ones based upon IPR, a therapy that enhances negative intrathoracic pressure after each positive pressure breath. Eight anesthetized pigs underwent 4 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 2 min each of sequential interventions: (1) conventional standard CPR (STD), (2) automated active compression decompression (ACD) CPR, (3) ACD+ an impedance threshold device (ITD) CPR or (4) ACD+ an intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR) CPR, the latter two representing IPR-based CPR therapies. Intrapleural (Ppl), airway (Paw), right atrial, intracranial, and aortic pressures, along with carotid blood flow and end tidal CO2, were measured and compared during each CPR intervention. The lowest mean and decompression phase Ppl were observed with IPR-based therapies [Ppl mean (mean ± SE): STD (0.8 ± 1.1 mmHg); ACD (-1.6 ± 1.6); ACD-ITD (-3.7 ± 1.5, p ACD); ACD-ITPR (-7.0 ± 1.9, p ACD)] [Ppl decompression (mean ± SE): STD (-6.3 ± 2.2); ACD (-13.0 ± 3.8); ACD-ITD -16.9 ± 3.6, p ACD); ACD-ITPR -18.7 ± 3.5, p ACD)]. Interventions with the lower mean or decompression phase Ppl also demonstrated lower Paw and were associated with higher vital organ perfusion pressures. IPR-based CPR methods, specifically ACD-ITPR, yielded the most pronounced reduction in both Ppl and Paw and resulted in the most favorable augmentation of hemodynamics during CPR.

  14. Extramedullary plasmocytoma of the rhino pharynx associated to intrathoracic mass - a case report; Plasmocitoma extramedular da rinofaringe associado a massa intratoracica - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andrea Silveira de; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1996-07-01

    The authors report a case of a 56-year-old while male, who had occipital headache, libido and visual acuity (bitemporal field) reduction as the clinical picture, with progressive evolution within a four years period. The image diagnosis methods (roentgenologic studies), (MRI) demonstrated extensive mass involving the sella, clivus and sphenoid sinus, and an intrathoracic mass on the right. The final diagnosis was extramedullary plasmocytoma with rhinopharynx origin. (author) 27 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  16. [Treatment of vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasias with Imiquimod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, J; Hebert, T; Ouldamer, L; Marret, H; Body, G

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasia (VIN) is increasing in the developed countries especially in young women. There is little consensus regarding the optimal management. Surgery used to be the gold standard. Alternatives to surgery are now needed for the treatment of VIN. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of Imiquimod 5% cream in this pathology. We present a literature review of the results published on the subject. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Validity of Colposcopy in the Diagnosis of Early Cervical Neoplasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La colposcopie demeure un outil valable pour le diagnostic de la néoplasie cervicale précoce. Son rôle intégrant dans le traitement de la maladie cervicale précoce est donc justifié. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod 2002; 6[3]: 59-69) KEY WORDS: Colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, colposcopic accuracy.

  18. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  19. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  20. [Radiofrequency in the treatment of the renal neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Mereghetti, Marco; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Meloni, Maria Franca

    2015-01-01

    The tumors of the kidney are around the 3% of the neoplasia in adult patients and, at the postmortem examination, the renal neoplasias has a frequency of 1/300 for tumors diameter of 1 to 2 cms. In the treatment of the small neoplasias, techniques of nephron sparing and enucleation are used. These techniques have shown the same therapeutic effectiveness of the radical nephrectomy in patients with tumors smaller than 4 centimeters, with reduction of morbidity. However, there are few clinical situation in which the surgery has a high risk: patients with solitary kidney, chronic renal failure, multiple localizations involving also contralateral kidney, in patients with other malignancies and in von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome. Recently, percutaneous mininvasive techniques have been applied (ex. thermoablation): these techniques allow to reduce the duration of general anesthesia, they offer the possibility to use spinal anaesthesia (besides deep sedation and general anaesthesia) with reduction in mortality during surgery. The most commonly used among interstitial therapies is the radiofrequency (RF), which changes electromagnetic waves into heat. RF used both tomography and ultrasound-guided. The latter is the most recommended because it allows to follow the procedure in real-time. The treatment of renal tumors with RF, in which surgery is inadvisable, is safe and effective especially in peripheral and/or exophytic lesions lower than 4 cm. However the larger tumors can also be treated successfully with combined therapy or multiple sessions.

  1. Colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis undergoing liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristin Kaasen; Lindström, Lina; Cvancarova, Milada

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have implicated primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as an additional risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some reports have indicated that the risk is even higher in PSC-IBD patients after liver transplantation (Ltx), but this issue...... is controversial. We aimed to compare the risk of colorectal neoplasia in PSC-IBD patients before and after Ltx and to identify risk factors for colorectal neoplasia post-transplant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a multicenter study within the Nordic Liver Transplant Group, we assessed the risk of colorectal neoplasia......-one (25%) PSC-IBD patients developed colorectal neoplasia. The cumulative risk of colorectal neoplasia was higher after than before Ltx (HR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p = 0.002). A multivariate analysis demonstrated aminosalicylates and ursodeoxycholic acid as significantly associated with an increased risk...

  2. Biomarker expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: potential progression predictive factors for low-grade lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Satoru; Zen, Yoh; Inoue, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal whether 3 biomarkers (p16INK4a, ProEx C, and human papilloma virus DNA) are useful in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and whether they could predict disease progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-1. We analyzed 252 cervical specimens: nondysplastic mucosa (n = 9), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 229), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14). Immunostaining for p16INK4a and ProEx C, and the hybridcapture II assay for human papilloma virus DNA were performed. Expression of p16INK4a and staining for ProEx C were significantly higher in intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 (96%-100%) than in nondysplastic mucosa (11%) or intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (40%-53%). Human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 69% of intraepithelial neoplasia-1, 95% of intraepithelial neoplasia-2, and 100% of intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Of 99 patients with intraepithelial neoplasia 1 for whom follow-up data was available, 62 (73%) showed spontaneous regression, 17 (20%) demonstrated persistent low-grade lesion, and 7 (7%) progressed to intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3. Expressions of p16INK4a and staining with ProEx C were significantly higher in the progression group than in the regression group. Testing for p16INK4a and ProEx C was sensitive (86%) and moderately specific (60% and 61%, respectively) in predicting the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1. Human papilloma virus DNA testing was highly sensitive (100%) but less specific (37%). In conclusion, this study revealed that p16INK4a and ProEx C are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and have potential as predictors of progression of low-grade lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  4. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Identifying Malignant Cells Within Neoplasias Histologically Classified as Benign

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lelievre, Sophie A

    2005-01-01

    Current diagnostic tools permit the classification of breast neoplasias into categories that represent different relative risks of developing cancer, but they do not indicate which particular lesion...

  5. Transdiaphragmatic extension of a retroperitoneal lipoma into the intrathoracic extrapleural space via the lumbocostal trigone in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Emily S; Heng, Hock Gan; Freeman, Lynetta J; Childress, Michael O

    2012-04-15

    An 8-year-old 12.2-kg (26.9-lb) spayed female American Cocker Spaniel was referred for evaluation of abdominal discomfort and a suspected intra-abdominal lipoma with possible invasion into the thorax. Physical examination revealed a tense abdomen, and the margins of a large abdominal mass could be appreciated. Abdominal imaging revealed a mass of fat opacity in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Computed tomography with precontrast and postcontrast peritoneograms was used to determine whether the masses connected via a diaphragmatic defect. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal lipomatous mass that had focally invaded the hypaxial musculature and had extended across the dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm via the lumbocostal trigone into the intrathoracic extrapleural space. Surgical resection required transdiaphragmatic thoracotomy. Histologic examination of excised tissue confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of a lipoma. The dog recovered from surgery with no complications and had no disease recurrence for at least 32 months after surgical resection. The defect of the lumbocostal trigone is also called the foramen of Bochdalek in humans, and it is recognized as a common location for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A lumbocostal trigone hernia may be considered as a differential diagnosis for bicavitary masses in dogs, particularly in the absence of a history of trauma.

  6. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Brunet, Marisol; Hernandez Galano, Geldris P; Suarez Beyries, Lidia C; Duverger Magdaleon, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  7. Neoplasias do intestino delgado: experiência de cinco anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Martins

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a experiência do Serviço de Cirurgia Geral - HC/UFPE com os tumores do intestino delgado, na tentativa de colaborar com a definição de metas para o manejo dessas lesões. MÉTODO: Constitui-se este estudo em uma análise retrospectiva de12 pacientes portadores de neoplasias intestinais atendidos no SCG-HC/UFPE, no período de cinco anos (1994-1999. Sete eram do sexo masculino (58%. A média de idade à admissão foi de 52 anos. A principal queixa referida foi dor abdominal (83%, seguida por sangramento digestivo e perda ponderal (42%. Massa abdominal palpável foi evidenciada em 50% dos casos. Sete (58% apresentavam lesões malignas. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, quatro eram leiomiomas. Uma paciente, portadora de síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers, apresentou um hamartoma. Dez foram submetidos a tratamento operatório. Em seis, enterectomia com enteroanastomose foi empregada. Três foram operados em caráter de urgência (um por perfuração intestinal, um por enterorragia maciça e um por obstrução intestinal. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade relacionada à operação foi de 17%. Todos os pacientes que evoluíram para óbito apresentavam neoplasias malignas avançadas e perda ponderal superior a15% de seu peso. CONCLUSÕES: Tumores do intestino delgado são lesões incomuns, mesmo em serviços de referência. Um alto grau de suspeição deve ser mantido visando o diagnóstico precoce.

  8. Investigating work-related neoplasia associated with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Forman, S D; McNamee, R; Wilkinson, S M; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Both solar and non-solar exposures associated with occupation and work tasks have been reported as skin carcinogens. In the UK, there are well-established surveillance schemes providing relevant information, including when exposures took place, occupation, location of work and dates of symptom onset and diagnosis. To add to the evidence on work-related skin neoplasia, including causal agents, geographical exposure and time lag between exposure and diagnosis. This study investigated incident case reports of occupational skin disease originating from clinical specialists in dermatology reporting to a UK-wide surveillance scheme (EPIDERM) by analysing case reports of skin neoplasia from 1996 to 2012 in terms of diagnosis, employment, suspected causal agent and symptom onset. The suspected causal agent was 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' in 99% of the reported work-related skin neoplasia cases. Most cases reported (91%) were in males, and the majority (62%) were aged over 65 at the time of reporting. More detailed information on exposure was available for 42% of the cases, with the median time from exposure to symptom onset ranging from 44 (melanoma) to 57 (squamous cell carcinoma) years. Irrespective of diagnostic category, the median duration of exposure to 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' appeared longer where exposures occurred in the UK (range 39-51 years) rather than outside the UK (range 2.5-6.5 years). It is important to provide effective information about skin protection to workers exposed to solar radiation, especially to outdoor workers based outside the UK. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Radiographically occult pulmonary metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hong, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN is a spectrum of diseases including partial and complete hydatidiform moles, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and choriocarcinoma. One of the most important considerations is recognition of the possibility of GTN after molar pregnancy or even normal pregnancy. It is common practice to use chest x-ray for the detection of pulmonary metastasis. Computed tomography imaging of the lungs is ordered if lung lesions are noted on chest x-rays. However, understanding the limitations of chest x-rays is important for detecting smaller pulmonary lesions. We present a patient with GTN and pulmonary metastasis after having received 2 negative chest x-rays.

  10. [Which first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal neoplasias are at the highest risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoviny Kajzrlíková, I; Vítek, P; Chalupa, J; Dítě, P

    2013-04-01

    The first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal neoplasias have higher risk of colorectal cancer than general population. The aim of our study was to identify first- degree relatives at the highest risk of colorectal neoplasia considering both their hereditary and nonhereditary risks. We have analysed the results of colonoscopic examinations of the first- degree relatives done within the project and we have compared them with the epidemiologic data relevant to colorectal cancer that we obtained from first-degree relatives. 160 first- degree relatives (66 men, 94 women, mean age 48.2, SD ± 10.9 years) have undergone colonoscopic examination within the project, 105 (66 %) of them had no or nonneoplastic polyps, 55 (34 %) had neoplastic lesions. In the univariate analysis the risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic lesions were: male sex (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.18- 4.48, p = 0.014), age over 50 years (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.42- 5.45, p = 0.003), sibship (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.25- 5.87, p = 0.012), smoking (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.21- 4.63, p = 0.012) and higher fat intake (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.07- 4.04, p = 0.032). In the multivariate analysis only the age over 50 years proved significant (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.32- 6.09, p = 0.007). The most of the neoplastic lesions in first- degree relatives were located in the right colon. We can confirm high prevalence of neoplastic lesions among first- degree relatives. First-degree relatives at the highest risk are men over 50 years of age, siblings, smokers, who do not reduce dietary fat intake. This group of patients share both genetic and environmental risks and thus should be screened with the highest priority.

  11. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi SG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure. OSSN has been reported as the first presenting sign of HIV/AIDS in 26%–86% cases, and seropositivity is noted in 38%–92% OSSN patients. Mean age at presentation of OSSN has dropped to the third to fourth decade in HIV-positive patients in developing countries. HIV-infected patients reveal large aggressive tumors, higher-grade malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS, and no significant trend has been discovered between CD4 count and grade of OSSN. Furthermore, the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on OSSN is controversial. The current recommendation is to conduct HIV screening in all cases presenting with OSSN to rule out undiagnosed HIV infection. Patient counseling is crucial, with emphasis on regular follow-up to address

  12. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  13. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias may be inherited in syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and MEN2), familial pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, and Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, and management of these hereditary cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Myoepithelial cells: their origin and function in breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Adriance, Melissa C; Sternlicht, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    and surrounding myoepithelial cells in normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia. In this review we discuss data from our laboratories and from others regarding the cellular origin of human myoepithelial cells, their function in maintaining tissue polarity in the normal breast, and their role during neoplasia....

  15. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...

  16. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-03-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia.

  17. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia

  18. Multiplication and distribution of type 2 dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses in Toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Kimura, T; Ohyama, A

    1987-01-01

    The nonhematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites (Tx.) splendens was found to be the most susceptible to type 2 dengue (D-2) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses among three hosts examined by virus titration and replication assays. After inoculation with D-2, the number of viral antigen positive cells in the head, thorax and abdomen increased up to day 15 and D-2 reached the maximum titer of 8.4 log10 PFU/g in the head on day 15. Hemocytes were the earliest cell type that could be detected as D-2 antigen positive on day 2. Multiplication of JEV was faster than that of D-2 in the mosquito. The number of JEV antigen positive cells in each part of the mosquito increased up to day 3, JEV reaching the maximum titer of 8.0 log10 PFU/g in the abdomen on day 3. Hemocytes and fat body cells (FBC) could be detected as JEV antigen positive cells on day 1. The time course of D-2 and JEV infection suggested that intrathoracically inoculated viruses were probably initially phagocytosed by hemocytes and/or FBC, and multiplied primarily in their cytoplasm. The infected hemocytes were then transported by the flow of body fluid and viruses were disseminated to other susceptible organs, such as ganglia, salivary glands, etc. The results obtained indicate that the course of infection of D-2 and JEV in Tx. splendens is similar to that in vector mosquitoes. Tx. splendens is therefore very useful for the study of these viruses.

  19. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source.

  20. Serpens endocrania symmetrica (SES): a new term and a possible clue for identifying intrathoracic disease in skeletal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Greenwald, Charles M; Latimer, Bruce; Jellema, Lyman M; Wish-Baratz, Susanne; Eshed, Vered; Dutour, Olivier; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a phenomenon in the endocranial plate, which we have termed "serpens endocrania symmetrica" (SES), and discusses its value as a diagnostic tool. The affected discolored bone area exhibits disruption of the endocranial surface, lending it a maze-like appearance. Histological sections demonstrate that the process is limited to the most superficial portion of the endocranium, with no diploic and ectocranial involvement (sinus areas excepted). Adult skulls (n = 1,884) from the Hamann-Todd collection (HTH), housed at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, were utilized for the present study. SES was recognized in 32 of the 1,884 skulls studied (1.7%). The frequency of SES among individuals reported to have died from tuberculosis (TB) was 4.4%. The rate of SES in the non-TB sample was only 0.53%. The locations were as follows: limited to sinus area, 28.1%; calvarium (excluding the sinuses), 46.9%; sinus + calvarium, 25.0%. SES was bilateral in 90.9% of cases. Twenty-five of the 32 individuals (78.1%) with SES in the HTH collection had tuberculosis specifically listed as the cause of death. Six of the other 7 individuals had infections other than TB. In 29 of the 32 individuals with SES, infection involved structures within the thorax. As SES was also associated with another osteological phenomenon known to represent pulmonary disease, i.e., hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA; 68.0% of SES individuals also had HOA), SES may be of diagnostic value in paleopathology for the recognition of intrathoracic disease, and perhaps tuberculosis. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Tuengerthal, Siegfried [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2{+-}0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5{+-}0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0{+-}0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5{+-}0.6 vs. 2.0{+-}0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7{+-}0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  2. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine; Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.; Tuengerthal, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2±0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5±0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0±0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7±0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  3. Intrathoracic Goiter. A Case Report Bocio endotorácico. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the anterolateral part of the neck. It is estimated that approximately 3 % of the population worldwide suffer from this condition, although the incidence of nodular goiter has decreased in some countries due to the intake of iodized salt and iodine-rich food. A case of a 59 year-old female patient who attended consultation with an enlargement of the neck, accompanied by weakness, palpitations and dysphagia is presented. After being examined, she underwent surgery which confirmed the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. Since this is a rare pathology, it is of scientific interest for professionals dealing with the study and treatment of thyroid conditions.Se denomina bocio al aumento de volumen de la glándula tiroides en la región antero-lateral del cuello. Se calcula que aproximadamente el 3 % de los pobladores del mundo lo tienen, aunque la incidencia del bocio nodular ha disminuido debido a la ingestión en algunos países de sal yodada y alimentos ricos en yodo. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 59 años que acudió a consulta por presentar aumento de volumen del cuello, acompañado de decaimiento, palpitaciones y disfagia, la cual después de ser estudiada en consulta fue intervenida quirúrgicamente, en la que se corroboró el diagnóstico de un bocio endotorácico. Por ser esta patología poco frecuente, se considera de interés científico para los profesionales dedicados al estudio y tratamiento de las afecciones tiroideas.

  4. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  5. A Multiscale Model Evaluates Screening for Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Curtius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE patients are routinely screened for high grade dysplasia (HGD and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC through endoscopic screening, during which multiple esophageal tissue samples are removed for histological analysis. We propose a computational method called the multistage clonal expansion for EAC (MSCE-EAC screening model that is used for screening BE patients in silico to evaluate the effects of biopsy sampling, diagnostic sensitivity, and treatment on disease burden. Our framework seamlessly integrates relevant cell-level processes during EAC development with a spatial screening process to provide a clinically relevant model for detecting dysplastic and malignant clones within the crypt-structured BE tissue. With this computational approach, we retain spatio-temporal information about small, unobserved tissue lesions in BE that may remain undetected during biopsy-based screening but could be detected with high-resolution imaging. This allows evaluation of the efficacy and sensitivity of current screening protocols to detect neoplasia (dysplasia and early preclinical EAC in the esophageal lining. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this model by predicting three important clinical outcomes: (1 the probability that small cancers are missed during biopsy-based screening, (2 the potential gains in neoplasia detection probabilities if screening occurred via high-resolution tomographic imaging, and (3 the efficacy of ablative treatments that result in the curative depletion of metaplastic and neoplastic cell populations in BE in terms of the long-term impact on reducing EAC incidence.

  6. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  7. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  8. Identifying Patients with Colon Neoplasias with Gas Discharge Visualization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, Ekaterina G; Buntseva, Olga A; Belonosov, Sergei S; Fedorov, Eugenii D; Korotkov, Konstantin; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-11-01

    To perform an initial assessment of the potential of using the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique to identify patients with colon neoplasias. The GDV camera (also known as the electrophotonic imaging camera) was used to assess the participants. Colonoscopy was performed on all 78 participants, followed by a GDV scan. The control group consisted of 22 people. An endoscopic examination identified colon tumors in the remaining 56 participants. Participant ages ranged from 45 to 86 years (mean, 64.6 ± 1.2 years). The study analyzed GDV images of each patient's fingers, presenting a whole-body view, as well as separate sectors corresponding to the organs in question. There was a significant number of differences between the control group and the patients with colon tumors. The dynamic of the parameters was examined as the level of tumor dysplasia (neoplasia) varied. The values of the following parameters decreased in the control group as compared to the patients with cancerous polyps: normalized luminescence area, internal noise, contour radius, and average luminescence intensity. The values of the following parameters increased in the control group: radius of the inscribed circle, contour line length, area of luminescence, contour line fractality, contour line entropy, and form coefficients. This pilot study demonstrated a statistical difference between the GDV parameters of patients with colon tumors and the control group. These findings warrant a more in-depth study of the potential for GDV technique in screening programs.

  9. Relationship Between Plasma Glucose Levels and Malignant Uterine Cervical Neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; Neto, Adriano Souza Lima; Capuci, Kalebe Alexandre; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a direct correlation between glycemic load and the risk of developing many malignant neoplasms. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the plasma glucose levels in women with cervical cancer. Methods: The study included 177 women with anatomopathologically diagnosed uterine cervical cancer (stages 0–IV) treated between 1980 and 2008 at the Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient service of the UFTM, Brazil. The plasma glucose levels of all patients were assayed at the time of diagnosis and correlated with tumor staging. Results: We statistically compared the plasma glucose levels of group 1 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2–3), group 2 (stage I–II), group 3 (stage III–IV), and group 4 (control group: leiomyomas). Patient groups with poor prognosis (groups 2 and 3) showed significantly higher plasma glucose levels (P 90 mg/dl showed CIN versus I/II: P = 0.0753; OR = 2.018; (95% CI: 0.9236 to 4.410) and CIN versus III/IV: P = 0.0975; OR = 2.400; (95% CI: 0.8335 to 6.911). Conclusion: We observed an association between high plasma glucose levels and cervical cancer cases with poor prognoses. Plasma glucose tests should be routinely used as additional prognostic parameters in patients with cervical neoplasias. PMID:21603242

  10. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahammer, H., E-mail: helmut.ahammer@medunigraz.a [Institute of Biophysics, Center of Physiological Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kroepfl, J.M. [Human Performance Research Graz (HPR Graz), Karl-Franzens and Medical University of Graz, Max-Mell Allee 11, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hackl, Ch. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Sedivy, R. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Research Highlights: Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  11. Intrathoracic esophageal replacement in the dog with the use of an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, Y; Matsumoto, K; Takimoto, Y; Kiyotani, T; Sekine, T; Ueda, H; Liu, Y; Tamura, N

    1999-08-01

    Intrathoracic esophageal replacement with an artificial esophagus is considered difficult. We attempted to replace the intrathoracic esophagus with an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube and examined the state of host tissue regeneration. A 5-cm long gap was created in the intrathoracic esophagus in 9 dogs and repaired by interposition of our prosthesis. The dogs were fed only by intravenous hyperalimentation for 28 days. The silicone tube was removed at 29 days after the operation, and oral feeding was reintroduced. One dog was put to death at each of the following times: 1, 2, 3, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the operation. One dog is still surviving without problems after more than 26 months. One dog died of malnutrition at 10 months. In all dogs, the host regenerated tissue had replaced the resulting gap at the time of silicone tube removal. The mucosa had fully regenerated within 3 months and the glands within 12 months. The process of stenosis and shrinkage was complete within 3 months and did not advance thereafter. The lamina muscularis mucosae were observed as islets of smooth muscle within 12 months. Although the skeletal muscle regenerated close to the anastomoses, it did not extend to the middle of the regenerated esophagus even after 24 months. Use of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube was shown to be feasible even in the thorax and to allow the regenerated host tissue, consisting of the mucosa, glands, and lamina muscularis mucosae, to replace the esophageal gap.

  12. [Diagnostic assessment of peritoneal fluid cytology in horses with abdominal neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, S; Nicke, M; Schusser, G F

    2012-04-24

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of peritoneal fluid (PF) cytology for clinical diagnosis of abdominal neoplasia in horses. Ten horses with histopathologically confirmed abdominal neoplasia, in which a PF analysis was performed, were included in this retrospective study. PF was analyzed for total protein concentration and a nucleated cell count was performed. Using cytological criteria of malignancy, the PF samples were evaluated regarding their probability of malignancy. Cytologic classification of cells according to criteria of malignancy allowed a positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasia in 5 out of 10 peritoneal fluid samples. Malignant lymphoma was the most commonly diagnosed neoplasia (3/10) and could be identified by cytology in 2/3 cases. In 1/2 horses with plasma cell myeloma neoplastic cells were similarly found. Malignant melanoma (2/10) was diagnosed using cytology in one case (presence of melanin-containing cells). Cytological diagnosis of malignant neoplasia was established in the only horse with gastric squamous cell carcinoma, but the morphology of the identified tumour cells did not allow a specific diagnosis. Thus, a definitive diagnosis was achieved in 4/5 horses with proven abdominal neoplasia. The horses with adenocarcinoma (1/10) and haemangiosarcoma (1/10) had no evidence of neoplasia based on cytological findings. No relationship between total protein concentration or the nucleated cell count with the histolopathological diagnosis of abdominal neoplasia was found. Abnormal mitotic figures were considered of greater diagnostic value than the overall mitotic rate. The implementation of nuclear criteria of malignancy in the cytologic evaluation of PF samples allows the identification of neoplastic cells to an acceptable degree. For this purpose, the knowledge of the highly variable morphological features of mesothelial cells is essential. The absence of malignant cells does not rule out abdominal neoplasia. PF cytology should be considered as

  13. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Weusten, Bas L.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm-1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  14. Pattern of Inflammation on Surveillance Colonoscopy Does Not Predict Development of Colitis-associated Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Gutierrez, Norma G; Venkatesh, Preethi G K; Hammel, Jeffrey P; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R; Shen, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Identification of colonoscopic features which increase colitis-associated neoplasia risk in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) may allow patient risk stratification. Our objective was to investigate whether colonoscopic features correlate with the risk of developing colitis-associated neoplasia in patients with UC on surveillance. In this retrospective case-control study, patients with UC who underwent surveillance colonoscopies from 1998 to 2011 were included. Patients with UC with neoplasia were compared with a matched control group of patients with UC without neoplasia in a 1:3 ratio. A total of 111 eligible patients with UC with colon neoplasia were compared with 356 patients with UC without colon neoplasia. On univariate analysis, colitis-associated neoplasia was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71-3.89, P ≤ 0.001) and smoking history (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.1-2.39, P = 0.045) but not with colonoscopic features, including tubular colon/shortened colon, scarring, segment of severe inflammation, inflammatory polyps, colonic stricture, or macroscopically normal appearance colonoscopy. In multivariate analysis, only male gender (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.77-4.08, P ≤ 0.001) was found to be associated with an increased risk, whereas the use of 5-aminosalicylates was associated with a decreased risk for colitis-associated neoplasia (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.84, P = 0.009). In patients with UC, colonoscopic features especially on standard-definition white-light colonoscopy did not appear to reliably predict the development of colitis-associated neoplasia. This will leave room for image-enhanced endoscopy technology and molecular markers for the early and accurate detection of colitis-associated neoplasia.

  15. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure device in managing pleural space infection after lung resection: is it an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenasskashani, Alireza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Yan, Tristan D; McCaughan, Brian C

    2011-08-01

    Empyema after lung resection is a challenging condition to manage and is associated with a high mortality. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is recently introduced as an adjunct in the management of this condition. A best evidence topic was constructed to address whether this approach is effective in successful chest closure and reducing hospital stay. Twenty-three papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. All papers were retrospective and included a total of 69 patients treated with intrathoracic VAC. There was only one cohort study and the rest were either case series or case reports. In a cohort of 19 patients reported by Palmen et al. the average duration of an open window thoracostomy in a group of patients with VAC (n=11) was 39 ± 17 days and in those without VAC (n=8) was 933 ± 1422 days. Median length of VAC treatment was 22 days (range 6-66 days) in a series of 28 patients reported by Saadi et al. Some authors excluded patients with a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) from VAC treatment. However, Groetzner et al. have safely used VAC in patients with BPF after covering the bronchus stump with an intrathoracic muscle flap. The mediastinum and the bronchus can be covered using a polyvinyl-alcohol foam. Polyurethane foam is commonly used to fill the intrathoracic cavity up to the superficial wound. The suggested starting level of negative pressure is as low as -25 mmHg to -75 mmHg depending on the presence or absence of signs of mediastinal traction; this negative pressure can gradually be increased to -125 mmHg over time. The recommended interval between VAC changes is two to five days. Accumulated evidence in this article, although limited, suggests that VAC, as an adjunct to the standard treatment, can potentially alleviate the morbidity and decrease hospital stay in patients with empyema after lung resection. VAC can reduce

  16. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  17. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    ) corresponding to some neoplasia is higher (1.334+/-0.072) than those for healthy skin (1.091+/-0.082). A significant difference between the fractal dimensions of neoplasia and healhty skin (>0.001) was registered. The FD of microtopography maps (FDm) can also distinguish between healthy and malignant tissue in general (2.277+/-0.070 to 2.309+/-0.040), but not discriminate the different types of skin neoplasias. The combination of the rugometric evaluation and fractal geometry characterization provides valuable information about the malignity of skin lesions and type of lesion.

  19. Radiographic findings in cats with intranasal neoplasia or chronic rhinitis: 29 cases (1982-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.T.; Evans, S.M.; Wortman, J.A.; Hendrick, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To compare radiographic findings and determine useful criteria to differentiate between intranasal neoplasia and chronic rhinitis in cats. Design: Retrospective study. Animals: Cats with chronic nasal disease caused by neoplasia (n = 18) or by chronic rhinitis (n = 11). Procedure: Radiographs were reviewed by 3 radiologists, followed by group review. Diagnosis was determined by intranasal biopsy or necropsy, and specimens were reviewed by a pathologist to confirm cause and histologic diagnosis. Results: Lymphosarcoma was the most common (n = 5) of the 6 histopathologic types in the neoplasia group. Cats in the neoplasia and chronic rhinitis groups had a high prevalence of aggressive radiographic lesions. Prevalence of a facial mass in cats with neoplasia (8/18) versus in those with chronic rhinitis (4/11) and of deviation (9/18 vs 6/11, respectively) or lysis (12/18 vs 7/11) of the nasal septum was similar. However, significantly (P = 0.02) more cats with neoplasia than with chronic rhinitis (13/16 vs 3/7, respectively) had unilateral turbinate destruction/lysis. Additionally, unilateral lateral bone erosion and loss of teeth associated with adjacent intranasal disease were more prevalent in cats with neoplasia (7/8 and 5/18, respectively) than in cats with chronic rhinitis (1/3 and 0/11, respectively). Clinical Implications: Features that may assist in radiographic diagnosis of neoplasia include the appearance of unilateral aggressive lesions, such as lysis of lateral bones, nasal turbinate destruction, and loss of teeth. Bilaterally symmetric lesions are more suggestive of chronic rhinitis than of neoplasia

  20. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J.; McNeeley, David F.; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:22448023

  1. Psychological effects of diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Njor, Sisse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    statistical testing, we estimated the statistical significance of the differences between the compared groups using unpaired t tests. MAIN RESULTS: From 5099 retrieved abstracts, 16 studies were included. Diagnosis and treatment of CIN were associated with worse psychological outcomes than normal cytology...... test results, but the impact decreased over time. In several but not all studies, CIN appeared to have similar psychological consequences to abnormal smears. No study showed a difference in psychological outcomes between CIN and cervical cancer diagnosis when these were measured some years after......BACKGROUND: Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a common minor surgical procedure to prevent uterine cervical cancer. However, news of an abnormality detected at screening for cancer might cause the woman to worry. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychological consequences...

  2. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  3. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  4. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, C.; Jarosz, H.; Calandra, D.; McCall, A.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1987-01-01

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently

  5. Myeloid Neoplasias: What Molecular Analyses Are Telling Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiyama, Luciana M.; Coutinho, Diego F.; Lipkin, Marina V.; Zalcberg, Ilana R.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of hematological disorders at diagnosis and followup have been most valuable for guiding therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Genetic and epigenetic alterations detected by different procedures have been associated to different cancer types and are considered important indicators for disease classification, differential diagnosis, prognosis, response, and individualization of therapy. The search for new biomarkers has been revolutionized by high-throughput technologies. At this point, it seems that we have overcome technological barriers, but we are still far from sorting the biological puzzle. Evidence based on translational research is required for validating novel genetic and epigenetic markers for routine clinical practice. We herein discuss the importance of genetic abnormalities and their molecular pathways in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. We also discuss how novel genomic abnormalities may interact and reassess concepts and classifications of myeloid neoplasias. PMID:23056961

  6. Monosomal karyotype in myeloid neoplasias: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anelli, Luisa; Pasciolla, Crescenza; Zagaria, Antonella; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, the concept of the monosomal karyotype (MK) in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients was introduced, defined by the presence of a chromosomal aberration pattern characterized by the presence of at least two autosomal monosomies or of one monosomy plus one or more structural aberrations (not including loss of a chromosome). We present a systematic review of the literature about the influence of the MK on the outcome of patients affected by myeloid malignancies (AML, myelodysplastic syndromes, and primary myelofibrosis). For this review, a comprehensive literature search using the term "monosomal karyotype" was performed, considering articles listed in MEDLINE. This analysis of the literature confirms the negative prognostic impact on survival of the MK in myeloid neoplasias. The detrimental effect of MK on AML patients' outcome is independent of other variables, including adverse cytogenetic features, supporting the identification of this entity as a challenging subgroup of patients with distinct biologic and clinical features.

  7. Management of follow-up of neuroendocrine neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Maasberg, Sebastian; Jann, Henning; Pschowski, René; Krüger, Sandrine; Prasad, Vikas; Denecke, Timm; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Pascher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasias (NEN) comprise heterogeneous epithelial neoplasms with a large variety of clinical presentations, treatment options and outcomes. Since potentially all NEN bear malignant potential it is important for long-term clinical management and improvement of outcome to decide on successful and oncologically and economically meaningful follow-up strategies. Evidence-based outcome data validating specific follow-up strategies are, however, not available to date and thus outcome data, known prognostic factors and clinical experience guide the decisions on follow-up regimens. The review summarizes general recommendations as well as specific considerations based on tumor entities, clinicopathological tumor characteristics and clinical experience. Follow-up shall serve the patient to improve outcome, benefit from more effective therapies and suffer less from unnecessary and/or toxic therapeutic interventions and finally preserve or gain a good quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Metastatic Ovarian Angiosarcoma Mimicking Hematologic Neoplasia at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiolla, Rafael Dezen; Duarte, Ívison Xavier; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis. PMID:24847252

  9. Metastização pulmonar de neoplasia da mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Dionísio

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para caracterizar os doentes com metastização pulmonar de neoplasia da mama, procedemos a um estudo retrospectivo dos processos de 129 doentes referenciados à Unidade de Pneumologia entre Julho de 1990 e Janeiro de 2000.Foi considerada a existência de metastização pulmonar em 89 casos.Avaliámos as manifestações clínicas apresentadas, o intervalo de tempo até ao diagnóstico de metastização pulmonar, os aspectos radiológicos, endoscópicos, as terapêuticas efectuadas e a sobrevida.O intervalo médio entre o diagnóstico da neoplasia da mama e o diagnóstico de metastização pulmonar foi de 81,9±5,7 meses. Os sintomas respiratórios foram referidos em 83,1% dos doentes. O padrão radiológico mais comum foi a presença de massas ou nódulos pulmonares (66,3%. Foram observadas 49 com sinais directos de neoplasia na broncofibroscopia. Em 47 os aspectos anatomopatológicos encontrados foram compatíveis com metastização endobrônquica de tumor da mamaO tratamento mais frequentemente utilizado após o diagnóstico de metástase pulmonar foi a quimioterapia, em 60,2% dos casos.Após o diagnóstico de metastização, a sobrevida mediana foi de 20,1 meses, com 63,4% dos doentes vivos ao fim de 1 ano.Nos doentes com carcinoma da mama e suspeita de metastização verificámos um grande intervalo livre entre o diagnóstico do tumor da mama e o aparecimento de metastização. Os sintomas respiratórios tra-duziram a grande frequência de envolvimento endobrônquico. O diagnóstico anatomopatológico de metastização pulmonar foi obtido em 52,8% dos doentes. A terapêutica mais utilizada após diagnóstico de metastização foi a quimioterapia e a sobrevida ao ano foi de 63,4%.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2002; VIII (2: ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective study of 129 patients observed in Pneumology unit between July 1990 and January 2000 to evaluate the clinical, radiological and endoscopic patterns as well as the clinical evolution of

  10. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonelli, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present

  11. Linfadenitis intratorácica, falla respiratoria y muerte por tuberculosis Fatal respiratory failure due to tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Vélez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Iinfadenitis tuberculosa del adulto afecta los ganglios intratorácicos sólo en 5-7% de los casos y generalmente produce poco compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 21 anos que murió en Insuficiencia respiratoria debida a la obstrucción bronquial causada por grandes adenopatias hiliares y mediastinales y derrame pleural masivo bilateral. La Incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar en Medellín durante 1986 fue de 85.3 casos nuevos por 100.000 habitantes, de los cuales muere aproximadamente 8-9% por ano. De la mortalidad en general, menos del 20¡0 se debe a Insuficiencia respiratoria. No se encontraron Informes en la literatura médica de obstrucción bronquial por Iinfadenopatia tuberculosa como causa de muerte. Se piensa que las malas condIcIones socioeconómicas, el consumo de narcóticos y la coexistencia de enfermedades venéreas, contribuyeron al curso fulminante de esta paciente. Se pretende llamar la atención acerca de esta presentación atípica y agresiva de la tuberculosis, especialmente en pacientes que pudieran estar inmunocomprometidos.

    Tuberculous Iymphadenitis in adults affects intrathoracic lymph nodes in only 5- 7% of the cases and It usually does not produce Important systemic involvement. The case of a 21 year-old woman who died of respiratory insufficiency due to bronchial obstruction caused by large hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies and bilateral massive pleural effusion is presented. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 85.3 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants in 1986, in Medellín, Colombia. Mortality can be calculated between 8-9% per year and, of them, only 2% die as a result of respiratory insufficiency. No previous report9 of fatal bronchial obstruction due to tuberculosis Iymphadenopathy

  12. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta Gupta; Ganguly Kapoor, Anasua; Kaliki, Swathi

    2018-01-01

    Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure. OSSN has been reported as the first presenting sign of HIV/AIDS in 26%-86% cases, and seropositivity is noted in 38%-92% OSSN patients. Mean age at presentation of OSSN has dropped to the third to fourth decade in HIV-positive patients in developing countries. HIV-infected patients reveal large aggressive tumors, higher-grade malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS, and no significant trend has been discovered between CD4 count and grade of OSSN. Furthermore, the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on OSSN is controversial. The current recommendation is to conduct HIV screening in all cases presenting with OSSN to rule out undiagnosed HIV infection. Patient counseling is crucial, with emphasis on regular follow-up to address high recurrence rates and early presentation to an ophthalmologist for of any symptoms in the unaffected eye. Effective evidence-based interventions are needed to allow early diagnosis

  13. Metformin and Anti-Cancer Therapeutics: Hopes for a More Enhanced Armamentarium Against Human Neoplasias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Maria-Ioanna; Scorilas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Metformin, a natural product from Galega officinalis, is an oral drug, now in the forefront of the therapeutic management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A series of clinical observations of the last decades, support that metformin may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer development in diabetic patients, and also to improvement of response-to-therapy and survival in individuals with certain types of malignancies. Moreover, several preclinical in vitro and in vivo data indicate that metformin indeed exerts anti-proliferative capacities upon tumor cells mediated through a variety of mechanisms. Interestingly, metformin has been shown to act in synergy with certain anti-cancer agents and also to overcome chemo- and/or radio-resistance of various types of tumors, providing a hopeful rationale for novel therapeutic strategies against cancer development and progression. However, this remains an issue of controversy, since significant contradictions exist among the available data. Limitations of preclinical studies and caveats of epidemiological works, together with significant variances among the several types of cancer and the fact that the mode of metformin's action is largely unknown, make longitudinal surveys urgently needed. Now, a plethora of large clinical trials are active worldwide, aiming at determining the effect of metformin in the prevention or prognosis of a variety of human cancers. If encouraging results arise, metformin will be an attractive candidate adjuvant in the management of human neoplasias, due to its safety, tolerability and low-cost, expected to mitigate adverse effects and no-response parameters of current anti-cancer therapeutics, thus improving the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Rare circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott V Adams

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are regulatory RNAs, stable in circulation, and implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC etiology and progression. Therefore they are promising as early detection biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia. However, many circulating miRNAs are highly expressed in blood cells, and therefore may not be specific to colorectal neoplasia.We selected 7 miRNA candidates with previously reported elevated expression in adenoma tissue but low expression in blood cells ("rare" miRNAs, 2 previously proposed as adenoma biomarkers, and 3 implicated in CRC. We conducted a colonoscopy-based case-control study including 48 polyp-free controls, 43 advanced adenomas, 73 non-advanced adenomas, and 8 CRC cases. miRNAs from plasma were quantified by qRT-PCR. Correlations between miRNA expression levels, adjusted for age and sex, were assessed. We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals quantifying the association between expression levels of miRNAs and case groups. We also conducted nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses and estimated area under the curve (AUC.miRNAs with high expression levels were statistically significantly correlated with one another. No miRNAs were significantly associated with non-advanced or advanced adenomas. Strong (ORs >5 and significant associations with CRC were observed for 6 miRNA candidates, with corresponding AUCs significantly >0.5.These candidate miRNAs, assayed by qRT-PCR, are probably unsuitable as blood-based adenoma biomarkers. Strong associations between miRNAs and CRC were observed, but primarily with miRNAs highly expressed in blood cells. These results suggest that rare miRNAs will require new detection methods to serve as circulating biomarkers of adenomas.

  15. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered "average risk." In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the [Formula: see text]-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Neoplasias de Cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Torres

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias de cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos son de escasa presentación; llegan tan sóloal 1.5% de los quistes diagnosticados en esta especie.Con referencia al total de tumores del tracto respiratorio representan entre el 60 y el 80%. Son más comunes en caninos de nariz larga, no existe predilección por género; por el comportamiento, las neoplasias que se desarrollanen la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales son benignas y malignas, siendo estas últimas las más frecuentes. Teniendo en cuenta el tejido de origen pueden ser epiteliales, mesenquimales y de otro origen como los linfomas y el tumor venéreo transmisible. La apariciónde la sintomatología se asocia con la capacidad de obstruir las vías aéreas, la invasión y destrucción local de tejido. En general los signos clínicos asociados consistenen: dificultad respiratoria, estornudo, secreciónnasal, hemorragia nasal y la presencia de masas de características variadas en tamaño y forma. El diagnóstico se basa en signos clínicos, evaluación citológica e histológica de las lesiones. Esta última es 100% diagnóstica, para el tratamiento se utiliza la extracción quirúrgica combinada con terapia de radiación y quimioterapia.

  17. Diazepam during endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric epithelial neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yosuke; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Yoshida, Takeichi; Moribata, Kosaku; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Tamai, Hideyuki; Kato, Jun; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors and adverse events related to high-dose diazepam administration during endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasias. METHODS: Between February 2002 and December 2009, a total of 286 patients with gastric epithelial neoplasia underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection in our hospital. To achieve moderate sedation, 5-7.5 mg of diazepam was administered intravenously by non-anesthesiologists. Intermittent additional administration of 2.5-5 mg diazepam was performed if uncontrollable body movement of the patient was observed. All patients were classified into groups based on the required diazepam dose: low-dose (≤ 17.5 mg, n = 252) and high-dose (> 17.5 mg, n = 79). RESULTS: Differences between the low- and high-dose diazepam groups were observed in lifetime alcohol consumption (0.30 ± 0.48 vs 0.44 ± 0.52 tons, P = 0.032), body weight (58.4 ± 10.3 vs 62.0 ± 9.9 kg, P = 0.006), tumor size (15 ± 10 vs 23 ± 18 mm, P < 0.001), lesion location (P < 0.001) and the presence of ulcerative findings (14/238 vs 18/61, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified all five variables as independently related to required diazepam dosage. In terms of adverse reactions to diazepam administration, paradoxical excitement was significantly more frequent in the high-dose diazepam group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Intermittent administration of diazepam enabled safe completion of gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection except in patients who were alcohol abusers or obese, or who showed complicated lesions. PMID:22442745

  18. Neoplasias oculares em cães e gatos : estudo retrospetivo 2001-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Beatriz Rosa Fernandes Duarte da

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Apresenta-se um estudo sobre os casos de neoplasias oculares, em cães e gatos, analisados pelo Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (FMV-UTL), entre 2001 e 2012. Este estudo pretende contribuir para o conhecimento da prevalência das neoplasias oculares em cães e gatos na região de Lisboa, auxiliando no diagnóstico e na terapêutica de futuros casos de neoplasias ...

  19. Management of Nodular Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus: Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghazi, Kamar; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Pouw, Roos E

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic resection has proven highly effective and safe in the removal of focal early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus and is considered the cornerstone of endoscopic treatment. Several techniques are available for endoscopic resection in Barrett's esophagus. The most widely used technique for piecemeal resection of early Barrett's neoplasia is the ligate-and-cut technique. Newer techniques such as endoscopic submucosal dissection may also play a role in the treatment of neoplastic Barrett's esophagus. Treatment of early Barrett's neoplasia should be centralized and limited to expert centers with a high-volume load and sufficient expertise in the detection and treatment of esophageal neoplasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomarker expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: potential progression predictive factors for low-grade lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaki, Satoru; Zen, Yoh; Inoue, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal whether 3 biomarkers (p16INK4a, ProEx C, and human papilloma virus DNA) are useful in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and whether they could predict disease progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-1. We analyzed 252 cervical specimens: nondysplastic mucosa (n = 9), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 229), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14). Immunostaining for p16INK4a and ProEx C, and the hybridcapture II assay for human...

  1. Long-term adherence to follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure adherence to annual follow-up among women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based, register study. SETTING: Denmark, 1996-2007. POPULATION: All women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with conization. METHODS: Treated...... was poor in Denmark. Our findings suggest that because of this poor adherence, recommendations for long-term annual follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia may not be highly effective. Shorter follow-up schedules using highly sensitive tests appear attractive....

  2. Prevalence of neoplasia diagnosed in dogs at the veterinary hospital at eduardo mondlane university, mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, I. F C [UNESP; Cardoso, J. M M; Oliveira, K. C.; Laisse, C. J M; Bessa, S. A T

    2013-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo em 210 cães acometidos por neoplasias, atendidos no Hospital Veterinário (HV) da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Moçambique, no período de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2009. Foram utilizados dados das fichas clínico-cirúrgicas, referentes às amostras de neoplasias removidas cirurgicamente, achados de exames necroscópicos e citológicos, os quais, posteriormente, foram enviados para o diagnóstico histopatológico. As neoplasias foram correlacionadas com o sexo,...

  3. The Relationship Between Distal and Proximal Colonic Neoplasia : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; De Winter, J.C.F.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between proximal colonic neoplasia and distal lesions as a function of the lesion type. The extent to which health, demographic, and study characteristics moderate this association was also examined.

  4. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  5. Endoscopic TriModal imaging and biomarkers for neoplasia conjoined: a feasibility study in Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerwinkel, D. F.; Di Pietro, M.; Liu, X.; Shariff, M. K.; Lao-Sirieix, P.; Walker, C. E.; Visser, M.; O' Donovan, M.; Kaye, P.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.; Fitzgerald, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    In Barrett's esophagus (BE), the normal squamous lining of the esophagus is replaced by specialized columnar epithelium. Endoscopic surveillance with autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and molecular biomarkers have been studied separately to detect early neoplasia (EN) in BE. The combination of

  6. Phosphodiesterases in non-neoplastic appearing colonic mucosa from patients with colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Badar; Damm, Morten Matthiesen Bach; Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracellular signaling through cyclic nucleotides, both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, is altered in colorectal cancer. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that an underlying mechanism for colorectal neoplasia involves altered function of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which affects cyclic...... functionally by measurements of transepithelial ion transport and their expression and localization by employing real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In functional studies PDE subtype-4 displayed lower activity in colorectal neoplasia patients (p = 0.006). Furthermore, real-time qPCR analysis...... showed overexpression of subtype PDE4B (p = 0.002) and subtype PDE5A (p = 0.02) in colorectal neoplasia patients. Finally, immunohistochemistry for 7 PDE isozymes demonstrated the presence of all 7 isozymes, albeit with weak reactions, and with no differences in localization between colorectal neoplasia...

  7. Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    reproductive problems within the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), with large overlap between the syndromes. These disorders carry an increased but variable risk of germ cell neoplasia. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia associated with gonadal dysgenesis, especially...... in individuals with 46,XY DSD. We summarise knowledge concerning development and sex differentiation of human gonads, with focus on sex-dimorphic steps of germ cell maturation, including meiosis. We also briefly outline the histopathology of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and gonadoblastoma (GDB), which...... are essentially the same precursor lesion but with different morphological structure dependent upon the masculinisation of the somatic niche. To assess the risk of germ cell neoplasia in different types of DSD, we have performed a PubMed search and provide here a synthesis of the evidence from studies published...

  8. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Weusten, Bas L.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-01-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (mu(VLE)) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A in a black South African family

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. $obol H. Narod SA, Nakamura Y. et al. Screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a with DNA-polymorphism analysis. N Engl J Med 1989: 321: 996-1001. 2. Mulligan LM, Eng C. He-aly CS, e-r al. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto- oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A Nature 1993; 363: 458-460_.

  10. Neoplasia in Turner syndrome. The importance of clinical and screening practices during follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizza, Daniela; Albanesi, Michela; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Accordino, Giulia; Brazzelli, Valeria; Maffè, Gabriella Carnevale; Calcaterra, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    Turmer syndrome (TS) patients show increased morbidity due to metabolic, autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. A risk of neoplasia is also reported. Here, we review the prevalence of neoplasia in a cohort of Turner patients. We retrospectively evaluated 87 TS women. Follow-up included periodic ultrasound of the neck, abdominal and pelvic organs, dermatologic evaluation and fecal occult blood test. Karyotype was 45,X in 46 patients. During follow-up, 63 girls were treated with growth hormone, 65 with estro-progestin replacement therapy and 20 with L-thyroxine. Autoimmune diseases were present in 29 TS. A total of 17 neoplasms in 14 out of 87 patients were found. Six skin neoplasia, 3 central nervous system tumors, 3 gonadal neoplasia, 2 breast tumors, 1 hepatocarcinoma, 1 carcinoma of the pancreas and 1 follicular thyroid cancer were detected. Age at tumor diagnosis was higher in 45,X pts than in those with other karyotypes (p = 0.003). Adenomioma gallbladdder (AG) was detected in 15.3% of the patients, with a lower age in girls at diagnosis with an associated neoplasia in comparison with TS without tumors (p = 0.017). No correlation between genetic make up, treatment, associated autoimmune diseases and neoplastia was found. In our TS population an increased neoplasia prevalence was reported. A high prevalence of AG was also noted and it might be indicative of a predisposition to neoplasia. Further studies are needed to define the overall risk for neoplasia, and to determine the role of the loss of the X-chromosome and hormonal therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn Su; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Joo Sung; Koh, Seong-Joon

    2017-04-01

    Although sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk for mortality after the curative resection of colorectal cancer, its influence on the development of advanced colonic neoplasia remains unclear. This study included 1270 subjects aged 40 years or older evaluated with first-time screening colonoscopy at Seoul National University Boramae Health Care Center from January 2010 to February 2015. Skeletal muscle mass was measured with a body composition analyzer (direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. Of 1270 subjects, 139 (10.9%) were categorized into the sarcopenia group and 1131 (89.1%) into the non-sarcopenia group. In the non-sarcopenia group, 55 subjects (4.9%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia. However, in the sarcopenia group, 19 subjects (13.7%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia, including 1 subject with invasive colorectal cancer (0.7%). In addition, subjects with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of advanced adenoma (P sarcopenia. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for variable confounders, age (odds ratio 1.062, 95% confidence interval 1.032-1.093; P sarcopenia (odds ratio 2.347, 95% confidence interval 1.311-4.202; P = 0.004) were associated with an advanced colorectal neoplasia. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

  12. Histologic differentiation and mucin phenotype in white opaque substance-positive gastric neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueo, Tetsuya; Yonemasu, Hirotoshi; Yao, Kenshi; Ishida, Tetsuya; Togo, Kazumi; Yanai, Yuka; Fukuda, Masahide; Motomura, Mitsuteru; Narita, Ryoich; Murakami, Kazunari

    2015-12-01

    The authors previously reported that the white opaque substance (WOS) in gastric epithelial neoplasia was caused by accumulation of lipid droplets by immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies of adipophilin, which was recently identified and validated as a marker of lipid droplets. The aim of the current study was to investigate the characteristics of the histologic differentiation and mucin phenotype in WOS-positive gastric epithelial neoplasias. A total of 130 gastric epithelial neoplasias (45 adenomas and 85 early adenocarcinomas) from 120 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The presence or absence of WOS was evaluated by M-NBI. Lipids were examined by immunohistochemical staining for adipophilin. Tissue phenotypes were immunohistochemically classified as intestinal (I), gastrointestinal (GI), and gastric (G) using antibodies against CD10, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. The histologic differentiation and mucin phenotype of WOS-positive neoplasias were characterized and examined according to adipophilin expression. The presence of WOS by M-NBI was correlated with histologic differences between adenoma or differentiated type adenocarcinoma and mixed type or undifferentiated type adenocarcinoma (P = 0.0153). Adipophilin was only expressed in primary adenoma and well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma components but not in undifferentiated components. WOS and adipophilin expression were only observed in neoplasias with I or GI phenotypes, but not in those with the G phenotype (P neoplasias might indicate differentiation into a mature histological subtype with GI or I mucin phenotype.

  13. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  14. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  15. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. MicroRNA alterations of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Li, Ang; Hong, Seung-Mo; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2012-02-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are likely to contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer and may serve as markers for the early detection of pancreatic neoplasia. To identify the miRNA alterations that arise during the development of pancreatic cancer, we determined the levels of 735 miRNAs in 34 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) and 15 normal pancreatic duct samples isolated by laser capture microdissection using TaqMan miRNA microarrays. Differential expression of selected miRNAs was confirmed by FISH analysis and by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected candidate miRNAs in an independent set of PanIN and normal duct samples. We identified 107 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in different PanIN grades compared with normal pancreatic duct samples and 35 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in PanIN-3 lesions compared with normal pancreatic duct samples. These differentially expressed miRNAs included those that have been previously identified as differentially expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC; including miR-21, miR-200a/b/c, miR-216a/b, miR-217, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-182, miR-196b, miR-203, miR-222, miR-338-3p, miR-486-3p, etc.) as well as miRNAs not previously described as differentially expressed in these lesions (miR-125b, miR-296-5p, miR-183*, miR-603, miR-625/*, miR-708, etc.). miR-196b was the most selectively differentially expressed miRNA in PanIN-3 lesions. Many miRNAs undergo aberrant expression in PanIN lesions and are likely to be important in the development of PDAC. The miRNAs, such as miR-196b, whose expression is limited to PanIN-3 lesions or pancreatic cancers could be useful as diagnostic markers. ©2011 AACR.

  17. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse; Levy, Larry B; Malpica, Anais; Follen, Michele

    2002-10-01

    OBJECTIVE.: Our objective was to compare by response rate the therapeutic options of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), laser therapy, and wide local excision in managing high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Between 1995 and 1999, 109 patients presenting with vulvar lesions were registered at a comprehensive cancer center and 2 associated colposcopy clinics. From these 109, we identified 74 patients with lesions histologically proven to be vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent treatment with CO2 laser, wide local excision, or LEEP. Clinical and pathological features were reviewed retrospectively. Wilcoxon rank sum test and life table analyses were used to compare groups. Response rates for this retrospective study will be used to calculate the sample size for a prospective clinical trial. RESULTS.: Our population was similar to others reported in the literature in age, range of diagnoses, and follow-up. Only 1 of 74 patients (1%) had invasive cancer. In a subset of 62 patients treated for the first time, LEEP and wide local excision were equal in their ability to achieve complete response. Laser ablation was the least successful of all methods (10/20 with laser, 3/20 with LEEP, and 2/22 with wide local excision experienced recurrences [p = .04]). No statistically significant differences among the 3 were noted in time to recurrence (p = .24). Age, age at first intercourse, and number of sexual partners were not correlated with recurrence and did not confound the results. Using a chi approximation, an alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.80, researchers should enroll 25 patients per arm if improvement over standard therapy is expected to be 40%, 45 if expected to be 30%, and 95 if expected to be 20%. CONCLUSIONS.: Because of differences in recurrence rate and length of hospital stay and indications of potential differences in cost found in this pilot, LEEP merits

  18. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  19. BLR1 and FCGR1A transcripts in peripheral blood associate with the extent of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and predict treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenum, Synne; Bakken, Rasmus; Dhanasekaran, S

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers reflecting the extent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced pathology and normalization during anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) would considerably facilitate trials of new treatment regimens and the identification of patients with treatment failure. Therefore, in a cohort of 99 Indian...... children with intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB), we performed blood transcriptome kinetic analysis during ATT to explore 1) the association between transcriptional biomarkers in whole blood (WB) and the extent of TB disease at diagnosis and treatment outcomes at 2 and 6 months, and 2) the potential...... of the biomarkers to predict treatment response at 2 and 6 months. We present the first data on the association between transcriptional biomarkers and the extent of TB disease as well as outcome of ATT in children: Expression of three genes down-regulated on ATT (FCGR1A, FPR1 and MMP9) exhibited a positive...

  20. Alopecia universalis in a dog with testicular neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of testicular neoplasia and alopecia universalis in a dog, and successful treatment of the latter with ciclosporin. Twelve-year-old intact male wirehaired fox terrier. Castration, skin biopsy for histopathology, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and clonality analysis of the canine T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRγ) rearrangement. The dog presented with symmetrical generalized alopecia. Testicular enlargement was noted which on castration was determined to be caused by bilateral interstitial cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and a unilateral seminoma. During the four months after castration the alopecia became more severe and widespread. Histopathology of the skin showed moderate, multifocal, mural folliculitis, peribulbar mucinosis and lymphocytic bulbitis, and targeting of anagen hair follicles. Immunophenotyping of the infiltrate showed a population of well-differentiated, small CD3-positive T lymphocytes, some expressing CD4 and others CD8. Molecular analysis revealed a polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrate, substantiating the diagnosis of alopecia areata rather than lymphoma. Treatment with ciclosporin (4.6 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (4.6 mg/kg) resulted in complete hair regrowth. Ciclosporin treatment, in combination with ketoconazole, can be effective for treatment of alopecia universalis in the dog. Alopecia universalis may present with clinically noninflammatory, symmetrical, generalized alopecia, mimicking an endocrine alopecia, and skin biopsies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Problems in distinguishing spinal tuberculosis from neoplasia on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Agarwal, P.; Rastogi, H.; Kumar, S.; Phadke, R.V.; Krishnani, N.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed MRI studies of 60 patients presenting with extradural compressive myeloradiculopathy secondary to vertebral disease to assess the imaging features which may help in differentiating tuberculous from neoplastic disease. Spin-echo T1-, proton density- and T2-weighted images were available for all patients and fast low-angle shot images with a low flip angle for 21 patients. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 28 patients. There were 41 patients with tuberculosis and 19 patients with neoplastic disease (metastases 11, lymphoma 6, plasmacytoma 1, and giant cell tumour 1). Discovertebral disease with or without involvement of the posterior arch was a feature not only of tuberculous spondylitis (30 patients) but also of metastases (6). The remaining 11 patients with tuberculosis had ''atypical'' involvement (vertebral body with or without posterior arch in 8 and posterior arch alone in 3) described as typical of neoplasms. This ''typical'' involvement was seen in metastases (5), lymphoma (6) and the 2 primary bone tumours. The presence of an abscess helped in differentiating tuberculosis from neoplasia in 22 of the 41 patients with tuberculosis and was absent in all with neoplasms. The presence of bone fragments in 16 patients (8 with and 8 without an abscess) was found to be specific for tuberculosis. In the absence of an abscess or bone fragments, image-guided biopsy is essential to establish the diagnosis. (orig.). With 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Associated with Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Espana, Edgar M; Singh, Arun D

    2017-01-01

    To describe 2 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that originated in the setting of severe atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Case one involved a 73-year-old male with atopic eczema and severe AKC who developed a limbal lesion suspicious for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Slit-lamp examination was significant for a new sessile lesion in the temporal limbal region of the left eye. The lesion was treated with excisional biopsy and cryotherapy. Topical therapy with mitomycin C, topical interferon alpha 2b, and topical 5-fluorouracil provided only partial control. Exenteration was eventually needed. Case two involved a 53-year-old male with history of severe AKC and eczema. Computed tomography imaging showed an infiltrative mass of the right orbit. Incisional biopsies confirmed conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma of both sides (invasive in the right eye, in situ in the left eye). Exenteration was needed for control of invasive carcinoma in the right eye. Squamous cell carcinoma was treated without success in spite of surgical excision and aggressive treatment with multiple topical agents and multiple applications of cryotherapy. Orbital exenteration was needed in both cases. Chronic inflammation associated with AKC may be a risk factor for the development of bilateral, diffuse, invasive, and recurrent OSSN that may require exenteration.

  3. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia

  4. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: efficacy of color doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sun Wha; Jee, Won Hee; Choe, Bo Young; Byun, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Gil; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Intralesional color flows and resistive index (RI) on color Doppler US were prospectively analyzed in 21 consecutive suspected GTN cases. RI of the intralesional artery was investigated on the basis of the presence or absence of mass and metastasis. Correlation between RI of intralesional artery and urinary β-hCG was also investigated. Intralesional color flows were identified in 15 patients with GTN. On operation, intralesional color flows were observed in one of two patients in whom the presence of completely necrotic tissue was confirmed. Intralesional color flows, however, were not detected in four patients who were proved not to be GTN sufferers. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 100%, 83%, 95%, 94% and 100%, respectively. Significant correlation between RI of the intralesional artery and urinary β-hCG was not established (p=0.49, r=0.19). RI of this artery was not substantially different between groups with and without mass, and between groups with and without metastasis (p=0.32, p=0.82). The current study demonstrates that color Doppler US is a sensitive and useful method for the diagnosis of GTN

  5. Methyl supply, methyl metabolizing enzymes and colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, John D

    2002-08-01

    A low intake of vegetables (but not fruit) is established as a risk factor for colon cancer. Although there are a multitude of active agents that may explain this, one important candidate is folate. Among studies specifically examining intake of folate derived from food and supplements, higher intake is generally associated with lower risk of both adenomas and cancer. Other nutrients associated with the folate pathway-methionine, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12-or that impact the pathway-alcohol-have also been shown to influence risk in predictable ways. Polymorphisms in enzymes involved in the metabolism of folate also are associated with modification in risk, but essentially only in the presence of low intakes of folate and related nutrients. The consistency of the above evidence suggests that folate is an active agent, not just a marker for the intake of other effectors found in vegetables and multivitamin preparations. There are at least two mechanisms that may explain these findings: folate is central both to the provision of S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor, and to the provision of nucleotides for DNA synthesis and repair. Fortification of food with folate, as well as intake from multivitamin and pharmacological sources, may increasingly contribute to the primary prevention of colorectal neoplasia although it is possible that there is such a condition as having too much folate.

  6. Neoplasias endocrinas múltiples. desde el laboratorio al paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Nelson Wohllk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias endocrinas múltiples (NEM tipo 1 y 2 son enfermedades genéticas heredadas en forma autosómica dominante. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas en NEM1 incluyen tumores paratiroideos, hipofisiarios y gastroenteropancreáticos. El test genético se puede realizar en los pacientes y potenciales portadores de mutaciones en el gen menin, pero la correlación genotipo-fenotipo es menos directa en comparación a NEM2. En la NEM2 el cáncer medular de tíroides (CMT es común a los tres subtipos: NEM2A (feocromocitoma e hiperparatiroidismo, NEM2B (feocromocitoma y neuromas mucosos y CMT familiar. A aquellos pacientes con mutación RET se les debe recomendar la realización de tiroidectomía profiláctica en la niñez, de acuerdo a la categoría de riesgo ATA. Algunos casos de CMT aparentemente esporádicos son actualmente NEM2 después de la realización del estudio genético para proto-oncogen RET, por lo tanto se recomienda la aplicación rutinaria de este estudio a todos los pacientes con CMT aparentemente esporádico.

  7. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  8. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  9. Computed tomography versus water-soluble contrast swallow in the detection of intrathoracic anastomotic leak complicating esophagogastrectomy (Ivor Lewis): a prospective study in 97 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christiane; Mal, Frederic; Perniceni, Thierry; Bouzar, Nadia; Lenoir, Stephane; Gayet, Brice; Palau, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Water-soluble contrast swallow (CS) is usually performed before refeeding for anastomosis assessment after esophagectomy with intrathoracic anastomosis but the sensitivity of CS is low. Another diagnostic approach is based on analysis of computed tomography (CT) scan with oral contrast and of CT mediastinal air images. We undertook to compare them prospectively. Ninety-seven patients with an esophageal carcinoma operated by intrathoracic anastomosis were included prospectively in a study based on a CT scan at postoperative day 3 (without oral and intravenous contrast) and CT scan and CS at day 7. CT scan analysis consisted of assessing contrast and air leakage. In case of doubt, an endoscopy was done. A diagnosis of anastomotic leak was made in 13 patients (13.4%), in 2 cases before day 7 and in 3 beyond day 7. At day 3, 94 CT scans were performed, but the diagnostic value was poor. In 95 patients with both CS and CT scan at day 7, CS disclosed a leak in 5 of 11, and CT scan was abnormal in 8 of 11. Leakage of contrast and/or presence of mediastinal gas had the best negative predictive value (95.8%). Endoscopy was done in 16 patients with only mediastinal gas at day 7 CT scan. It disclosed a normal anastomosis in 11, fibrin deposits in 4, and a leak in 1. In comparison with CS only, CT at day 7 improves the sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing an anastomotic leak. In case of doubt endoscopy is advisable. This approach provides an accurate assessment of the anastomosis before refeeding.

  10. Tuberculose intestinal de localização colônica simulando neoplasia: relato de caso = Intestinal tuberculosis in colonic location mimicking neoplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Hamilton Petry de

    2011-01-01

    Conclusões: achados endoscópicos e histopatológicos pré-operatórios devem ser interpretados cuidadosamente e sempre correlacionados com o contexto clínico. O diagnóstico diferencial das lesões colônicas deve incluir neoplasias malignas e outras possíveis etiologias, como a tuberculose extrapulmonar

  11. Design and methods of the Ludwig-McGill longitudinal study of the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a large longitudinal study, begun in 1993, of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in a population of low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil, a city with one of the highest risks worldwide for cervical cancer. Known as the Ludwig-McGill cohort study, the epidemiological investigation focuses on persistent infection with oncogenic HPV types as the precursor event leading to cervical neoplasia. The objectives of this study are to: 1 study the epidemiology of persistent cervical HPV infection in asymptomatic women, 2 investigate whether persistent HPV infection increases risk of low-grade and high-grade cervical lesions, 3 search for determinants of persistent HPV infection, 4 search for molecular variants of HPV that may be associated with an increased risk of lesions, 5 investigate whether viral burden is correlated with persistent infections and with lesion risk, 6 study the antibody response to HPV as a predictor of persistence and lesion progression, and 7 examine the role of HLA typing and codon 72 p53 gene polymorphism in mediating HPV persistence and lesion severity. The study accrued 2 528 female subjects through March 1997. Subjects were followed up every 4 months in the first year, with twice-yearly return visits to take place in subsequent years. Participants undergo a questionnaire-based interview, have a cervical specimen taken for Pap cytology and HPV testing, and have a blood sample drawn for HPV antibody testing. A cervicography is performed once in the first year and every two years thereafter. In this article we describe the design and methods of the study, provide baseline cohort characteristics, and present a preliminary assessment of the prognostic value of baseline HPV status.

  12. Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, S; Fujimori, T; Kawamata, H; Takeda, J; Kitajima, K; Omotehara, F; Kaihara, T; Kusaka, T; Ichikawa, K; Ohkura, Y; Ono, Y; Imura, J; Yamaoka, S; Sakamoto, C; Ueda, Y; Chiba, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Several animal models for human ulcerative colitis (UC) associated neoplasia have been reported. However, most neoplasias developed in these models have morphological and genetic characteristics different from UC associated neoplasia. Aims: To establish a new colitis associated neoplasia model in p53 deficient mice by treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Methods: DSS colitis was induced in homozygous p53 deficient mice (p53−/−-DSS), heterozygous p53 deficient mice (p53+/−-DSS) and wild-type mice (p53+/+-DSS) by treatment with 4% DSS. Numbers of developed neoplasias were compared among the experimental groups, and macroscopic and microscopic features of the neoplasias were analysed. Furthermore, K-ras mutation and beta-catenin expression were assessed. Results: p53−/−-DSS mice showed 100% incidence of neoplasias whereas the incidences in p53+/−-DSS and p53+/+-DSS mice were 46.2% and 13.3%, respectively. No neoplasias were observed in the control groups. The mean numbers of total neoplasias per mouse were 5.0 (p53−/−-DSS), 0.62 (p53+/−-DSS), and 0.2 (p53+/+-DSS). The number of neoplasias per mouse in the p53−/−-DSS group was significantly higher than that in the other DSS groups. The incidences of superficial type neoplasias were 91.7% in p53−/−-DSS mice, 75.0% in p53+/−-DSS mice, and 33.3% in p53+/+-DSS mice. The K-ras mutation was not detected in any of the neoplasias tested. Translocation of beta-catenin from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm or nucleus was observed in 19 of 23 (82.6%) neoplasias. Conclusions: The p53−/−-DSS mice is an excellent animal model of UC associated neoplasia because the morphological features and molecular genetics are similar to those of UC associated neoplasia. Therefore, this model will contribute to the analysis of tumorigenesis related to human UC associated neoplasia and the development of chemopreventive agents. PMID:15082590

  13. A shared transcriptional program in early breast neoplasias despite genetic and clinical distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alayne L; Li, Jun; Guo, Xiangqian; Sweeney, Robert T; Varma, Sushama; Zhu, Shirley X; Li, Rui; Tibshirani, Robert; West, Robert B

    2014-05-23

    The earliest recognizable stages of breast neoplasia are lesions that represent a heterogeneous collection of epithelial proliferations currently classified based on morphology. Their role in the development of breast cancer is not well understood but insight into the critical events at this early stage will improve efforts in breast cancer detection and prevention. These microscopic lesions are technically difficult to study so very little is known about their molecular alterations. To characterize the transcriptional changes of early breast neoplasia, we sequenced 3'- end enriched RNAseq libraries from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of early neoplasia samples and matched normal breast and carcinoma samples from 25 patients. We find that gene expression patterns within early neoplasias are distinct from both normal and breast cancer patterns and identify a pattern of pro-oncogenic changes, including elevated transcription of ERBB2, FOXA1, and GATA3 at this early stage. We validate these findings on a second independent gene expression profile data set generated by whole transcriptome sequencing. Measurements of protein expression by immunohistochemistry on an independent set of early neoplasias confirms that ER pathway regulators FOXA1 and GATA3, as well as ER itself, are consistently upregulated at this early stage. The early neoplasia samples also demonstrate coordinated changes in long non-coding RNA expression and microenvironment stromal gene expression patterns. This study is the first examination of global gene expression in early breast neoplasia, and the genes identified here represent candidate participants in the earliest molecular events in the development of breast cancer.

  14. Lobular neoplasia - borderline type of lesion - risk of subsequent development of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, 13 years after excision of radial scar with multifocal lobular neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardzynska, K.; Wesolowska, E.; Baranska, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Lobular neoplasia is a hyperplastic breast lesion - a borderline type of lesion with a high risk of subsequent development of invasive carcinoma. In case of radial scar diagnosis the risk of invasive carcinoma increases twice in comparison with healthy patients population while in the case of lobular neoplasia diagnosis within radial scar this risk increases 8 to 10 times. Basing on the presented case we analyse and review the literature regarding the clinical, radiological and pathological aspects of lobular neoplasia of the breast. Case report. A 67-yeas old patient was hospitalised in 1995 in order to consult the results of mammography, which revealed a radial scar lesion of the right breast. The patient was then referred to undergo wide local excision. Pathological examination showed dysplastic changes of the radial scar type with 1 cm multifocal lobular neoplasia. The patient was systematically followed clinically and radiologically during the decade 1996-2006 and all examination results were normal. In 2008, an ill-defined nodule appeared within the scar on mammography examination. This was categorized as BI-RADS 4C. The mammotomic biopsy performed under ultrasonography control revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. The tumor was totally locally excised and the sentinel node was histologically verified. The histopathological examination revealed a 1.6 cm focus of invasive lobular carcinoma and the sentinel node was negative. Conclusion. Patients with detected lobular neoplasia should be treated as a risk group of invasive breast cancer development (30-40% vs 10% in a healthy population during the entire life period). Systematic clinical and radiological follow-up should be mandatory. (authors)

  15. Sample entropy analysis of cervical neoplasia gene-expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Salama A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce Approximate Entropy as a mathematical method of analysis for microarray data. Approximate entropy is applied here as a method to classify the complex gene expression patterns resultant of a clinical sample set. Since Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system, we believe that by choosing genes which display minimum entropy in normal controls and maximum entropy in the cancerous sample set we will be able to distinguish those genes which display the greatest variability in the cancerous set. Here we describe a method of utilizing Approximate Sample Entropy (ApSE analysis to identify genes of interest with the highest probability of producing an accurate, predictive, classification model from our data set. Results In the development of a diagnostic gene-expression profile for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, we identified 208 genes which are unchanging in all normal tissue samples, yet exhibit a random pattern indicative of the genetic instability and heterogeneity of malignant cells. This may be measured in terms of the ApSE when compared to normal tissue. We have validated 10 of these genes on 10 Normal and 20 cancer and CIN3 samples. We report that the predictive value of the sample entropy calculation for these 10 genes of interest is promising (75% sensitivity, 80% specificity for prediction of cervical cancer over CIN3. Conclusion The success of the Approximate Sample Entropy approach in discerning alterations in complexity from biological system with such relatively small sample set, and extracting biologically relevant genes of interest hold great promise.

  16. Palbociclib has antitumour effects on Pten-deficient endometrial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosil, Maria Alba; Mirantes, Cristina; Eritja, Núria; Felip, Isidre; Navaridas, Raúl; Gatius, Sònia; Santacana, Maria; Colàs, Eva; Moiola, Cristian; Schoenenberger, Joan Antoni; Encinas, Mario; Garí, Eloi; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers. The frequency of PTEN alterations is particularly high in endometrial carcinomas. Loss of PTEN leads to dysregulation of cell division, and promotes the accumulation of cell cycle complexes such as cyclin D1-CDK4/6, which is an important feature of the tumour phenotype. Cell cycle proteins have been presented as key targets in the treatment of the pathogenesis of cancer, and several CDK inhibitors have been developed as a strategy to generate new anticancer drugs. Palbociclib (PD-332991) specifically inhibits CDK4/6, and it has been approved for use in metastatic breast cancer in combination with letrazole. Here, we used a tamoxifen-inducible Pten knockout mouse model to assess the antitumour effects of cyclin D1 knockout and CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib on endometrial tumours. Interestingly, both cyclin D1 deficiency and palbociclib treatment triggered shrinkage of endometrial neoplasias. In addition, palbociclib treatment significantly increased the survival of Pten-deficient mice, and, as expected, had a general effect in reducing tumour cell proliferation. To further analyse the effects of palbociclib on endometrial carcinoma, we established subcutaneous tumours with human endometrial cancer cell lines and primary endometrial cancer xenografts, which allowed us to provide more translational and predictive data. To date, this is the first preclinical study evaluating the response to CDK4/6 inhibition in endometrial malignancies driven by PTEN deficiency, and it reveals an important role of cyclin D-CDK4/6 activity in their development. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Serrated polyps and their association with synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Jesús; Gomez, Marta; Basterra, Marta; Mercado, María Del Rosario; Montes, Marta; Gómez Dorronsoro, Marisa; Garaigorta, Maitane; Fraile, María; Rubio, Eva; Aisa, Gregorio; Galbete, Arkaitz

    2016-11-01

    Large serrated polyps (SP), proximal SP, SP with dysplasia and the presence of multiple sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/P), which we refer to as SP with increased risk of metachronous lesions (SPIRML), have been associated with an increased risk of advanced colon lesions on follow-up. It is unclear, however, whether SPIRML are also associated with an increased risk of synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SPIRML and to evaluate the association between SPIRML and synchronous ACN. A cross-sectional population-based study in all patients (1,538) with histological diagnosis of SP obtained from colonoscopies, sigmoidoscopies and colonic surgery performed in Navarra Health Service hospitals (Spain) in 2011. Demographic parameters and synchronous colonic lesions (adenomas, advanced adenomas [AA] and ACN) were analyzed. One fourth of the sample (384 patients) presented SPIRML. These were older patients, with a slight predominance of women, and with no differences in body mass index (BMI) compared to patients without SPIRML. In the univariate analysis, patients with SPIRML showed an increased risk of adenoma, AA and ACN. In the multivariate analysis, the SPIRML group had a higher risk of synchronous AA and ACN (odds ratio [OR]: 2.38 [1.77-3.21] and OR: 2.29 [1.72-3.05], respectively); in the case of ACN, this risk was statistically significant in both locations (proximal or distal), with OR slightly higher for the proximal location. Different subtypes of SPIRML had a higher risk of AA and synchronous NA. SPIRML were common in patients with SP, and their presence was associated with an increased risk of synchronous ACN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathologic audit of 164 consecutive cases of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, James; Campion, Michael; Scurry, Bonnie; Kim, Soo Nyung; Hacker, Neville

    2006-04-01

    There are 2 types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): warty-basaloid and differentiated. Differentiated VIN is uncommon and seldom diagnosed prior to carcinoma and, traditionally, is not graded. There are currently 3 grading systems for warty-basaloid VIN: the World Health Organization (WHO) 3 grade system of VIN 1-3, a 2 grade system of low and high grade vulvar intraepithelial lesions, and the revised International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) classification which has no grading of VIN. According to the ISSVD, VIN 1 should be abolished and VIN 2 and 3 combined into a single category, simply termed warty-basaloid VIN. To determine the best system for grading warty-basaloid VIN and learn more about differentiated VIN, we reviewed the pathology of 164 consecutive women with VIN. Of these, 134 (82.3%) had warty-basaloid VIN, 29 (18.2%) had differentiated VIN, and 1 had both. Of warty-basaloid VIN cases, 4 had VIN 1, 13 VIN 2, and 118 VIN 3 when graded according to the WHO. All VIN 1 occurred in condylomata acuminata. VIN 2 and 3 were distinguished only by degree of abnormality. Differentiated VIN was diagnosed before SCC in only 7 cases (26.7%). Because the only VIN 1 cases seen were in condylomata acuminata and because VIN 2 and 3 were difficult to distinguish and there appears little clinical reason to do so, our study supports the ISSVD proposal that VIN 1 be abolished and VIN 2 and 3 be combined. There needs to be more clinical awareness of vulvar conditions, so that differentiated VIN is biopsied before cancer has supervened.

  19. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-07-16

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia detection on I-123 MIBG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, C.A.; McEwan, L.M.; Wong, J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: An 123 I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was performed on a 54-year-old lady with familial phaeochromocytoma, to evaluate for bilateral or extra-adrenal disease. She has hypertension with raised catecholamines and CT evidence of a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma, and a female sibling with bilateral phaeochromocytoma. Thyroid blockade using Lugol's Iodine was given orally prior to intravenous administration of 370 MBq 123 I MIBG. Planar and SPECT imaging were acquired at 24 hours. There was intense uptake in the known right phaeochromocytoma. An unexpected finding was focal intense uptake in the region of the right thyroid lobe, which may be either a functioning paraganglioma arising from the cervical sympathetic ganglia or a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). At 48 hours, a further image of the neck showed no changes. This was followed by a standard injection of 150 MBq 99 Tc m pertechnetate for thyroid scanning. Imaging obtained on 99 Tc m energy window setting showed a large hypofunctioning region in the right thyroid lobe, corresponding in location to the focal 123 I MIBG uptake. This is in keeping with a MTC, a neuroendocrine tumour, as other thyroid carcinomas are non-MIBG avid. A subsequent serum calcitonin assay showed elevated levels. The patient underwent surgical removal of the right phaeochromocytoma followed several weeks later by a right hemithyroidectomy. Histological reports confirmed the tumour diagnoses. The patient's familial phaeochromocytoma is therefore part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome Type 2A (MEN 2A). To date, biochemistry has not shown any evidence of hyperparathyroidism which occurs in 15-20 per cent of patients with MEN 2A. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  2. The Role of Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Giulio; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Preti, Eleonora Petra; Vaccari, Sabina; Barisani, Alessia; Pennacchioli, Elisabetta; Cantisani, Carmen

    2018-02-02

    vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive precursor lesion found in 50-70% of patients affected by vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. In the past, radical surgery was the standard treatment for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, however, considering the psychological and physical morbidities related to extensive surgery, several less aggressive treatment modalities have been proposed since the late 1970s. Photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe treatment for cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer, with favorable cosmetic outcomes. in the present paper, the results of selected studies on photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia are reported and discussed. Overall, complete histological response rates ranged between 20% and 67% and symptom response rates ranged between 52% and 89% according to different studies and case series. the real benefit of photodynamic therapy in the setting of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lies in its ability to treat multi-focal disease with minimal tissue destruction, preservation of vulvar anatomy and excellent cosmetic outcomes. These properties explain why photodynamic therapy is an attractive option for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment.

  3. Safety and feasibility of simultaneous endoscopic submucosal dissection for multiple gastric neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Dong Hoo; Park, Chan Hyuk; Jung, Sungmo; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Hyun Ki; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Sang Kil

    2015-12-01

    Synchronous gastric neoplasms are not infrequently detected, thus endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for multiple early gastric neoplasia is occasionally considered. However, there have been few investigations of the safety and feasibility of simultaneous ESD for multiple gastric lesions. This study aims to evaluate the safety and feasibility of simultaneous ESD for multiple gastric neoplasia. A total of 1823 patients who underwent ESD for 1929 gastric adenomas or early gastric cancers were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Two hundred gastric adenomas or early gastric cancers among 94 patients were treated by ESD simultaneously (multiple group), and 1729 patients were treated with ESD for a single lesion (single group). En bloc resection (P = 0.060), complete resection (P = 0.362) and curative resection (P = 0.108) rates did not differ between the two groups. Rates of adverse events including bleeding (P = 0.317), perforation (P = 0.316) and aspiration pneumonia (P = 0.563) were not higher in the multiple group. Long-term follow-up showed more frequent local recurrence (P neoplasia (P = 0.041) and metachronous neoplasia (P neoplasia is required.

  4. Concurrent endocrine neoplasias in dogs and cats: a retrospective study (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, Laura; Boretti, Felicitas Schär; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Nadja S; Mueller, Claudia; Kümmerle-Fraune, Claudia; Hilbe, Monika; Grest, Paula; Reusch, Claudia E

    2018-03-17

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is a well-known syndrome in human medicine, whereas only a few cases of concurrent endocrine neoplasias have been reported in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of concurrent endocrine neoplasias in dogs and cats at our clinic, identify possible breed and sex predispositions and investigate similarities with MEN syndromes in humans. Postmortem reports of 951 dogs and 1155 cats that died or were euthanased at the Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed, and animals with at least two concurrent endocrine neoplasias and/or hyperplasias were included. Twenty dogs and 15 cats met the inclusion criteria. In dogs, the adrenal glands were most commonly affected. Multiple tumours affecting the adrenal glands and the association of these tumours with pituitary adenomas were the most common tumour combinations. Only one dog had a combination resembling human MEN type 1 syndrome (pituitary adenoma and insulinoma). In cats, the thyroid glands were most commonly affected and there were no similarities to human MEN syndromes. The prevalence of concurrent endocrine neoplasia was 2.1 per cent in dogs and 1.3 per cent in cats and MEN-like syndromes are very rare in these species. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Neoplasia Intra-epitelial Vulvar: análise Clinicopatológica Clinicopathologic Analysis of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: review of 46 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Verdiani

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: investigar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos dos vários graus de neoplasia intra-epitelial vilvar (NIV e sua relação com o papilomavírus humano (HPV. Métodos: foram analisados os prontuários de 46 mulheres atendidas no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas de janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 1997. Para análise estatística foram utilizados os testes do chi2, com correção de Yates quando necessário, e exato de Fisher. Em relação à gravidade da lesão vulvar, seis mulheres apresentavam NIV 1, seis NIV 2 e 34 NIV 3. Resultados: A idade, estado menstrual e idade da atividade sexual não estiveram relacionados com a gravidade da NIV, porém, as mulheres com mais de um parceiro sexual mostraram uma tendência maior a apresentar NIV 3 (p=0,090. O tabagismo esteve significativamente associado à gravidade da lesão vulvar (p= 0,031. O HPV foi mais freqüente nas mulheres com idade inferior a 35 anos (p=0,005 e naquelas com múltiplas lesões (p=0,089. Embora o número não tenha mostrado relação com a gravidade da NIV (p=0,703, lesões maiores que 2 cm estiveram significativamente associadas com NIV 3 (p=0,009. O tratamento mais utilizado para NIV 3 foi cirúrgico, com exérese ou vulvectomia simples. Entre as oito mulheres que apresentaram recidiva, apenas uma era portadora de NIV 2. Conclusões: Entre as mulheres com NIV, as fumantes e com mais de um parceiro sexual apresentaram lesões mais graves. A presença de HPV foi maior nas pacientes jovens com múltiplas lesões. Mulheres com NIV 3 apresentaram lesões maiores que 2 cm e uma alta taxa de recidiva, independentemente do tratamento utilizado.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate some epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of the different grades of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, and its relation with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV. The charts of 46

  6. HPV type-related chromosomal profiles in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens Mariska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN2/3] result from a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types and the accumulation of (epigenetic host cell aberrations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated variable CIN2/3 and cancer risks between different hrHPV types. Recent genomic profiling studies revealed substantial heterogeneity in the chromosomal aberrations detected in morphologically indistinguishable CIN2/3 suggestive of varying cancer risk. The current study aimed to investigate whether CIN2/3 with different hrHPV types vary with respect to their chromosomal profiles, both in terms of the number of aberrations and chromosomal loci affected. Methods Chromosomal profiles were determined of 43 p16INK4a-immunopositive CIN2/3 of women with long-term hrHPV infection (≥ 5 years. Sixteen lesions harboured HPV16, 3 HPV18, 14 HPV31, 1 HPV33, 4 HPV45, 1 HPV51, 2 HPV52 and 2 HPV58. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two major clusters, characterised by either few or multiple chromosomal aberrations, respectively. A majority of 87.5% of lesions with HPV16 were in the cluster with relatively few aberrations, whereas no such unbalanced distribution was seen for lesions harbouring other hrHPV types. Analysis of the two most prevalent types (HPV16 and HPV31 in this data set revealed a three-fold increase in the number of losses in lesions with HPV31 compared to HPV16-positive lesions. In particular, losses at chromosomes 2q, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 8q & 17p and gain at 1p & 1q were significantly more frequent in HPV31-positive lesions (FDR Conclusions Chromosomal aberrations in CIN2/3 are at least in part related to the hrHPV type present. The relatively low number of chromosomal aberrations observed in HPV16-positive CIN2/3 suggests that the development of these lesions is

  7. Thiopurine Therapy Reduces the Incidence of Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis. Data from the ENEIDA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Jordi; Cabré, Eduard; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Ricart, Elena; Ber-Nieto, Yolanda; Márquez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Ponferrada, Ángel; Vera, Isabel; Gisbert, Javier P; Barrio, Jesús; Esteve, Maria; Merino, Olga; Muñoz, Fernando; Domènech, Eugeni

    2015-12-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but recent studies suggest a lower risk than previously reported. The aim was to evaluate the incidence of dysplasia, CRC and related risk factors in UC patients from a Spanish nationwide database. All UC patients were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Clinical-epidemiological data and the finding of dysplasia and/or CRC were collected. A total of 831 UC patients were included. Twenty-six cases of CRC in 26 patients and 29 cases of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in 24 patients were found, accounting for 55 diagnoses of advanced neoplasia (AN = CRC and/or HGD) in 45 patients (33% of them within the first 8 years after UC diagnosis). The cumulative risk of AN was 2, 5.3 and 14.7% at 10, 20 and 30 years, respectively. Concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (odds ratio [OR] 10.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.75-31.76, p < 0.001), extensive UC (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.01-4.38, p = 0.048), UC diagnosis at an older age (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03-4.83, p = 0.043) and appendectomy prior to UC diagnosis (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.06-6.71, p = 0.038) were independent risk factors for AN. Use of thiopurines (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.74, p = 0.015) and being in a surveillance colonoscopy programme (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16-0.67; p = 0.002) were independent protective factors for AN. The risk of AN among UC patients is lower than previously reported but steadily increases from the time of UC diagnosis. The widespread use of thiopurines may have influenced this reduced incidence of UC-related neoplasias. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Outcomes of adrenal-sparing surgery or total adrenalectomy in phaeochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 : an international retrospective population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castinetti, Frederic; Qi, Xiao-Ping; Walz, Martin K.; Maia, Ana Luiza; Sanso, Gabriela; Peczkowska, Mariola; Hasse-Lazar, Kornelia; Links, Thera P.; Dvorakova, Sarka; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Mian, Caterina; Bugalho, Maria Joao; Wohllk, Nelson; Kollyukh, Oleg; Canu, Letizia; Loli, Paola; Bergmann, Simona R.; Costa, Josefina Biarnes; Makay, Ozer; Patocs, Attila; Pfeifer, Marija; Shah, Nalini S.; Cuny, Thomas; Brauckhoff, Michael; Bausch, Birke; von Dobschuetz, Ernst; Letizia, Claudio; Barczynski, Marcin; Alevizaki, Maria K.; Czetwertynska, Malgorzata; Ugurlu, M. Umit; Valk, Gerlof; Plukker, John T. M.; Sartorato, Paola; Siqueira, Debora R.; Barontini, Marta; Szperl, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara; Verbeek, Hans H. G.; Zelinka, Tomas; Vlcek, Petr; Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Coutinho, Flavia L.; Mannelli, Massimo; Recasens, Monica; Demarquet, Lea; Petramala, Luigi; Yaremchuk, Svetlana; Zabolotnyi, Dmitry; Schiavi, Francesca; Opocher, Giuseppe; Racz, Karoly; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Weryha, Georges; Henry, Jean-Francois; Brue, Thierry; Conte-Devolx, Bernard; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.

    Background The prevention of medullary thyroid cancer in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome has demonstrated the ability of molecular diagnosis and prophylactic surgery to improve patient outcomes. However, the other major neoplasia associated with multiple endocrine

  9. Pathological diagnosis of flat epithelial lesions of the biliary tract with emphasis on biliary intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Harada, Kenichi; Aishima, Shinichi; Fukusato, Toshio; Ojima, Hidenori; Kanai, Yae; Kage, Masayoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Flat epithelial lesions of the biliary tract cannot be detected by the image analysis, and the diagnosis entirely depends on pathological examination. The biliary tract is often affected by inflammatory conditions, and the resultant changes of the biliary epithelium make it difficult to differentiate them from neoplasia. Thus, the pathological diagnosis of biliary flat epithelial lesions can be challenging. In the biliary tract, there are several forms of intraepithelial neoplasia of the flat type, and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) is known as one of such lesions that represent the multistep cholangiocarcinogenesis. In this article, the diagnostic criteria and the differential diagnosis of biliary flat epithelial lesions, particularly focusing on BilIN, were presented and discussed to provide help to advance clinical and research applications of the BilIN system.

  10. Candida and squamous (pre)neoplasia of immigrants and Dutch women as established in population-based cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C. F. W.; Verbruggen, B. S. M.; van Haaften, M.; Boon, M. E.; Heintz, A. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between Candida vaginalis and (pre)neoplasia and the prevalence of Candida and (pre)neoplasia related to age and ethnicity. Data were collected from 445,671 asymptomatic women invited for mass screening between 1995 and 2002 and coded

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions XMEN X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close ... boxes. Description X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym ...

  12. Increased incidence of penile cancer and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Munk, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark.......To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark....

  13. Radiofrequency ablation for the endoscopic eradication of esophageal squamous high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vilsteren, F. G.; Alvarez Herrero, L.; Pouw, R. E.; ten Kate, F. J.; Visser, M.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Weusten, B. L.; Bergman, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and study aims: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with or without prior endoscopic resection safely and effectively removes early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We speculated that this approach might also be suited for early squamous neoplasia of the esophagus. The aim of the study was to

  14. Clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus 16 and 18 antibodies in cervical neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Doo Byung; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Bo Wook; Kang, Eun Suk; Song, Eunseop; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies and high-risk cervical HPV DNA in cervical neoplasia. The study population comprised patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=64), CIN 2 and 3 (n=241), cervical cancer (n=170), and normal control participants (n=975). Cervical HPV DNA tests were performed through nucleic acid hybridization assay tests, and serum anti-HPV 16 and 18 antibodies were measured by competitive immunoassay. The associations of HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibodies were evaluated with demographic characteristics and compared according to the levels of disease severity. Anti-HPV antibodies were also investigated with clinicopathologic parameters, including survival data. Among various demographic characteristics, factors involving sexual behavior had a higher tendency of HPV DNA positivity and HPV seropositivity. Human papillomavirus DNA mean titer and positivity were both increased in patients with cervical neoplasia compared with those with normal control participants, but there was no statistical difference among types of cervical neoplasia. Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies were also able to differentiate cervical neoplasia from a normal control participant and furthermore distinguished CIN 1 from CIN 2 and 3 (odd ratio 2.87 [1.43-5.78], P=.002). In cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity was associated with prolonged disease-free survival according to the univariable analysis (hazard ratio=0.12 [0.01-0.94], P=.044). Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies can distinguish cervical neoplasia from a normal control and has the advantage of identifying high-grade CIN. Moreover, in cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity may be associated with a more favorable prognosis. II.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Seema; Sharma, Anjana; Panda, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV) in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN). The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians.

  16. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  17. Computer-aided detection of early Barrett's neoplasia using volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fré; van der Sommen, Fons; Klomp, Sander R; Zinger, Sveta; Meijer, Sybren L; Schoon, Erik J; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; de With, Peter H; Curvers, Wouter L

    2017-11-01

    Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is an advanced imaging system that provides a near-microscopic resolution scan of the esophageal wall layers up to 3-mm deep. VLE has the potential to improve detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, interpretation of VLE images is complex because of the large amount of data that need to be interpreted in real time. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a computer algorithm to identify early BE neoplasia on ex vivo VLE images. We used 60 VLE images from a database of high-quality ex vivo VLE-histology correlations, obtained from BE patients ± neoplasia (30 nondysplastic BE [NDBE] and 30 high-grade dysplasia/early adenocarcinoma images). VLE features from a recently developed clinical VLE prediction score for BE neoplasia served as input for the algorithm: (1) higher VLE surface than subsurface signal and (2) lack of layering. With this input, novel clinically inspired algorithm features were developed, based on signal intensity statistics and grayscale correlations. For comparison, generic image analysis methods were examined for their performance to detect neoplasia. For classification of the images in the NDBE or neoplastic group, several machine learning methods were evaluated. Leave-1-out cross-validation was used for algorithm validation. Three novel clinically inspired algorithm features were developed. The feature "layering and signal decay statistics" showed the optimal performance compared with the other clinically features ("layering" and "signal intensity distribution") and generic image analyses methods, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of .95. Corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 93%, respectively. In addition, the algorithm showed a better performance than the clinical VLE prediction score (AUC .81). This is the first study in which a computer algorithm for BE neoplasia was developed based on VLE images with

  18. Comparison of computed tomography and radiography for detecting changes induced by malignant nasal neoplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.; Beck, E.R.; LeCouteur, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of computed tomography and radiography to detect changes associated with nasal neoplasia was compared in dogs. Eighteen areas or anatomic structures were evaluated in 21 dogs for changes indicative of neoplasia. Computed tomography was superior (P < or = 0.05) to radiography for detecting changes in 14 of 18 areas. Radiography was not superior for detecting changes in any structure or area. Computed tomography reveals vital information not always detected radiographically to assist in providing a prognosis and in planning treatment for nasal neoplasms in dogs

  19. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    and overt seminoma, in comparison to biopsies from infertile men without neoplasia. The composition of immune cells was similar across all the groups studied. Macrophages, CD8(+) and CD45R0(+) T lymphocytes constituted the majority of infiltrates, B lymphocytes were present in an intermediate proportion...... and very few CD4(+) and FoxP3(+) T cells were detected. HLA-I antigen was more abundant in Sertoli cells in tubules containing CIS than in those with normal spermatogenesis. This study showed a phenotypically comparable composition of infiltrating immune cells independently of the presence of neoplasia...

  20. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M

    1987-01-01

    Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes...

  1. Human papillomavirus and HIV coinfection and the risk of neoplasias of the lower genital tract: a review of recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, Alex; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo; Hankins, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    ONE OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) INFECTION and subsequent lower genital tract neoplasias and cancers is impaired cell-mediated immunity. HIV-positive women with severe immunosuppression are 5 times more likely than HIV-negative women to have lower genital tract neoplasias. A corresponding increase in the risk of invasive vulvar and anal cancers, but not of cervical cancer, has also been observed among HIV-positive women. Treatment failure and recurrence of neoplasia occur much more frequently among HIV-positive than among HIV-negative women. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the relation between HIV and HPV coinfection and the development of lower genital tract neoplasias and cancers in women. In addition, we present strategies for monitoring and treating noninvasive and invasive neoplasias of the lower genital tract in HIV-positive women. PMID:12952805

  2. Heat shock protein90 in lobular neoplasia of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsouris Efstratios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 overexpression has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis, with putative prognostic and therapeutic implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Hsp90 and to examine whether Hsp90 expression is associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha and beta (ER-beta immunostaining in lobular neoplasia (LN of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 44 patients with LN. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90, ER-alpha and ER-beta was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. As far as Hsp90 evaluation is concerned: i the percentage of positive cells, and ii the intensity was separately analyzed. Additionally, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. Accordingly, Allred score was separately evaluated for ER-alpha and ER-beta. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results Hsp90 immunoreactivity was mainly cytoplasmic in both the epithelial cells of normal breast (ducts and lobules and LN. Some epithelial cells of LN also showed nuclear staining, but all the LN foci mainly disclosed a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. In addition, rare intralobular inflammatory cells showed a slight immunoreaction. The percentage of Hsp90 positive cells in the LN areas was equal to 67.1 ± 12.2%, whereas the respective percentage in the normal adjacent breast tissue was 69.1 ± 11.6%; the difference was not statistically significant. The intensity score of Hsp90 staining was 1.82 ± 0.72 in LN foci, while in the normal adjacent tissue the intensity score was 2.14 ± 0.64. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.029, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. The Hsp90 Allred score was 6.46 ± 1.14 in the LN foci, significantly lower than in the normal adjacent tissue (6.91

  3. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  4. Epidemiology for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    The epidemiological approach, as elaborated to accomodate multiple-causation of chronic disease, is suggested as appropriate for the size and the nature of the failure-to-learn problem faced by educators. The epidemiological approach begins with an examination of the health status of an area's population. Major problems are identified with respect…

  5. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs. The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course.

  6. Endoscopia respiratória em 89 pacientes com neoplasia pulmonar Respiratory endoscopy in 89 patients of lung neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO JOSÉ LORENZONI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: As neoplasias pulmonares são uma das mais freqüentes causas de mortalidade no Brasil. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o diagnóstico dessas neoplasias através da fibrobroncoscopia. Método: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 89 pacientes no período de cinco anos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 53 -- presença de lesão visível à endoscopia, grupo 2 (n = 36 -- ausência de lesões na endoscopia. Na revisão dos prontuários retiraram-se os dados epidemiológicos, os achados endoscópicos, os exames cito e anatomopatológicos, bem como o exame que proporcionou o diagnóstico final. Resultados: Os achados endoscópicos indiretos de neoplasia corresponderam a 59,5% e a presença de tumor na luz brônquica a 48,8%. O tipo histológico mais freqüente foi o carcinoma epidermóide (59,5%, seguido do adenocarcinoma (15,7%, carcinoma indiferenciado de pequenas células (10,1% e outros (14,7%. Nos tumores visíveis ou não na endoscopia o estudo anatomopatológico da biópsia brônquica e/ou da citopatologia do lavado e do escovado brônquico mostrou sensibilidade de 83,1% no diagnóstico de neoplasia pulmonar. Quando a lesão era visível à inspeção endoscópica, a sensibilidade atingiu percentual de 96,2%, sendo a biópsia positiva em 94,2% e a citologia em 43,75%. Quando não se observava lesão brônquica o rendimento foi sensivelmente menor (63,8%: a biópsia mostrou percentual de 72,7% e a citopatologia de 38,4%. As complicações menores decorrentes do exame endoscópico ocorreram em 11,2% dos pacientes; não ocorreram complicações graves. Conclusão: A fibrobroncoscopia foi um excelente método para investigação de pacientes com suspeita de neoplasia pulmonar com sensibilidade de 83,1%; sua sensibilidade foi maior nas lesões visíveis. Nas lesões não visíveis a sensibilidade aumentou com a biópsia endobrônquica.Objectives: Lung neoplasms are one of the most common causes of mortality in Brazil

  7. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a review of prognostic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Margot M.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Nijman, Hans W.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical

  8. The negative association between a history of recurrent herpes labialis and cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M. P.; Wilterdink, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    We considered the possibility that herpetic recurrences and herpes virus associated neoplasia are mutually exclusive disorders because they are expressions of different herpes virus-host relationships. We assumed that the human body copes with orofacial and genital herpes infections in the same

  9. The Clinical and Laboratory Features of Plasma Cell NeoplasiaIn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and laboratory features of Multiple Myeloma at presentation in a tertiary centre in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed for plasma cell neoplasia within a 10 year period at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were ...

  10. Efficacy in treatment of subclinical cervical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Russomano

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The treatment of the subclinical Human papillomavirus (HPV infection of the uterine cervix is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection of the cervix without intraepithelial neoplasia, via a search in the medical literature. METHOD: We performed a systematic review with a comprehensive reference search in Medline, LILACS, Excerpta Medica, AIDSLINE, Popline, Cochrane Library and other authors' reference lists to identify experimental studies of therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. In order to identify unpublished studies, we also contacted experts in the area, clinical trial registries, pharmaceutical industries, government and research institutions. We also searched on the Internet and in the book-of-abstracts of some medical conferences. The studies identified were masked and selected by inclusion criteria to help ascertain their internal validity. The data about regression or progression of HPV infection were extracted from the studies included. RESULTS: We identified 67 studies related to the treatment of subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. Only five clinical trials matched the inclusion criteria and none demonstrated significant differences between the experimental group and the control group concerning regression of HPV infection (with or without CIN I or progression to higher grades of CIN. CONCLUSION: The evidence we found in the medical literature regarding the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix was unsatisfactory.

  11. Widespread activation of the DNA damage response in human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorstra, Jan-Bart M.; Hong, Seung-Mo; Shi, Chanjuan; Meeker, Alan K.; Ryu, Ji Kon; Offerhaus, George Johan A.; Goggins, Michael G.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions are the most common non-invasive precursors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We postulated that accumulating DNA damage within the PanIN epithelium activates checkpoint mechanisms. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 81 surgically resected

  12. Computer-aided detection of early Barrett's neoplasia using volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swager, Anne-Fré; van der Sommen, Fons; Klomp, Sander R.; Zinger, Sveta; Meijer, Sybren L.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; de With, Peter H.; Curvers, Wouter L.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is an advanced imaging system that provides a near-microscopic resolution scan of the esophageal wall layers up to 3-mm deep. VLE has the potential to improve detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, interpretation

  13. Risk of head-and-neck cancer following a diagnosis of severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, C; Jensen, S M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 including adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN3/AIS) may be more prone to develop cancers of the ano-genital region and head-and-neck cancers. The current literature is, however, limited. METHODS: We established a nationwide...

  14. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore, blood

  15. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, S.; Leeuwaarde, R.S. van; Pieterman, C.R.; Laat, J.M. de; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Horst-Schrivers, A.N. van der; Drent, M.L.; Bisschop, P.H.; Havekes, B.; Rinkes, I.H.; Vriens, M.R.; Valk, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  16. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  17. Acceptable age for prophylactic surgery in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahraman, T; de Groot, JWB; Rouwe, C; Hofstra, RMW; Links, TP; Sijmons, RH; Plukker, JTM

    Aims: Germline mutated RET proto-oncogene, causing multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2a syndrome is the indication for prophylactic total thyroidectomy. Literature regarding the risk and the extent of early surgical intervention is scarce and the optimum age for surgery is still controversial. To

  18. Disturbed patterns of immunocompetent cells in usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Seters, van (Manon); I. Beckmann (Ilse); C. Heijmans-Antonissen (Claudia); M. van Beurden (Marc); P.C. Ewing (Patricia); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); A. Kleinjan (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractGenital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually transient, as the immune system is capable of eliminating the virus. When immunity "fails" and the infection persists, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) may develop. In this study, we examined the distribution of

  19. Disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma despite early thyroid surgery in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-2A syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; Aronson, D. C.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; van de Wetering, M. D.; Wiersinga, W. M.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Vulsma, T.

    2005-01-01

    A 5 1/2-year-old boy, with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2A syndrome, was evaluated for presence of MEN-2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). DNA diagnostics confirmed MEN-2A. Basal (360 ng/L) and pentagastrin stimulated (430 ng/L) calcitonin (CT) levels were slightly

  20. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. It is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located both...

  1. GTPases Rho distribution in intraepithelial and invasive neoplasias of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibúrcio, M Gomes Salles; Pinheiro, N M; Carboni, S de Sales Costa Moreira; Rocha, L P; Adad, S J; Maluf, P J; Murta, E F Cândido; Crema, V O

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and Cdc42 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and invasive neoplasias of the uterine cervix. samples of neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix of 44 patients were classified in: CIN I (n = 10), CIN II (n = 10), CIN III (n = 09), and invasive carcinoma (n = 15). Antibodies anti-RhoA, anti-RhoB, and anti-Cdc42 were used and staining was classified as: negative, mild, moderate, and intense positive. When compared with dysplastic cells, superficial cells showed: higher expression of RhoB in CIN I (p = 0.0018), and lower expression of Cdc42 in CIN I (p = 0.0225). The authors observed higher expression of RhoA (p = 0.0002) and RhoB (p = 0.0046) in CIN dysplastic cells when compared with invasive carcinoma cells. GTPases Rho may be involved with the regulation of biological processes, important to the progression of cervical neoplasias. Probably, RhoA is important for maintenance of cell differentiation and RhoB protects cells from malignant cervical neoplasia.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M...

  3. Is microsatellite instability (MSI) associated with multiplicity in early stage gastric neoplasias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, So Yeun; Kim, Bo Ra; Ryu, Ho Yoel; Lee, Il Young; Lee, Yong Kwan; Cho, Mee Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between microsatellite instability (MSI) and clinicopathologic features including multiplicity in early stage gastric neoplasias (ESGN). From November 2004 until September 2009, 372 patients with consecutive resected gastric neoplasias were retrospectively enrolled. The gastric neoplasias were composed of 117 advanced gastric cancers (AGCs) and 255 ESGNs including 31 gastric dysplasias (including low and high grade dysplasia) and 224 early gastric cancers (EGCs). Based on microsatellite markers, high MSI (MSI-H) was observed in 61 cases (16.4%) and low MSI (MSI-L) in 14 cases (3.8%) of 372 cases. There was a positive correlation between the presence of MSI-H and progression of gastric adenoma to gastric tumor. We compared ESGNs with microsatellite stable (MSS; 223 cases, 87.5%) and ESGNs with MSI-H (24 cases, 9.4%). The ESGNs with MSI-H were only associated with older age and female gender. There were no association with Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, and distal location in contrast with EGCs with MSI-H. Furthermore, multiplicity of ESGNs was not associated with MSI status. The clinicopatholgic features of MSI-H phenotype were different according to the progression of gastric neoplasias from ESGNs to AGCs. ESGNs with MSI-H were only associated with old age, female sex. In addition ESGNs with MSI-H were not associated with an increased risk of multifocal tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Condom use in prevention of Human Papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Rebolj, Matejka; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional studies, the data on protection from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections related to using male condoms appear inconsistent. Longitudinal studies are more informative for this purpose. We undertook a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of male ...... condoms in preventing HPV infection and cervical neoplasia....

  5. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  6. Extent of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is not a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is a well accepted pre-cursor of invasive prostate cancer. Most investigators agree that a diagnosis of high-grade PIN warrants repeat transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy. We set out to investigate risk factors for cancer among a modern cohort of men with ...

  7. Increased burden of treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Denmark 1991 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Rebolj, M; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the introduction of cytological screening in Denmark in the late 1960s, the incidence of cervical cancer decreased from 40 to 14 per 100,000 due to treatment of screen-detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, some overtreatment is inevitable and its side...

  8. Surveillance using trimodal imaging endoscopy after endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial gastric neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Naoki; Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Ida, Yosuke; Nakamura, Rieko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Saito, Yoshimasa; Yahagi, Naohisa; Iwao, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of trimodal imaging endoscopy (TME) to detect another lesion after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial gastric neoplasia (SGN). METHODS: Surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using a TME was conducted in 182 patients that had undergone ESD for SGN. Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) was conducted after white-light imaging (WLI). When SGN was suspicious, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) was conducted. Final diagnoses were made by histopathologic findings of biopsy specimens. The detection rates of lesions in WLI, AFI, and NBI, and the characteristics of lesions detected by WLI and ones missed by WLI but detected by AFI were examined. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis using WLI, AFI and ME-NBI were evaluated. RESULTS: In 242 surveillance EGDs, 27 lesions were determined pathologically to be neoplasias. Sixteen early gastric cancers and 6 gastric adenomas could be detected by WLI. Sixteen lesions were reddish and 6 were whitish. Five gastric neoplasias were missed by WLI but were detected by AFI, and all were whitish and protruded gastric adenomas. There was a significant difference in color and pathology between the two groups (P = 0.006). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in ME-NBI were higher than those in both WLI and AFI. Specificity and accuracy in AFI were lower than those in WLI. CONCLUSION: Surveillance using trimodal imaging endoscopy might be useful for detecting another lesion after endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial gastric neoplasia. PMID:25473189

  9. Post-surgical follow-up of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia L. Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density increments in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy have been studied by several investigators, but few have investigated this topic in primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Further, as far as we know, only two studies have consistently evaluated bone mineral density values after parathyroidectomy in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Here we revised the impact of parathyroidectomy (particularly total parathyroidectomy followed by autologous parathyroid implant into the forearm on bone mineral density values in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Significant increases in bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck values were found, although no short-term (15 months improvement in bone mineral density at the proximal third of the distal radius was observed. Additionally, short-term and medium-term calcium and parathyroid hormone values after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are discussed. In most cases, this surgical approach was able to restore normal calcium/parathyroid hormone levels and ultimately lead to discontinuation of calcium and calcitriol supplementation.

  10. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  11. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2A syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy Patrick Weledji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease.

  12. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, G.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  13. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  14. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 2. Methodological Issues for Conducting and Reporting Research Evaluations of Tuberculosis Diagnostics for Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children. Consensus From an Expert Panela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Renee; Bossuyt, Patrick; Casenghi, Martina; Cotton, Mark F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dodd, Lori E.; Drobniewski, Francis; Gale, Marianne; Graham, Stephen M.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Heinrich, Norbert; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Huebner, Robin; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Kampmann, Beate; Lewinsohn, Deborah; Li, Meijuan; Lienhardt, Christian; Mandalakas, Anna M.; Marais, Ben J.; Menzies, Heather J.; Montepiedra, Grace; Mwansambo, Charles; Oberhelman, Richard; Palumbo, Paul; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Shapiro, David E.; Smith, Betsy; Soto-Castellares, Giselle; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire; Worrell, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Confirming the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is a major challenge. However, research on childhood tuberculosis as it relates to better diagnostics is often neglected because of technical difficulties, such as the slow growth in culture, the difficulty of obtaining specimens, and the diverse and relatively nonspecific clinical presentation of tuberculosis in this age group. Researchers often use individually designed criteria for enrollment, diagnostic classifications, and reference standards, thereby hindering the interpretation and comparability of their findings. The development of standardized research approaches and definitions is therefore needed to strengthen the evaluation of new diagnostics for detection and confirmation of tuberculosis in children. In this article we present consensus statements on methodological issues for conducting research of Tuberculosis diagnostics among children, with a focus on intrathoracic tuberculosis. The statements are complementary to a clinical research case definition presented in an accompanying publication and suggest a phased approach to diagnostics evaluation; entry criteria for enrollment; methods for classification of disease certainty, including the rational use of culture within the case definition; age categories and comorbidities for reporting results; and the need to use standard operating procedures. Special consideration is given to the performance of microbiological culture in children and we also recommend for alternative methodological approaches to report findings in a standardized manner to overcome these limitations are made. This consensus statement is an important step toward ensuring greater rigor and comparability of pediatric tuberculosis diagnostic research, with the aim of realizing the full potential of better tests for children. PMID:22476719

  16. Endometriose Simulando Neoplasia Vesical Endometriosis Simulating Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: o acometimento do trato urinário pela endometriose é raro e quando ocorre, a bexiga é o órgão mais freqüentemente afetado. Observamos que algumas pacientes têm sido encaminhadas com o diagnóstico clínico de neoplasia vesical. Em geral, a literatura mostra relatos isolados de casos, tornando difícil a padronização de condutas. Tivemos por objetivo apresentar nossa experiência, mostrando os principais aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos desta entidade clínica. Métodos: avaliamos retrospectivamente os casos com diagnóstico de endometriose vesical por meio do arquivo do Departamento de Patologia, fazendo revisão dos dados clínicos de prontuário e convocando as pacientes para seguimento ambulatorial após tratamento. Resultados: os principais sinais e sintomas apresentados pelas pacientes foram disúria cíclica, massa e dor pélvica crônica. O diagnóstico presuntivo foi realizado mediante ultra-sonografia (USG, tomografia computadorizada (TC de abdome, cistoscopia e laparoscopia. O diagnóstico definitivo com confirmação anátomo-patológica foi obtido pela ressecção endoscópica em 3 casos e biópsia laparoscópica em 1 caso. As opções terapêuticas foram o tratamento medicamentoso exclusivo e a ressecção da lesão empregando a via endoscópica ou cistectomia parcial, sempre complementados por tratamento clínico adjuvante. Conclusões: revisamos os principais aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da endometriose do trato urinário, lembrando que esta representa um importante diagnóstico diferencial de tumor vesical em mulheres jovens na idade reprodutiva.Purpose: urinary tract involvement by endometriosis is uncommon and the bladder is the most common site. We observed that clinical misdiagnosis of bladder cancer frequently is made. Because the disease is generally described in case reports there is not a consensual management. We present and discuss our experience of diagnostic and therapeutic issues

  17. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  18. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  19. Can the Ni classification of vessels predict neoplasia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Camilla S; Rosenberg, Tine; Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Groentved, Aagot Moeller; Kjaergaard, Thomas; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The Ni classification of vascular change from 2011 is well documented for evaluating pharyngeal and laryngeal lesions, primarily focusing on cancer. In the planning of surgery it may be more relevant to differentiate neoplasia from non-neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the Ni classification to predict laryngeal or hypopharyngeal neoplasia and to investigate if a changed cutoff value would support the recent European Laryngological Society (ELS) proposal of perpendicular vascular changes as indicative of neoplasia. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. We systematically searched for publications from 2011 until 2016. All retrieved studies were reviewed and qualitatively assessed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the Ni classification with two different cutoffs were calculated, and bubble and summary receiver operating characteristics plots were created. The combined sensitivity of five studies (n = 687) with Ni type IV-V defined as test-positive was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.95), and specificity was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.89). The equivalent combined sensitivity of four studies (n = 624) with Ni type V defined as test-positive was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87), and specificity was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97). The diagnostic accuracy of the Ni classification in predicting neoplasia was high, without significant difference between the two analyzed cutoff values. Implementation of the proposed ELS classification of vascular changes seems reasonable from a clinical perspective, with comparable accuracy. Attention must be drawn to the accompanying risk of exposing patients to unnecessary surgery. Laryngoscope, 128:168-176, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Comparative analysis of copy number variations in ulcerative colitis associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B. M.; Chakrabarty, Sanjiban; Rotti, Harish; Seenappa, Venu; Rao, Lakshmi; Geetha, Vasudevan; Tantry, B. V.; Kini, Hema; Dharamsi, Rajesh; Pai, C. Ganesh; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancers (CRC) can be reduced by early detection. Currently there is a lack of established markers to detect early neoplastic changes. We aimed to identify the copy number variations (CNVs) and the associated genes which could be potential markers for the detection of neoplasia in both ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia (UC-CRN) and sporadic colorectal neoplasia (S-CRN). We employed array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to identify CNVs in tissue samples of UC nonprogressor, progressor and sporadic CRC. Select genes within these CNV regions as a panel of markers were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) method along with the microsatellite instability (MSI) in an independent cohort of samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was also performed. Integrated analysis showed 10 overlapping CNV regions between UC-Progressor and S-CRN, with the 8q and 12p regions showing greater overlap. The qRT-PCR based panel of MYC, MYCN, CCND1, CCND2, EGFR and FNDC3A was successful in detecting neoplasia with an overall accuracy of 54 % in S-CRN compared to that of 29 % in UC neoplastic samples. IHC study showed that p53 and CCND1 were significantly overexpressed with an increasing frequency from pre-neoplastic to neoplastic stages. EGFR and AMACR were expressed only in the neoplastic conditions. CNVs that are common and unique to both UC-associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasm could be the key players driving carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis of CNVs provides testable driver aberrations but needs further evaluation in larger cohorts of samples. These markers may help in developing more effective neoplasia-detection strategies during screening and surveillance programs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2303-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  1. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  4. Association of ß-hCG Surveillance with Emotional, Reproductive, and Sexual Health in Women Treated for Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Elizabeth L; Aghajanian, Carol; Montovano, Margaret; Lewin, Sharyn N; Baser, Raymond E; Carter, Jeanne

    2018-03-01

    To assess the emotional, reproductive, sexual health, and relationship concerns of women treated for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and examine associations with ß-hCG surveillance. This institutional review board approved study surveyed GTN survivors (n = 51) who received treatment from 1996 to 2008. Fifty-one women, including those actively followed or formerly treated, were surveyed. The survey consisted of background/medical information, the Reproductive Concerns Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, an item from the Abbreviated Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Menopausal Symptom Checklist, the Impact of Life Events Scale, and exploratory items. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.1 years; 41.6 years at study enrollment. Twenty-seven patients (56%) expressed worry about treatment harm and 30 (60%) about recurrence. Twenty percent reported significant depressive symptomatology. Mild cancer-related distress, reproductive concerns, sexual dysfunction, and bothersome menopausal symptoms were noted. Nineteen patients (40%) rated their ß-hCG surveillance worry as "high." Among patients who attempted conception after treatment, 3 of 12 (25%) succeeded in the ß-hCG high-worry group versus 13 of 19 (68%) in the ß-hCG low-worry group. Survivors with high ß-hCG worry had greater reproductive concerns than those with low worry (p = 0.002) and reported less sexual desire (p = 0.025). There was no difference in the number of low-worry versus high-worry participants in active surveillance (p = 0.09). Our study suggests that cancer-specific distress, sexual health, and reproductive concerns continue to impact women years after treatment. High worry about ß-hCG surveillance is negatively associated with the emotional well-being of GTN survivors and possibly influences reproductive attempts and success.

  5. The Warburg Hypothesis and the ATP Supply In Cancer Cells Is Oxidative Phosphorylation impaired in malignant neoplasias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Since Warburg proposed that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis due to apparent mitochondrial damage, numerous researchers have assumed that glycolysis is the predominant ATP supplier for cancer cell energy-dependent processes. However, chemotherapeutic strategies using glycolytic inhibitors have been unsuccessful in arresting tumor proliferation indicating that the original Warburg proposal may not be applicable to all existing neoplasias. This review analyzes recent information on mitochondrial metabolism in several malignant neoplasias emphasizing that, although tumor cells maintain a high glycolytic rate, the principal ATP production may derive from active oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, anti-mitochondrial drug therapy may be an adequate strategy to arrest proliferation of oxidative phosphorylation-dependent neoplasias.

  6. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Young People. When Should We Perform Genetic Testing for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 (MEN-1)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is the most frequent and usually the earliest expression of MEN-1, with typical age of onset at 20-25 years. Early detection of the disease and correct treatment...... endocrine neoplasia 1 OR multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 AND Mutational analysis OR genetic testing OR testing OR Hyperparathyroidism, primary [majr]. A total of 625 abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Whether to perform screening of patients with pHPT under the age of 30, 35, or 40 years...

  7. Scabies: an epidemiologic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, C G

    1983-04-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic infestation whose exact nature is unknown. A reassessment of epidemiologic data questions accepted ideas such as that scabies is a sexually transmitted disease; 30-year cycles of scabies epidemics exist; changes in the immune status of the host population (herd immunity) are epidemiologically significant; fomite transmission is rare; and blacks are resistant to the mite. Scabies epidemics are due to several factors and improved surveillance is needed before the disease can be better controlled.

  8. Epidemiology of Stone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone f...

  9. Stepwise radical endoscopic resection of the complete Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia successfully eradicates pre-existing genetic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Femke P.; Krishnadath, K. K.; Rygiel, Agnieszka M.; Curvers, Wouter L.; Rosmolen, Wilda D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Malignant transformation of Barrett's mucosa is associated with the accumulation of genetic alterations. Stepwise radical endoscopic resection of the Barrett's segment with early neoplasia is a promising new treatment resulting in complete re-epithelialization of the esophagus with

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies and fo...

  11. BENIGN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA ASSOCIATED WITH BETA-HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an association between acrochordon and human papilloma virus (HPV using quantitative analysis of viral desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; to detect different phenotypes of beta-HPV. Materials and methods: We examined 52  patients (22 immuno-suppressed patients and 30 immunocompetent subjects in the Dermatovenereology and Dermato-Oncology Department and Chronic Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI. Control group included 49 healthy donors. Burr biopsy samples (micro-samples of acrochordon and intact skin (apper arm were collected in sterile conditions. After sample procession and DNA isolation using DNK-sorb-C kit (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology – CRIE, polymerase chain reaction for HPV was performed with real-time fluorescent hybridization detection. For DNA amplification and detection we used RotorGene 3000 analyzer (Corbett Research, Australia. In the beta-HPV assay, recombinant plasmids were used as positive controls and control human beta-globin gene fragments (CRIE. 4 oligo-nucleotide systems (group-specific primers and probes were used for the detection of beta-HPV DNA. Results: Preliminary data indicated that acrochordons of open and covered skin regions were common in renal transplant recipients. Beta-HPV DNA was more frequent in acrochordons and intact skin (64% and 54% of renal transplant recipients compared to healthy donors (47%. 57% of renal transplant recipients demonstrated mixed infection in acrochordons. Conclusion: HPV DNA was frequently detected in acrochordons and intact skin of renal transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients prevalence of HPV DNA in acrochordons was significantly higher compared to intact skin.

  12. Aspirin in the Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T.; Arber, Nadir; Burn, John; Chia, John Whay-Kuang; Elwood, Peter; Hull, Mark A.; Logan, Richard F.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Schrör, Karsten; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in addition to its well-established benefits in the prevention of vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have consistently observed an inverse association between aspirin use and risk of CRC. A recent pooled analysis of a long-term post-trial follow-up of nearly 14,000 patients from 4 randomized, cardiovascular disease prevention trials showed that daily aspirin treatment for about 5 years was associated with a 34% reduction in 20-year CRC mortality. A separate meta-analysis of nearly 3,000 patients with a history of colorectal adenoma or cancer in 4 randomized adenoma prevention trials demonstrated that aspirin reduced the occurrence of advanced adenomas by 28% and any adenoma by 17%. Aspirin has also been shown to be beneficial in a clinical trial of patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary CRC syndrome; in those treated with aspirin for at least 2 years, there was a ≥ 50% reduction in the risk of CRC commencing 5 years after randomization and after aspirin had been discontinued. A few observational studies have shown an increase in survival among patients with CRC who use aspirin. Taken together, these findings strengthen the case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention. Despite these compelling data, there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long-term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations. The optimal dose to use for cancer prevention and the precise mechanism underlying aspirin’s anticancer effect require further investigation. PMID:22084361

  13. Cushing Disease in a patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Kannan; Fernandes, Lucas; Quezado, Martha; Eid, Mary; Marcus, Leigh; Chittiboina, Prashant; Rappaport, Mark; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte; Lodish, Maya

    2017-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized in part by metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. Cushing disease is a rare cause of endogenous hypercortisolism in children. We describe a 21-year-old African-American male who was diagnosed at age 10 with an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. At age 16 he developed medullary thyroid cancer and was found to have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with the characteristic M918T mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. Following thyroidectomy, he was initiated on Vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and has since had stable disease over the last 5 years. Our patient is the first individual with MEN2B to be described with Cushing disease. The RET oncogene may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis; alternatively, the coexistence of these two entities may represent an extremely rare coincidence.

  14. Frequent RET protooncogene mutations in multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadro, L.; Panariello, L.; Salvatore, D.; Carlomagno, F.; Del Prete, M.; Nunziata, V.; Colantuoni, V.; Di Giovanni, G.; Brandi, M.L.; Mannelli, M. [and others

    1994-08-01

    The occurrence of mutations in the RET protooncogene has been investigated in 12 multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A families and 18 cases of sporadic thyroid medullary carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 families showed single base substitutions in the RET protooncogene exons 10 and 11, coding for the extracellular domain of the protein. Tumor tissues from 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patients were analyzed at the DNA and ribonucleic acid levels and revealed the same heterozygous mutations found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. This demonstrates that both the normal and mutant alleles are expressed. No mutations in these exons were detected in the 18 cases of sporadic tumors investigated. These data provide further evidence that the mutated RET protooncogene acts in a dominant fashion and is responsible for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. ROLE OF TOPICAL POSTOPERATIVE MITOMYCIN-C IN OCULAR SURFACE SQUAMOUS NEOPLASIA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To report the efficacy of topical Mitomycin-C in preventing local recurrences after incomplete surgical excision of ocular surface squamous neoplasia. METHODS An interventional case report on a 70-year-old female patient with unilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. Excision biopsy revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. All margins were positive for neoplastic cells. Patient was treated with topical Mitomycin-C 0.04% one drop, four times per day in alternate weeks for 4 weeks to prevent recurrences. RESULT The patient was free of clinically detectable tumour & on impression cytology after a followup period of 10 weeks. Side effects included photophobia, mild redness & punctate epithelial keratopathy. CONCLUSION Postoperative topical Mitomycin-C application may be a useful adjunct to prevent recurrences in patients with incompletely excised OSSN.

  16. Ocorrência de neoplasias em caninos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia (Achados de biopsias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. F. de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Estudaram-se microscopicamente 138 amostras obtidas de biopsias de diversos tecidos e órgãos de caninos da região metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia. Foram diagnosticadas 126 casos de neoplasias de vários tipos histológicos, sobressaindo os tumores de pele e os da glândula mamária . PALAVRAS CHAVE: Neoplasias, caninos, tumores, patologia , achados de biopsia , câncer, neoplasmas SUMMARY: Microscopic examinations were performed in the 138 biopsies of various tecides and organs of the canines from the metropolitan regions of Salvador, Bahia. Diagnostic showed 126 cases of the neoplasms of various histologic appearances, must of the teguments and mammary glands tumors. KEYWORDS: Neoplasies, canines, tumours, pathology, biopsies, findings, cancer, neoplasms.

  17. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A

    2007-01-01

    . Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...... (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes. Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas...

  18. The role of surgery in the management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Kemi M; Soper, John T

    2013-07-01

    Although sensitive human chorionic gonadotropin assays and advances in chemotherapy have assumed primary importance in the management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, surgery remains important in the overall care of these patients. Management of molar pregnancies consists of surgical evacuation and subsequent monitoring. Hysterectomy decreases the risk of post-molar trophoblastic disease in appropriate patients and, when incorporated to primary management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, can decrease the chemotherapy requirements of patients with low-risk disease. In patients with high-risk disease, surgical intervention is frequently required to control complications of disease or as therapy to stabilize patients during chemotherapy. Hysterectomy, thoracotomy, or other extirpative procedures may be integrated into the management of patients with chemorefractory disease. Interventional procedures are useful adjuncts to control bleeding from metastases.

  19. Giant Extra-Adrenal Retroperitoneal Myelolipoma With Incidental Gastric Mesenchymal Neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Baris D

    2015-06-01

    Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare, benign tumors composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic cells. Almost all myelolipomas occur within the adrenal gland. Only 50 cases of myelolipomas were described in literature and none of these were associated with gastric mesenchymal neoplasia. A 72-year-old male patient presented to a family medicine outpatient clinic with dyspnea and urinary urgency. His abdominal sonography revealed a 9-cm intra-abdominal mass. An incidental finding was 2 separate masses 1 cm each on the serosal surface of the stomach. The pathology specimen of the retroperitoneal mass revealed myelolipoma histopathology while gastric masses were reported as spindle cell mesenchymal neoplasias. The association of gastric spindle cell tumor and myelolipoma was not reported before in medical literature. Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare lesions, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fat containing retroperitoneal masses that are well circumscribed.

  20. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...

  1. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  2. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear.

  3. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Murthy; Himika Gupta; Rahul Krishnatry; Siddhartha Laskar

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 50...

  4. Characterization of a group of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosed by diathermic loop biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriente Hernandez, Santa; Valdes Alvarez, Orlando; Villarreal Martinez, Aracelis; Lugo Sanchez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted in 2 696 medical records corresponding to patients diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer of cervix uteri (CCU) seen in the mother hospital of Guanabacoa municipality over above mentioned period. The information processing was from the data retrieval from medical records and biopsy control registry entering in a database in Microsoft Excel and the statistic processing using the SPSS package version 15 and EPIDAT

  5. Correlation of visual inspection with cytological and histopathological findings in cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sherpa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the commonest malignancies and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Papanicolaou (PAP smear and visual inspection with acetic acid as methods of cervical cancer screening.Materials and Methods: This was a observational cross-sectional study conducted from the period of 2068.11.01 to 2069.11.01. The study population consisted of women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinoma who had undergone prior PAP smear.Results: During the study period 160 patients underwent both PAP smear and cervical biopsy. Of these patients, 49 had a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinoma. The histopathological and cytological diagnoses were compared. Visual inspection with acetic acid status was available for 31 of the 49 cases. The sensitivity of PAP smear was 61%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 85% and diagnostic accuracy 86% for detection of cervical neoplasia. Visual inspection with acetic acid had a sensitivity of 74%, specificity 48%, Positive predictive value 64%, Negative predictive value 60% and diagnostic accuracy of 63%. Combining the two procedures increased sensitivity by 26%, Negative predictive value by 11%  and diagnostic accuracy by 2 per cent.Conclusion: PAP smear has a higher specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy but lower sensitivity than visual inspection with acetic acid. Visual inspection with acetic acid by itself is not an effective screening method. A combination of PAP smear and visual inspection with acetic acidcan ensure adequate screening of cervical neoplasia.

  6. Osteoporosis in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I: A Case Report – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtuluş Kaya; Ebru Özcan; Sumru Özel

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I (MEN type-I) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common clinical expression in affected patients, present in more than 90% of cases. Osteoporosis is a frequent and early complication of primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN type I. A case with a diagnosis of MEN type-I, 39 years old, presented with humeral, fem...

  7. Hospitalization in Spain associated with malignant neoplasias of the vulva and vagina (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Cortés Bordoy, Javier; Ramón y Cajal, José Manuel; Viguera Ester, Pablo; Gil de Miguel, Angel

    2011-08-01

    An important percentage of vulvar and vaginal cancers may be attributed to infections by the human papillomavirus. Although the incidence of invasive vulvar and vaginal cancers is low, it has remained stable over the past years. Hospital discharges related to malignant neoplasias and in situ carcinomas of the vulva and vagina from 1997 to 2008 were selected from the Minimum Data Set of the Ministry of Health in Spain. 17,883 hospital admissions related to vulvar and vaginal malignant neoplasias and 2,185 admissions related to in situ carcinomas of the vulva and vagina were gathered, with a hospitalization rate of 7,054 and 0.862 discharges per 100,000 women/year, respectively. The mean age of patients was 57 (SD:18) years, and the mean length of hospital stay was 8 (SD:10) days. There was a statistically significant increase in the hospitalization rate for malignant neoplasias and in situ carcinomas with increasing patient age. This increase was significant for all locations. Overall, there was a case fatality rate of 9.34% for vulvar and vaginal malignant neoplasias and 0.46% for in situ carcinomas of an external genital organ. Mortality and case fatality rates increased significantly throughout the length of the study. 92% of all deaths occurred in those older than 55 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates also increased significantly with age. The hospitalization rate follows a north-south pattern. These data of the pre-anti-HPV vaccine era may be useful to develop cost-effectiveness models and strategies and evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination in Spain.

  8. Linear array ultrasonography to stage rectal neoplasias suitable for local treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Davide; Tamayo, Darina; Fiori, Giancarla; Trovato, Cristina; De Roberto, Giuseppe; de Leone, Annalisa; Crosta, Cristiano

    2011-08-01

    Because of the many therapeutic options available, a reliable staging is crucial for rectal neoplasia management. Adenomas and cancers limited to the submucosa without lymph node involvement may be treated locally. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in the staging of neoplasias suitable for local treatment. We considered all patients who underwent endorectal ultrasonography between 2001 and 2010. The study population consisted of 92 patients with 92 neoplasias (68 adenocarcinomas and 24 adenomas). A 5 and 7.5MHz linear array echoendoscope was used. The postoperative histopathologic result was compared with the preoperative staging defined by endorectal ultrasonography. Adenomas and cancers limited to the submucosa were considered together (pT0-1). The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy rate, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of endorectal ultrasonography for pT0-1 were 86%, 95.6%, 91.3%, 94.9% and 88.7%. Those for nodal involvement were 45.4%, 95.5%, 83%, 76.9% and 84%, with 3 false positive results and 12 false negative. For combined pT0-1 and pN0, endorectal ultrasonography showed an 87.5% sensitivity, 95.9% specificity, 92% overall accuracy rate, 94.9% positive predictive value and 90.2% negative predictive value. Endorectal linear array ultrasonography is a reliable tool to detect rectal neoplasias suitable for local treatment. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of family history of gastric cancer on colorectal neoplasias in young Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Shinozaki, M; Toyoshima, O; Toyoshima, A; Matsumoto, S; Saisho, T; Tsurita, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors for the development of colorectal neoplasia in the young population. In particular, we focused on the family history of gastric cancer. Young Japanese subjects aged 30-49 years old who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from August 2007 to August 2008 were included in this study. A total of 300 unselected consecutive patients (mean age 40.5 years) were eligible for analysis, and family history of colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, sex, age, body mass index, positivity of faecal occult blood test and the presence of symptoms were evaluated. Risk factors for developing colorectal adenoma and/or carcinoma were assessed. Colorectal neoplasias were detected in 83 (27.7%) cases. Two were found to have invasive carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that family history of gastric cancer (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.92, P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia, as well as male sex (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.27, P = 0.02), older age (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.55, P = 0.01) and positive faecal occult blood test (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.48, P = 0.02). In the young population under 50 years of age, a family history of gastric cancer is an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. A hypothesis to relate salivary tumors with mammary and prostate neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Adriana B

    2005-01-01

    Salivary, mammary and prostate glands are sex hormone-dependent organs sharing common aspects in structure, hormonal responsiveness and tumor histopathology. Salivary tumors (especially the malignant types) are not as frequent as mammary and prostate neoplasias. Hence, prognosis of some salivary tumors is not always efficient. Here, we review the oncology of salivary gland and its putative relation to breast/prostate tumors. PMID:17597843

  11. Selective Role for Mek1 but not Mek2 in the Induction of Epidermal Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Florence A.; Dumesic, Phillip A.; Barragan, Deborah I.; Harada, Kazutoshi; Charron, Jean; Khavari, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates fundamental processes in normal and malignant cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. Mutations in this pathway have been associated with carcinogenesis and developmental disorders, making Mek1 and Mek2 prime therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined the requirement for Mek1 and Mek2 in skin neoplasia using the two-step 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthraacene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (...

  12. The immunoexpression of heparanase 2 in normal epithelium, intraepithelial, and invasive squamous neoplasia of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Renato Moretti; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Castelo, Adauto; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida; Nicolau, Sérgio Mancini

    2012-07-01

    Heparanase 2 (HPSE2) is expressed in various tissues, including the brain, intestine, prostate, breast, and endometrium. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HPSE2 in cervical carcinogenesis, which has not been clarified to date. The immunoexpression of HPSE2 in normal and neoplastic cervical squamous epithelia was determined using a semiquantitative (SQ) method and an index of expression (IE) method, using Image Lab Software. A total of 230 cervical tissue samples were analyzed and segregated into the following diagnostic groups: normal (27.4%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1, 15.2%), CIN 2 (16.5%), CIN 3 (15.2%), and invasive neoplasia (25.7%). The mean HPSE2 expression in the normal group was significantly lower than that of the other groups individually or combined (p < .001, for all combinations). The immunoexpression via the SQ method was significantly greater in the CIN 3 group compared with that in the CIN 1 group (p = .02). The mean immunoexpression of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion groups was significantly greater than those of the normal and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion groups (p < .001) and lower compared with that of the invasive neoplasia group (p < .001). There were no statistically significant differences in the immunoexpression of HPSE2 among the different clinical states within the invasive neoplasia group. The SQ method produced a greater sensitivity and specificity than did the index of expression method. There was a progressive increase in the mean HPSE2 immunoexpression according to the severity of the cervical lesion from the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion group to the invasive neoplasm group, whereas the normal group displayed the lowest level of expression. This is a novel study concerning HPSE2 in the cervix and cervical cancer carcinogenesis.

  13. Development of thyroid neoplasia in old age in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper we have described the appearance of a thyrotrophin sensitive thyroid neoplasm in a few senile individuals from a laboratory population of guppies, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters). Material has now been examined from the closely related species, Poecilia formosa, the Amazon molly, in which the incidence of thyroid neoplasms in the senile fish of our clones approaches 100 percent. The spontaneous growth seen in the old mollies was large, occupying much of the pharyngeal region. It was formed of three zones; at the center were inactive follicles with flattened epithelial cells enclosing a dense uneroded colloid. Peripherally, there was an area which microfollicles predominated, and the follicular epithelial cells frequently were swollen and balloon-like. The outermost area of the growth contained many afollicular groups of epithelial cells, lying amongst a great deal of loose connective tissue. The thyroid tissue was invasive, destroying muscle and bone. We have suggested that the spontaneous thyroid neoplasia in old P. formosa and L. reticulatus arise in a similar way. They develop as a result of the inability of the aging thyroid to respond to thyrotrophic hormone. Under continued pituitary stimulation the thyroid cells greatly proliferate and hypertrophy, and form a neoplasia. The appearance is described of massive thyroid growths which were experimentally induced by the injection into young mollies of cells with damaged DNA. There were striking differences between the induced and the spontaneous thyroid growths. The neoplasia of old fish was highly variable in structure, but the induced neoplasia had a regular appearance. Neoplastic tissue closely resembled normal thyroid tissue--but the growth was exuberant and highly invasive. We suggest that the differences between the neoplasm of old age and the induced neoplasm may reflect a different hormonal status.

  14. Características de um grupo de adolescentes com suspeita de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical Characteristics of a group of adolescents with suspected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de alterações citológicas, colposcópicas e histopatológicas observadas no colo uterino de adolescentes com suspeita de neoplasia cervical e as correlações epidemiológicas, compararando com mulheres adultas jovens. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, retrospectivo de revisão de 366 prontuários de mulheres encaminhadas para esclarecimento diagnóstico com suspeita de neoplasia cervical. As pacientes foram classificadas em dois grupos definidos por idade. O grupo Adolescente foi composto por 129 mulheres de 13 a 19 anos e o grupo Adulta foi composto por 237 mulheres de 20 a 24 anos. Foram calculados razão de prevalência (RP, respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% para cada variável, teste chi2 ou teste exato de Fisher quando aplicável para comparação das proporções. RESULTADOS: a sexarca ocorreu em média aos 15,0 anos no grupo Adolescente e 16,6 anos no grupo Adulta. A chance de diagnóstico de alterações citológicas no primeiro exame realizado (RP=2,61; IC 95%: 2,0-3,4, a condição neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC a esclarecer (RP=1,78; IC 95%: 1,26-2,52 e a colposcopia de baixo grau (RP=1,42; IC 95%: 1,08-1,86 foram estatisticamente significantes no grupo Adolescente. A análise histopatológica não mostrou diferenças para qualquer grau de NIC. Entretanto, foram identificados dois casos de carcinoma microinvasor, sendo um em cada grupo, e três casos de carcinoma invasor no grupo Adulta. CONCLUSÃO: nosso estudo sugere que o câncer de colo uterino é raro na adolescência, mas verificamos que alterações a ele associadas aconteceram em mulheres muito jovens. A investigação da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical com a aplicação criteriosa dos mesmos métodos utilizados para a mulher adulta foi apropriada também na adolescência.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of cytologic, colposcopic and histopathologic alterations observed in the uterine cervix of adolescents with

  15. DCIS and LCIS are confusing and outdated terms. They should be abandoned in favor of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) and lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Viviana; Monti, Simonetta; Mastropasqua, Mauro Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    The terms ductal and lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN and LIN) were introduced by Tavossoli 15 years ago, who proposed they should replace, respectively, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ (DCIS and LCIS). This proposal has been slowly gaining ground. We argue that DCIS and LCIS should now be definitively abandoned. Bringing together 'in situ' and other entities into the simpler and more logical DIN/LIN framework--as has been done with intraepithelial neoplasias of cervix, vagina, vulva, prostate, and pancreas--would eliminate the artificial and illogical distinctions between 'not cancers' (e.g. flat epithelial atypia, atypical ductal hyperplasia--now classified as low grade DIN) and 'cancers' (e.g. DCIS--now considered medium-high grade DIN). Elimination of the term 'carcinoma' from entities that cannot metastasize will reduce confusion among health professionals and patients, and contribute to reducing the risk of overtreatment, as well as reducing adverse psychological reactions in patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  17. Importance of thoracic radiography in the approach of animals with neoplasia/ A importância do exame radiográfico torácico na abordagem de animais portadores de neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Faria dos Reis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the thoracic radiography in dogs and cats with neoplasias of diverse origins and localizations, excepting mammary neoplasm. It was studied 54 animals on suspicion of pulmonary metastase and/or primary lung tumors- 49 dogs (91% and five cats (9%; being 28 (52% female (3 cats and 26 (48% male (2 cats – attended by Thoracic and Oncology Medicine Services in the Veterinary Hospital/UEL, in 2005. The mammary neoplasias were not included in this work. From the 54 animals, six (11% presented radiography examinations with evidence of pulmonary metastase, being one cat. Four animals (8% had compatible radiography examination with primary pulmonary neoplasia. These results indicate the importance of the thoracic radiography in the approach of animals with neoplasia, to exclude the possibility of pulmonary metastase independent from the neoplasm origin and the necessity of radiographic attendance to the animals without radiographic signals of pulmonary metastase.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a importância do exame radiográfico torácico em cães e gatos com neoplasias de diversas origens e localizações, excetuando neoplasias mamárias. Foram estudados 54 animais com suspeita de metástase pulmonar e/ou neoplasia pulmonar primária – 49 cães (91% e cinco felinos (9%; sendo 28 (52% fêmeas (3 felinas e 26 (48% machos (2 felinos – atendidos nos Projetos de Extensão em Medicina Torácica e Oncologia do Hospital Veterinário/UEL, durante o ano de 2005. As neoplasias mamárias, não foram inclusas neste trabalho. Dos 54 animais, seis (11% apresentaram exames radiográficos com evidência de metástase pulmonar, sendo um felino. Quatro animais (8% tiveram exame radiográfico compatível com neoplasia pulmonar primária. Esses resultados indicam a importância do exame radiográfico torácico na abordagem de animais com neoplasias, para descartar a possibilidade de met

  18. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  19. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchronous colorectal neoplasias: our experience about laparoscopic-TEM combined treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzirri, Alessandro; Coccetta, Marco; Cirocchi, Roberto; La Mura, Francesco; Napolitano, Vincenzo; Bravetti, Maurizio; Giuliani, Daniele; De Sol, Angelo; Pressi, Eleonora; Trastulli, Stefano; Di Patrizi, Micol Sole; Avenia, Nicola; Sciannameo, Francesco

    2010-11-25

    Synchronous colorectal neoplasias are defined as 2 or more primary tumors identified in the same patient and at the same time. The most voluminous synchronous cancer is called "first primitive" or "index" cancer. The aim of this work is to describe our experience of minimally invasive approach in patients with synchronous colorectal neoplasias.Since January 2001 till December 2009, 557 patients underwent colectomy for colorectal cancer at the Department of General and Emergency Surgery of the University of Perugia; 128 were right colon cancers, 195 were left colon cancers while 234 patients were affected by rectal cancers. We performed 224 laparoscopic colectomies (112 right, 67 left colectomies and 45 anterior resections of rectum), 91 Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgical Excisions (TEM) and 53 Trans Anal Excisions (TAE). In the same observation period 6 patients, 4 males and 2 females, were diagnosed with synchronous colorectal neoplasias. Minimal invasive treatment of colorectal cancer offers the opportunity to treat two different neoplastic lesions at the same time, with a shorter post-operative hospitalization and minor complications. According to our experience, laparoscopy and TEM may ease the treatment of synchronous diseases with a lower morbidity rate.

  1. Fertility-sparing uterine lesion resection for young women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasias: single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Junjun; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Ren, Tong; Feng, Fengzhi; Wan, Xirun; Xiang, Yang

    2017-06-27

    To evaluate the oncological safety and pregnant outcomes of fertility-sparing uterine lesion resection in treating gestational trophoblastic neoplasias. After the treatment of surgery and chemotherapy, all the patients achieved complete remission. With a median follow-up time of 44 months (range, 6-188), 3 patients (3.85%) relapsed within 3-26 months. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size was the independent risk factor of recurrence and the cutoff value was 4.2cm. Among 37 patients who attempted to conceive, 31 achieved clinical pregnancy. The rate of pregnancy and live birth were 83.8% and 77.4%. Uterine rupture did not occurred no matter in cesarean section or vaginal delivery. No congenital abnormalities were reported among the live births. From January 1995 to December 2014, 78 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasias who underwent fertility-sparing uterine lesion resection at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were reviewed. The complete remission rate, fertility rate, pregnant outcomes and risk factors of recurrence were analyzed. Fertility-sparing uterine lesion resection might be considered as a safe and reasonable alternative for high-selected young women to remove uterine lesion in the treatment of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias.

  2. Turner syndrome and meningioma: support for a possible increased risk of neoplasia in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Danielle B; Nunes, Fabio P; Plotkin, Scott R; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Kim, James C; Shih, Helen A; Brastianos, Priscilla; Lin, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasia is uncommon in Turner syndrome, although there is some evidence that brain tumors are more common in Turner syndrome patients than in the general population. We describe a woman with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a meningioma, in whom a second neoplasia, basal cell carcinomas of the scalp and nose, developed five years later in the absence of therapeutic radiation. Together with 7 cases of Turner syndrome with meningioma from a population-based survey in the United Kingdom, and 3 other isolated cases in the literature, we review this small number of patients for evidence of risk factors related to Turner syndrome, such as associated structural anomalies or prior treatment. We performed histological and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of 22q (NF2 locus) analyses of the meningeal tumor to search for possible molecular determinants. We are not able to prove causation between these two entities, but suggest that neoplasia may be a rare associated medical problem in Turner syndrome. Additional case reports and extension of population-based studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical Molecular Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression to Improve Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nitin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of noninvasive molecular imaging approaches has the potential to improve management of cancer. Methods: In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of an epidermal growth factor-Alexa 647 (EGF-Alexa 647 conjugate to image changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with oral neoplasia. We report a series of preclinical analyses to evaluate the optical contrast achieved after topical delivery of EGF-Alexa 647 in a variety of model systems, including cells, three-dimensional tissue cultures, and intact human tissue specimens using wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Data were collected from 17 different oral cancer patients: eight pairs of normal and abnormal biopsies and nine resected tumors were examined. Results: The EGF-dye conjugate can be uniformly delivered throughout the oral epithelium with a penetration depth exceeding 500 µm and incubation time of less than 30 minutes. After EGF-Alexa 647 incubation, the presence of oral neoplasia is associated with a 1.5- to 6.9-fold increase in fluorescence contrast compared with grossly normal mucosa from the same patient with both wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Conclusions: Results illustrate the potential of EGF-targeted fluorescent agents for in vivo molecular imaging, a technique that may aid in the diagnosis and characterization of oral neoplasia and allow real-time detection of tumor margins.

  4. Risk of preterm birth in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Annu; Gissler, Mika; Paavonen, Jorma; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Jakobsson, Maija

    2018-02-01

    In this population-based register study our objective was to explore the association of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and loop electrosurcigal excision procedure with preterm birth. Our population consisted of 4759 women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 during 1997-2009 and their 3021 subsequent deliveries analyzed by loop electrosurcigal excision procedure and parity. Hospital Discharge Register was used to identify women diagnosed for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and these data were linked with the Medical Birth Register data. We calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure had 54 (6.7%) subsequent preterm births and the corresponding figure among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure was 116 (5.2%). This results in odds ratios 1.31 (95% confidence interval 0.94-1.83). We assessed the risk before and after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 both for patients with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure (odds ratios 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.06) and without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure (odds ratios 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.13). An increased risk for preterm birth after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and loop electrosurcigal excision procedure was observed. We also compared both groups to the background population in the Medical Birth Register. For cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure the risk for preterm birth was not increased (odds ratios 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21) whereas for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients treated with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure the risk for preterm birth was increased (odds ratios 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.92). Loop

  5. Epidemiología y factores de riesgo de carcinoma hepatocelular Epidemiology and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Navas Navas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer primario de hígado es en el mundo la quinta neoplasia más común en hombres y la octava en mujeres, con gran impacto debido a su alta mortalidad, ya que representa la tercera causa de mortalidad relacionada con cáncer en población masculina. Se ha descrito una fuerte asociación con factores de riesgo como las hepatitis virales crónicas, las hepatopatías de origen genético, el consumo de alcohol, el tabaquismo y enfermedades metabólicas, entre otras. En este artículo se analizan publicaciones originales y de revisión en las que se evalúan dichos factores y su asociación con el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC. Además, se recopila información actualizada sobre datos epidemiológicos por regiones del mundo. Primary liver cancer is the 5th neoplasia more common among men and 8th among women worldwide. It has a great impact because of its high mortality; Liver cancer ranks third amongst the causes of cancer-related deaths in men. It has been associated with some risk factors as chronic viral hepatitis, genetic liver disease, intake of alcohol, use of tobacco, metabolic disease and others. This document corresponds to a review of original papers of evaluation of those factors and its association with liver cancer and also reviewed articles. Additionally, updated epidemiological information of liver cancer worldwide is included.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark...

  7. Epidemiology of reflex syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colman, N.; Nahm, K.; Ganzeboom, K. S.; Shen, W. K.; Reitsma, J.; Linzer, M.; Wieling, W.; Kaufmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Cost-effective diagnostic approaches to reflex syncope require knowledge of its frequency and causes in different age groups. For this purpose we reviewed the available literature dealing with the epidemiology of reflex syncope. The incidence pattern of reflex syncope in the general population and

  8. Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In these endemic countries, the disease takes two major epidemiological forms. The form that was recognized first was occurrence of large outbreaks affecting several hundred to several thousand cases of acute hepatitis, usually over a short period of a few weeks. However, it was soon realized that the viral agent was also ...

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings in t...... in the epidemiology of IBD....

  10. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  11. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chibuike Ogwuegbu Chigbu,2 Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba,2 Theophilus Chimezie Oguanuo,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective: To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 71 (45.5%, 60 (38.5%, and 25 (16.0% of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001, rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001, and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0. Conclusion

  12. Indications for percutaneous nephrostomy in patients with obstructive uropathy due to malignant urogenital neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urogenital neoplasias frequently progress with obstructive uropathy due to local spreading or pelvic metastases. The urinary obstruction must be immediately relieved in order to avoid deterioration in these patients. The percutaneous nephrostomy is a safe and effective method for relief the obstruction; however the indications of such procedures have been questioned in patients with poor prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with 43 patients (29 female and 14 male with urogenital neoplasias who were undergoing percutaneous nephrostomy during a 54-month period. The median age was 52 years. The primary tumoral site was the uterine cervix in 53.5% of patients, the bladder in 23.3%, the prostate in 11.6% and other sites in 11.6%. RESULTS: Postoperative complications occurred in 42.3% of the patients. There was no procedure-related mortality. Thirty-nine per cent of the patients died during the hospitalization period due to advanced neoplasia. The mortality rate was higher in patients with prostate cancer (p = 0.006, in patients over 52 years of age (p = 0.03 and in those who required hemodialysis before the procedure (p = 0.02. Thirty-two per cent of the patients survived long enough to undergo some form of treatment focused on the primary tumor. The survival rate was 40% at 6 months and 24.2% at 12 months. The percentage of the lifetime spent in hospitalization was 17.7%. The survival rate was higher in patients with neoplasia of the uterine cervix (p = 0.007 and in patients with 52 years of age or less (p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: Morbidity was high in this patient group; however, the majority of patients could be discharged from hospital and followed at home. Patients under 52 years of age and patients with neoplasia of the uterine cervix benefited most from the percutaneous nephrostomy when compared to patients with hormone therapy-refractory prostate cancer, bladder cancer or over 52 years of age.

  13. Effect of appendicectomy on colonic inflammation and neoplasia in experimental ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoy, Y; Bouhnik, Y; Gault, N; Maggiori, L; Sulpice, L; Cazals-Hatem, D; Boudjema, K; Panis, Y; Ogier-Denis, E; Treton, X

    2016-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) promotes cancer, and can be ameliorated by early appendicectomy for appendicitis. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of appendicectomy on colitis and colonic neoplasia in an animal model of colitis and a cohort of patients with UC. Five-week old IL10/Nox1(DKO) mice with nascent colitis and 8-week-old IL10/Nox1(DKO) mice with established colitis underwent appendicectomy (for experimental appendicitis or no appendicitis) or sham laparotomy. The severity and extent of colitis was assessed by histopathological examination, and a clinical disease activity score was given. From a cohort of consecutive patients with UC who underwent colectomy, the prevalence of appendicectomy and pathological findings were collected from two institutional databases. Appendicectomy for appendicitis ameliorated experimental colitis in the mice; the effect was more pronounced in the 5-week-old animals. Appendicectomy in the no-appendicitis group was associated with an increased rate of colonic high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer compared with rates in sham and appendicitis groups (13 of 20 versus 0 of 20 and 0 of 20 respectively; P UC had previously had an appendicectomy, and nine of these had colonic cancer or HGD. Thirty (13·8 per cent) of 217 patients with the appendix in situ had colonic neoplastic lesions. Multivariable analysis showed that previous appendicectomy was associated with colorectal neoplasia (odds ratio 16·88, 95 per cent c.i. 3·32 to 112·69). Appendicectomy for experimental appendicitis ameliorated colitis. The risk of colorectal neoplasia appeared to increase following appendicectomy without induced appendicitis in a mouse model of colitis, and in patients with UC who had undergone appendicectomy. Surgical relevance Appendicectomy for appendicitis protects against UC. In this murine model of colitis, appendicectomy for experimental appendicitis protected against colitis, but appendicectomy without appendicitis promoted

  14. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  15. Risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in persons aged 30 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Park, Dong Il

    2015-03-01

    Very little is known about risk factors associated with colorectal neoplasia in persons aged 49 years and to compare those data with those of persons aged 50 to 59 years. Cross-sectional observational study. Screening center in a university hospital in Korea. A cohort of 28,504 Korean adults (13,678 aged 30-39 years, 12,507 aged 40-49 years, and 2319 aged 50-59 years) who underwent colonoscopy as part of their routine preventive health care. Colonoscopy. Risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in persons aged 30 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years. In the 30-to-39-years group, male sex, smoking, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and elevated triglyceride levels were associated with overall neoplasia, whereas for advanced neoplasia, the independent risk factors were smoking, fatty liver, and elevated triglyceride levels. Moreover, the prevalence of overall neoplasia in men aged 30 to 39 years exhibiting all risk factors was not lower than that in average-risk women aged >50 years (20.8% vs 18.8%; P = .546). The risk factors of overall neoplasia in the 40-to-49-years group were similar to those in the 30-to-39-years group. For advanced neoplasia, the independent risk factors in the 40-to-49-years group were male sex, smoking, MetS, and obesity. Selection bias may exist for participants of ethnic Korean heritage in 2 centers. Obese male smokers with fatty liver and MetS might benefit from screening colonoscopy starting before age 50 years. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleberg Karen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Methods Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024. The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. Conclusions OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2.

  17. Breast Cancer and Other Neoplasias in Women with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Retrospective Review of Cases in the Detroit Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Levin, A. M.; Smolinski, S. E.; Vigneau, F. D.; Levin, N. K.; Tainsky, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common cancer predisposing syndromes with an incidence of 1 in 3,500 worldwide. Certain neoplasias or malignancies are over-represented in individuals with NF1; however, an increased risk of breast cancer has not been widely recognized or accepted. We identified 76 women with NF1 seen in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) from 1990 to 2009, and linked them to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry covering the Metropolitan Detroit Area. Fifty-one women (67%) were under age 50 years at the time of data analysis. Six women developed invasive breast cancer before age 50, and 3 developed invasive breast cancer after age 50. Using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) calculated based on the SEER age-adjusted invasive breast cancer incidence rates, our findings demonstrated a statistically significant increase of breast cancer incidence occurring in NF1 women (SIR=5.2; 95%CI 2.4–9.8), and this relative increase was especially evident among those with breast cancer onset under age 50 (SIR=8.8; 95% CI 3.2–19.2). These data are consistent with other reports suggesting an increase in breast cancer risk among females with NF1, which suggests that breast cancer screening guidelines should be evaluated for this potentially high-risk group. PMID:22965642

  18. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  19. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  20. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  1. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in dif...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OPPORTUNISTIC MYCOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shkarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review touches upon a problem of coinfection caused by several important fungal infections (aspergillus, candida, pneumocystis, cryptococcus and infectious or parasitic diseases. The authors also investigate epidemiologic determinants of such clinical forms of pathologic process. There are a lot of scientific gaps in the studying coinfections concerning mycosis and other infections. Physicians and infection control practitioners sometimes reveal such cases therefore complex characteristics of the coinfections is required.

  4. Induction of neoplasia after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in a CXL-treated cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumeich, Jörg H; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Chankiewitz, Verena; Chankiewitz, Erik; Guthoff, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) with ultraviolet-A energy plus riboflavin has become a ubiquitous treatment in early keratoconus, although its long-term safety is unknown. We describe severe sequelae in a CXL-treated patient after he underwent a standard deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure. In April 2009, a healthy 49-year-old male patient (R.H.) underwent bilateral CXL according to the Dresden protocol for progressive keratoconus stage 3. The best-corrected visual acuity did not improve over 20/100 within a postoperative period of 2 years, and contact lenses were not tolerated. Consequently, a unilateral deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty was performed, to transplant an 8-mm fully epithelialized button onto an 8-mm bed with a bared Descemet membrane (surgeon: J.H.K.). The postoperative healing course was unusually disturbed. Sutures pulled through the recipient tissue, which required suture replacement. Portions of the epithelium sloughed off repeatedly, and bulky regrowth displayed no attachment to the Bowman membrane. Within the first weeks, the transplant became cloudy. Two biopsies were removed from the limbus area and submitted to independent histopathological laboratories, both of which diagnosed the condition as epithelial neoplasia. Pathology tests indicated conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, the preliminary stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, in the keratocyte-voided bed of the recipient. This case suggests that CXL might hamper the ocular healing process and, combined with subsequent corneal surgery, could potentially initiate neoplasia. Further investigation is warranted to determine the safety of the combination of ultraviolet-A/riboflavin treatment and subsequent corneal tissue transplantation.

  5. Genetic variation in the lipoxygenase pathway and risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstein, Sarah E; Heath, Laura; Makar, Karen W; Poole, Elizabeth M; Seufert, Brenna L; Slattery, Martha L; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, David J; Hsu, Li; Curtin, Karen; Koepl, Lisel; Muehling, Jill; Taverna, Darin; Caan, Bette J; Carlson, Christopher S; Potter, John D; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-05-01

    Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to generate potent inflammatory mediators and play an important role in inflammation-associated diseases. We investigated associations between colorectal cancer risk and polymorphisms in ALOX5, FLAP, ALOX12, and ALOX15, and their interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. We genotyped fifty tagSNPs, one candidate SNP, and two functional promoter variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in three US population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). Individuals with variant genotypes of the ALOX5 VNTR had a decreased risk of rectal cancer, with the strongest association seen for individuals with one or more alleles of >5 repeats (wild type = 5, OR>5/≥5 = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.92; P = 0.01). Four SNPs in FLAP (rs17239025), ALOX12 (rs2073438), and ALOX15 (rs4796535 and rs2619112) were associated with rectal cancer risk at P ≤ 0.05. One SNP in FLAP (rs12429692) was associated with adenoma risk. A false discovery rate (FDR) was applied to account for false positives due to multiple testing; the ALOX15 associations were noteworthy at 25% FDR. Colorectal neoplasia risk appeared to be modified by NSAID use in individuals with variant alleles in FLAP and ALOX15. One noteworthy interaction (25% FDR) was observed for rectal cancer. Genetic variability in ALOXs may affect risk of colorectal neoplasia, particularly for rectal cancer. Additionally, genetic variability in FLAP and ALOX15 may modify the protective effect of NSAID use against colorectal neoplasia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of recurrent neoplasia after ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Rami J.; Prasad, Ganapathy A.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Wong Kee Song, Louis M.; Buttar, Navtej S.; Dunagan, Kelly T.; Lutzke, Lori S.; Borkenhagen, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for recurrence of dysplasia after ablation of Barrett's esophagus (BE) have not been well defined. Objective To determine the rate and predictors of dysplasia/neoplasia recurrence after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in BE. Setting Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of BE patients seen at a specialized BE unit. Methods Patients underwent a standard protocol assessment with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 4-quadrant biopsies every centimeter at 3-month intervals after ablation. Recurrence was defined as the appearance of any grade of dysplasia or neoplasia after 2 consecutive endoscopies without dysplasia. Entry histology, demographics, length of BE, presence and length of diaphragmatic hernia, EMR, stricture formation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and the presence of nondysplastic BE or squamous epithelium were assessed for univariate associations. Time-to-recurrence analysis was done by using Cox proportional hazards regression. A multivariate model was constructed to establish independent associations with recurrence. Results A total of 363 patients underwent PDT with or without EMR. Of these, 261 patients were included in the final analysis (44 lost to follow-up, 46 had residual dysplasia, and 12 had no dysplasia at baseline). Indication for ablation was low-grade dysplasia (53 patients, 20%), high-grade dysplasia (152 patients, 58%), and intramucosal cancer (56 patients, 21%). Median follow-up was 36 months (interquartile range 18-79 months). Recurrence occurred in 45 patients. Median time to recurrence was 17 months (interquartile range 8-45 months). Significant predictors of recurrence on the multivariate model were older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, P=.029), presence of residual nondysplastic BE (HR 2.88, P=.012), and a history of smoking (HR 2.68, P=.048). Limitations Possibility of missing prevalent dysplasia despite aggressive surveillance. Conclusion Recurrence of dysplasia/neoplasia

  7. DNA methylation profiling across the spectrum of HPV-associated anal squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan M; Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M; Giuliano, Anna R; Shibata, David

    2012-01-01

    Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n = 3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n = 11) and invasive SCC (n = 15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26-81) were included in the study. Using the SFP(10) LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation "hotspots" and viral integration sites. We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies.

  8. DNA methylation profiling across the spectrum of HPV-associated anal squamous neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Hernandez

    Full Text Available Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC. We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia.Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n = 3, SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n = 11 and invasive SCC (n = 15. Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26-81 were included in the study. Using the SFP(10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29 being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93% of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01. The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation "hotspots" and viral integration sites.We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies.

  9. The Analysis of Genetic Polymorphism. The Relationship between Interleukin – 4 Polymorphisms and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin 4 plays a critical role in T helper 2 responses to HPV infection and angiogenesis. The present study aim to study the association between the IL4 promoter polymorphism – 590 C>T, respectively VNTR intron 2 polymorphism and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Material and method: We have realized a prospective case controls study that included 128 cases of intraepithelial neoplasia positive for HPV HR testing and 111 controls negative for intraepithelial lesion and also negative for HPV HR. Clinical examination was performed on each patient; blood and cervical sample were obtained. Cervical probes were analyzed regarding cytology and HPV HR testing. From peripheral blood DNA sample was obtain followed by genotype analysis for IL4 -590 C>T using PCR RFLP, respectively IL4 70 bp VNTR determined by PCR. Results: The absolute frequency of genotypes for IL4 -590 C>T was T/T-5, C/T-42, C/C-81 in the cases group respectively T/T-2, C/T-32, C/C-77 in the control group. The chi-square test had a value of 0.983 (p=0.321 while considering the presence of a minimum one single variant allele as a risk factor for cervical cancer, respectively 0.926 (p=0.336 for homozygous variant genotype. Odds ratio was 0.761 (95%CI [0.443-1.306] while considering C/T+T/T respectively 2R/3R, 2R/2R as a risk factor, and 0.451 (95%CI 95% [0.086-2.374] - TT respectively 2R/2R as a risk factor. Conclusion: No linear statistical significant association has been found between IL4 polymorphism and cervical neoplasia (p = 0.322.

  10. Oncogene-induced progression of preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial cells to neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced preneoplastic variants of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells can be neo plastically transformed following transfection with oncogenic DNA. Variants differ with respect to the oncogenes required for neoplastic conversion. Polyma virus DNA transformed each of four variants neo plastically, whereas viral ras DNA only transformed two of four variants. These data demonstrate that preneoplastic variants of RTE cells differ with respect to the changes needed for conversion to neoplastic cells and that the variants tested are either at different stages or on different pathways of progression to neoplasia. (author)

  11. Estudo comparativo entre citopatologia e histopatologia no diagnóstico de neoplasias caninas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Adelaide M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre os diagnósticos citológico e histopatológico em diversas neoplasias de 150 cães, pelas colorações de Wright, May-Grünwald-Giemsa, Novo Azul de Metileno e Papanicolau. Colorações histológicas como Hematoxilina-Eosina, van Gieson, Sudan, Azul de Toluidina e Ácido Periódico de Schiff também foram empregadas. Os dados revelaram uma eficácia de ordem de 85,3% no diagnóstico citopatológico, considerando-se os resultados histopatológicos como corretos. Em 4,0% dos casos somente a origem embrionária das neoplasias foi estabelecida. Em 1,3% das neoplasias apenas o prognóstico foi determinado; o diagnóstico citológico diferiu da histopatologia em 8,1% dos casos. Em dois casos (1,3% o diagnóstico citológico diferiu do histológico, mas um reexame determinou que o primeiro estava correto, o que elevou a sua eficácia para 86,6%. Entre as técnicas utilizadas, a punção aspirativa por agulha fina foi o melhor método para obter amostras. A citologia não foi adequada para o diagnóstico de neoplasias mamárias, dadas às variações morfológicas em diferentes áreas. A impressão em lâmina não é recomendada para análise de tumores mesenquimais e deve ser substituída pela citologia esfoliativa. O Wright revelou-se o método de coloração mais eficiente. As colorações adaptadas da histopatologia, van Gieson em leiomiomas e leiomiossarcomas, Sudan em lipomas e lipossarcomas, e Ácido Periódico de Schiff e Azul de Toluidina em mastocitomas, foram empregadas com sucesso fornecendo assim maior clareza de detalhes para as diversas neoformações de origem epitelial e mesenquimal.

  12. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in an anophthalmic socket 60 years after enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espana, Edgar M; Levine, Mark; Schoenfield, Lynn; Singh, Arun D

    2011-01-01

    Ocular surface squamous cell neoplasia in an anophthalmic socket is an exceptionally rare occurrence. We report a 62-year-old white man who had his left eye enucleated at age 2 and developed an invasive squamous cell carcinoma 60 years later. He received multiple treatments, including excisional biopsy, topical mitomycin C chemotherapy, cryotherapy, and finally exenteration. We review the literature to evaluate the clinical characteristics, time of onset following enucleation, treatment, and outcome of previously reported cases. Our case emphasizes the importance of a thorough examination of the anophthalmic socket, including upper and lower lid eversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Osteoporosis in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I: A Case Report – Case Report

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    Kurtuluş Kaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I (MEN type-I is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common clinical expression in affected patients, present in more than 90% of cases. Osteoporosis is a frequent and early complication of primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN type I. A case with a diagnosis of MEN type-I, 39 years old, presented with humeral, femural and L4 vertebral fractures after falling is evaluated in the view of the literature in this case report. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:40-3

  14. Medical Devices; Hematology and Pathology Devices; Classification of a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the CIN test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  15. RISK FACTORS FOR GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA: A CASE CONTROL STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

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    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of proliferative abnormalities of the trophoblast. GTD represents a benign form of the disease while GTN is the malignant often metastatic lesion. 75-80 per cent of patients initially diagnosed as GTD will follow a benign course after dilatation and curettage. 15-20 per cent develop locally invasive disease and 3-5 per cent develop metastatic lesions. The study aims to assess the proportion of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia among women with gestational trophoblastic disease and identify the risk factors for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study conducted in a tertiary hospital during a 5-year period. Cases are gestational trophoblastic neoplasia diagnosed by either rising beta-HCG levels or plateauing beta-HCG levels or by histological evidence of choriocarcinoma. Controls are cases of gestational trophoblastic disease post evacuation with normal HCG regression at 8 weeks. There were 306 controls and 57 cases. RESULTS Tabulated and analysed using SPSS package. Of the 363 patients of gestational trophoblastic disease, 57 (15.7% needed chemotherapy. 98.2% belonged to the age group of 20-35 years. 63% had gestational age of more than 12 weeks, 56.1% had pre-evacuation HCG of more than 40,000. 15.7% needed combination therapy. CONCLUSION 1. 83.1% of patients belonged to age group of 20-30 years. 2. Blood group distribution of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease did not show any significance. 3. 15.7% of total patients were diagnosed to have gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that necessitated chemotherapy. 4. When uterine size was more than 12 weeks, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy compared to non-chemotherapy group. 5. When BHCG values were more than 40,000, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy. 6. A risk score of seven or more was found to

  16. NEOPLASIA TROFOBLÁSTICA GESTACIONAL: HOSPITAL FÉLIX BULNES CERDA, 1992 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken S,Sergio; Benavides M,Alicia; Smirnow S,Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar los hallazgos clínicos y el seguimiento de los casos de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional. Material y Métodos: Se revisaron todos los casos de mola hidatidiforme en el Hospital Félix Bulnes Cerda, entre los años 1992 y 2002. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 79 casos. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue 26,4 años. El diagnóstico de mola hidatidiforme fue sospechado clínicamente en 75,6% y en 24,4% fue hallazgo anatomopatológico. Los principales síntomas al ingreso fueron: d...

  17. [Gene therapy: a therapeutic option for neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnari, Brian M

    2011-08-01

    During the last two decades, the outcome of various gene therapy protocols lead to medical community disbelief. Nevertheless, successful results obtained in recent years, repositioned gene therapy as a promising option for treatment of several diseases. Facing this renaissance of the international scientific community interest on gene therapy, it seems to be necessary for the generalist physician to understand its strength and limitations. The objective of this article is to comment the way gene therapy addresses nowadays the treatment of such different pathologies as neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases.

  18. Interleukin-8 as a prognostic serum marker in canine mammary gland neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Jardim, Bruna Victorasso; Leonel, Camila; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Zuccari, Debora Ap Pires de Campos

    2012-04-15

    Mammary gland tumors in female dogs are an excellent model for the clinic-pathological, diagnostic and prognostic investigation of mammary neoplasias. Prognostic and predictive markers are effective in research and routine diagnosis. Interleukins play a fundamental role in cancer, with a particular function in tumor growth, invasion and metastatic potential. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is known to possess tumorigenic and pro-angiogenic properties, and its overexpression is seen in a number of human tumors. IL-8 serum levels were determined and correlated with the clinic-pathological features and clinical evolution of mammary gland neoplasias in female dogs. IL-8 was measured by an immunoenzymatic assay in 30 female dogs with mammary neoplasias within a 12 month follow-up and in 50 control animals. The correlation between IL-8 concentration and clinical parameters was investigated. A statistically significant difference in the IL-8 serum levels was found in tumor-bearing dogs compared to the controls. In addition, when the individual parameters were evaluated, IL-8 content showed a positive correlation with the tumor progression, lymph node involvement, recurrence and death. Single and multivariate analyses showed associations between tumor recurrence, metastasis, high clinical staging and high IL-8, and also with the death risk. This was also consistent with the high IL-8 content in dogs showing tumor recurrence and metastasis. IL-8 superexpression has been detected in a number of human tumors, usually associated with a poor prognostic. Besides promoting angiogenesis, IL-8 is strongly related with the metastatic phenotype of mammary tumor cells. High IL-8 concentration was found in mammary gland cancer patients with advanced disease stages. Our results show that IL-8 can be used as a non-invasive prognostic marker for mammary gland cancer, and can be useful for the prediction of disease progression and recurrence in dogs with mammary neoplasias. The increased level of

  19. Aberrant Methylation of Preproenkephalin and p16 Genes in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Sato, Norihiro; Ueki, Takashi; Rosty, Christophe; Walter, Kimberly M.; Wilentz, Robb E.; Yeo, Charles J.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goggins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic intraductal neoplasia (PanIN) is thought to be the precursor to infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We have previously shown that the preproenkephalin (ppENK) and p16 genes are aberrantly methylated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In this study we define the methylation status of the ppENK and p16 genes in various grades of PanINs. One hundred seventy-four samples (28 nonneoplastic pancreatic epithelia, 7 reactive epithelia, 29 PanIN-1A, 48 PanIN-1B, 27 PanIN-2, 14 PanIN-3...

  20. Epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Urióstegui María Luisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar los artículos publicados sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes en el ámbito mundial. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisó la literatura médica (Medline nacional e internacional para un periodo de 15 años (1985-1999. Se calcularon frecuencias. RESULTADOS: En general se conoce poco de la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes porque es difícil el registro de los casos que se presentan en el grupo de 12 a 18 años. Como adolescentes se ha tomado al grupo de 10 a 14 o el de 15 a 19 años de edad, en donde este último incluye mejor los casos que se presentan en esta edad. La incidencia es mayor para el segundo grupo (117.3 y 202.2 [tasas x 10(6] respectivamente. Las principales neoplasias para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad fueron los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC, las leucemias, los linfomas, los tumores óseos, los de células germinales y carcinomas. La incidencia es mayor en el sexo masculino y la raza blanca. Existe una tendencia al incremento. La mortalidad en adolescentes ha disminuido (2.0 a 3.2% por año en Estados Unidos de América [EUA]. La sobrevida se ha incrementado en todos los tipos de neoplasias. En México no se cuenta con datos de incidencia para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad; sólo se tiene para el de 10 a 14 años; las principales neoplasias son leucemias, linfomas, tumores óseos y los TSNC, con tasas por 10(6 de 41.9, 29.9, 12.0 y 10.0 respectivamente. La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer para el periodo de 1990 a 1994 fue de 64.1, y las principales causas de muerte fueron las leucemias, los TSNC y los linfomas. CONCLUSIONES: Es recomendable, en general, y en particular, en nuestro país, el desarrollo de proyectos dirigidos a conocer y difundir la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en adolescentes.

  1. Neoplasia no sítio da colostomia de paciente com megacólon chagásico: relato de caso Neoplasia at the site of the colostomy of patient with chagasic megacolon: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Agostini Braga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia no sítio da colostomia associada ao megacólon chagásico é uma entidade rara. Os autores relatam caso de um paciente com lesão avançada, o qual foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico e discutem aspectos relacionados a esta afecção.Neoplasia at the site of the colostomy associated with chagasic megacolon is a rare clinical event. Here, the authors report the case of a patient with advanced lesion, who had to undergo surgical treatment, and discuss aspects related to this disease.

  2. Intrathoracic enteric foregut duplication cyst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmole B

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A one month old male child presented with respiratory distress since day 10 of life. There was intercostal retraction and decreased air entry on the right side. Investigations revealed a well defined cystic mass in the posterior mediastinum with vertebral anomalies, the cyst was excised by posterolateral thoracotomy. Histopathology revealed it to be an enteric foregut duplication cyst.

  3. CT findings of intrathoracic mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Hwa; Choi, Kyu Ok; Lee, Jong Doo

    1989-01-01

    8 patients with pathologically proven pleural mesothelioma (5 localized type, 3 diffuse type), and 1 patient with malignant pericardial mesothelioma, were examined by computed tomography (CT), and obtained some results as follows: 1. Pleural Mesothelioma a. Localized pleural mesothelioma 4 cases were benign and 1 case was malignant in microscopic examination. CT showed invariably sharply marginated pleura-based soft tissue mass and the density of the mass was variable, homogenous in small tumor but inhomogenous with low density area in larger ones, and even calcification was seen in one of them. The angle of pleura-mass interface was obtuse in only one small tumor and acute with smooth taping end in four lager tumor. b. Diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) Multiple nodular pleural masses encompassing nearly entire lung were seen with associated multiple subpleural parenchymal nodule and localized axial interstitial thickening in two case. Protruding chest wall mass with destruction of rib was seen in previous pneumonectomized thorax. Minimal pleural effusion/thickening was also seen in all. 2. Pericardial mesothelioma Pericardial fluid and multiple nodular masses, which occupied pericardial sac up to superior sinus were well delineated on CT. It had been misinterpreted as pericardial effusion for years on echocardiogram

  4. Primary intrathoracic biphasic synovial sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Yilmaz; Koc, Mehmet; Kocak, Husnu; Kaya, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    Synovial sarcomas are most frequently observed in the extremities. Although synovial sarcomas are the third most common histological type of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Monophasic synovial sarcoma is the most commonly observed subtype. whereas the biphasic subtype is less common. We present our case which was diagnosed as biphasic synovial sarcoma located in the anterior mediastinum, which is considered to be a rare entity. The patient underwent surgical resection together with multimodal adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  5. Exclusion of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene as candidate for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M J; Landsvater, R M; Sinke, R J; Geurts van Kessel, A; Lips, C J; Höppener, J W

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by hyperplasia and neoplasia in several endocrine organs. The MEN 1 gene, which is most probably a tumor suppressor gene, has been localized to a 900-kb region on chromosome 11q13. The human

  6. Endoscopic submucosal dissection with a combination of small-caliber-tip transparent hood and flex knife is a safe and effective treatment for superficial esophageal neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Horiki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Uemura, Masayo; Maruyama, Masataka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uchida, Shino; Izuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    Superficial esophageal neoplasias resected in piecemeal manner with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) sometimes recur locally, and additional treatments need to be developed. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for esophageal neoplasias are not sufficiently demonstrated, so we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ESD for superficial esophageal neoplasias. Thirty-seven superficial esophageal neoplasias consisted of 34 squamous cell neoplasias and 3 columnar neoplasias in 35 patients were treated with ESD from May 2006 to July 2008. Patients were regularly followed up with endoscopy every 6 months, and with echoendoscope and computed tomography every year. Therapeutic efficacy, complications, and follow-up results were evaluated. The mean size of the resected neoplasias and that of the resected specimens were 22 mm (range 10-83 mm) and 41 mm (range 18-90 mm), respectively. The mean duration of the ESD procedures was 117 min (range 40-235 min). The overall rates of en bloc resection and of free margin resection were 100% (37/37) and 95% (35/37), respectively. The mean follow-up period of 19 months (range 7-32 months) revealed no local or distant recurrence. There were no complications such as bleeding or perforation in any case. In all nine cases, the strictures were successfully managed with prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilation. ESD with a combination of small-caliber-tip transparent hood and flex knife is a safe endoscopic treatment for superficial esophageal neoplasias and enables large en bloc resection.

  7. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  8. Financial burden is associated with worse health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, Benjamin J; Goswami, Sneha; Helenowski, Irene; Yount, Susan E; Sturgeon, Cord

    2017-12-01

    Health-related quality of life and financial burden among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is poorly described. It is not known how financial burden influences health-related quality of life in this population. We hypothesized that the financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is associated with worse health-related quality of life. United States adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 were recruited from the AMENSupport MEN online support group. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and financial burden were assessed via an online survey. The instrument Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure was used to assess health-related quality of life. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify significant variables in each Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domain. Out of 1,378 members in AMENSupport, our survey link was accessed 449 times (33%). Of 153 US respondents who completed our survey, 84% reported financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The degree of financial burden had a linear relationship with worse health-related quality of life across all Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains (r = 0.36-0.55, P reported experiencing ≥1 negative financial event(s). Borrowing money from friends/family (30%), unemployment (13%), and spending >$100/month out-of-pocket on prescription medications (46%) were associated consistently with impaired health-related quality of life (ß = 3.75-6.77, P financial burden in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 report a high degree of financial burden, negative financial events, and unemployment. Each of these factors was associated with worse health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C

    1985-08-01

    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  10. Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rose, Michelle; Desjardins, Danielle R; Agnew, Dalen W

    2015-03-01

    A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.

  11. Associação entre fatores epidemiológicos e neoplasias mamárias em cadelas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Carolina Silva [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Tumor de mama é a neoplasia mais freqüente em cadelas, entretanto, há controvérsias sobre os fatores que influenciam o seu desenvolvimento. Em estudos epidemiológicos destaca-se que os fatores ambientais são responsáveis por, pelo menos, 80% da incidência do câncer de mama em humanos. Com o objetivo de estabelecer fatores ambientais que possam contribuir para o desenvolvimento das neoplasias mamárias em cadelas, foram avaliadas as cadelas que se atendidas no Hospital Veterinário Governador La...

  12. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  14. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law o...

  15. Barium enema and endoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: Sensitivity, specificity, complications and its determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, Ingrid M. de; Griffioen, Gerrit; Shaw, M. Pertaap Chandie; Lamers, Cornelis B.H.W.; Roos, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To analyse sensitivity, specificity and complication rate of endoscopy, and barium enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed (1980-2000) directed at the endoscopic and radiologic literature on barium enema. Articles were selected based on the type of study, availability of sensitivity and specificity values in sizeable patient groups, and reports on complications. Sixty articles were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Endoscopy proved to have superior sensitivity for polyps in patients at high-risk for colorectal neoplasia. The role of endoscopy and radiology in average-risk screening populations is not known. Sensitivity and specificity rates ranged widely, probably due to bias. For the detection of small polyps endoscopy has superior performance, whereas sensitivity is similar for endoscopy and barium enema for the detection of larger (>1 cm) polyps and tumours. Overall, endoscopy is associated with a higher complication rate. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy is the preferred detection method in high-risk patients. The role of endoscopy and radiology in a screening setting requires evaluation. This review provides the test characteristics of endoscopy and radiology which are relevant for a cost-effectiveness analysis. Double-contrast barium enema may play an important role for screening purposes, owing to its good sensitivity for detecting larger (>1 cm) polyps and its lack of major complications. Zwart, I.M. de et al. (2001)

  16. Neoplasia in Cri du Chat Syndrome from Italian and German Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Spunton, Marianna; Kalantari, Silvia; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Danesino, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Cri du Chat syndrome (CdC) is a chromosomal abnormality (deletion of short arm of chromosome 5) associated with intellectual disability and typical anatomical abnormalities. Research up to now focuses on the management of the disease during childhood. The longer lifespan of these patients warrants deeper investigations of how and if aging could be affected by the syndrome. We decided to focus on the association of the disease with proliferative disorders. Data on proliferative disorders in a cohort of 321 patients from Italian and German Cri du Chat databases were collected. A neoplasia was present in four patients (age 10-50 yrs), and a fifth patient developed a cholesteatoma during childhood. It is of interest that two cases had an early onset of the neoplasia as compared to the expected age of development in the general population. The chromosome region deleted in 5p does not contain genes whose haploinsufficiency is a well-known main cause of the proliferative disorders observed. We nonetheless believe that reporting even sporadic cases of proliferative disorders in CdC patients may increase our knowledge as to the natural history of the disease. In conclusion, available information suggests that surveillance for cancer development in CdC can follow the guidelines for the general population.

  17. Survey of neoplasia in red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), 1992-2002, in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

    2007-06-01

    An increase in the proportion of cases with neoplasia observed in a collection of captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) when compared with historical records and the paucity of reported neoplasms in kangaroos in the literature prompted a 10-yr review of all red kangaroo necropsies. Individual necropsy, medical, and inventory records for all kangaroos at the Kansas City Zoo were reviewed for the period 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2002. Two squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, two mammary gland adenocarcinomas, a multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma, and one submucosal pyloric lipoma were diagnosed in six of 28 kangaroo deaths. Three neoplasms were diagnosed antemortem. Four of the six neoplasms were considered malignant, and all four had metastasized. The mean age at death was 11 yr. All six animals with neoplasms were female; however, the exhibit population was composed solely of females. Only 11 cases of neoplasia in red kangaroos have been reported in the literature. On the basis of these cases and a review of the literature, the most commonly observed neoplasms in red kangaroos are mammary gland adenocarcinomas and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Common denominators were not identified in these cases, although chronic gingivitis could have been a contributing factor in the development of the oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  18. Neoplasia in Cri du Chat Syndrome from Italian and German Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cri du Chat syndrome (CdC is a chromosomal abnormality (deletion of short arm of chromosome 5 associated with intellectual disability and typical anatomical abnormalities. Research up to now focuses on the management of the disease during childhood. The longer lifespan of these patients warrants deeper investigations of how and if aging could be affected by the syndrome. We decided to focus on the association of the disease with proliferative disorders. Data on proliferative disorders in a cohort of 321 patients from Italian and German Cri du Chat databases were collected. A neoplasia was present in four patients (age 10–50 yrs, and a fifth patient developed a cholesteatoma during childhood. It is of interest that two cases had an early onset of the neoplasia as compared to the expected age of development in the general population. The chromosome region deleted in 5p does not contain genes whose haploinsufficiency is a well-known main cause of the proliferative disorders observed. We nonetheless believe that reporting even sporadic cases of proliferative disorders in CdC patients may increase our knowledge as to the natural history of the disease. In conclusion, available information suggests that surveillance for cancer development in CdC can follow the guidelines for the general population.

  19. Detection and delineation of squamous neoplasia with hyperspectral imaging in a mouse model of tongue carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Muller, Susan; Wang, Xu; Chen, Amy Y; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) holds the potential for the noninvasive detection of cancers. Oral cancers are often diagnosed at a late stage when treatment is less effective and the mortality and morbidity rates are high. Early detection of oral cancer is, therefore, crucial in order to improve the clinical outcomes. To investigate the potential of HSI as a noninvasive diagnostic tool, an animal study was designed to acquire hyperspectral images of in vivo and ex vivo mouse tongues from a chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis model. A variety of machine-learning algorithms, including discriminant analysis, ensemble learning, and support vector machines, were evaluated for tongue neoplasia detection using HSI and were validated by the reconstructed pathological gold-standard maps. The diagnostic performance of HSI, autofluorescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging were compared in this study. Color-coded prediction maps were generated to display the predicted location and distribution of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study suggests that hyperspectral imaging combined with machine-learning techniques can provide a noninvasive tool for the quantitative detection and delineation of squamous neoplasia. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Primary peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García-del-Olmo

    Full Text Available Primary peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis is an exceptional entity in immunocompetent patients, but its incidence is increasing in developed countries in recent years due to increasing immigration. It usually presents as a pancreatic mass and is misdiagnosed as pancreatic neoplasia in most cases, with the diagnosis of tuberculosis occurring after surgery. We report the case of a 38 year old Pakistani man with abdominal pain of several months duration, who was initially diagnosed with a pancreatic neoplasm after detecting a mass in the pancreatic isthmus by computed tomography (CT and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, after performing an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB, the patient was diagnosed with peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis. After receiving anti-tuberculous treatment, the patient presented clinical improvement, despite a small reduction in the lesion size. In conclusion, peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis is part of the differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB represents a valuable and useful diagnostic tool for detecting this pathology, avoiding surgeries with a high morbidity and mortality.

  1. Primary peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Del Olmo, Nuria; Boscà Robledo, Andrea; Penalba Palmí, Rafael; Añón Iranzo, Elena; Aguiló Lucía, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Primary peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis is an exceptional entity in immunocompetent patients, but its incidence is increasing in developed countries in recent years due to increasing immigration. It usually presents as a pancreatic mass and is misdiagnosed as pancreatic neoplasia in most cases, with the diagnosis of tuberculosis occurring after surgery. We report the case of a 38 year old Pakistani man with abdominal pain of several months duration, who was initially diagnosed with a pancreatic neoplasm after detecting a mass in the pancreatic isthmus by computed tomography (CT) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, after performing an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB), the patient was diagnosed with peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis. After receiving anti-tuberculous treatment, the patient presented clinical improvement, despite a small reduction in the lesion size. In conclusion, peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis is part of the differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) represents a valuable and useful diagnostic tool for detecting this pathology, avoiding surgeries with a high morbidity and mortality.

  2. Isolated hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy): report of a prospective multicenter study of the incidence of neoplasia and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, H E; Seaver, L H; Jones, K L; Procopio, F; Crooks, W; Feingold, M

    1998-10-02

    Hemihyperplasia is characterized by asymmetric growth of cranium, face, trunk, limbs, and/or digits, with or without visceral involvement. It may be an isolated finding in an otherwise normal individual, or it may occur in several syndromes. Although isolated hemihyperplasia (IHH) is of unknown cause, it may represent one end of the clinical spectrum of the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). Uniparental paternal disomy of 11p15.5 or altered expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) from the normally silent maternal allele have been implicated as causes of some cases of WBS. IHH and other mild manifestations of WBS may represent patchy overexpression of the IGF2 gene following defective imprinting in a mosaic fashion. The natural history of IHH varies markedly. An association among many overgrowth syndromes and a predisposition to neoplasia is well recognized. Heretofore the risk for tumor development in children with IHH was unknown. We report on the results of a prospective multicenter clinical study of the incidence and nature of neoplasia in children evaluated because of IHH. One hundred sixty-eight patients were ascertained. A total of 10 tumors developed in nine patients, for an overall incidence of 5.9%. Tumors were of embryonal origin (similar to those noted in other overgrowth disorders), including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal cell carcinoma, and leiomyosarcoma of the small bowel in one case. These data support a tumor surveillance protocol for children with IHH similar to that performed in other syndromes associated with overgrowth.

  3. Phrenicoabdominal venotomy for tumor thrombectomy in dogs with adrenal neoplasia and suspected vena caval invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Philipp D; Culp, William T N; Balsa, Ingrid M; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2018-02-01

    To describe a technique for tumor thrombectomy by phrenicoabdominal venotomy in dogs with adrenal neoplasia and suspected caval invasion and to report complications and outcomes associated with the procedure. Retrospective case series. Eight client-owned dogs with invasive adrenal tumors. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with adrenal tumors with extension of thrombus into the phrenicoabdominal vein (PAV) and vena cava were reviewed. Cases where phrenicoabdominal venotomy without cavotomy for thrombus resection was performed were included. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, preoperative laboratory testing, surgical technique, surgical and postoperative complications and outcome. Phrenicoabdominal venotomy was successful in removal of vena caval thrombosis in 7 of 8 dogs. In one case, an attempt was made to remove a large vena caval thrombus through a distended PAV resulting in fragmentation of the thrombus and the need to extend the incision into the vena cava. In all dogs, complete removal of tumor thrombus was achieved. Two dogs died in the perioperative period, one from cardiopulmonary arrest and a second from bronchopneumonia and pancreatitis. The remaining 6 dogs were discharged from the hospital. Thrombectomy through a phrenicoabdominal venotomy may obviate the need for a cavotomy in a subset of dogs with invasive adrenal neoplasia. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  5. Intracellular signaling entropy can be a biomarker for predicting the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Sato

    Full Text Available While the mortality rates for cervical cancer have been drastically reduced after the introduction of the Pap smear test, it still is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Additionally, studies that appropriately evaluate the risk of developing cervical lesions are needed. Therefore, we investigated whether intracellular signaling entropy, which is measured with microarray data, could be useful for predicting the risks of developing cervical lesions. We used three datasets, GSE63514 (histology, GSE27678 (cytology and GSE75132 (cytology, a prospective study. From the data in GSE63514, the entropy rate was significantly increased with disease progression (normal < cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN < cancer (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001. From the data in GSE27678, similar results (normal < low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSILs < high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSILs ≤ cancer were obtained (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.001. From the data in GSE75132, the entropy rate tended to be higher in the HPV-persistent groups than the HPV-negative group. The group that was destined to progress to CIN 3 or higher had a tendency to have a higher entropy rate than the HPV16-positive without progression group. In conclusion, signaling entropy was suggested to be different for different lesion statuses and could be a useful biomarker for predicting the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  6. GLUT-1 expression in pancreatic neoplasia: implications in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Olca; Singh, Rajendra; Kaygusuz, Ecmel; Balci, Serdar; Dursun, Nevra; Culhaci, Nil; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 has been found to have an important role in the upregulation of various cellular pathways and implicated in neoplastic transformation correlating with biological behavior in malignancies. However, literature regarding the significance of GLUT-1 expression in pancreatic neoplasia has been limited and controversial. Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1 was tested in a variety of pancreatic neoplasia including ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and serous cystadenomas. There was a progressive increase in the expression of GLUT-1 from low- to higher-grade dysplastic lesions: All higher-grade PanINs/IPMNs (the ones with moderate/high-grade dysplasia) revealed noticeable GLUT-1 expression. Among the 94 DAs analyzed, there were minimal/moderate expression in 46 and significant expression in 24 DAs. However, all 4 clear-cell variants of DAs revealed significant GLUT-1 immunolabeling, as did areas of clear-cell change seen in other DAs. Moreover, all 12 serous cystadenomas expressed significant GLUT-1. GLUT-1 expression was also directly correlated with DA histological grade (P = 0.016) and tumor size (P = 0.03). GLUT-1 may give rise to the distinctive clear-cell appearance of these tumors by inducing the accumulation of glycogen in the cytoplasm. Additionally, because GLUT-1 expression was related to histological grade and tumor size of DA, further studies are warranted to investigate the association of GLUT-1 with prognosis and tumor progression.

  7. Detecting N-RAS Q61R Mutated Thyroid Neoplasias by Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, A; Fulciniti, F; Bongiovanni, M; Giovanella, L; Trimboli, Pierpaolo

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) for N-RAS Q61R has been developed and commercialized for clinical practice. Here, we investigated the reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid neoplasia. A series of 24 consecutive thyroid lesions undergone surgery following indeterminate cytology were enrolled. Paraffin sections were stained for IHC using the rabbit monoclonal anti-human N-RAS Q61R, clone SP174. N-RAS mutations in codon 61 were also investigated by automated sequencing. At histology, 12 cases of follicular carcinoma, cytologically defined as follicular lesions, 1 papillary cancer, 7 follicular adenomas, and 4 hyperplastic nodules were found. Of these, 4 showed a positive IHC for anti N-RAS antibody where N-RAS expression was detected mainly at cytoplasmic level with similar intensity of reaction. The remaining cases had negative IHC. A 100% concordance between IHC and molecular analysis for N-RAS Q61R was observed. In conclusion, this study shows high reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid lesions with high cost-effectiveness. These data indicate the reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid neoplasia and suggest to adopt this approach for a more accurate management of patients, when indicated.

  8. A pilot study on Hla-G locus control region haplotypes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Juliana Cochesnki; da Silva, Jose Samuel; Roxo, Valeria Sperandio; da Graça Bicalho, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can induce cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) grades 1, 2 and 3. Untreated, these lesions may progress to cervical cancer (CC) which is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. HLA-G plays an immunotolerant role in the immune response. The aim of this study was to characterize the configuration of SNPs located at the distal promoter of HLA-G in patients with CIN2 and CIN3 and control women. The study sample was composed of 207 women as follows: 73 diagnosed with CIN2 lesions, 56 with CIN3 and 78 healthy control women. Genotyping was performed by sequence base typing. Eleven haplotype configurations subdivided in two main haplogroups (H1dist and H2dist), were characterized and compared between patients and controls. The haplotypes H1.1Dist (GAGAACGC) and H2.1Dist (AGGTACAC) were more frequent in Euro-Descendants as well as in Brazilian Mixed. Nevertheless, the haplotype H2.1Dist standed out as a susceptibility haplotype in Brazilian Mixed patients while the H1.1Dist presented a protector effect in this same ethnic group. Whether such LCR haplotype configurations can impact on HLA-G gene expression levels in women who developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is still unknown and it is of utmost importance that more investigation on this field be pursued. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in human neoplasias: a new protein enters the scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolignano, Davide; Donato, Valentina; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria Rosaria; Bono, Caterina; Coppolino, Giuseppe; Buemi, Michele

    2010-02-01

    The small 25 kDa peptide, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), first known as an antibacterial factor of natural immunity, and an acute phase protein, is currently one of the most interesting and enigmatic proteins involved in the process of tumor development. The aim of the present review is to point out the main contradictory, sometimes even paradoxical, effects attributed to NGAL in human neoplasias. For instance, acting as an intracellular iron carrier and protecting MMP9 from proteolytic degradation, NGAL has a clear pro-tumoral effect, as has already been observed in different tumors (e.g. breast, stomach, oesophagus, brain) in humans. Moreover, in thyroid carcinomas, NGAL is strongly induced by NF-kB, an important factor involved both in tumor growth and in the link between chronic inflammation and neoplastic development. However, on the contrary, some studies have demonstrated that NGAL can inhibit the pro-neoplastic factor HIF-1alpha, FA-Kinase phosphorylation and also VEGF synthesis, thus suggesting that, in alternative conditions, NGAL also, paradoxically, has an anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic effect in neoplasias of, for example, the colon, ovary and pancreas. Finally, in the field of clinical oncology, attention is currently focused on the potential use of NGAL levels in making an early diagnosis, establishing a prognosis and predicting response to different treatments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a Thulium Laser for Treatment of Cervical Neoplasias and Condylomas: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henes, Melanie; Vogt, Bernhard; Neis, Felix; Rall, Katharina; Litzenburger, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara Y; Rothmund, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of safety, feasibility, and possibilities of the thulium laser, Vela(®), with a wavelength of 1.9 μm for laser treatment of the portio, vagina, and/or vulva. Laser techniques have been used for many years in the gynecological setting for the treatment of cervical, vaginal, and vulval intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN, VAIN, VIN) and also for the treatment of condylomas. To date, the most commonly used laser for this treatment is the CO2 laser. After indication was made for laser treatment, the patients were treated using the thulium laser, Vela. Follow-up examination usually took place after 1-2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, when colposcopy and, where necessary, a cytological smear were performed. During the period from January 2012 to January 2014, 18 patients were treated using the thulium laser. Three patients had a CIN I, 12 had condylomas, two had CIN I and condylomas, and one had CIN II and condylomas. During the follow-up, 40% (n = 6) of patients had a relapse of condylomas. No relapse occurred in cases of CIN. Itching, burning, pain, bleeding, discharge, and skin irritation were listed as side effects of the procedure. This feasibility study shows that the use of the thulium laser for the treatment of cervical neoplasias and condylomas offers a good alternative to the standard treatment using a CO2 laser.

  11. Effects of the multikinase inhibitors Sorafenib and Regorafenib in PTEN deficient neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirantes, Cristina; Dosil, Maria Alba; Eritja, Núria; Felip, Isidre; Gatius, Sònia; Santacana, Maria; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis is frequently dysregulated in cancer due to mutations in different nodes of the pathway or constitutive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Multikinase inhibitors as sorafenib and regorafenib represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of these types of tumours. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-tumoural effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on endometrial, prostate and thyroid neoplasias. Both inhibitors reduced cell viability in vitro and lead to a disruption of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In vivo, we have demonstrated that Sorafenib and Regorafenib reduce thyroid hyperplasias induced by the loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), although none of the treatments eliminated the disease. Altogether, we present the first study that correlates the response to multikinase inhibitors with a specific mutation. Moreover, this is the first report characterising the response to Regorafenib in thyroid, prostate and endometrial neoplasias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical features of pharyngeal intraepithelial neoplasias and outcomes of treatment by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takayasu; Hiyama, Toru; Oka, Shiro; Urabe, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinji; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Arihiro, Koji; Shimamoto, Fumio; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2012-12-01

    Endoscopic detection of superficial squamous epithelial lesions of the pharynx has increased. To clarify the association between macroscopic and histologic characteristics of intraepithelial pharyngeal neoplasias, and to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for their treatment. Retrospective analysis of the features of high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (HGD/CIS) versus low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and of ESD-based outcomes. Endoscopy department at a university hospital. Fifty-one patients with 66 lesions treated by ESD from November 2007 to March 2011. Primary hypopharyngeal lesions were significantly more frequent in HGD/CIS than in LGD (54.1% vs 20.7%, P = .011), and oropharyngeal lesions were significantly less frequent in HGD/CIS (45.9% vs 79.3%, P = .011). HGD/CIS lesions were significantly larger than LGD lesions (median 8 mm vs 4 mm, P neoplasias. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  15. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics...

  16. Epidemiology of scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L Claire

    2013-04-01

    Scabies is a common skin infestation globally, particularly in the developing world. With the launch of the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies (IACS) in 2012, this review aims to present the recent evidence of the current epidemiological situation for scabies across the globe. Mindful of the fact that the downstream complications of scabies infestations, pyoderma, streptococcal glomerulonephritis and subsequent chronic renal impairment and rheumatic fever, have been recognized as being more significant to global health than previously acknowledged, the review focusses also on the epidemiological evidence from developing countries. Scabies occurrence rates vary in the recent literature from 2.71 per 1000 to 46%. Although it is responsible for larger disease burdens and complications such as pyoderma and renal and heart disease in the tropics, scabies outbreaks in the developed world amongst vulnerable communities and health institutions contribute a significant cost to the health services managing them. Scabies remains common across the world, but is such a health issue in the developing world that the suggestion that it be considered a neglected tropical disease is a pertinent one. Standardized diagnostic criteria and even a point-of-care diagnostic test would be a major contribution to the understanding of this epidemic.

  17. Epidemiology, hunger and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Battaglin Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between epidemiology and food security implies in disclosing famine causes, the way it is distributed in the society and to which extent it affects the populations. Building up from that perspective, this paper attempts to understand the famine logic throughout the various transitions accomplished in the past decades: epidemiologic, demographic, risk, nutritional and development. The reflexes of the demographic transition that took place in Brazil in the XXth century are related to the population nutritional status standard changes, that is, they shifted from malnutrition high prevalence to a significant increase in obesity. However, the paradox of this situation is due to the fact that most risk factors that bring about diseases of the modern world come from the “excess”, while millions die around the globe because of “deprivation”. The food production alone does not ensure its equitable distribution among the various groups of the society. The access alone does not lead to quality. The choices are made individually, but life style options imply in a set of correlations that go from economy to culture. It means that this field has a collective basis and encompasses environment and development.

  18. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  19. Epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes The epidemiology of cancer in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Cuevas-Urióstegui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar los artículos publicados sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes en el ámbito mundial. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisó la literatura médica (Medline nacional e internacional para un periodo de 15 años (1985-1999. Se calcularon frecuencias. RESULTADOS: En general se conoce poco de la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes porque es difícil el registro de los casos que se presentan en el grupo de 12 a 18 años. Como adolescentes se ha tomado al grupo de 10 a 14 o el de 15 a 19 años de edad, en donde este último incluye mejor los casos que se presentan en esta edad. La incidencia es mayor para el segundo grupo (117.3 y 202.2 [tasas x 10(6] respectivamente. Las principales neoplasias para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad fueron los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC, las leucemias, los linfomas, los tumores óseos, los de células germinales y carcinomas. La incidencia es mayor en el sexo masculino y la raza blanca. Existe una tendencia al incremento. La mortalidad en adolescentes ha disminuido (2.0 a 3.2% por año en Estados Unidos de América [EUA]. La sobrevida se ha incrementado en todos los tipos de neoplasias. En México no se cuenta con datos de incidencia para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad; sólo se tiene para el de 10 a 14 años; las principales neoplasias son leucemias, linfomas, tumores óseos y los TSNC, con tasas por 10(6 de 41.9, 29.9, 12.0 y 10.0 respectivamente. La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer para el periodo de 1990 a 1994 fue de 64.1, y las principales causas de muerte fueron las leucemias, los TSNC y los linfomas. CONCLUSIONES: Es recomendable, en general, y en particular, en nuestro país, el desarrollo de proyectos dirigidos a conocer y difundir la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To review the international literature on adolescent cancer epidemiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Medline database was searched to obtain all papers on

  20. Fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica: relato de caso Epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiotti Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fratura da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica foi relatada em 1949 por West, em que a fratura era, somente, do tubérculo maior. Desde então, poucos casos foram relatados na literatura, a maioria constituída por pessoas idosas, prevalecendo como indicação terapêutica artroplastia parcial. Os autores relatam o caso de um adolescente de 14 anos de idade, sexo masculino, que apresentou fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica em decorrência de acidente ciclístico e que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com redução, osteossíntese e reinserção do manguito rotador. A recuperação da cabeça do úmero totalmente desvitalizada e o acompanhamento do processo de necrose e revas cularização durante seis anos, em paciente adolescente, parece não terem sido previamente relatados.Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation was reported in 1949 by West, and the fracture was only a fracture of the greater tubercle. Few cases have since been published, and most of them in elderly individuals, partial arthroplasty prevailing as the therapy indication. The authors report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented with an epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation resulting from a bicycle accident. The boy was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction, osteosynthesis, and reinsertion of the rotator cuff. The totally devitalized humeral head recovery and the monitoring of the necrosis and revascularization process for a period of six years in a teenager patient seems to have never been reported before.