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Sample records for intrathecally administered radionuclides

  1. Dose distribution to spinal structures from intrathecally administered yttrium-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, George; Hall, Michael; Montebello, Joseph; Stevens, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Previous treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malignancies by intrathecal administration of 131I-radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies has led to the assumption that more healthy tissue will be spared when a pure beta-emitter such as 90Y replaces 131I. The purpose of this study is to compare and quantitatively evaluate the dose distribution from 90Y to the CSF space and its surrounding spinal structures to 131I. A 3D digital phantom of a section of the T-spine was constructed from the visible human project series of images which included the spinal cord, central canal, subarachnoid space, pia mater, arachnoid, dura mater, vertebral bone marrow and intervertebral disc. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP4C) was used to model the 90Y and 131I radiation distribution. Images of the CSF compartment were convolved with the radiation distribution to determine the dose within the subarachnoid space and surrounding tissues. 90Y appears to be a suitable radionuclide in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies when attached to mAb's and the dose distribution would be confined largely within the vertebral foramen. This choice may offer favourable dose improvement to the subarachnoid and surface of spinal cord over 131I in such an application.

  2. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Jacek Łuczak,2 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Maciej Sopata,3 Franciszek Główka4 1Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 3Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III "pain ladder" drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient's refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective: Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures, and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal on the bupivacaine plasma concentration.Cases: We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours. The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 m

  3. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  4. Neurologic complications of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine administered prophylactically to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Palma, José Alberto; Carmona-Iragui, María; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Irimia, Pablo; Rodríguez-Otero, Paula; Panizo, Carlos; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo

    2011-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis is required during initial treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS involvement. Intrathecal (IT) liposomal cytarabine, a formulation with prolonged half-life, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of meningeal disease in patients with high-grade lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients with high-grade NHL that received prophylactic therapy with IT liposomal cytarabine and developed neurologic complications in our institution between April 2007 and May 2009. We recorded information on hospital admission, chemotherapy regimens, clinical features, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, neurophysiology data, and outcome. Neurotoxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC). Four of fourteen patients (28%) developed moderate or severe neurotoxicity (grades 2 and 3 of the NCI-CTC), manifested as conus medullaris/cauda equine syndrome or pseudotumour cerebri-like syndrome, after a median of 3.5 IT courses of liposomal cytarabine. All patients had received corticosteroids to prevent arachnoiditis. Liposomal cytarabine given via the IT route, even with concomitant corticosteroid administration, can result in significant neurotoxicity in some patients. We discuss the potential pathogenesis of these effects and suggest hypothetical therapeutic measures to prevent these complications. Specialists should be aware of these possible complications when administering prophylactic IT liposomal cytarabine in high-grade NHL patients, and additional prospective studies should be conducted to more clearly delineate the frequency and characteristics of these complications.

  5. The administered activity of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mototoshi; Koga, Sukehiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 104 hospitals was conducted to determine the administered activity of radionuclides. Eighty-five hospitals responded, and reported a total of 119,614 examinations in one year. The examinations included: bone scintigraphy, 26.4%; thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, 15.5%; gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scintigraphy, 13.3%; N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion scintigraphy, 7.0%. The administered activity was corrected by body weight only for children at more than 80% of the responding hospitals. The number of hospitals that reported over-administration of radionuclide varied according to the type of scintigraphy performed: bone, 76%; inflammatory ( 67 Ga), 93%; myocardial ( 201 Tl), 89.2%; brain (IMP), 8.5%. The administered activity of IMP was closer to the upper limits specified in the Recommendations on Standardization of Radionuclide Imaging by the Japan Radioisotope Association (1987), because IMP is very expensive and is supplied as single vials. The highest average effective dose was for myocardial scintigraphy, the second-highest for inflammatory scintigraphy, and the third-highest for bone scintigraphy. In 201 Tl and 67 Ga scintigraphy, the entire contents of the vial may be administered two days before the expiration date, because the ratio of (true patient administered activity) to (declared patient administered activity) is similar to the ratio of (radioactivity on the day of supply) to (radioactivity on the day of expiration). The factors that influence administered activity are through put, price of the radionuclide, and whether the radionuclide is sold as a single vial. In order to decrease the effective dose, it is necessary to establish a close cooperation between medical personnel, the makers of radiopharmaceuticals, and manufactures of gamma cameras. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular effects of intrathecally administered bradykinin in the rat: characterization of receptors with antagonists.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, P.; Regoli, D.; Couture, R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with selective B1 or B2 kinin receptor antagonists were studied on the cardiovascular response to i.t. injection of bradykinin (BK) in conscious freely moving rats. 2. BK (81 pmol) produced an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP: 9-13 mmHg) and decrease in heart rate (HR: 20-30 beats min-1) that reached a maximum 2 min after injection. 3. The BK-induced cardiovascular responses were dose-dependently and reversibly reduced by four antagonis...

  7. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and [ 14 C]methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption

  8. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and (/sup 14/C)methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption.

  9. Electrophysiologic Study of a Method of Euthanasia Using Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered during Intravenous Anesthesia in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Davis, E; Williams, D C; Madigan, J E; Smith, F; Guedes, A

    2015-01-01

    An intravenous (IV) overdose of pentobarbital sodium is the most commonly used method of euthanasia in veterinary medicine. However, this compound is not available in many countries or rural areas resulting in usage of alternative methods such as intrathecal lidocaine administration after IV anesthesia. Its safety and efficacy as a method of euthanasia have not been investigated in the horse. To investigate changes in mean arterial blood pressure and electrical activity of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and heart during intrathecal administration of lidocaine. Our hypothesis was that intrathecal lidocaine affects the cerebral cortex and brainstem before affecting cardiovascular function. Eleven horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Prospective observational study. Horses were anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, and ketamine; and instrumented for recording of electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Physical and neurological (brainstem reflexes) variables were monitored. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded throughout the study. Loss of cerebro-cortical electrical activity occurred up to 226 seconds after the end of the infusion of lidocaine solution. Cessation of brainstem function as evidenced by a lack of brainstem reflexes and disappearance of BAER occurred subsequently. Undetectable heart sounds, nonpalpable arterial pulse, and extremely low mean arterial blood pressure supported cardiac death; a recordable ECG was the last variable to disappear after the infusion (300-1,279 seconds). Intrathecal administration of lidocaine is an effective alternative method of euthanasia in anesthetized horses, during which brain death occurs before cardiac death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 99mTc -DMSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 9 9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  11. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  12. Combined spinal epidural analgesia for labor using sufentanil epidurally versus intrathecally: a retrospective study on the influence on fetal heart trace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, Nele; Coppens, Marc; Vlerick, Peter; Braems, Geert; Wouters, Patrick; de Hert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We retrospectively compared a protocol using sufentanil and ropivacaine intrathecally with a protocol in which only ropivacaine was administered intrathecally and sufentanil was used epidurally to evaluate whether banning sufentanil from the intrathecal space results in a decreased

  13. Intrathecal Ropivacaine in Cesarean Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Conclusion: Ropivacaine administration produced rapid induction of ... KEYWORDS: Ropivacaine, spinal anesthesia, intrathecal, cesarean section. Intrathecal .... expressed as mean standard deviation (SD). One-way.

  14. Intrathecal Baclofen Pump for Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    administered orally, only a small portion of the original dose crosses the blood brain barrier and enters the central nervous system (CNS) fluid, which is the site of drug action. In order to bypass the oral route, baclofen may be administered intrathecally by infusion directly to the CNS. Candidates for intrathecal baclofen infusion are patients with spasticity who have intractable spasticity uncontrolled by drug therapy, or who experience intolerable side effects from oral baclofen. Advantages of intrathecal baclofen infusion are: Direct drug administration to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) The central side effects of oral baclofen, such as drowsiness or confusion, appear to be minimized with intrathecal administration. The intrathecal delivery of baclofen concentrates the drug in the CSF at higher levels than those attainable via the oral route. Intrathecal administration can use concentrations of baclofen of less than one hundredth of those used orally.(5) Adjustable/programmable continuous infusion makes it possible to finely titrate patients’ doses and to vary the doses over the hours of the day. For example, the dose can be relatively low to give the patients the extensor tone needed for ambulation during the day and increased at night, thereby improving quality of sleep. Reversible (in contrast to surgery). A patient who is a candidate for intrathecal baclofen infusion must have no contraindications to the insertion of an intrathecal catheter (e.g., anticoagulant therapy, coagulopathy, local or systemic infection, anatomical abnormality of the spine). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen to treat patients who have intractable spasticity uncontrolled by drug therapy, or who experience intolerable side effects to oral baclofen. The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and

  15. Intrathecal ropivacaine in cesarean delivery | Ateser | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimum dose of ropivacaine by comparing three different dosing regimens of isobaric ropivacaine 1% (naropin 10 mg/ml, Astra Zeneca) administered intrathecally and to demonstrate the effects of anesthesia in pregnant women scheduled for cesarean section.

  16. Practical aspects of the use of intrathecal chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos-Jiménez, Raquel; Espuny-Miró, Alberto; Cárceles-Rodríguez, Carlos; Díaz-Carrasco, María Sacramento

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Intrathecal chemotherapy is frequently used in clinical practice for treatment and prevention of neoplastic meningitis. Despite its widespread use, there is little information about practical aspects such as the volume of drug to be administered or its preparation and administration. Objective: To conduct a literature review about practical aspects of the use of intrathecal chemotherapy. Materials: Search in PubMed/ Medline using the terms “chemotherapy AND intrat...

  17. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain control during bupivacaine subarachnoid block for open appendicectomy. ... Visual analog scale scores and frequency of subjective symptoms among patients in the three groups formed the primary outcome measure of this study. Results: Effective ...

  18. Comparison of activity measurements of 131I and 99mTc radionuclides administered in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico Gil.; Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos

    2005-01-01

    A programme for the comparison of activity measurements of radionuclides administered to patients in Nuclear Medicine Services, for the purpose of diagnosis or therapy, is being conducted under the coordination of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, IRD/CNEN. In the present work, measurements of the activity of samples of 131 I and 99 mTc were conducted in the dose calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the city of Porto Alegre, in the period from June to September 2004. The results were analysed to evaluate the compliance with the Brazilian regulation and were also compared to data available in the literature for the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. The performance of the activity meters in Porto Alegre is shown to be very good, which contributes to the radiological protection of patients submitted to diagnosis or therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • May-Jun 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 3. Original ... intrathecal fentanyl and a normal saline placebo‑controlled protocol for ..... pain experienced by pregnant women during Caesarean section.

  20. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of imipenem after intravenous and intrathecal administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Qiu, L; Dong, J; Wang, B; Shi, Z; Liu, B; Wang, W; Zhang, J; Cai, S; Ye, G; Cai, X

    2013-03-01

    Intrathecal administration of antibiotics has potentially high effectiveness for the treatment for severe intracranial infections, particularly nosocomial meningitis. The use of intrathecal injection of antibiotics has been reported mostly in case reports. However, there is sparse data regarding the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics after intrathecal administration. This study investigated whether intrathecal injection is an effective method for the administration of imipenem. The pharmacokinetics of imipenem after intrathecal and intravenous administration of 1:1 imipenem: cilastatin (IMI/CIL) to rabbits were compared. The AUC0-t in the cerebrospinal fluid for intrathecal administration was approximately twice that of an equal dose of intravenous administration at doses of 0.35, 0.7, and 1.4 mg/kg. Brain concentrations of imipenem after intrathecal injection were three times greater than observed after intravenous injection and remained high for at least 8 hours post-injection. Elimination of imipenem after administration by either route was primarily via urine, but a transient surge of imipenem in bile and intestinal tissue was observed. Results indicate that there is a clinical potential for intrathecally administered IMI/CIL. Further studies are warranted to investigate the potential for seizure and to assess the translatability of the rabbit model to human treatment.

  1. Biodistribution of Idursulfase Formulated for Intrathecal Use (Idursulfase-IT in Cynomolgus Monkeys after Intrathecal Lumbar Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou-Ku Chung

    Full Text Available Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase is approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. Intravenous administration does not, however, treat the neurological manifestations, due to its low central nervous system bioavailability. Using intrathecal-lumbar administration, iduronate-2-sulfatase is delivered directly to the central nervous system. This study investigates the central nervous system biodistribution of intrathecal-lumbar administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in cynomolgus monkeys. Twelve monkeys were administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in one 30 mg intrathecal-lumbar injection. Brain, spinal cord, liver, and kidneys were collected for iduronate-2-sulfatase concentration (measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity measurement (via a method utilizing 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-iduronate-2-sulfate at 1, 2, 5, 12, 24, and 48 hours following administration. The tissue enzyme linked immunosorbent assay confirmed iduronate-2-sulfatase uptake to the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, and liver in a time-dependent manner. In spinal cord and brain, iduronate-2-sulfatase appeared as early as 1 hour following administration, and peak concentrations were observed at ~2 and ~5 hours. Iduronate-2-sulfatase appeared in liver and kidneys 1 hour post intrathecal-lumbar dose with peak concentrations between 5 and 24 hours. Liver iduronate-2-sulfatase concentration was approximately 10-fold higher than kidney. The iduronate-2-sulfatase localization and enzyme activity in the central nervous system, following intrathecal administration, demonstrates that intrathecal-lumbar treatment with iduronate-2-sulfatase may be considered for further investigation as a treatment for Hunter syndrome patients with neurocognitive impairment.

  2. Continuous intrathecal orexin delivery inhibits cataplexy in a murine model of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Aritake, Kosuke; Imanishi, Aya; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2018-06-05

    Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models. Chronic intrathecal drug infusion through an implantable pump is a clinically available strategy to treat a number of neurological diseases. Here we demonstrate that the narcoleptic symptoms of orexin knockout mice can be reversed by lumbar-level intrathecal orexin delivery. Orexin was delivered via a chronically implanted intrathecal catheter at the upper lumbar level. The computed tomographic scan confirmed that intrathecally administered contrast agent rapidly moved from the spinal cord to the brain. Intrathecally delivered orexin was detected in the brain by radioimmunoassay at levels comparable to endogenous orexin levels. Cataplexy and sleep-onset REM sleep were significantly decreased in orexin knockout mice during and long after slow infusion of orexin (1 nmol/1 µL/h). Sleep/wake states remained unchanged both quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Intrathecal orexin failed to induce any changes in double orexin receptor-1 and -2 knockout mice. This study supports the concept of intrathecal orexin delivery as a potential therapy for narcolepsy-cataplexy to improve the well-being of patients.

  3. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Binici, Orhan; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2015-11-01

    The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg) was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  4. Does the intrathecal propofol have a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of propofol have been confirmed. However, it remains unclear whether intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord ischemia. At 1 hour prior to spinal cord ischemia, propofol (100 and 300 µg was intrathecally administered in rats with spinal cord ischemia. Propofol pre-treatment greatly improved rat pathological changes and neurological function deficits at 24 hours after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that intrathecal administration of propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects on spinal cord structural and functional damage caused by ischemia.

  5. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Nahid; Soltani, Ghasem; Ghomian, Naiere; Hasanpour, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Zahra

    2011-04-01

    This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  6. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zirak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  7. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the “glymphatic system” of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain

  8. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the "glymphatic system" of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain.

  9. Sonographic evaluation of epidural and intrathecal injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo E; Verdier, Natali; Zaccagnini, Andrea S; Fuensalida, Santiago E; Sclocco, Matias; Portela, Diego A; Waxman, Samanta

    2016-11-01

    To describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the caudal lumbar spine in cats and to detect ultrasound (US) signs associated with epidural or intrathecal injection. Prospective, clinical study. Twenty-six client-owned cats. Transverse (position 1) and parasagittal (position 2) two-dimensional US scanning was performed over the caudal lumbar spine in all cats. Midline distances between the identified structures were measured. Cats assigned to epidural injection (group E, n = 16) were administered a bupivacaine-morphine combination confirmed by electrical stimulation. Cats assigned to intrathecal injection (group I, n = 10) were administered a morphine-iohexol combination injected at the lumbosacral level and confirmed by lateral radiography. The total volume injected (0.3 mL kg -1 ) was divided into two equal aliquots that were injected without needle repositioning, with the US probe in positions 1 and 2, respectively. The presence or absence of a burst of color [color flow Doppler test (CFDT)], dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were registered during and after both injections. US scanning allowed measurement of the distances between the highly visible structures inside the spinal canal. CFDT was positive for all animals in group E. In group I, intrathecal injection was confirmed in only two animals, for which the CFDT was negative; seven cats inadvertently and simultaneously were administered an epidural injection and showed a positive CFDT during the second aliquot injection, and the remaining animal was administered epidural anesthesia and was excluded from the CFDT data analysis. Dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were present in all animals in which an epidural injection was confirmed. US examination allowed an anatomical description of the caudal lumbar spine and real-time confirmation of epidural injection by observation of a positive CFDT, dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement. © 2016 Association of Veterinary

  10. Intrathecal baclofen pump for spasticity: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen for spasticity. Spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by tight or stiff muscles that may interfere with voluntary muscle movements and is a problem for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), and acquired brain injury (ABI).(1). Increased tone and spasm reduces mobility and independence, and interferes with activities of daily living, continence and sleep patterns. Spasticity may also be associated with significant pain or discomfort (e.g., due to poor fit in braces, footwear, or wheelchairs), skin breakdown, contractures, sleep disorders and difficulty in transfer. Goals of treatment are to decrease spasticity in order to improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce energy expenditure and reduce risk of contractures. Existing treatments include physical therapy, oral medications, injections of phenol or botulinum toxin, or surgical intervention. Baclofen is the oral drug most frequently prescribed for spasticity in cases of SCI and MS.(1) Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispasticity drug. In the brain, baclofen delivered orally has some supraspinal activity that may contribute to clinical side effects. The main adverse effects of oral baclofen include sedation, excessive weakness, dizziness, mental confusion, and somnolence.(2) The incidence of adverse effects is reported to range from 10% to 75%.(2) Ochs et al. estimated that approximately 25-30% of SCI and MS patients fail to respond to oral baclofen.(3;4) Adverse effects appear to be dose-related and may be minimized by initiating treatment at a low dose and gradually titrating upwards.(2) Adverse effects usually appear at doses >60 mg/day.(2) The rate of treatment discontinuation due to intolerable adverse effects has generally been reported to range from 4% to 27%.(2) When baclofen is administered orally, only a small portion of the

  11. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc -DMSA in Cuba; Optimizacion de actividad a administrar para estudios de gammagrafia renal con {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-07-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Validation of a preclinical spinal safety model: effects of intrathecal morphine in the neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, B David; Walker, Suellen M; Deumens, Ronald; Grafe, Marjorie; Yaksh, Tony L

    2010-07-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate increased neuroapoptosis after general anesthesia in early life. Neuraxial techniques may minimize potential risks, but there has been no systematic evaluation of spinal analgesic safety in developmental models. We aimed to validate a preclinical model for evaluating dose-dependent efficacy, spinal cord toxicity, and long-term function after intrathecal morphine in the neonatal rat. Lumbar intrathecal injections were performed in anesthetized rats aged postnatal day (P) 3, 10, and 21. The relationship between injectate volume and segmental spread was assessed postmortem and by in vivo imaging. To determine the antinociceptive dose, mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured at baseline and 30 min after intrathecal morphine. To evaluate toxicity, doses up to the maximum tolerated were administered, and spinal cord histopathology, apoptosis, and glial response were evaluated 1 and 7 days after P3 or P21 injection. Sensory thresholds and gait analysis were evaluated at P35. Intrathecal injection can be reliably performed at all postnatal ages and injectate volume influences segmental spread. Intrathecal morphine produced spinally mediated analgesia at all ages with lower dose requirements in younger pups. High-dose intrathecal morphine did not produce signs of spinal cord toxicity or alter long-term function. The therapeutic ratio for intrathecal morphine (toxic dose/antinociceptive dose) was at least 300 at P3 and at least 20 at P21 (latter doses limited by side effects). These data provide relative efficacy and safety for comparison with other analgesic preparations and contribute supporting evidence for the validity of this preclinical neonatal safety model.

  13. Benefits of using intrathecal buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Seyed Mozaffar; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Jabbari, Ali; Rostami, Sara

    2014-01-01

    General anesthesia draws attention to the most commonly used modalities for post cesarean delivery pain relief in systemic administration of opioids, while the administration of small dose of intrathecal opioid during spinal anesthesia can be a possible alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of buprenorphine on cesarean section prescribed intrathecally. This double blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted in patients for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. Case group (208 patients) received 65-70 mg of 5% lidocaine plus 0.2 ml of buprenorphine while the same amount of 5% lidocaine diluted with 0.2 ml of normal saline was given to 234 cases in the control group. Hemodynamic changes and neonatal APGAR scores (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration) were recorded. Pain score was recorded according to the visual analog scale. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of clinical Trials; IRCT2013022112552N1. The mean age of case and control groups was 24.4±5.38 and 26.84±5.42 years, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was not significantly different until the 45th minute but diastolic blood pressure showed a significant difference at the 15th and the 60th minutes (P<0.001). Heart rate changes were significantly different between cases and controls at the initial 5th, 15th and after 60th minutes (P<0.001). Pain-free period was significantly different between two groups (1.25 h versus 18.73 h) (P<0.001). The results show that prescription of intratechal buprenorphine prolongs the duration of analgesia without any significant considerable side effects.

  14. Intrathecal chemotherapy for refractory disseminated medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2008-05-01

    To analyze the effect of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for disseminated medulloblastoma. Twenty-one patients received IT chemotherapy using the chemotherapeutic agents of methotrexate (MTX) and nitrosoureas (ACNU, MCNU) including nine patients for residual leptomeningeal lesions after initial surgery and radiation, and 12 for a recurrence with leptomeningeal dissemination. Of these 21 patients, 12 received a lumbar and/or ventricular bolus injection of the chemotherapeutic agents, one received the ventriculolumbar perfusion of the agents, and eight received both the perfusion and bolus injection. The doses ranged from 6-7 mg/m(2) of ACNU for perfusion and 3-3.5 mg/m(2) of ACNU, MCNU, or MTX for the bolus injection, and the cycles were administered from 3 to 12 times for perfusion and from 5 to 54 times for the bolus injection. The effects of chemotherapy were assessed by both radiological and cytological examinations, and the clinical symptoms were also assessed. Radiological and/or cytological responses were observed in 10 of 21 patients (47.6%), including seven cases demonstrating a complete remission. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year survival rate after dissemination were 61.5 and 46.4%, respectively. Five patients who received a lumbar bolus injection of nitrosoureas experienced paraplegia and double incontinence. One patient who received a ventricular injection of nitrosoureas experienced truncal ataxia. IT chemotherapy was found to be effective in some cases with refractory disseminated medulloblastoma and it seems to be an appropriate treatment choice for leptomeningeal recurrence. However, the frequent bolus injections of nitrosoureas should be avoided to prevent the side effects.

  15. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Intrathecal Transplantation in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is being widely explored in the management of stroke and has demonstrated great potential. It has been shown to assist in the remodeling of the central nervous system by inducing neurorestorative effect through the process of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and reduction of glial scar formation. In this study, the effect of intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs is analyzed on the recovery process of patients with chronic stroke. 24 patients diagnosed with chronic stroke were administered cell therapy, followed by multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation. They were assessed on functional independence measure (FIM objectively, along with assessment of standing and walking balance, ambulation, and hand functions. Out of 24 patients, 12 improved in ambulation, 10 in hand functions, 6 in standing balance, and 9 in walking balance. Further factor analysis was done. Patients of the younger groups showed higher percentage of improvement in all the areas. Patients who underwent cell therapy within 2 years after the stroke showed better changes. Ischemic type of stroke had better recovery than the hemorrhagic stroke. This study demonstrates the potential of autologous BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in improving the prognosis of functional recovery in chronic stage of stroke. Further clinical trials are recommended. This trial is registered with NCT02065778.

  16. A comparison between post-operative analgesia after intrathecal nalbuphine with bupivacaine and intrathecal fentanyl with bupivacaine after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mostafa Gomaa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Either intrathecal nalbuphine 0.8 mg or intrathecal fentanyl 25 μg combined with 10 mg bupivacaine provides good intra-operative and early post-operative analgesia in cesarean section.

  17. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dilesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 10 μg dexmedetomidine intrathecally provides a longer duration of analgesia with lesser incidence of pruritus compared to 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally for CSE labor analgesia with comparable neonatal side-effects.

  18. Aneurysm, arachnoiditis and intrathecal Au (gold)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.M.; Kim, T.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report is a 20-year follow-up of 14 patients treated with external beam craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal gold (10-45 mCi) for medulloblastoma. Six of the patients died within 2 years of treatment from persistent disease. No patients are alive without complications. Six of eight surviving patients developed arachnoiditis and cauda equina syndrome within 5 to 10 years of treatment. Seven of eight survivors developed aneurysms and/or cerebrovascular accidents 9 to 20 years after treatment. Four of the cerebrovascular events were fatal. Intrathecal gold pools in the basal cisterns and cauda equina delivering an extremely inhomogeneous dose throughout the neuroaxis. Its use is discouraged

  19. Intrathecal Versus Oral Baclofen: A Matched Cohort Study of Spasticity, Pain, Sleep, Fatigue, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Chu, Samuel K; Binler, Danielle; Neudorf, Daniel; Mathur, Sunjay N; Lee, Jungwha; Marciniak, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Baclofen commonly is used to manage spasticity caused by central nervous system lesions or dysfunction. Although both intrathecal and oral delivery routes are possible, no study has directly compared clinical outcomes associated with these 2 routes of treatment. To compare spasticity levels, pain, sleep, fatigue, and quality of life between individuals receiving treatment with intrathecal versus oral baclofen. Cross-sectional matched cohort survey study. Urban academic rehabilitation outpatient clinics. Adult patients with spasticity, treated with intrathecal or oral baclofen for at least 1 year, matched 1:1 for age, gender, and diagnosis. Standardized surveys were administered during clinic appointments or by telephone. Surveys included the Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale. A total of 62 matched subjects were enrolled. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 46 (11) years with a mean duration of intrathecal baclofen or oral baclofen treatment of 11 (6) and 13 (11) years, respectively. There were 40 (64%) male and 22 (36%) female subjects. Primary diagnoses included spinal cord injury (n = 38), cerebral palsy (n = 10), stroke (n = 10), and multiple sclerosis (n = 4). The mean (SD) dose of intrathecal and oral baclofen at the time of survey were 577 (1429) μg/day and 86 (50) mg/day, respectively. Patients receiving intrathecal compared with oral baclofen experienced significantly fewer (1.44 [0.92] versus 2.37 [1.12]) and less severe (1.44 [0.92] versus 2.16 [0.83]) spasms, respectively as measured by the Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (P life between groups. Subanalysis of patients with SCI mirrored results of the entire study sample, with significant decreases in spasm frequency and severity associated with intrathecal compared to oral baclofen (P < .01; P < .01), but no other between group differences. The mean (SD) percent

  20. Intrathecal Pump Exposure to Electromagnetic Interference: A Report of Device Interrogation following Multiple ECT Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, Mark C; Hanna, George M

    2016-02-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery systems represent an increasingly common treatment modality for patients with a variety of conditions, including chronic pain and spasticity. Pumps rely on electronic programming to properly control and administer highly concentrated medications. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a known exposure that may cause a potential patient safety issue stemming from direct patient injury, pump damage, or changes to pump operation or flow rate. The objective of our case report was to describe an approach to evaluating a patient with a pump prior to and following exposure to EMI from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as well as to document findings from device interrogations associated with this event. Case report. Academic university-based pain management center. We present the case of a patient with an intrathecal pump who underwent multiple exposures to EMI in the form of 42 ECT sessions. Interrogation of the intrathecal drug delivery system revealed no safety issues following ECT sessions. At no time were error messages, unintentional changes in event logs, unintentional changes in pump settings, or evidence of pump stall or over-infusion noted. Communication with multiple entities (patient, family, consulting physicians, and device manufacturer) and maintaining vigilance through device interrogation both before and after EMI exposure are appropriate safeguards to mitigate the risk and detect potential adverse events of EMI with intrathecal drug delivery systems. Given the infrequent reports of device exposure to ECT, best practices may be derived from experience with EMI exposure from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although routine EMI exposure to intrathecal drug delivery systems should be avoided, we describe one patient with repeated exposure to ECT without apparent complication.

  1. Intrathecal analgesia and palliative care: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S Salins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal analgesia is an interventional form of pain relief with definite advantages and multiple complications. Administration of intrathecal analgesia needs a good resource setting and expertise. Early complications of intrathecal analgesia can be very distressing and managing these complications will need a high degree of knowledge, technical expertise and level of experience. Pain control alone cannot be the marker of quality in palliative care. A holistic approach may need to be employed that is more person and family oriented.

  2. Dosimetry in intrathecal radiogold therapy. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.; Hennig, K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of 198 Au colloid adsorbed at the surface of the subarachnoid cavities are described. 24 hours after intrathecal administration less than 1% of radiogold is freely moving in the liquor, i.e., more than 99% are adsorbed on the walls of the cavities. Therefore, in calculating the absorbed dose the surface of all anatomic structures forming the boundary of the subarachnoid cavities has to be taken into account. (author)

  3. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  4. Complete response in HER2+ leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer with intrathecal trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mafalda; Braga, Sofia; Passos-Coelho, José Luís; Fonseca, Ricardo; Oliveira, João

    2011-06-01

    Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the HER2 receptor, is a major breakthrough in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. However, its high molecular weight precludes it from crossing the intact blood-brain barrier, making the central nervous system a sanctuary to HER2+ breast cancer metastases. We prospectively assessed functional outcome and toxicity of administering trastuzumab directly into the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) and brain metastases from HER2+ breast cancer that had already been treated with other intrathecal chemotherapy, with no benefit. Upon signed informed consent, weekly lumbar puncture with administration of trastuzumab 25 mg was begun to a 44 year-old women with metastatic breast cancer (lymph node, bone, lung, and liver involvement) previously treated with tamoxifen, letrozole, anthracyclines, taxanes, capecitabine, intravenous trastuzumab, and lapatinib. She received 67 weekly administrations of intrathecal trastuzumab with marked clinical improvement and no adverse events. She survived 27 months after LC diagnosis. A complete leptomeningeal response, with no evidence of leptomeningeal metastasis at necropsy, was achieved. We believe that intrathecal trastuzumab administration should be prospectively evaluated to confirm clinical activity and optimize dose, schedule, and duration of treatment.

  5. Evaluation of Postoperative Anti-nociceptive Efficacy of Intrathecal Dexketoprofen in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol Muhammet, Er; Kocamanoğlu, İsmail Serhat; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Bilge, Sırrı; Çetinoğlu, Erhan Çetin

    2016-05-01

    Some studies have suggested that the intrathecal use of cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitors provides an anti-nociceptive effect. Therefore, the occurrence of side effects seen in systemic usage can be eliminated. The primary objective of this experimental, randomized, controlled trial was to test the hypothesis asserting that intrathecal dexketoprofen trometamol would demonstrate an analgesic effect during postoperative period. Animal experimentation. Forty rats were randomized into 4 groups 7 days after intrathecal catheterization; the following drugs were given through catheter lumens: Group Lidocaine (Group L): Lidocaine 20 μg; Group Lidocaine-Morphine (Group LM): Lidocaine 20 μg and morphine 0.5 μgr; Group Lidocaine-Dexketoprofen (Group LD): Lidocaine 20 μg and dexketoprofen trometamol 100 μg; and Group Dexketoprofen (Group D): Dexketoprofen trometamol 100 μg. Paw incision was achieved under ether inhalation. To measure analgesic potential, hot plate and tail immersion tests were used as nociceptive tests during the postoperative period. The mean reaction times detected in groups during hot plate and tail immersion tests were shortest in Group L at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after start of surgery (pdexketoprofen, as in the morphine group, longer reaction times were detected than in the lidocaine group at all measurement times except 120 minutes (pdexketoprofen in the optimal perioperative pain management is effective, and can be administered as an adjuvant in clinics after neurotoxicity studies in animals, and effective dose studies in volunteers.

  6. The effects of intrathecal administration of betamethasone over the dogs' spinal cord and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Guilherme Antonio Moreira de; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2007-01-01

    To determinate the potential clinical and histological changes due the injection of betamethasone, when administered into the canine intrathecal space. Twenty one animals were included in a random and blind manner in the study. After general anesthesia, intrathecal puncture was performed and 1 ml of the random solution was injected. The G1 dogs received 0.9% saline solution, the G2 dogs received 1.75 mg betamethasone and the G3 dogs received 3.5 mg of betamethasone. The animals were clinically evaluated for 21 days and then sacrificed. The lumbar and sacral portions of the spinal cord were removed for light microscopy histological analyses. No clinical changes were observed in any of the animals included in this study. No histological changes were observed in G1 animals. Inflammatory infiltration was observed in two dogs, one in G2, another in G3. Hemorrhage and necrosis were also seen in the G2 dog which inflammatory infiltration was detected. In other two dogs, one from G2 and another from G3, there was discreet fibrosis and thickness of the arachnoid layer which was focal in one and diffuse in the other. Intrathecal administration of betamethasone caused histological changes in the spinal cord and meninges in some of the dogs involved in this study.

  7. Evaluation of Postoperative Anti-nociceptive Efficacy of Intrathecal Dexketoprofen in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Muhammet Er

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have suggested that the intrathecal use of cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitors provides an anti-nociceptive effect. Therefore, the occurrence of side effects seen in systemic usage can be eliminated. Aims: The primary objective of this experimental, randomized, controlled trial was to test the hypothesis asserting that intrathecal dexketoprofen trometamol would demonstrate an analgesic effect during postoperative period. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty rats were randomized into 4 groups 7 days after intrathecal catheterization; the following drugs were given through catheter lumens: Group Lidocaine (Group L: Lidocaine 20 μg; Group Lidocaine-Morphine (Group LM: Lidocaine 20 μg and morphine 0.5 μgr; Group Lidocaine-Dexketoprofen (Group LD: Lidocaine 20 μg and dexketoprofen trometamol 100 μg; and Group Dexketoprofen (Group D: Dexketoprofen trometamol 100 μg. Paw incision was achieved under ether inhalation. To measure analgesic potential, hot plate and tail immersion tests were used as nociceptive tests during the postoperative period. Results: The mean reaction times detected in groups during hot plate and tail immersion tests were shortest in Group L at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after start of surgery (p<0.01, all others. In the groups using dexketoprofen, as in the morphine group, longer reaction times were detected than in the lidocaine group at all measurement times except 120 minutes (p<0.01. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexketoprofen in the optimal perioperative pain management is effective, and can be administered as an adjuvant in clinics after neurotoxicity studies in animals, and effective dose studies in volunteers.

  8. Measured density and calculated baricity of custom-compounded drugs for chronic intrathecal infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmanek, Michael R; Harvey, Tracy D; Bernards, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    To minimize the frequency that intrathecal pumps require refilling, drugs are custom compounded at very high concentrations. Unfortunately, the baricity of these custom solutions is unknown, which is problematic, given baricity's importance in determining the spread of intrathecally administered drugs. Consequently, we measured the density and calculated the baricity of clinically relevant concentrations of multiple drugs used for intrathecal infusion. Morphine, clonidine, bupivacaine, and baclofen were weighed to within 0.0001 g and diluted in volumetric flasks to produce solutions of known concentrations (morphine 1, 10, 25, and 50 mg/mL; clonidine 0.05, 0.5, 1, and 3 mg/mL; bupivacaine 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL; baclofen 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 mg/mL). The densities of the solutions were measured at 37°C using the mechanical oscillation method. A "best-fit" curve was calculated for plots of concentration versus density for each drug. All prepared solutions of clonidine and baclofen were hypobaric. Higher concentrations of morphine and bupivacaine were hyperbaric, whereas lower concentrations were hypobaric. The relationship between concentration and density is linear for morphine (r > 0.99) and bupivacaine (r > 0.99) and logarithmic for baclofen (r = 0.96) and clonidine (r = 0.98). This is the first study to examine the relationship between concentration and density for custom drug concentrations commonly used in implanted intrathecal pumps. We calculated an equation that defines the relationship between concentration and density for each drug. Using these equations, clinicians can calculate the density of any solution made from the drugs studied here.

  9. Postoperative analgesia and antiemetic efficacy after intrathecal neostigmine in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy during spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, G R; Mattos, A L; Gomes, J M; Pereira, N L

    1997-01-01

    Postoperative analgesia and antiemetic efficacy after intrathecal neostigmine were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 100 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. The patients were assigned to one of five groups (n = 20), and received intravenous prior to the spinal block the antiemetic test drug (except propofol) and 0.05 mg/kg midazolam. The control group (group C), the neostigmine group (group N), and the propofol group (group P) received saline as the test drug. The droperidol group (group D) received 0.5 mg intravenous droperidol, and the metoclopramide group (group M) 10 mg intravenous metoclopramide. Group P was single-blinded and had an intravenous continuous propofol infusion (2-4 mg/kg/h) turned on 10 minutes after the spinal injection. The intrathecal drugs administered were 20 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) associated with either 100 microg neostigmine or saline (for group C). Nausea, emetic episodes, and the need for rescue medication were recorded for the first 24 hours postoperative and scored by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Time-to-first-rescue medication and rescue medications in 24 hours were similar among the groups (P = .2917 and P = .8780, respectively). Intrathecal 100 microg neostigmine was associated with a high incidence of nausea and vomiting perioperative, leading to a high consumption of antiemetics (P antiemetic test drugs were effective in preventing nausea and vomiting after 100 microg neostigmine. Intrathecal neostigmine (100 microg) was ineffective for postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy due to side effects of nausea and vomiting.

  10. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide in the management of severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S Smith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Howard S Smith,1 Timothy R Deer21Albany Medical College, Department of Anesthesiology, Albany, New York, USA; 2The Center for Pain Relief, Clinical Professor, West Virginia, University, Charleston, West Virginia, USAAbstract: Ziconotide is a conopeptide intrathecal (IT analgesic which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the management of severe chronic pain. It is a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the venom of the fish-eating marine cone snail and provides analgesia via binding to N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. As ziconotide is a peptide, it is expected to be completely degraded by endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Phase I hydrolytic enzymes widely located throughout the body, and not by other Phase I biotransformation processes (including the cytochrome P450 system or by Phase II conjugation reactions. Thus, IT administration, low plasma ziconotide concentrations, and metabolism by ubiquitous peptidases make metabolic interactions of other drugs with ziconotide unlikely. Side effects of ziconotide which tend to occur more commonly at higher doses may include: nausea, vomiting, confusion, postural hypotension, abnormal gait, urinary retention, nystagmus/amblyopia, drowsiness/somnolence (reduced level of consciousness, dizziness or lightheadedness, weakness, visual problems (eg, double vision, elevation of serum creatine kinase, or vestibular side effects. Initially, when ziconotide was first administered to human subjects, titration schedules were overly aggressive and led to an abundance of adverse effects. Subsequently, clinicians have gained appreciation for ziconotide’s relatively narrow therapeutic window. With appropriate usage multiple studies have shown ziconotide to be a safe and effective intrathecal analgesic alone or in combination with other intrathecal analgesics.Keywords: pain, ziconotide, intrathecal analgesics, safety, patient

  11. Progressive increase in brain glucose metabolism after intrathecal administration of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with diffuse axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Jesús; Zurita, Mercedes; Bonilla, Celia; Fernández, Cecilia; Rubio, Juan J; Mucientes, Jorge; Rodriguez, Begoña; Blanco, Edelio; Donis, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy in neurological disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is in its initial clinical stage. We describe our preliminary clinical experience with three patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) who were treated with intrathecal administration of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Three patients with established neurological sequelae due to DAI received intrathecally autologous MSCs. The total number of MSCs administered was 60 × 10 6 (one patient), 100 × 10 6 (one patient) and 300 × 10 6 (one patient). All three patients showed improvement after cell therapy, and subsequent studies with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) showed a diffuse and progressive increase in brain glucose metabolism. Our present results suggest benefit of intrathecal administration of MSCs in patients with DAI, as well as a relationship between this type of treatment and increase in brain glucose metabolism. These preliminary findings raise the question of convenience of assessing the potential benefit of intrathecal administration of MSCs for brain diseases in which a decrease in glucose metabolism represents a crucial pathophysiological finding, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal conduction block by intrathecal ketamine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, H; Dohi, S; Tanahashi, T; Watanabe, Y; Takenaka, M

    1997-07-01

    In addition to its use for intravenous (I.V.) anesthesia, ketamine can provide pain relief in humans when administered spinally. To elucidate the mechanisms of intrathecal (I.T.) ketamine analgesia, we observed differences in the effects of I.V. and I.T. ketamine on intraspinal evoked potentials (ISEPs) in 28 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital. Bipolar extradural electrodes were inserted at the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord for recording descending ISEPs represented by the two negative deflections, Waves I and II. I.V. ketamine 2 and 10 mg/ kg did not affect the amplitude and latency of Wave I, whereas the large dose (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the amplitude but not the latency of Wave II. I.T. ketamine 1 and 5 mg/kg caused significant dose-dependent decreases in both Wave I and II amplitudes and prolongations of both Wave I and II latencies. These I.T. effects on ISEPs are consistent with previous in vitro observations that ketamine blocks axonal conduction. We conclude that axonal conduction block may contribute to the analgesic mechanism of I.T. ketamine.

  13. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  14. Endotoxin as a cause of aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Harbert, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The role of pyrogens in aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography was studied by means of the Limulus test, a sensitive detector of endotoxin. During a 15-month period, 39 reactions associated with cisternography were reported. Ten samples of specific lots of the radioactive drugs implicated in 20 of these reactions were tested and all reacted strongly positive to the Limulus test. The less sensitive rabbit pyrogen test was negative for these preparations when tested on a dose-per-weight basis. Our findings apparently provide clinical evidence for the observation made in animals that endotoxin is at least 1,000 times more toxic intrathecally than intravenously. The data implicate endotoxin contamination as a cause of adverse reactions to radionuclide cisternography. We conclude that the USP pyrogen test is insufficiently sensitive for intrathecal injectables and should be supplemented by the Limulus test. (auth)

  15. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  16. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  17. Spinal cord distribution of sup 3 H-morphine after intrathecal administration: Relationship to analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Y.; Sinatra, R.S.; Kitahata, L.M.; Collins, J.G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, CT (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The distribution of intrathecally administered {sup 3}H-morphine was examined by light microscopic autoradiography in rat spinal cord and temporal changes in silver grain localization were compared with results obtained from simultaneous measurements of analgesia. After tissue processing, radio-activity was found to have penetrated in superficial as well as in deeper layers (Rexed lamina V, VII, and X) of rat spinal cord within minutes after application. Silver grain density reached maximal values at 30 min in every region of cord studied. Radioactivity decreased rapidly between 30 min and 2 hr and then more slowly over the next 24 hr. In rats tested for responses to a thermal stimulus (tail flick test), intrathecal administration of morphine (5 and 15 micrograms) resulted in significant dose dependent analgesia that peaked at 30 min and lasted up to 5 hr (P less than 0.5). There was a close relationship between analgesia and spinal cord silver grain density during the first 4 hr of the study. It is postulated that the onset of spinal morphine analgesia depends on appearance of molecules at sites of action followed by the activation of anti-nociceptive mechanisms.

  18. Comparison of Spinal Block Levels between Laboring and Nonlaboring Parturients Using Combined Spinal Epidural Technique with Intrathecal Plain Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was suggested that labor may influence the spread of intrathecal bupivacaine using combined spinal epidural (CSE technique. However, no previous studies investigated this proposition. We designed this study to investigate the spinal block characteristics of plain bupivacaine between nonlaboring and laboring parturients using CSE technique. Methods. Twenty-five nonlaboring (Group NL and twenty-five laboring parturients (Group L undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled. Following identification of the epidural space at the L3-4 interspace, plain bupivacaine 10 mg was administered intrathecally using CSE technique. The level of sensory block, degree of motor block, and hemodynamic changes were assessed. Results. The baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP and the maximal decrease of SBP in Group L were significantly higher than those in Group NL (=0.002 and =0.03, resp.. The median sensory level tested by cold stimulation was T6 for Group NL and T5 for Group L (=0.46. The median sensory level tested by pinprick was T7 for both groups (=0.35. The degree of motor block was comparable between the two groups (=0.85. Conclusion. We did not detect significant differences in the sensory block levels between laboring and nonlaboring parturients using CSE technique with intrathecal plain bupivacaine.

  19. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  20. Intentional intrathecal opioid detoxification in 3 patients: characterization of the intrathecal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tracy P; Lonergan, Daniel F; Todd, R David; Martin, Peter R

    2013-04-01

    Intrathecal (IT) drug delivery systems for patients with chronic non-malignant pain are intended to improve pain and quality of life and reduce side effects of systemic use. A subset of patients may have escalating pain, functional decline, and/or intolerable side effects even as IT opioid doses are increased. Discontinuation of IT medications may represent a viable treatment option but strategies to accomplish this are needed. Three patients with intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDS), inadequate pain control, and declining functionality underwent abrupt IT opioid cessation. This was accomplished through a standardized protocol with symptom-triggered administration of clonidine and buprenorphine, monitored using the clinical opiate withdrawal scale. Symptoms of IT withdrawal were similar in all patients and included diuresis, agitation, hyperalgesia, mild diarrhea, yawning, and taste and smell aversion. Hypertension and tachycardia were effectively controlled by clonidine administration. Classic symptoms of withdrawal, such as piloerection, chills, severe diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, myoclonus, and mydriasis, were not noted. At 2 to 3 months follow-up, patients reported decreased, but ongoing pain, with improvements in functional capacity and quality of life. This preliminary work demonstrates the safety of abrupt IT opioid cessation utilizing standardized inpatient withdrawal protocols. To our knowledge, these are among the first reported cases of intentional, controlled IT opioid cessation without initiation of an opioid bridge: self-reported pain scores, functional capacity, and quality of life improved. The IT opioid withdrawal syndrome is characterized based upon our observations and a review of the literature. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  2. Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M; Pygon, B; Bernett, C; Ramanathan, S

    1997-06-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA) decreases maternal stress as measured by maternal circulating plasma catecholamine concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) provides effective labour analgesia but its effect on maternal epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations is not known. This study assesses whether ITF reduces maternal stress in the same manner as conventional LEA. Twenty-four healthy women in active labour received either 25 micrograms ITF (n = 12) or epidural lidocaine 1.5% (n = 12) for analgesia. Venous blood samples were collected before anaesthesia and at five minute intervals for 30 min following anaesthesia for the measurement of plasma Epi and NE by high performance liquid chromatography. Maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), visual analog scores (VAS) to pain and pruritus were recorded at the same time. Both ITF and LEA decreased pain VAS scores, maternal BP, and plasma Epi concentrations with only minimal effects on plasma NE concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) and LEA reduced plasma epi to a similar extent, with ITF reducing the levels slightly faster than LEA. Intrathecal fentanyl(ITF) and LEA reduced plasma Epi concentrations by 52% and 51%, respectively (P value < 0.01). We conclude that ITF is as effective as LEA in producing pain relief in the labouring patient. Intrathecal Fentanyl (ITF) is also capable of reducing maternal plasma epinephrine concentration, thus avoiding the possibly deleterious side effects of excess amounts of this catecholamine during labour.

  3. The effect of intrathecal midazolam on the characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the onset of sensory block, the time to achieve the maximum level of sensory block and the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal midazolam when given in combination with bupivacaine, and also to observe any undesirable side-effects produced by the ...

  4. Efficacy of intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl for endoscopic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl as an adjunct to bupivacaine for endoscopic urology surgery. Methods: Sixty adult ASA grade I–II patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate or bladder tumor under spinal block. Postoperative analgesia was provided with intravenous diclofenac. The onset and duration of ...

  5. Italian multicentre study on intrathecal fluorescein for craniosinusal fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisati, G; Bianchi, A; Lozza, P; Portaleone, S

    2008-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF), clinical sign of a dural lesion of the skull base, is a relatively rare event that can present with a variety of symptoms. Every craniosinus fistula should be considered a serious, potentially life-threatening situation (even those cases with hidden CSF leak). Reports of experience concerning diagnosis and treatment of craniosinus fistulae have appeared in the Literature. In the last few years, the endoscopic nasal approach is proving effective as it makes diagnosis much easier and is the least invasive surgical approach, with the greatest percentage of success. Various classifications are being proposed to improve clinical evaluation of CSF leaks and to simplify the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The most common parameters of classification are: aetiology (traumatic, iatrogenic, non-traumatic, etc.) site, type of flow (high or low pressure) and, as far as concerns treatment, the type of graft used, all of which have contributed to various diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms being proposed. Therefore, the subject seems to be widely schematized and the therapeutic attitude widely agreed. However, one of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is now being questioned. For some, it is the heart of the clinical approach, while for others, it is a useful tool yet too dangerous to be used on account of potential side effects: namely, the fluorescein test. This procedure, consisting of intrathecal injection of a colorant (fluorescein), is well known by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which neither explicitly prohibits it, nor allows it, intrathecal administration is, therefore, an off label use. As far as the Authors know, authorization of this procedure has not been forthcoming anywhere in the world although the procedure itself is widely employed. As far as concerns the use of intrathecal fluorescein, many scientific papers have been written, clearly supporting its clinical usefulness. One limit to the use of fluorescein

  6. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  7. Intrathecal catheter-syringe adaptor for short-term intrathecal analgesia with an externalized pump: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Denise; Cook, Michael; Solanki, Daneshvari

    2010-01-01

    In most patients, cancer pain is effectively treated with conservative medical management consisting of oral and/or transdermal analgesics. Cancer patients tend to fail conservative medical management near the end of their life expectancy, thus requiring alternative routes of analgesia such as intravenous, epidural, or intrathecal. The intrathecal route provides the most effective analgesia due to the close proximity of the opioid receptors in the spinal cord. Though there are many techniques that exist for intrathecal drug delivery, complications can limit effectiveness such as infection, bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, post-dural puncture headaches (PDPH), pump and/or catheter malfunctions, or limitations of technical expertise. Therefore, an important goal in palliative cancer pain therapy is to use equipment that is going to have the fewest number of complications and will be the most familiar to the health care providers. We describe the combination of the Medtronic Indura 1P catheter, which has the least catheter-related complications and can be used with any external drug infusion pump. These are regular infusion pumps that the health care workers are familiar with so they can provide excellent and efficient service to the patient. In an operating room, the intrathecal catheter was placed using sterile technique under fluoroscopic guidance. The epidural space was identified with loss of resistance technique. Then the introducer needle (supplied in the Indura 1P catheter kit) was advanced until free-flowing CSF was obtained. The spinal catheter was advanced into the intrathecal space through the introducer needle to lumbar 2-3 level. The catheter was tunneled subcutaneously 10 cm lateral to the catheter exit site. A syringe filling device was inserted into the catheter opening and was secured with silk suture. A luer lock syringe was attached to the syringe filling device and CSF was aspirated. The syringe filling device was capped and later

  8. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  9. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  10. In vitro stability of low-concentration ziconotide alone or in admixtures in intrathecal pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoiron, Denis; Richard, Hélène; Chabert-Desnot, Vincent; Devys, Catherine; Leynia, Pierre; Boisdron-Celle, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    Ziconotide is often administered in combination with other analgesics via an intrathecal pump. Studies have established that ziconotide is stable when delivered alone in high concentrations. No stability data are available, however, for ziconotide given in low concentrations and/or with other analgesics as usually occurs in clinical oncology practice. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro stability of ziconotide alone and combined with other analgesics in intrathecal pumps at 37 °C, as well as in syringes at 5 °C, to evaluate conditions for storing and transporting preparations. Various ziconotide concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 μg/mL) were combined with an admixture of ropivacaine (7.5 mg/mL), morphine (7.5 mg/mL), and clonidine (15 μg/mL) in 20-mL intrathecal pumps at 37 °C and in syringes at 5 °C. Solutions of ziconotide alone in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 μg/mL were introduced into pumps at 37 °C and syringes at 5 °C. Assays were performed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. In admixtures, mean ziconotide concentrations decreased linearly to 53.4% (± 3.33%) of baseline after 35 days. When ziconotide was introduced alone in pumps at 37 °C, the residual concentration on day 31 was 35.54% (± 0.04%) with 0.25 μg/mL, 39.37% (± 0.15%) with 0.5 μg/mL, and 44.49% (± 0.18%) with 1 μg/mL. Ziconotide alone or combined with the other analgesics was stable in syringes stored at 5 °C. The preparations complied with the prescriptions, with a mean error of less than 10%, except with the lowest ziconotide concentration (0.1 μg/mL). At the low ziconotide concentrations studied, the degradation of ziconotide admixed with other drugs was linear and only weakly influenced by the baseline concentration. Linear regression with intrapolation to 30 days showed that the degradation of ziconotide admixed with other drugs was consistent with previously published data. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  11. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  12. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  13. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics for labor analgesia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Brenda A; Chestnut, David H; Hawkins, Joy L

    2002-01-01

    Some anesthesiologists contend that intrathecal opioid administration has advantages over conventional epidural techniques during labor. Randomized clinical trials comparing analgesia and obstetric outcome using single-injection intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable analgesia with few serious side effects. This meta-analysis compared the analgesic efficacy, side effects, and obstetric outcome of single-injection intrathecal opioid techniques versus epidural local anesthetics in laboring women. Relevant clinical studies were identified using electronic and manual searches of the literature covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Searches used the following descriptors: intrathecal analgesia, spinal opioids, epidural analgesia, epidural local anesthetics, and analgesia for labor. Data were extracted from 7 randomized clinical trials comparing analgesic measures, incidence of motor block, pruritus, nausea, hypotension, mode of delivery, and/or Apgar scores. Combined test results indicated comparable analgesic efficacy 15 to 20 minutes after injection with single-injection intrathecal opioid administration. Intrathecal opioid injections were associated with a greater incidence of pruritus (odds ratio, 14.01; 99% confidence interval, 6.9 to 28.3), but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea or in the method of delivery. Published studies suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable early labor analgesia when compared with epidural local anesthetics. Intrathecal opioid administration results in a greater incidence of pruritus. The choice of technique does not appear to affect the method of delivery.

  15. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    P K Dilesh; S Eapen; S Kiran; Vivek Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Context: Combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia technique is effective for labor analgesia and various concentrations of bupivacaine and lipophilic opioids like fentanyl have been studied. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist with analgesic properties and has been used intrathecally with bupivacaine for prolonged postoperative analgesia. Recent reviews have shown that it is highly lipophilic and does not cross placenta significantly. Aim: The aim of this s...

  16. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  17. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula; Schachter, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2010-02-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata and has been used for improving memory, cognitive and behavioral function in patients with Alzheimer's disease in China. It has NMDA antagonist and anticholinesterase activity and has shown anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects in preliminary studies when administered intraperitoneally to mice. To better characterize the antinociceptive effects of HupA at the spinal level, Holtzman rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters to measure thermal escape latency using Hargreaves thermal escape testing system and flinching behavior using the formalin test. Intrathecal (IT) administration of HupA showed a dose-dependent increase in thermal escape latency with an ED50 of 0.57 microg. Atropine reversed the increase in thermal escape latency produced by 10 microg HupA, indicating an antinociceptive mechanism through muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The formalin test showed that HupA decreased flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Atropine also reversed the decrease in flinching behavior caused by 10 microg HupA. A dose-dependent increase of side effects including scratching, biting, and chewing tails was observed, although antinociceptive effects were observed in doses that did not produce any adverse effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Postoperative Anti-nociceptive Efficacy of Intrathecal Dexketoprofen in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Birol Muhammet Er; İsmail Serhat Kocamanoğlu; Ayhan Bozkurt; Sırrı Bilge; Erhan Çetin Çetinoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have suggested that the intrathecal use of cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitors provides an anti-nociceptive effect. Therefore, the occurrence of side effects seen in systemic usage can be eliminated. Aims: The primary objective of this experimental, randomized, controlled trial was to test the hypothesis asserting that intrathecal dexketoprofen trometamol would demonstrate an analgesic effect during postoperative period. Study Design: Animal experimentation. ...

  19. MR cisternography after intrathecal Gd-DTPA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Werner; Komenda, Yvonne; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Schick, Bernhard; Grunwald, Iris; Reith, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish and to evaluate MR cisternography after intrathecal Gd-DTPA administration to detect rhinobasal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae in patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhoea. Ten patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhoea were examined. The MR cisternography included the following investigation steps: acquisition of nonenhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) scans of the skull base and the paranasal sinuses, lumbar puncture with administration of 1 ml Gd-DTPA solute with 4 ml NaCl and performance of MR cisternography with the same fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences as used initially. In 10 patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhoea Gd-DTPA enhanced MR cisternography detected 5 CSF fistulae. In 3 of 5 CSF leaks were located in the cribriform plate and in 2 of 5 sphenoidal. Whereas 4 of these depicted leaks were confirmed surgically, in 1 case the CSF fistula closed spontaneously. In another case, CSF leakage after severe head injury was clinically highly suspected but ceased prior to MR cisternography with inability to detect the temporary fistula. In the remaining 4 patients with serous rhinorrhoea MR cisternography did not provide any evidences for CSF fistulae. Intrathecal Gd-DTPA injection was tolerated excellently. Clinical and EEG examinations showed no gross behavioural or neurological disturbances and no seizure activity, respectively. The MR cisternography after intrathecal administration of Gd-DTPA represents a safe, promising and minimally invasive method for detection of CSF fistulae. This MR investigation provides excellent depiction of CSF spaces and pinpoints CSF fistulae. (orig.)

  20. Minimum effective local anesthetic dose of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine and bupivacaine for cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Zhi-yu; WANG Dong-xin; WU Xin-min

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrathecal anesthesia is commonly used for cesarean section. Bupivacaine and ropivacaine have all been used as intrathecal drugs. The minimum effective local anesthetic dose (MLAD) of intrathecal ropivacaine for nonobstetric patients has been reported. However, few data are available on the MLAD of hyperbaric ropivacine for obstetric patients and the relative potency to bupivacaine has not been fully determined. In this study, we sought to determine the MLAD of intrathecal ropivacaine and bupivacaine for elective cesarean section and to define their relative potency ratio.Methods We enrolled forty parturients undergoing elective cesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and randomized them to one of two groups to receive intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric ropivacaine or bupivacaine.The initial dose was 10 mg, and was increased in increments of 1 mg, using the technique of up-down sequential allocation. Efficacy was accepted if adequate sensory dermatomal anesthesia to pin prick to T7 or higher was attained within 20 minutes after intrathecal injection, and required no supplementary epidural injection for procedure until at least 50 minutes after the intrathecal injection.Results The intrathecal MLAD was 9.45 mg (95%confidence interval (CI), 8.45-10.56 mg) for ropivacaine and 7.53 mg (95%CI, 7.00-8.10 mg) for bupivacaine. The relative potency ratio was 0.80 (95% Cl, 0.74-0.85) for ropivacaine/bupivacaine when given intrathecally in cesarean section.Conclusion Ropivacaine is 20% less potent than bupivacaine during intrathecal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

  1. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  2. Historical spirals of intrathecal therapy of bacterial meningoencephalites: from past to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Петрович Борщев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the base of studying medical literature in the article was considered the history of using intrathecal methods of bacterial meningoencephalites therapy, using intrathecal methods in other medical fields, the modern state of problem.Aim of research: To study the history of using intrathecal methods of bacterial meningoencephalites therapy, the state of problem in the world, an experience of using intrathecal therapeutical methods in other medical fields and to define prospects and necessity of further scientific researches in this direction.Materials and methods: There were used scientometric data bases, available scientific medical printing editions, historical, analytical, philosophical methods, analysis and generalization, the cause-and-effect relations, logic, dialectic.Results of research: There were revealed regularities of growth and decline of interest of medical community to this problem. For today there is no unambiguous attitude to intrathecal therapy of bacterial meningoencephalites. There are contrary opinions about necessity of using this method. There were revealed objective factors that complicate the development of researches in the field of intrathecal therapy of bacterial meningoencephalites.Conclusions: 1. Intrathecal methods of administration preparations at treating patients with bacterial meningoencephalites were successfully used from the beginning of 20 century.2. The degree of interest of medical scientific community to intrathecal therapeutical methods depended on objective necessity of its use in different medical fields at the concrete historical stage.3. Attention to intrathecal methods of treatment decreased as an effect of discovery new antibacterial preparations4. From historical point of view the spread of intrathecal methods of treatment depends on toxicity and effectiveness of preparations for the system use: the higher toxicity and less effectiveness of the system therapy, the more spread use of intrathecal

  3. Intrathecal hypobaric versus hyperbaric bupivacaine with morphine for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M G; Collins, H V; Wissler, R N

    1998-08-01

    Both hyper- and hypobaric solutions of bupivacaine are often combined with morphine to provide subarachnoid anesthesia for cesarean section. Differences in the baricity of subarachnoid solutions influence the intrathecal distribution of anesthetic drugs and would be expected to influence measurable clinical variables. We compared the effects of hyper- and hypobaric subarachnoid bupivacaine with morphine to determine whether one has significant advantages with regard to intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in term parturients undergoing elective cesarean section. Thirty parturients were randomized to receive either hyper- or hypobaric bupivacaine (15 mg) with morphine sulfate (0.2 mg). Intraoperative outcomes compared included extent of sensory block, quality of anesthesia, and side effects. Postoperative outcomes, including pain visual analog scale scores, systemic analgesic requirements, and side effects, were monitored for 48 h. Sedation effects were quantified and compared using Trieger and digit-symbol substitution tests. We detected no differences in sensory or motor block, quality of anesthesia, quality of postoperative analgesia, incidence of side effects, or psychometric scores. Both preparations provide highly satisfactory anesthesia for cesarean section and effective postoperative analgesia. Dextrose alters the density of intrathecal bupivacaine solutions and is thought to influence subarachnoid distribution of the drug. We randomized parturients undergoing cesarean section to one of two often used spinal bupivacaine preparations, hypobaric and hyperbaric. We detected no differences in clinical outcomes between groups.

  4. Intrathecal isobaric versus hyperbaric bupivacaine for elective caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, S.; Ali, H.; Zafar, S.; Sheikh, M.; Sultan, T.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the results of isobaric bupivacaine (0.5%) with hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.75%) in cases of elective Caesarean Section, in respect of time to sensory analgesia, highest level of sensory block, haemodynamic effects, and complications. Sixty pregnant patients scheduled for elective Caesarean Section. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (Group-1B) or 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Group-HB) via intrathecal route. The time of onset of block, highest level of sensory block, cardio-respiratory data, duration of analgesia and complications were recorded during surgery. The time taken to reach T4 sensory analgesia in Group-1B was 6+-6.43 minutes as compared to 6.93+-7.8 minutes in Group-HB, while the highest sensory level achieved in Group-1B was T1 and in Group-HB T2. The lowest systolic blood pressure recorded in Group-1B was 83.27+-12.69 mmHg and in Group-HB 114.33+-13.83 mm Hg, the difference being significant (p<0.05). There was a higher incidence of complications in Group-1B as compared to Group-HB like high spinal analgesia, vomiting and discomfort. Intrathecal block showed a greater reduction in the systolic blood pressure, and associated complications, with Isobaric Bupivacaine as compared to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine. (author)

  5. Dosimetric model for antibody targeted radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Barrett, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although encouraging results have been obtained using systemic radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, it is likely that regional applications may prove more effective. One such strategy is the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal instillation of targeting or nontargeting beta particle emitting radionuclide carriers. The beta particle dosimetry of the spine is assessed, assuming that the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment can be adequately represented by a cylindrical annulus. The radionuclides investigated were 90 Y, 131 I, 67 Cu, and 199 Au. It is shown that the radiation dose to the cord can be significantly reduced using short range beta particle emitters and that there is little advantage in using targeting carriers with these radionuclides. 199 Au and 67 Cu also have the advantage of having a suitable gamma emission for imaging, permitting pretherapy imaging and dosimetric calculations to be undertaken prior to therapy. If these methods prove successful, it may be possible to replace the external beam component used in the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal radionuclide therapy, thus reducing or avoiding side effects such as growth and intellectual impairment

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAMOD Y NAMIC PARAMETERS IN LSCS WITH INTRATHECAL FENTANYL - BUPIVACAINE COMBINATION AND BUPIVACAINE ALONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Prasad

    2015-10-01

    receptors in the spinal cord. Lipophilic opioids (fentanyl and sufentanil are increasingly being administered intrathecally as adjuvant to local anaesthetics . 1 They have been shown to enhance the quality of local anaesthetic induced subarachnoid block and to provid e postoperative analgesia and also, they reduce the hypotension due to subarachnoid block by reducing the dose of local anaesthetics and decrease the ephedrine requirements to combat hypotension. In our study, we compared the efficacy of intrathecal 25mcg fentanyl and 7.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with that of 10 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% alone regarding the incidence of hypotension and ephedrine requirements in lower segment caesarean section during surgery and early post - operative period. OBJ ECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of intrathecal fentanyl 25mcg and 7.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine in comparison with 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine used alone for lower segment caesarean section with respect to ; Incidence o f hypotension, Ephedrine requirements to combat hypotension , Side effects and complications that may arise with the use of intrathecal fentanyl

  7. Treatment of neuropathic cancer pain with continuous intrathecal administration of S (+)-ketamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Kal, J. E.; Kruis, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic cancer pain remains a clinical challenge. When patients experience either insufficient analgesia or problematic side-effects after opioid administration, intrathecal administration of morphine and other medications such as bupivacaine

  8. The Comparison of Intrathecal Morphine and IV Morphine PCA on Pain Control, Patient Satisfaction, Morphine Consumption, and Adverse Effects in Patients Undergoing Reduction Mammoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, Mehtap; Akdağ, Osman; Kara, İnci; Yıldıran, Gokce Unal; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Following breast reduction procedures, the level of postoperative pain can be severe, and sufficient pain control influences a patient's physiological, immunological, and psychological status. The aim of this study was to examine the use of intrathecal morphine (ITM) in breast reduction surgery with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Sixty-two female patients who underwent breast reductions with the same technique participated in this study. The study group (ITM + PCA) included 32 patients; a single shot (0.2 mg) of ITM and intravenous morphine with PCA were administered. In the control group, morphine PCA alone was intravenously administered to 30 patients. Comparisons between the groups of cumulative morphine consumption, visual analog scale scores, and patient satisfaction scores, which were the primary outcome measures, and adverse effects, which were the secondary outcome measures, were conducted. The patients in the 2 groups had similar degrees of pain and satisfaction scores. The study group had lower cumulative morphine consumption (P = .001) than the PCA-only control group; there was no statistically significant difference in adverse effects between the 2 groups. Intrathecal morphine may effectively control pain with lower total morphine consumption following breast reduction surgery.

  9. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  10. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  11. Radionuclide cisternography: a prudent investigation in diagnosing spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Namgyal, Padma A.; Raghavan, Samudrala

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a cause of new persistent headache, which disappears on recumbence and reappears in sitting/standing position (orthostatic headache). We present a case of orthostatic headache, where the patient was suspected to have SIH and was subjected to radionuclide cisternography (RNC) using 99m Technetium Diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid for confirmation of diagnosis. After due consent from the patient, the radiotracer was injected intra-thecally and serial images were acquired until 24 h. The direct and indirect evidences of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, which were revealed in our study, provided objective evidence to the clinical diagnosis. RNC is an important investigation in diagnosing SIH and also identifying the site of CSF leak, which may aid the management. (author)

  12. Chronic intrathecal cannulation enhances nociceptive responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida F.R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chronically implanted spinal cannula on the nociceptive response induced by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimuli was evaluated. The hyperalgesia in response to mechanical stimulation induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was significantly increased in cannulated (Cn rats, compared with naive (Nv or sham-operated (Sh rats. Only Cn animals presented an enhanced nociceptive response in the first phase of the formalin test when low doses were used (0.3 and 1%. The withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation of a paw inflamed by carrageenin was significantly reduced in Cn rats but not in Nv or Sh rats. In contrast to Nv and Sh rats, injection in Cn animals of a standard non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, either intraperitoneally or into the spinal cord via an implanted cannula or by direct puncture of the intrathecal space significantly blocked the intensity of the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. Cannulated animals treated with indomethacin also showed a significant inhibition of second phase formalin-induced paw flinches. Histopathological analysis of the spinal cord showed an increased frequency of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the Cn groups. Thus, the presence of a chronically implanted cannula seems to cause nociceptive spinal sensitization to mechanical, chemical and thermal stimulation, which can be blocked by indomethacin, thus suggesting that it may result from the spinal release of prostaglandins due to an ongoing mild inflammation.

  13. Prophylaxis of meningosis leukemia via intrathecal radioactive colloid gold injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, A; Uzunov, I; Marshavelova, J [Meditsinski Fakultet, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    1979-01-01

    Prophylaxis against meningosis leukemia (ML) via intrathecal radioactive colloid gold injection was carried out for a period of three years (January 1974 - September 1976) in 21 children with acute lymphoblast leukemia (ALL). The analysis of those patients after one relatively long period of observation (28 months after the last case) reveals that ML developed as a primary isolated manifestation of a recurrence in three children, i.e. in 14.2 per cent versus 68 per cent in the control group without prophylaxis. In another child ML development is in parallel with bone marrow recurrence. The reduction of ML incidence is accompanied with a prolongation of the first remission (in 24 per cent over 2 years and 6 months) and a lengthening of survival for 50 per cent of the patients (62 per cent of the treated patients are alive two years and 4 months during the period of observation). The advantages of the prophylaxis with radioactive colloid gold is emphasized in comparison with the other prophylactic programmes.

  14. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  15. Intrathecal delivery of protein therapeutics to the brain: a critical reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calias, Pericles; Banks, William A; Begley, David; Scarpa, Maurizio; Dickson, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain tumors, are the world's leading causes of disability. Delivery of drugs to the CNS is complicated by the blood-brain barriers that protect the brain from the unregulated leakage and entry of substances, including proteins, from the blood. Yet proteins represent one of the most promising classes of therapeutics for the treatment of CNS diseases. Many strategies for overcoming these obstacles are in development, but the relatively straightforward approach of bypassing these barriers through direct intrathecal administration has been largely overlooked. Originally discounted because of its lack of usefulness for delivering small, lipid-soluble drugs to the brain, the intrathecal route has emerged as a useful, in some cases perhaps the ideal, route of administration for certain therapeutic protein and targeted disease combinations. Here, we review blood-brain barrier functions and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and their relevance to drug delivery via the intrathecal route, discuss animal and human studies that have investigated intrathecal delivery of protein therapeutics, and outline several characteristics of protein therapeutics that can allow them to be successfully delivered intrathecally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrathecal ligaments and nerve root tension: possible sources of lumbar pain during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, David; Binhammer, Robert

    2004-04-01

    Lumbar intrathecal ligaments have recently been demonstrated to randomly bind dorsal nerve roots to the dura within the lumbar vertebral column. Lengthening of the vertebral column and associated lumbar back pain experienced by astronauts is common in microgravity. This study was designed to investigate the relationship of lumbar intrathecal ligaments in spinal lengthening as a possible mechanism for back pain. A two-part study was designed using 36 vertebral columns from embalmed cadavers. There were 12 vertebral columns studied in mid-sagittal section to demonstrate the possible movement of the spinal cord during lengthening of the vertebral column. The remainder were assessed for the amount of tension placed on a dorsal nerve root by the lumbar intrathecal ligament during lengthening of the vertebral column. The spinal cord moves in a cephalic direction approximately 2.8 mm with 4 cm lengthening of the vertebral column. During lengthening, a loss of thoracic and lordotic curvature was noted with an increase in disk height. Tension was significantly increased on the dorsal nerve roots being tethered by the lumbar intrathecal ligaments in comparison to non-tethered nerve roots during lengthening of the vertebral column. A significant amount of tension is placed on dorsal nerve roots tethered by intrathecal ligaments within the lumbar spine during spinal lengthening. These ligaments randomly bind dorsal nerve roots in the lumbar spine and may be involved in the back pain experienced by astronauts in microgravity.

  17. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Soellner, C; Bien, C G; Tumani, H

    2017-09-01

    To compare the frequency of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic'). Patients with epileptic (n = 301) and non-epileptic (n = 10) seizures were retrospectively screened for autochthonous intrathecal Ig synthesis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were detected in 8% of patients with epilepsies of unknown etiology, 5% of patients with first seizures of unknown cause and 0-4% of patients with epilepsy due to brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease or other etiologies. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were not seen in patients with psychogenic seizures. Identical OCBs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were more common in all patient groups (10-40% depending on underlying etiology). Intrathecal IgG synthesis/OCBs were observed slightly more frequently in patients with 'cryptogenic' epilepsy and with first seizures of unknown etiology than in other patient groups. However, this remained an infrequent finding and thus we could not confirm humoral immunity as a leading disease mechanism in patients with epilepsy in general or with unknown etiology in particular. © 2017 EAN.

  18. Thoracic Nerve Root Entrapment by Intrathecal Catheter Coiling: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing L; Loriaux, Daniel B; Tybout, Caroline; Kinon, Merritt D; Rahimpour, Shervin; Runyon, Scott L; Hopkins, Thomas J; Boortz-Marx, Richard L; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-03-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement has long-term therapeutic benefits in the management of chronic, intractable pain. Despite the diverse clinical applicability and rising prevalence of implantable drug delivery systems in pain medicine, the spectrum of complications associated with intrathecal catheterization remains largely understudied and underreported in the literature. To report a case of thoracic nerve root entrapment resulting from intrathecal catheter migration. Case report. Inpatient hospital service. A 60-year-old man status post implanted intrathecal (IT) catheter for intractable low back pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome returned to the operating room for removal of IT pump trial catheter after experiencing relapse of preoperative pain and pump occlusion. Initial attempt at ambulatory removal of the catheter was aborted after the patient reported acute onset of lower extremity radiculopathic pain during the extraction. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) subsequently revealed that the catheter had ascended and coiled around the T10 nerve root. The patient was taken back to the operating room for removal of the catheter under fluoroscopic guidance, with possible laminectomy for direct visualization. Removal was ultimately achieved with slow continuous tension, with complete resolution of the patient's new radicular symptoms. This report describes a single case report. This case demonstrates that any existing loops in the intrathecal catheter during initial implantation should be immediately re-addressed, as they can precipitate nerve root entrapment and irritation. Reduction of the loop or extrication of the catheter should be attempted under continuous fluoroscopic guidance to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity.

  19. Severe neurotoxicity associated to the intrathecal of metotreaxate and cytanobina in patients with tenkenic or lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Tena, J.; Lopez Andreu, J.A.; Verdeguer, A.; Menor, F.; Mulas, F.; Ferris, J.

    1995-01-01

    The prophylaxis and treatment of central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma with intrathecal chemotherapy have been related to severe neurotoxicity. At least 35 cases of subacute myeloencepthalopathy with transient a permanent paraplegia/quadriplegia have been reported. A comprehensive view of the literature and a description of a new case of intrathecal chemotherapy-related neurotoxicity is made. Among the cases reported in the literature, complete recovery was observed in 9 patients, partial recovery with variable sequelae in 6, no recovery in 8 and 13 patients died. Early cerebrospinal fluid exchange seems to be the only potentially effective approach although not universally accepted. The rarity of this toxicity and the proved efficacy of the intrathecal chemotherapy justify its use

  20. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  1. Intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine-fentanyl versus intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl for labor analgesia: A controlled comparative double-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenoti Pramod Potdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Neuraxial analgesia and walking epidural is the popular method of practicing labor analgesia. The combination of local anesthetic and opioid is advantageous as it prolongs the duration of labor analgesia. Ropivacaine is the newer local anesthetic agent having lesser motor effects and toxic effects hence would be preferred for labor analgesia. Aims: The primary objective of the study was to assess the duration of analgesia of the intrathecal drug. The secondary objective was the assessment of onset, fixation of analgesia, motor weakness, ambulation, sedation, incidence of side-effects, maternal, and neonatal outcomes. Settings and Design: This is prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, study of 120 patients consenting for labor analgesia. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 primiparas with a singleton pregnancy in active labor who were given combined spinal epidural (CSE were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to three groups of 40 each and received CSE. Group F-received 25 μcg fentanyl intrathecally. Group BF-received 25 μcg fentanyl with 2.5 mg isobaric bupivacaine intrathecally. Group RF-received 25 μcg fentanyl with 2.5 mg isobaric ropivacaine intrathecally. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlations among different measurements were assessed using Pearson′s correlation coefficients, P <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The three groups show comparable demographic data and obstetric parameters. The duration of spinal analgesia was significantly greater with Group RF 106.63 ± 17.99 min and Group BF 111.75 ± 23.58 min than the control Group F which was 60 ± 10.39 min with P = 0.001, but were comparable for Group BF and RF. The secondary outcome was comparable in all the three groups. Conclusions: The addition of bupivacaine or ropivacaine to fentanyl intrathecally increased duration and quality of analgesia, did not affect ambulation and bearing down. The

  2. Effects of intrathecal lidocaine on hyperalgesia and allodynia following chronic constriction injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Gu, Yiwen; Su, Diansan; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Xiangrui

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different doses of intrathecal lidocaine on established thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, defined the effective drug dose range, the duration of pain-relief effects, and the influence of this treatment on the body and tissues. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and received intrathecal saline or lidocaine (2, 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg) 7 days after loose sciatic ligation. Respiratory depression and hemodynamic instability were found to become more severe as doses of lidocaine increased during intrathecal therapy. Two animals in the group receiving 35 mg/kg lidocaine developed pulmonary oedema and died. Behavioral tests indicated that 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg intrathecal lidocaine showed different degrees of reversal of thermal hyperalgesia, and lasted for 2-8 days, while 2 mg/kg lidocaine did not. The inhibition of tactile allodynia was only observed in rats receiving 15 and 35 mg/kg lidocaine, and the anti-allodynic effects were identical in these two groups. Histopathologic examinations on the spinal cords revealed mild changes in rats receiving 2-15 mg/kg lidocaine. However, lesions were severe after administration of 35 mg/kg lidocaine. These findings indicate that intrathecal lidocaine has prolonged therapeutic effects on established neuropathic pain. The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities could be well preserved in most cases, except for 35 mg/kg. Considering the ratio between useful effects and side effects, doses of 15 mg/kg are suitable for intrathecal injection for relief of neuropathic pain.

  3. Transdermal nitroglycerine enhances postoperative analgesia of intrathecal neostigmine following abdominal hysterectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of nitroglycerine (transdermal on intrathecal neostigmine with bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia and note the incidence of adverse effects, if any. After taking informed consent, 120 patients of ASA Grade I and II were systematically randomised into four groups of 30 each. Patients were premedicated with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously and hydration with Ringer′s lactate solution 10ml/kg preoperatively in the holding room. Group I patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline and transdermal placebo patch. Group II patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5 mcg of neostigmine and transdermal placebo patch. Group III patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline with transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours. Group IV patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5mcg of neostigmine and transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours, applied on a non anaesthetised area after 20 minutes. Groups were demographically similar and did not differ in intraoperative characteristics like sensory block, motor block, haemodynamic parameters and SpO 2 . The mean duration of analgesia was 202.17 minutes, 407.20 minutes, 207.53 minutes and 581.63 minutes in control group (I, neostigmine group (II, nitroglycerine group (III and nitroglycerine neostigmine group (IV respectively (P< 0.01. To conclude, our results show that transdermal nitroglycerine itself does not show any analgesic potential but it enhances the analgesic potential of intrathecal neostigmine.

  4. Intrathecal Catheterization and Drug Delivery in Guinea Pigs: A Small-animal Model for Morphine-evoked Granuloma Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddinger, Kelly A; Rondon, Eric S; Shubayev, Veronica I; Grafe, Marjorie R; Scadeng, Miriam; Hildebrand, Keith R; Page, Linda M; Malkmus, Shelle A; Steinauer, Joanne J; Yaksh, Tony L

    2016-08-01

    Intrathecal infusion of opioids in dogs, sheep, and humans produces local space-occupying masses. To develop a small-animal model, the authors examined effects of intrathecal catheterization and morphine infusion in guinea pigs. Under isoflurane, polyethylene or polyurethane catheters were advanced from the cisterna magna to the lumbar enlargement. Drugs were delivered as a bolus through the externalized catheter or continuously by subcutaneous minipumps. Hind paw withdrawal to a thermal stimulus was assessed. Spinal histopathology was systematically assessed in a blinded fashion. To assist in determining catheter placement, ex vivo images were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging in several animals. Canine spinal tissue from previous intrathecal morphine studies was analyzed in parallel. (1) Polyethylene (n = 30) and polyurethane (n = 25) catheters were implanted in the lumbar intrathecal space. (2) Bolus intrathecal morphine produced a dose-dependent (20 to 40 μg/10 μl) increase in thermal escape latencies. (3) Absent infusion, a catheter-associated distortion of the spinal cord and a fibrotic investment were noted along the catheter tract (polyethylene > polyurethane). (4) Intrathecal morphine infusion (25 mg/ml/0.5 μl/h for 14 days) resulted in intrathecal masses (fibroblasts, interspersed collagen, lymphocytes, and macrophages) arising from meninges proximal to the catheter tip in both polyethylene- and polyurethane-catheterized animals. This closely resembles mass histopathology from intrathecal morphine canine studies. Continuous intrathecal infusion of morphine leads to pericatheter masses that morphologically resemble those observed in dogs and humans. This small-animal model may be useful for studying spinal drug toxicology in general and the biology of intrathecal granuloma formation in particular.

  5. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Practical considerations and patient selection for intrathecal drug delivery in the management of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulino M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Saulino,1,2 Philip S Kim,3,4 Erik Shaw5 1MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE, USA; 4Center for Interventional Pain Spine, LLC., Bryn Mawr, PA, USA; 5Shepherd Pain Institute, Shepherd Center, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Chronic pain continues to pose substantial and growing challenges for patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and health care systems. By the time a patient with severe refractory pain sees a pain specialist for evaluation and management, that patient has likely tried and failed several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to pain treatment. Although relegated to one of the interventions of “last resort”, intrathecal drug delivery can be useful for improving pain control, optimizing patient functionality, and minimizing the use of systemic pain medications in appropriately selected patients. Due to its clinical and logistical requirements, however, intrathecal drug delivery may fit poorly into the classic pain clinic/interventional model and may be perceived as a "critical mass" intervention that is feasible only for large practices that have specialized staff and appropriate office resources. Potentially, intrathecal drug delivery may be more readily adopted into larger practices that can commit the necessary staff and resources to support patients' needs through the trialing, initiation, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of this therapy. Currently, two agents – morphine and ziconotide – are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for long-term intrathecal delivery. The efficacy and safety profiles of morphine have been assessed in long-term, open-label, and retrospective studies of >400 patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain types. The efficacy and safety profiles of ziconotide have been

  7. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation

  8. Intrathecal nalbuphine versus intrathecal fentanyl as adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for orthopedic surgery of lower limbs under subarachnoid block: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subarachnoid block (SAB possesses many benefits with a drawback of short duration of anesthetic action. Intrathecal opioids have been used to enhance the clinical efficiency and duration of action of local anesthetic drugs. The present study was aimed to compare the clinical efficiency of intrathecal fentanyl with nalbuphine as adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for orthopedic surgery of lower limbs. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II of both gender aged 25-65 years were randomized into two groups of 34 each to receive either fentanyl 25 μg (Group I or nalbuphine 2 mg (Group II with 3.5 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, making intrathecal drug volume to 4 mL in each group. Sensory and motor block characteristics and time to first rescue analgesic (intravenous tramadol 100 mg were recorded as the primary end points. Drug-related side effects of pruritus, nausea/vomiting, and respiratory depression were recorded as the secondary outcomes. Results: Both groups were comparable regarding the onset and cephalic extension of block. The time to two dermatome regressions and time for complete motor recovery were significantly prolonged in patients of Group II with statistical significant difference (P < 0.05. Duration of analgesia was also extended in patients of Group II (378.0 ± 35.72 min as compared to Group I (234.0 ± 24.10 min with highly significant difference (P < 0.001. No drug-related side effects were observed in either group. Conclusion: Intrathecal nalbuphine 2 mg as adjuvant to 0.5% bupivacaine was clinically more efficient than fentanyl for enhancing the postoperative analgesia.

  9. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  10. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  11. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  12. Durable treatment response of relapsing CNS plasmacytoma using intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and Daratumumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassadi, Ezzat; Murphy, Maurice; Hacking, Dayle; Farrell, Michael

    2018-04-01

    CNS myelomatous involvement is a rare complication of multiple myeloma with dismal outcome. This disease's optimal treatment is unclear. Combined approach of systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and intrathecal injections chemotherapy should be considered and autologous stem cell transplant consolidation is offered to eligible patients. The role of Daratumumab in this disease deserves further evaluation.

  13. Positive experience with intrathecal baclofen treatment in children with severe cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Tinett Martesen; Kjærsgaard-Hansen, Lars; Søe, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment of severe spasticity and dystonia with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in children has been shown to be effective and has therefore been employed in the Region of Southern Denmark. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the efficacy and adverse events since ITB was ...

  14. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  15. Intrathecal sufentanil versus fentanyl for lower limb surgeries - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Motiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:To compare the efficacy and safety of intrathecal sufentanil or fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine in patients undergoing major orthopaedic lower limb surgeries in terms of onset and duration of sensory block, motor block and post-operative pain relief. Patients & Methods: Ninety patients were recruited in this Prospective, randomized double blind study to receive either intrathecal sufentanil 5 μg (Group S, fentanyl 25 μg (Group F or normal saline 0.5 ml (Group C as adjuvants to 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were assessed intraoperatively. The pain scores were assessed postoperatively. Duration of complete and effective analgesia was recorded. The incidence of side effects such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus, shivering and PDPH was recorded. Results: The Demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were comparable in the three groups. There was a significantly earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory block in the sufentanil and fentanyl groups. The duration of complete and effective analgesia were also significantly prolonged in the fentanyl and sufentanil groups. Pruritus was noticed in the study groups (Groups S&F. Conclusions: Intrathecal sufentanil (5 μg and fentanyl (25 μg, as adjuvants lead to an earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory block. The duration of effective analgesia with intrathecal sufentanil and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine is longer than that of bupivacaine alone.

  16. The effects of intrathecal midazolam on the duration of analgesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2 mg preservative-free intrathecal midazolam added to spinal bupivacaine during postoperative analgesia, and the incidence of adverse effects, if any, in patients undergoing knee arthroscopies. Method: Fifty consenting American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical ...

  17. Liposomal Cytarabine Induces Less Neurocognitive Dysfunction Than Intrathecal Methotrexate in an Animal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anna M; Gulinello, Maria E; Wen, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Liposomal cytarabine is currently being tested clinically as an alternative to intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) for preventing relapse within the central nervous system among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To compare the toxicity and cognitive deficits caused by IT MTX versus lipo...

  18. Catheter Migration After Implantationan Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion Pump for Severe Spasticity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Chou Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intrathecal baclofen infusion pump implantation complicated by migration of the catheter tip. A 55-year-old man required an intrathecal baclofen infusion for severe spasticity 4 years after a cervical spinal cord injury with incomplete tetraparesis. Twelve months after initial implantation of the device, the patient began to experience a recurrence of trunk tightness and spasticity. Subsequent X-ray and computed tomography evaluations of the catheter system revealed pooling of contrast medium outside of the intrathecal distribution in the lumbar subcutaneous region of the back and therefore migration of the pump catheter tip. At surgical revision, emphasis was placed on minimizing the length of catheter outside of the spine and securing the catheter in the supraspinous fascia with a right-angled anchor. The distance between the anchors and the entry point of the catheter into the supraspinous fascia was also reduced to prevent slipping when the patient bends forward. After surgery, the patient's spasticity improved and, 1 year later, he has experienced no further complications during follow-up, requiring an average baclofen dose of 150 mg/day. Here, we describe several surgical methods intended to secure the intrathecal catheter and prevent catheter migration. Other complications related to catheter failure are also highlighted.

  19. Efficacy of intrathecal baclofen delivery in the management of severe spasticity in upper motor neuron syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, Johan Swanik; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    In the treatment of patients with severe spasticity, intrathecal administration of baclofen (ITB) was introduced in order to exert its effect directly at the receptor sites in the spinal cord, and have better therapeutic efficacy with smaller drug doses compared to oral antispasmodic medications.

  20. CT examination after intrathecal or intraventricular application of metrizamide in 110 patients for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakow, D.

    1983-01-01

    The CT scans were done in 110 patients for examination of the liquor carrying cerebral brain compartments, especially the cisterns, after intrathecal application of the radiopaque medium metrizamide. The properties of the medium are explained in detail. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the

  2. Intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cell preparations in parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Alexander; Csoti, Ilona; Eggert, Karla

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of patients is treated with intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cells (aBMCs), but clinical data are completely lacking in movement disorders. We provide first clinical data on efficacy and safety of this highly experimental treatment approach in parkinsonian...

  3. Comparative Study of Intrathecal Dexamethasone with Epinephrine as Adjuvants to Lidocaine in Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Naziri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used with local anesthetics to provide prolonged duration of sensory block in spinal anesthesia. The aim of present study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory block of intrathecal dexamethasone and epinephrine as adjuvants to lidocaine in patients who were candidate for cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial research was conducted on 90 pregnant women candidate for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive intrathecally either 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine plus 100 μg epinephrine or 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine plus 4 mg dexamethasone or 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine. The onset and duration of sensory block as well as postoperative analgesia were assessed. Results: The time to reach the peak sensory block in lidocaine group was shorter than that of other two groups (p<0.001. Duration of sensory block in the control group, dexamethasone group, and epinephrine group were 64.16±7.99 min, 74.79±12.78 min, and 99.30±10.93 min, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: The present research shows that intrathecal dexamethasone and intrathecal epinephrine as adjuvant to lidocaine increases sensory block duration in the women candidate for cesarean section.

  4. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, M.A.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; Ament, A.J.H.A.; van Raak, E.P.M.; Becher, J.G.; Rotteveel, J.; Vles, J.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In a Dutch national study, we recently established the effectiveness and safety of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion (CITB) in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Because prospective studies on the cost-effectiveness of CITB in children with spastic CP are lacking, we

  5. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, M.A.; Evers, S.M.; Ament, A.J.; Raak, E.P. van; Vles, J.S.; Becher, J.G.; Vermeulen, R.; Brouwer, O.F.; Maathuis, C.G.B.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Gerritsen, J.; Geerts, M.J.; Jongerius, P.H.; Nieuwenhuizen, O.F.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Speth, L.A.; Stroink, H.; Ziel, E.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    In a Dutch national study, we recently established the effectiveness and safety of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion (CITB) in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Because prospective studies on the cost-effectiveness of CITB in children with spastic CP are lacking, we

  6. Effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy on motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sadahiro; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Kida, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Yuichi; Imoto, Hirochika; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) arises in the early stages of brain development and manifests as spastic paresis that is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. Available CP treatments are aimed at the management of spasticity and include botulinum toxin administration, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and intrathecal baclofen (ITB). In this study, the authors investigated whether the management of spasticity with ITB therapy affected motor function and whether the release of spasticity was associated with an improvement in intellectual function. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: control, CP model, and CP model with ITB therapy. For the CP model, postnatal Day 7 (P7) rats were exposed to hypoxic conditions (8% O(2)) for 150 minutes after ligation of the right common carotid artery. In the groups receiving ITB therapy, a spinal catheter was connected to an osmotic pump filled with baclofen and placed in the spinal subarachnoid space on P21 in the early group and on P35 in the late group. A daily dose of 12 μg of baclofen was continuously administered until P49, resulting in 28 days of therapy in the early group and 14 days in the late group. Changes in spasticity in the CP and CP with ITB treatment groups were confirmed by assessing the motor evoked potential in the plantar muscle. In the CP group, the time required to complete a beam-walking test on P49 was significantly longer than that in the control and ITB treatment groups (4.15 ± 0.60 vs 2.10 ± 0.18 and 2.22 ± 0.22 seconds, respectively). Results of the beam-walking test are expressed as the mean ± SD. Radial arm maze performance on P49 indicated that spatial reference memory had significantly deteriorated in the CP group compared with controls (2.33 ± 0.87 vs 0.86 ± 0.90 points); moreover, working memory was also negatively affected by CP (0.78 ± 1.09 vs 0.14 ± 0.38 points). Results of the memory tests are expressed as the mean ± SE. These memory functions did not recover after

  7. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  8. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  9. Agriculture products as source of radionuclides and some monitoring principles of agriculture near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakhin, R.M.; Korneev, N.A.; Panteleev, L.I.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    Migration of radionuclides into agriculture products in regions adjoining the nuclear facilities depends on a large number of factors. Among them is the complex of ecological conditions: meteorological factors, type of soils etc., as well as biological peculiarities of agriculture plants and animals. It is possible to control the radionuclide content administered to man's organism with agriculture products changing large branches of agriculture and varying within the range of seprate branches of industry, taking into account the most effective ways of radionuclide pathways

  10. Ultrasound Pulsed-Wave Doppler Detects an Intrathecal Location of an Epidural Catheter Tip: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Saasouh, Wael; Patel, Bimal; Babazade, Rovnat

    2018-04-01

    Currently, no gold standard method exists for localization of an epidural catheter after placement. The technique described in this report uses pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasound to identify intrathecal location of an epidural catheter. A thoracic epidural catheter was inserted after multiple trials with inconclusive aspiration and test dose. Ultrasound PWD confirmed no flow in the epidural space and positive flow in the intrathecal space. A fluid aspirate was positive for glucose, reconfirming intrathecal placement. PWD is a potential tool that can be used to locate the tip of an epidural catheter.

  11. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.; Eppinger-Helft, M.; Braier, J.; Vergara, B.; Garay, G.; Kvicala, R.; Divito, J.M.; Failace, R.

    1983-08-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count < 50,000 and in the untreated group was 11%. In patients with a WBC count > 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count < 50,000 was 20% in the irradiated group and 32% in the group with i.t. MTX-DMT alone. The relapse-free survival at 60 mo was 26% and 41%, respectively, (p < 0.0005). The incidence in patients with a WBC count > 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation.

  12. Intrathecal baclofen in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury: complications and long-term dosage evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draulans, Nathalie; Vermeersch, Kristof; Degraeuwe, Bart; Meurrens, Tom; Peers, Koen; Nuttin, Bart; Kiekens, Carlotte

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the long-term dosage evolution and complication rate of intrathecal baclofen use in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, based on a large population with a long follow-up. Retrospective data analysis. Academic hospital. Patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 81) or spinal cord injury (n = 49) having an intrathecal baclofen pump implanted at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1988 and 2009. Medical records review of included patients in August 2010. Complications linked to intrathecal baclofen therapy. Daily baclofen dosage after 3 and 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Data on dosage evolution were analysed using a mixed-effect linear model. In 130 patients with a mean follow-up of 63 months, comprising 797 pump years, 104 complications were recorded. This corresponds to a complication rate of 0.011 per month, equally divided among both groups. Seventy-eight of these complications were catheter related. The mean dosage of baclofen stabilizes two years after implantation at 323 µg/day in the multiple sclerosis population. In spinal cord injury patients the daily dose only stabilizes after five years at a significantly higher dosage (504 µg/day). No significant increase in dosage is seen in the long term. In multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, intrathecal baclofen therapy has a complication rate of 1% per month. Complications are mainly due to catheter-related problems (74%). The intrathecal baclofen dosage stabilizes in the long term, indicating that long-term tolerance, defined as progressive diminution of the susceptibility to the effects of a drug, is not present.

  13. Evaluating glymphatic pathway function utilizing clinically relevant intrathecal infusion of CSF tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Kress, Benjamin T; Weber, Harris J; Thiyagarajan, Meenakshisundaram; Wang, Baozhi; Deane, Rashid; Benveniste, Helene; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-05-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's are associated with the aggregation of endogenous peptides and proteins that contribute to neuronal dysfunction and loss. The glymphatic system, a brain-wide perivascular pathway along which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) rapidly exchange, has recently been identified as a key contributor to the clearance of interstitial solutes from the brain, including amyloid β. These findings suggest that measuring changes in glymphatic pathway function may be an important prognostic for evaluating neurodegenerative disease susceptibility or progression. However, no clinically acceptable approach to evaluate glymphatic pathway function in humans has yet been developed. Time-sequenced ex vivo fluorescence imaging of coronal rat and mouse brain slices was performed at 30-180 min following intrathecal infusion of CSF tracer (Texas Red- dextran-3, MW 3 kD; FITC- dextran-500, MW 500 kD) into the cisterna magna or lumbar spine. Tracer influx into different brain regions (cortex, white matter, subcortical structures, and hippocampus) in rat was quantified to map the movement of CSF tracer following infusion along both routes, and to determine whether glymphatic pathway function could be evaluated after lumbar intrathecal infusion. Following lumbar intrathecal infusions, small molecular weight TR-d3 entered the brain along perivascular pathways and exchanged broadly with the brain ISF, consistent with the initial characterization of the glymphatic pathway in mice. Large molecular weight FITC-d500 remained confined to the perivascular spaces. Lumbar intrathecal infusions exhibited a reduced and delayed peak parenchymal fluorescence intensity compared to intracisternal infusions. Lumbar intrathecal contrast delivery is a clinically useful approach that could be used in conjunction with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI nuclear imaging to assess glymphatic pathway function in humans.

  14. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  15. Efficacy and Toxicity of Intrathecal Liposomal Cytarabine in First-line Therapy of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Harila-Saari, Arja; Grell, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated efficacy and toxicity of replacing conventional triple (cytarabine, methotrexate, and hydrocortisone) intrathecal therapy (TIT) with liposomal cytarabine during maintenance therapy among 40 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Twenty-eight of 29 patients in the TIT arm received...

  16. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  17. Comparative study of clindamycin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous and intrathecal administration in patients with toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Петрович Борщов

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: to study the difference of clindamycin concentration in CSF at the intravenous and combined (intrathecal + intravenous ways of administration of preparation.Materials and methods: study was carried out at the treatment of 11 HIV-positive patients 27-63 years old (men and women with toxoplasmic meningoencephalitises.There was measured the clindamycin concentration in CSF of every patient after intravenous and combined (intrathecal + intravenous ways of administration of preparation. The determinations of concentration were done by the way of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with ultraviolet (UV detection. Statistic processing of the received data was carried out using the Wilcoxon criterion.Results of research. There was received the statistically significant increase of clindamycin concentration in CSF of patients in a day after combined (intrathecal + intravenous administration of preparation comparing with an intravenous administration.Conclusions. 1. Intrathecal administration of 150 mg. of clindamycin with 8 mg. of dexamethasone is safe.2. Intrathecal administration of 150 mg. of clindamycin with 8 mg. of dexamethasone in combination with an intravenous administration of preparation leads to statistically significant increase of clindamycin concentration in CSF at least during a day after injection.3. Intrathecal administration of clindamycin with dexamethasone in offered doses can be recommended for treatment of meningoencephalitises that caused by microorganisms susceptible to clindamycin.4. If the therapy of toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis was started with an intravenous prescription of clindamycin it is recommended an additional treatment with an intrathecal administration of clindamycin with dexamethasone in offered doses to increase efficiency by creating an effective concentration of preparation in the nidus of infection.5. Intrathecal methods of therapy must be used by the specialists of

  18. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  19. The antinociceptive effects of Monechma ciliatum and changes in EEG waves following oral and intrathecal administration in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraiyebu, Ajibola B.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; O, Odeh S.

    2010-02-01

    The research work was carried out to study the effect of Oral and Intrathecal Monechma Ciliatum on antinociception and EEG readings in Wistar Rats. Traditionally the extract is given to women in labour believed to reduce pain and ease parturition, though past works show that it has oesteogenic and oxytotic effects. The rats were divided into 5 major groups. Group 1 served as oral control group while groups 2 and 3 served as oral experimental groups and were treated with 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg monechma ciliatum respectively. Group 4 served as intrathecal control group treated with intrathecal dextrose and group 5 received 1000mg/kg Monechma Ciliatrum intrathecally. The antinociceptive effect was analysed using a Von Frey's aesthesiometer. Monechma Ciliatum showed significant antinociceptive effect both orally and intrathecally, although it had a greater effect orally and during the first 15 minutes of intrathecal administration. EEG readings were also taken for all the groups and there was a decrease in amplitude and an increase in frequency for high dose (1000mg/ml) experimental groups and the mid brain electrodes produced a change from theta waves (3.5 - 7 waves per second) to alpha waves (7.5 - 13 waves per second) as seen in relaxed persons and caused decreased amplitudes and change in distribution seen in beta waves. Properties similarly accentuated by sedativehypnotic drugs.

  20. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  1. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  3. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  4. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  5. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  7. Respiratory failure following delayed intrathecal morphine pump refill: a valuable, but costly lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu; Couch, J Patrick; Liu, HaiNan; Shah, Rinoo V; Wang, Frank; Chiravuri, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Spinal analgesia, mediated by opioid receptors, requires only a fraction of the opioid dose that is needed systemically. By infusing a small amount of opioid into the cerebrospinal fluid in close proximity to the receptor sites in the spinal cord, profound analgesia may be achieved while sparing some of the side effects due to systemic opioids. Intraspinal drug delivery (IDD) has been increasingly used in patients with intractable chronic pain, when these patients have developed untoward side effects with systemic opioid usage. The introduction of intrathecal opioids has been considered one of the most important breakthroughs in pain management in the past three decades. A variety of side effects associated with the long-term usage of IDD have been recognized. Among them, respiratory depression is the most feared. To describe a severe adverse event, i.e., respiratory failure, following delayed intrathecal morphine pump refill. A 65-year-old woman with intractable chronic low back pain, due to degenerative disc disease, and was referred to our clinic for an intraspinal drug delivery evaluation, after failing to respond to multidisciplinary pain treatment. Following a psychological evaluation confirming her candidacy, she underwent an outpatient patient-controlled continuous epidural morphine infusion trial. The infusion trial lasted 12 days and was beneficial in controlling her pain. The patient reported more than 90% pain reduction with improved distance for ambulation. She subsequently consented and was scheduled for permanent intrathecal morphine pump implantation. The intrathecal catheter was inserted at right paramedian L3-L4, with catheter tip advanced to L1, confirmed under fluoroscopy. Intrathecal catheter placement was confirmed by positive CSF flow and by myelogram. A non-programmable Codman 3000 constant-flow rate infusion pump was placed in the right mid quandrant between right rib cage and right iliac crest. The intrathecal infusion consisted of

  8. Chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2: differential involvement in intrathecal inflammation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T.L.; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C.V.

    2001-01-01

    leukocyte count, the CSF concentration of neopterin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and intrathecal IgG and IgM synthesis. The concentration of CCL2 increased between baseline for 3 weeks in both groups, more distinctly so in patients treated with methylprednisolone. CCL2 correlated negatively with MMP-9...... patients in relapse, whilst levels of CCL2 (MCP-1) were reduced. Here, we report a serial analysis of CSF CXCL10 and CCL2 concentrations in 22 patients with attacks of MS or acute optic neuritis (ON) treated with methylprednisolone, and 26 patients treated with placebo in two randomized controlled trials....... Chemokine concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in CSF obtained at baseline and after 3 weeks, and were compared with other measures of intrathecal inflammation. At baseline CSF concentrations of CCL2 were significantly lower in the patient group than in controls...

  9. Use of Intrathecal Fluorescein in Recurrent Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tandon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the cochlea and labyrinth can be associated with meningitis and varying degrees of hearing loss or deafness. Despite antibiotics, meningitis remains a life threatening complication.   Case Report: We report a case of recurrent meningitis following episodes of otitis media in a cochlear implantee child with bilateral vestibulocochlear malformation, due to fistula in the stapes footplate. Intrathecal fluorescin was used to identify the leak site.   Conclusion:  Recurrent meningitis can indicate for possible immunological or anatomical abnormalities as well for chronic parameningeal infections. Intraoperative use of intrathecal fluorescin is an ideal investigative tool to demonstrate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak site in patients in whom other investigations fail to do so.

  10. Prolonged Survival of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Intrathecal Treatments for Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Gorshein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is commonly cured when diagnosed in the pediatric population. It portends a poorer prognosis if present in adult patients. Although adults frequently achieve complete remission, relapse rates are substantial, particularly among the elderly and high-risk populations. In the absence of prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy, more than half of patients may develop CNS involvement or relapse, which is associated with significant risk for systemic illness. This report describes a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with repeated isolated CNS relapses. This case should remind clinicians that isolated CNS disease in the absence of systemic recurrence could successfully respond to intrathecal therapy and offer patients a favorable quality of life.

  11. Single-dose volume regulation algorithm for a gas-compensated intrathecal infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Kwang Gi; Sung, Mun Hyun; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Dae Hyun; Jo, Yung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The internal pressures of medication reservoirs of gas-compensated intrathecal medication infusion pumps decrease when medication is discharged, and these discharge-induced pressure drops can decrease the volume of medication discharged. To prevent these reductions, the volumes discharged must be adjusted to maintain the required dosage levels. In this study, the authors developed an automatic control algorithm for an intrathecal infusion pump developed by the Korean National Cancer Center that regulates single-dose volumes. The proposed algorithm estimates the amount of medication remaining and adjusts control parameters automatically to maintain single-dose volumes at predetermined levels. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can regulate mean single-dose volumes with a variation of 98%. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  13. Intrathecal antitetanus serum (horse) with steroid in the treatment of neonatal tetanus.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A K; Bansal, A; Goel, S P; Agarwal, V K

    1980-01-01

    107 patients with neonatal tetanus were studied and the value of intrathecal antitetanus serum with steroid was noted. The mortality rate in a control group (68%) was significantly higher than that of the test group (37%). Furthermore, a delay in antitetanus serum administration was found to have a strong positive linear correlation with the mortality rate. In fact, the mortality rate for neonates who were given antitetanus serum 24 hours after the onset of convulsions was found to be as high...

  14. The effect of posture and baricity on the spread of intrathecal bupivacaine for elective cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallworth, Stephen P; Fernando, Roshan; Columb, Malachy O; Stocks, Gary M

    2005-04-01

    Posture and baricity during induction of spinal anesthesia with intrathecal drugs are believed to be important in determining spread within the cerebrospinal fluid. In this double-blind prospective study, 150 patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomized to receive a hyperbaric, isobaric, or hypobaric intrathecal solution of 10 mg bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia induced in either the sitting or right lateral position. After an intrathecal injection using a combined-spinal technique patients were placed in the supine wedged position. We determined the densities of the three intrathecal solutions from a previously validated formula and measured using a DMA-450 density meter. Data collection included sensory level, motor block, episodes of hypotension, and ephedrine use. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and Cuzick's trend. In the lateral position, baricity had no effect on the spread of sensory levels for bupivacaine compared to the sitting position, where there was a statistically significant difference in spread with the hypobaric solution producing higher levels of analgesia than the hyperbaric solution (P = 0.002). However, the overall differences in maximal spread only differed by one dermatome, with the hyperbaric solution achieving a median maximum sensory level to T3 compared with T2 for the isobaric and hypobaric solutions. Motor block was significantly (P = 0.029) reduced with increasing baricity and this trend was significant (P = 0.033) for the lateral position only. Hypotension incidence and ephedrine use increased with decreasing baricity (P = 0.003 and 0.004 respectively), with the hypobaric sitting group having the most frequent incidence of hypotension (76%) as well as cervical blocks (24%; P = 0.032).

  15. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Moriyama

    Full Text Available Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure.Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS.Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7% of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011 and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023 as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication.Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS.

  16. Intrathecal morphine is superior to intravenous PCA in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirojit Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of low dose intrathecal morphine on postoperative analgesia, over the use of intravenous patient controlled anesthesia (PCA, in patients undergoing fast track anesthesia during minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken after approval from local ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from 61 patients receiving mitral or tricuspid or both surgical valve repair in minimal invasive technique. Patients were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Group 1 received general anesthesia and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump with Piritramide (GA group. Group 2 received a single shot of intrathecal morphine (1.5 μg/kg body weight prior to the administration of general anesthesia (ITM group. Site of puncture was confined to lumbar (L1-2 or L2-3 intrathecal space. The amount of intravenous piritramide used in post anesthesia care unit (PACU and the first postoperative day was defined as primary end point. Secondary end points included: time for tracheal extubation, pain and sedation scores in PACU upto third postoperative day. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney-U Test and Fishers exact test (SPSS were used. We found that the demand for intravenous opioids in PACU was significantly reduced in ITM group (P <0.001. Pain scores were significantly decreased in ITM group until second postoperative day (P <0.01. There was no time delay for tracheal extubation in ITM group, and sedation scores did not differ in either group. We conclude that low dose single shot intrathecal morphine provides adequate postoperative analgesia, reduces the intravenous opioid consumption during the early postoperative period and does not defer early extubation.

  17. Resolution of chronic migraine headaches with intrathecal ziconotide: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narain S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sachin Narain,1 Lama Al-Khoury,2 Eric Chang3–6 1Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Neurosurgery, 5Department of Orthopedics, 6Reeve-Irvine Research Center for Spinal Cord Injury, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA Background: Migraine headaches are a common and functionally debilitating disorder affecting approximately 17% of women and 5.6% of men. Compared to episodic migraine patients, chronic migraineurs are more likely to be occupationally disabled, miss family activities, have comorbid anxiety and/or chronic pain disorders, and utilize significantly more health care dollars. Ziconotide is a calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of chronic severe pain without issues of tolerance or dependency found with opioid therapy. Case: A 59-year-old female had an intrathecal baclofen pump placed for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis. Her symptoms also included lower extremity neuropathic pain and severe migraine headaches with 22 migraine headache days per month. Prior treatments included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, and Botox injections which reduced her symptoms to four migraine days per month at best. While her spasticity had markedly improved with intrathecal baclofen, ziconotide was added to help her neuropathic pain complaints. Following initiation of low-dose ziconotide (1 µg/day, the patient noted both lower extremity pain improvement and complete resolution of migraine headaches resulting in zero migraine days per month. She has now been migraine free for 8 months. Conclusion: Upon review of the available literature, there are no published cases of migraine improvement with intrathecal ziconotide. This represents the first case describing resolution of migraine symptoms with low-dose ziconotide. Keywords: ziconotide, migraine, symptoms, chronic

  18. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological

  19. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  20. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  1. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  2. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  3. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  4. Intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy reduces lysosomal storage in the brain and meninges of the canine model of MPS I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkis, E; McEntee, M; Vogler, C; Le, S; Levy, B; Belichenko, P; Mobley, W; Dickson, P; Hanson, S; Passage, M

    2004-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been developed for several lysosomal storage disorders, including mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), and is effective at reducing lysosomal storage in many tissues and in ameliorating clinical disease. However, intravenous ERT does not adequately treat storage disease in the central nervous system (CNS), presumably due to effects of the blood-brain barrier on enzyme distribution. To circumvent this barrier, we studied whether intrathecal (IT) recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) could penetrate and treat the brain and meninges. An initial dose-response study showed that doses of 0.46-4.14 mg of IT rhIDU successfully penetrated the brain of normal dogs and reached tissue levels 5.6 to 18.9-fold normal overall and 2.7 to 5.9-fold normal in deep brain sections lacking CSF contact. To assess the efficacy and safety in treating lysosomal storage disease, four weekly doses of approximately 1 mg of IT rhIDU were administered to MPS I-affected dogs resulting in a mean 23- and 300-fold normal levels of iduronidase in total brain and meninges, respectively. Quantitative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis showed that the IT treatment reduced mean total brain GAG to normal levels and achieved a 57% reduction in meningeal GAG levels accompanied by histologic improvement in lysosomal storage in all cell types. The dogs did develop a dose-dependent immune response against the recombinant human protein and a meningeal lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrate. The IT route of ERT administration may be an effective way to treat the CNS disease in MPS I and could be applicable to other lysosomal storage disorders.

  5. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  6. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  7. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Monotherapy with a Retrograde Catheter for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, W Porter; Apostol, Catalina; Haleem, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity. The patient, a 57-year-old woman with a history of failed foot surgery, was seen in our office after 2 years of ineffective treatments with local blocks and neurolytic procedures. We advanced therapy to moderately invasive procedures with an emphasis on neuromodulation. A combined central and peripheral stimulation technique that initially provided 75% pain relief, failed to provide lasting analgesia. We proceeded with an intrathecal pump implant. Based on the results of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mapping, L5-S1 was identified as the optimal target for therapy and a retrograde catheter was placed at this level. Various intrathecal medications were tested individually. An intrathecal morphine trial was ineffective (visual analog scale [VAS] 7), while intrathecal clonidine provided excellent pain relief (VAS 0) that was limited by severe side effects. Bupivacaine provided 100% analgesia with tolerable side effects (lower extremity weakness and minor bladder incontinence) and was selected for intrathecal infusion. After 14 months, bupivacaine treatment continued to control pain exacerbations. We conclude that CRPS patients benefit from early identification of the predominant underlying symptoms and a targeted treatment with moderately invasive techniques when less invasive techniques fail. Intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine monotherapy, retrograde catheter, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dual stimulation, dosal root ganglion (DRG) testing.

  8. Intrathecal morphine for postoperative analgesia in patients with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripi, Paul A; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Potzman, Jennifer; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Thompson, George H

    2008-09-15

    A retrospective study of postoperative pain management with intrathecal morphine. Identify the dosing regimen of intrathecal morphine that safely and effectively provides postoperative analgesia with minimal complications in patients with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI). Postoperative pain after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis is a concern. Intrathecal morphine has been used to decrease pain. However, the most appropriate dose has not been determined. We retrospectively analyzed 407 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent PSF and SSI at our institution from 1992 through 2006. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the intrathecal morphine dose: no dose (n = 68); moderate dose of 9 to 19 microg/kg, mean 14 microg/kg (n = 293); and high dose of 20 microg/kg or greater, mean 24 microg/kg (n = 46). Data included demographics, Wong-Baker visual analog scale postoperative pain scores, postoperative intravenous morphine requirements, time to first rescue dose of intravenous morphine, and postoperative complications of pruritus, nausea/vomiting, respiratory depression, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The demographics of the 3 study groups showed no statistical differences. The mean Wong-Baker visual analog scale pain score in the post anesthesia care unit was 5.2, 0.5, and 0.2, and the mean time to first morphine rescue was 6.6, 16.7, and 22.9 hours, respectively. In the first 48 postoperative hours, respiratory depression occurred in 1 (1.5%), 8 (2.7%), and 7 (15.2%) patients, whereas PICU admission occurred in 0 (0%), 6 (2%), and 8 (17.4%) patients, respectively. The majority of PICU admissions were the result of respiratory depression. Frequency of pruritus and nausea/vomiting was similar in all 3 groups. Intrathecal morphine in the moderate dose range of 9 to 19 microg/kg (mean 14 microg/kg), provides safe and effective postoperative analgesia in the

  9. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  10. Intrathecal pressure monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid drainage in acute spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Curt, Armin; Belanger, Lise M; Bernardo, Arlene; Chan, Donna; Markez, John A; Gorelik, Stephen; Slobogean, Gerard P; Umedaly, Hamed; Giffin, Mitch; Nikolakis, Michael A; Street, John; Boyd, Michael C; Paquette, Scott; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2009-03-01

    Ischemia is an important factor in the pathophysiology of secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and, in the setting of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, can be the primary cause of paralysis. Lowering the intrathecal pressure (ITP) by draining CSF is routinely done in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery but has not been evaluated in the setting of acute traumatic SCI. Additionally, while much attention is directed toward maintaining an adequate mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in the acute postinjury phase, little is known about what is happening to the ITP during this period when spinal cord perfusion pressure (MABP - ITP) is important. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the safety and feasibility of draining CSF to lower ITP after acute traumatic SCI; 2) evaluate changes in ITP before and after surgical decompression; and 3) measure neurological recovery in relation to the drainage of CSF. Twenty-two patients seen within 48 hours of injury were prospectively randomized to a drainage or no-drainage treatment group. In all cases a lumbar intrathecal catheter was inserted for 72 hours. Acute complications of headache/nausea/vomiting, meningitis, or neurological deterioration were carefully monitored. Acute Spinal Cord Injury motor scores were documented at baseline and at 6 months postinjury. On insertion of the catheter, mean ITP was 13.8 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (+/- SD), and it increased to a mean peak of 21.7 +/- 1.5 mm Hg intraoperatively. The difference between the starting ITP on catheter insertion and the observed peak intrathecal pressure after decompression was, on average, an increase of 7.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg (p drainage group was 30.6 +/- 2.3 mm Hg, which was significantly higher than the peak intraoperative ITP (p = 0.0098). During the same period, the peak recorded ITP in patients randomized to receive drainage was 28.1 +/- 2.8 mm Hg, which was not statistically higher than the peak intraoperative ITP (p = 0.15). The

  11. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  15. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  16. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  17. 'Was it worth it?' Intrathecal analgesia for cancer pain: A qualitative study exploring the views of family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishi; Huddart, Melanie; Makins, Helen; Mitchell, Theresa; Gibbins, Jane L; Graterol, Juan; Stevens, Deborah; Perkins, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery is known to reduce pain in patients where conventional systemic analgesia has been ineffective or intolerable. However, there is little information regarding the effects of intrathecal drug delivery on quality of life and function in those with advanced, incurable cancer. Retrospective exploration of the views of bereaved carers regarding the physical and psychosocial effects of external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery in patients with advanced incurable cancer. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with carers of deceased individuals who received percutaneous external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery as part of their pain management, within two UK centres. A total of 11 carers were recruited from two UK Palliative Care centres. Family carers of adult patients who had received external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery analgesia for cancer pain and had died between 6 and 48 months prior to contact were included. Carer relatives who were considered likely to be too vulnerable or who had lodged a complaint about treatment within the recruiting department or who had been treated directly by the interviewer were excluded. In total, 11 interviews took place. The emerging themes were (1) making the decision to have the intrathecal - relatives described desperate situations with severe pain and/or sedation, meaning that the individual would try anything; (2) timing and knowing they were having the best - an increased access to pain and palliative care services, meant carers felt everything possible was being done, making the situation more bearable; (3) was it worth it? - the success of the external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery was judged on its ability to enable the individual to be themselves through their final illness. Side effects were often considered acceptable, if the external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery enabled improvements in quality of life. Carers perceived external tunnelled intrathecal drug delivery

  18. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  19. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  20. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  1. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  2. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  3. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  4. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  5. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  6. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  7. Fluconazole and intrathecal injection of amphotericin B for treating cryptococcal meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Wen; Jian Yin; Shaosen Qin; Meiping Wen; Xiaoyan Zhang; Dongke Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, fiuconazole and intrathecal injection of amphotericin B has been widely used to treat cryptococcal meningitis. However, the application of amphotericin B can shorten course and has good effects on the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects and poor response of the intrathecal injection of amphotericin B on the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.DESIGN: Retrospective-case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Public Health.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with cryptococcal meningitis were selected from Department of Neurology,Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Public Health from January 1995 to January 2006. Among them, there were 3 males and 5 females aged from 17 to 41 years and the course ranged from 21 days to 3 months. Patients who had symptoms of febrile and headache, positive meninges excitation, positive latex agglutination of cryptococcus of cerebrospinal fluid and positive ink smear were selected in this study. All patients provided informed consent.METHODS: Eight patients were treated with the fluconazole and intrathecal injection of amphotericin B. ①Intracranial hypertension of patients was controlled with flowing cerebrospinal fluid by repeatedly piercing waist;meanwhile, patients were taken the intrathecal injection of amphotericin B combining with flucytosine or fiuconazole treatment. The dosage of amphotericin B was 1-5 mg/d at the beginning of administration, and then, the samples were added with 2 mg dexasine and 500 mL 5% glucose solution. The dosage was increased 5.0 mg per day till 50 mg per day, and the total dosage was 3.0-4.0 g. In addition, 2 mg dexasine was mixed with 4.0-5.0 mL cerebrospinal fluid, and then the solution was gradually injected into sheath for once a week. Fluconazole was dripped into vein with the volume of 400 mg per day, and then, 14 days later,fluconazole was orally taken by patients. ② Other therapies, such as decreasing

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Intrathecal Morphine on Pain in Elective Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika Kılıçkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Total knee replacement is one of the most painful orthopedic surgical procedures. In this study, our goal was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic effects, the side effects, the effect on the duration of pain start, the 24-hour VAS, and the amount of additional analgesia used, of the fentanyl and morphine we added to the local anesthetic in the spinal anesthesia we administered in cases of elective knee replacement. Materials and Methods. After obtaining the approval of the Erciyes University Medical Faculty Clinical Drug Trials Ethics Committee, as well as the verbal and written consent of the patients, we included 50 patients in our prospective, randomized study. Results. In our study, the morphine group (Group M had lower pain scores in the 2nd, 6th, 12th, and 24th hours compared to the fentanyl group (Group F. When additional analgesic requirements were compared, it was found that in the 2nd, 6th, and 24th hours fewer Group M patients needed more analgesics than did Group F patients. Conclusion. The fentanyl group also had lower first analgesic requirement times than did the morphine group. In terms of nausea and vomiting, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  9. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal...

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL AS ADJUVANTS TO BUPIVACAINE FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to improve the quality of block and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly selective α2 - agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adju vant. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. METHOD OLOGY: Fifty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective cohort study at Amala Institute of Medical Sciences. Patients received either 15 mg hyperba ric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group 1, n = 25 or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine (group 2, n = 25 intrathecally . RESULTS : Patients in dexmedetomidine group (2 had a significantly longer duration of motor and sensory block t han patients in fentanyl group . (1 The mean time regression of motor block to reach Bromage 0 was 17 6 . 2± 5.71 min in d exmeditomid ine group and 16 6 . 36 ± 5.97 min in fentanyl group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia was 2 39.52 ± 9.05 min in D exmed i tomidine gro up and 189.96 ± 5.35 min in fentanyl group ( p< 0.05. A significant decrease in heart rate was noted in dexmedetomidine group. CONCLUSION : Intrathecal dexmedetomidine is associated with prolonged duration of analgesia and motor block along with significant dec rease in heart rate.

  11. Progression of scoliosis in patients with spastic quadriplegia after the insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Glen M; Lauder, Anthony J

    2007-11-15

    Medical and radiographic review of 19 consecutive patients with spastic quadriplegia before and after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion with special attention paid to progression of scoliosis. Many orthopedic surgeons who treat spastic quadriplegic patients have noticed a trend of marked scoliosis progression after the administration of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) via subcutaneous pump and catheter. The purpose of this study is to quantify scoliosis progression in this patient population before and after baclofen administration and compare this to published natural history data. The authors had noted rapid progression of scoliosis in spastic quadriplegic patients after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion. This had been noted at other centers, but no significant statistical analysis had been done comparing prepump to postpump scoliosis progression in these patients. To document the magnitude and rate of scoliosis progressions after the placement of an ITB pump, the charts and radiographs of 19 consecutive nonambulatory patients with spastic quadriplegia and an ITB pump were reviewed. To document the rate of scoliosis progression, each patient had at least 2 pre and 2 postpump insertion spinal radiographs made. All radiographs were made with the patients in the supine position without orthoses. A board-certified orthopedic surgeon reviewed these radiographs. Skeletal maturity was assessed using Risser grading. Catheter tip location and rate of baclofen administration were recorded. For 19 patients with complete radiographic data, average Cobb angles were 10.2 degrees before pump insertion and 25 degrees at an average of 20.9 months after pump insertion (P quadriplegia and ITB pump. The authors are now performing spinal fusions for curves that exceed 40 degrees to 50 degrees in the presence of an ITB pump as recommended by previous reviews of scoliosis and accompanying quadriplegia.

  12. Leukoencephalopathy and cortical leminar necrosis associated with intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irridiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Al-Sudairy, Reem; Abdullah, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of chemotherapy, mortality rates in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have decreased . Though prophylactic treatment of central nervous system (CNS) to prevent leukemic infiltration has reduced the incidence of CNS relapse and improved the survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We studied a unique case of neurotoxicity associated with prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal MTX. This is the first reported case of pure MTX-related CLN.Perhaps the combination of MTX along with cranial irradiation, can result in increased neurotoxic effects. (author)

  13. Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS following intrathecal chemotherapy in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana L. Glasser, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS is a well-known complication of induction therapy for hematologic malignancies. It is characterized by rapid breakdown of malignant white blood cells (WBCs leading to metabolic derangements and serious morbidity if left untreated. Most commonly, TLS is triggered by systemic chemotherapy, however, there have been case reports of TLS following intrathecal (IT chemotherapy, all in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL/lymphoma. Here, we report the first case of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML who developed TLS following a single dose of IT cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C.

  14. Dosimetry in intrathecal radiogold therapy. 5. Principles of gonad dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hliscs, R; Doege, H [Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    1980-10-01

    Basing on MIRD recommendations the absorbed dose per unit of accumulated activity in the ovaries and testes is calculated when radioactivity is accumulated in the spinal and cerebral liquor space as well as in the liver following instillation of /sup 198/Au colloid for intrathecal therapy of acute leukemia in childhood. The calculations were made for the IAEA standard man as well as for a 100 cm tall child. Besides that the maximum value of ovarian exposure for the child was determined which arises when the ovaries are close to the spinal column.

  15. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  17. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  20. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  1. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  2. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  3. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  4. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  5. Radionuclide study of the liver macrophage system in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver macrophage system (MS) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the functional disturbances depending of the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients was studied. The obtained data suggest the necessity of radionuclide study of the liver MS with the purpose to reveal pre-clinical disturbances and administer timely treatment

  6. Central neuraxial opioid analgesia after caesarean section: comparison of epidural diamorphine and intrathecal morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranza, R; Jeyapalan, I; Buggy, D J

    1999-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study in 55 women undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, we compared epidural diamorphine 3 mg (2 distinct boluses, group ED) with single-dose intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg (group SM), in terms of analgesic efficacy, patient satisfaction and side-effects at 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h postoperatively. There were no significant differences between groups in pain (assessed by 100 mm visual analogue scale), incidence of pruritus, sedation or respiratory depression measured by continuous pulse oximetry. However, time to first request for supplementary oral analgesia was longer in SM than in ED (mean +/- SD: 22.3+/-12.0 h vs. 13.8+/-6.5 h, P=0.04). The incidence of nausea or vomiting was significantly higher in SM than ED (73% vs. 41%, P=0.01). In ED, the mean +/- SD time to requirement of the second bolus was 6.7+/-3.2 h. There was a high level of satisfaction in both groups. We conclude that two boluses of epidural diamorphine 3 mg and single-dose intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg provide satisfactory analgesia after caesarean section, but spinal morphine was associated with both delayed requirement for supplementary analgesia and a higher incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  7. T2-weighted vs. intrathecal contrast-enhanced MR cisternography in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecin, Gaye; Oner, A. Yusuf; Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Tali, Turgut; Aykol, Sukru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic surgical approach is being more widely used in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Accurate localization of CSF fistulas prior to surgery is essential in increasing the success of dural repair and in decreasing negative or recurrent explorations. Purpose: To evaluate and compare intrathecal contrast medium-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (CEMRC) with T2-weighted MR cisternography (T2MRC) in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhea underwent MR cisternography including intrathecally enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI in three orthogonal planes and T2WI in the coronal plane. Both set of images were reviewed by two blinded radiologists for the presence and location of CSF leakage. Imaging data were compared with surgical findings and/or beta-2 transferrin testing. Results: With surgery proven CSF leakage in 20 instances as reference, CEMRC detected 18 (90%), whereas T2MRC reported only 13 (65%) correctly. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting CSF fistulas were 92%, 80%, 76%, and 93% for CEMRC, and 56%, 77%, 64%, and 71% for T2MRC, respectively. Conclusion: The minimally invasive CEMRC is an effective method with higher sensitivity and specificity than T2MRC in the evaluation of CSF fistulas

  8. Effect of Single Shot Intrathecal Sufentanil on Delivery Time and Analgesia in Nuliparae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khoshraftar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : The objective of this study was to determine the evaluation of intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia with respect to duration of labor stages and relief of pain during labor.Materials & Methods : In a clinical trial 60 subjects with ASA class I were selected and randomly divided in two equal groups. 30 subjects had received sufentanil 10 gr in 1 ml of saline during active phase of first stage of labor. The other group as controls, did not receive anything for analgesia. Parturient visual analog scale (VAS , HR, RR, BP, sensory and motor block, FHR and complications such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus and duration of stage I been monitored recorded and compared among those two groups.Results : Comparison of results in two groups have showed that sufentanil does not prolong the duration of labor in stage 1 and 2. We observed lack of hypotension and respiratory depression in sufentanil group FHR changes that had been associated with adverse neonatal out come had not occurred. The apgar scores in two groups were identical. There was itching in majority of parturient who had received sufentanil (83.3%. The pruritus were defined as mild and moderate. Conclusion : Intrathecal sufentanil provide a good analgesia in stage I labor and does not prolong the duration of labor with minimum adverse effects on parturient and fetus.

  9. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  10. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  11. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  12. Pharmacokinetics and dose estimates following intrathecal administration of 131I-monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanastassiou, Varnavus; Pizer, Barry L.; Chandler, Christopher L.; Zananiri, Tony F.; Kemshead, John T.; Hopkins, Kirsten I.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of malignant disease in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is compromised by poor penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), limited diffusion into solid tumors, and the generation of anti-mouse antibodies. To attempt to avoid these problems we have treated patients with diffuse neoplastic meningitis with radioimmunoconjugates injected directly into the intrathecal space. Methods and Materials: Tumor-specific MoAbs were conjugated to Iodine-131 ( 131 I) (629-3331 MBq) by the Iodogen technique, and administered via an intraventricular reservoir. A clinical response rate of approximately 33% was achieved, with better results in more radiosensitive tumors. Here, we present detailed pharmacodynamic data on patients receiving this intracompartmental targeted therapy. Results: Elimination from the ventricular CSF appeared biphasic, with more rapid clearance occurring in the first 24 h. Radioimmunoconjugate entered the subarachnoid space and subsequently the vascular compartment. From this information, the areas under the effective activity curves for ventricular CSF, blood, and subarachnoid CSF were calculated to permit dosimetry. Critical organ doses were calculated using conventional medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism. Where available, S-values were taken from standard tables. To calculate the doses to CSF, brain, and spinal cord, S-values were evaluated using the models described in the text. Conclusion: A marked advantage could be demonstrated for the dose delivered to tumor cells within the CSF as compared to other neural elements

  13. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5 mg prolongs analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine when added to intrathecal fentanyl 25 microg in advanced labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Wendy H L; Sia, Alex T H

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the effect of sequential administration of intrathecal (IT) hyperbaric bupivacaine (after the initial administration of IT hypobaric fentanyl) on the duration of spinal analgesia. Thirty-seven nulliparous parturients with a cervical dilation >/= 5 cm were randomized to receive either IT fentanyl 25 micro g and plain bupivacaine 2.5 mg (group P; n = 19) or IT fentanyl 25 micro g and hyperbaric (with 8% glucose) bupivacaine 2.5 mg (group H; n = 18). The two components of the IT injectate were administered sequentially (fentanyl 25 micro g diluted in 2 mL of normal saline, immediately followed by 0.5 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine). Patients were then positioned with their torso elevated at 30 degrees for 30 min. Pain scores using 0-100 visual analog scales were collected before combined spinal/epidural analgesia and at 5, 15, and 30 min after the block. Patients in Group H had a longer median duration of analgesia (122 min; range, 80-210 min) than Group P (95 min; range, 75-125 min) (P hyperbaric bupivacaine conferred an increased duration of IT analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine.

  14. [Effects of intrathecal administration of AM22-52 on mechanical allodynia and CCL2 expression in DRG in bone cancer rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Juan; Huo, Yuan-Hui; Hong, Yanguo

    2017-02-25

    The pain peptide adrenomedullin (AM) plays a pivotal role in pathological pain. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of blockade of AM receptor on bone cancer pain (BCP) and its mechanism. BCP was developed by inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells in the tibia medullary cavity of Sprague Dawley rats. The selective AM receptor antagonist AM 22-52 was administered intrathecally on 15 d after the inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA level of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Double immunofluorescence staining was used to analyze the localizations of CCL2 and AM in DRG of normal rats. The results showed that, from 6 to15 d after the inoculation, the animals showed significant reduction in the mechanical pain threshold in the ipsilateral hindpaw, companied by the decline in bone density of tibia bone. The expression of CCL2 mRNA in DRG of BCP rats was increased by 3 folds (P DRG neurons. These results suggest that AM may play a role in the pathogenesis of BCP. The increased AM bioactivity up-regulates CCL2 expression in DRG, which may contribute to the induction of pain hypersensitivity in bone cancer.

  15. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria C.F.; Albuquerque, Antonio M.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo A.; Lima, Fabiana F.

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to activity determination of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapeutic procedures. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the radionuclide calibrators, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in the Brazilian northeast region, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  16. Neuropathological findings after continuous intrathecal administration of S(+)-ketamine for the management of neuropathic cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Troost, D.; Wegener, J. T.; Kruis, M. R.; van der Vegt, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Questions have been raised about the potential neurotoxicity of the neuraxial use of ketamine although ketamine and its active enantiomer S(+)-ketamine have been used intrathecally and epidurally (caudally) for the management of perioperative pain and in a variety of chronic pain syndromes. Clinical

  17. Efficacy of Polyvalent Human Immunoglobulins in an Animal Model of Neuromyelitis Optica Evoked by Intrathecal Anti-Aquaporin 4 Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Grünewald

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD are associated with autoantibodies (ABs targeting the astrocytic aquaporin-4 water channels (AQP4-ABs. These ABs have a direct pathogenic role by initiating a variety of immunological and inflammatory processes in the course of disease. In a recently-established animal model, chronic intrathecal passive-transfer of immunoglobulin G from NMOSD patients (NMO-IgG, or of recombinant human AQP4-ABs (rAB-AQP4, provided evidence for complementary and immune-cell independent effects of AQP4-ABs. Utilizing this animal model, we here tested the effects of systemically and intrathecally applied pooled human immunoglobulins (IVIg using a preventive and a therapeutic paradigm. In NMO-IgG animals, prophylactic application of systemic IVIg led to a reduced median disease score of 2.4 on a 0–10 scale, in comparison to 4.1 with sham treatment. Therapeutic IVIg, applied systemically after the 10th intrathecal NMO-IgG injection, significantly reduced the disease score by 0.8. Intrathecal IVIg application induced a beneficial effect in animals with NMO-IgG (median score IVIg 1.6 vs. sham 3.7 or with rAB-AQP4 (median score IVIg 2.0 vs. sham 3.7. We here provide evidence that treatment with IVIg ameliorates disease symptoms in this passive-transfer model, in analogy to former studies investigating passive-transfer animal models of other antibody-mediated disorders.

  18. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  19. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  20. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  1. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  2. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  3. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  4. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Supraspinally-administered agmatine attenuates the development of oral fentanyl self-administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Carrie L.; Schuster, Daniel J.; Domingo, Kristine M.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The decarboxylation product of arginine, agmatine, has effectively reduced or prevented opioid-induced tolerance and dependence when given either systemically (intraperitoneally or subcutaneously) or centrally (intrathecally or intracerebroventricularly). Systemically administered agmatine also reduces the escalation phase of intravenous fentanyl self-administration in rats. The present study assessed whether centrally (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.) delivered agmatine could prevent the development of fentanyl self-administration in mice. Mice were trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for either fentanyl (0.7 μg/70 μl, p.o.) or food reinforcement. Agmatine (10 nmol/5 μl), injected i.c.v. 12-14h before the first session and every other evening (12-14h before session) for 2 weeks, completely attenuated oral fentanyl self-administration (but not food-maintained responding) compared to saline-injected controls. When agmatine was administered after fentanyl self-administration had been established (day 8) it had no attenuating effects on bar pressing. This dose of agmatine does not decrease locomotor activity as assessed by rotarod. The present findings significantly extend the previous observation that agmatine prevents opioid-maintained behavior to a chronic model of oral fentanyl self-administration as well as identifying a supraspinal site of action for agmatine inhibition of drug addiction. PMID:18495108

  6. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  7. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  8. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  10. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas R...

  11. RELATIVE POTENCIES OF MOTOR BLOCKADE AFTER INTRATHECAL ROPIVACAINE, LEVOBUPIVACAINE AND BUPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayagiri Ravisankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM Ever since the times spinal anaesthesia has been introduced by August Bier, multiple drugs at different dosages, concentrations and differing baricities have been studied. This study was conducted to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of intrathecal isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine, isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and isobaric levobupivacaine in lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries, in 150 ASA grade I and II patients of both sexes in the age group of 19-65 years undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. MATERIALS & METHODS After getting ethical committee approval and informed written consent from the patients, 150 patients were allocated into three groups of 50 patients each. The baseline pulse rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded. The first group A received 3ml of isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine (5mg/ml, the second group received 3ml of isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and the third group C received 3ml of isobaric levobupivacaine intrathecally. The onset of sensory and motor blocks, duration of sensory and motor blocks was recorded in three groups. RESULTS The results were analyzed statistically using epidemiologically information package. On comparison of data we have found that the intrathecal isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine produces delayed onset of both sensory and motor block but of shorter duration which is statistically significant when compared with that of isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and levobupivacaine. There is no significant inter-group difference between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine except for the mean duration of sensory block, which is more in levobupivacaine group. The quality of motor block which was assessed by Bromage scale, shows relatively lesser degree of motor block for ropivacaine group, when compared with that of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine groups. The haemodynamics were also recorded. The incidence of hypotension and Bradycardia is more in bupivacaine group. The height of block (peak sensory level is higher for

  12. Chronopharmacodynamics of Intrathecal Co-injection of Sufentanyl and Bupivacaine in Orthopedic Surgery of Lower Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sadri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available  

    Background and objectives: In chronopharmacology the biological rhythm variations caused by drug administration is assessed. Evaluation of the time of drug administration and the qualitative and quantitative effects of reactions to drugs is called chronopharmacodynamics. In this study, we assessed the chronopharmacodynamics of intrathecal co-administration of sufentanyl and bupivacaine in surgical operations of lower extremities.  

    Methods: In 2006, patients aged 20-50 with ASA physical status of I and II, who underwent surgical operation of lower extremities were entered into this prospective study. The patients received a slow intrathecal injection of 10 μg sufentanyl and 15 mg bupivacaine into subarachnoid of third and fourth lumbar spaces in 30 seconds. After the operation, the time of first pain sensation and the visual analogue scale (VAS score, as the measure of severity of pain, were recorded.  

    Results: 115 patients were studied in this project. The pain-free interval was considered as the time between injection and patient’s demand for pain relief. This interval was 746 (± 322 minutes. The average score of pain severity on VAS at the time of demand for pain relief was 24.7 (± 9.3. The average pain-free duration in patients injected about noon or at midnight was significantly longer than the pain-free interval of other patients. 

    Conclusion: The results show that intrathecal co-administration of sufentanyl and bupivacaine at noon or midnight (conforming to the circadian rhythm causes better pain-relief with longer duration in comparison with other times of the day or night. 

  13. Intrathecal volume changes in lumbar spinal canal stenosis following extension and flexion: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Wolfram; Schwert, Martin; Zirke, Sonja; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Wiese, Matthias; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The spinal canal stenosis is a common disease in elderly. The thecal sac narrowing is considered as the anatomical cause for the disease. There is evidence that the anatomical proportions of the lumbar spinal canal are influenced by postural changes. The liquor volume shift during these postural changes is a valuable parameter to estimate the dynamic qualities of this disease. The aim of this human cadaver study was the determination of intrathecal fluid volume changes during the lumbar flexion and the extension. A special measuring device was designed and built for the study to investigate this issue under controlled conditions. The measuring apparatus fixed the lumbar spine firmly and allowed only flexion and extension. The dural sac was closed water tight. The in vitro changes of the intrathecal volumes during the motion cycle were determined according to the principle of communicating vessels. Thirteen human cadaver spines from the Institute of Anatomy were examined in a test setting with a continuous adjustment of motion. The diagnosis of the lumbar spinal stenosis was confirmed by a positive computer tomography prior testing. The volume changes during flexion and extension cycles were measured stepwise in a 2 degree distance between 18° flexion and 18° extension. Three complete series of measurements were performed for each cadaver. Two specimens were excluded because of fluid leaks from further investigation. The flexion of the lumbar spine resulted in an intrathecal volume increase. The maximum volume effects were seen in the early flexion positions of 2° and 4°. The spine reclination resulted in a volume reduction. The maximum extension effect was seen between 14° and 16°. According to our results, remarkable volume effects were seen in the early movements of the lumbar spine especially for the flexion. The results support the concept of the spinal stenosis as a dynamic disease and allow a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this

  14. Long-term intrathecal baclofen: outcomes after more than 10 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunjay N; Chu, Samuel K; McCormick, Zack; Chang Chien, George C; Marciniak, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    To report outcomes of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy for spasticity management in a cohort of patients who had received this treatment for at least 10 years. A cross-sectional survey and retrospective chart review. An academic rehabilitation outpatient clinic. Adult patients with spasticity treated with ITB for at least 10 years. Surveys included the Brief Pain Inventory, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Diener Satisfaction with Life, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Intrathecal Baclofen Survey. Twenty-four subjects completed the surveys. The subjects had been treated with ITB from 10.0-28.4 years, with a mean (standard deviation) of 14.7 ± 4.2 years. The mean (standard deviation) dose of ITB was 627.9 ± 306.7 μg/d, with only 6 subjects averaging daily dose changes of more than 10% compared with 3 years earlier. The mean (standard deviation) scores on outcomes surveys were the following: 2.6 ± 2.3 for pain severity on the Brief Pain Inventory, 1.4 ± 0.7 for spasm severity on the Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, 7.9 ± 5.4 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 4.1 ± 1.6 on the Fatigue Severity Scale, 19.4 ± 8.1 on the Diener Satisfaction with Life, 3.9 ± 0.9 on the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, and 8.8 ± 1.9 for overall satisfaction with ITB on the Intrathecal Baclofen Survey. On the Brief Pain Inventory, the mean scores for pain severity and interference of pain with life showed moderate inverse correlations with ITB dose (r = -0.386, P = .115; and r = -0.447, P = .062, respectively). On the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, the mean scores for life satisfaction showed statistically significant positive correlation with ITB dose (r = 0.549, P = .021). The subjects reported low levels of pain, moderate levels of life satisfaction, normal levels of sleepiness, low-to-moderate levels of fatigue, infrequent spasms at mild-to-moderate severity, and high levels of satisfaction. The efficacy and favorable adverse

  15. Patient protection in nuclear medicine due to optimization of the administered activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Diaz Rizo, O.; Khouri, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of a radiological risk reduction in Nuclear Medicine patients is studied through the reduced absorbed doses in organs and tissues, and whole-body effective dose due to optimization of the administered radionuclide activities. Activity values, optimized for equipments and radiopharmaceuticals available in Cuba, are compared with the IAEA recommended values and with the routinary activities in medical practice. All doses were calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 code for each activity and medical assay. The activity optimization permits to reduce in a 50% the doses administered to patients of the major part of studied medical assays. (Author)

  16. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  18. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  19. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Barnett, C.L.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  20. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  1. Intrathecal fentanyl abolishes the exaggerated blood pressure response to cycling in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Vianna, Lauro C; Fernandes, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether the attenuation of these neural signals in hypertensive patients could normalize their abnormal increase in blood pressure during physical activity. Attenuation of the neural signals from the leg muscles with intrathecal fentanyl injection reduced the blood pressure...... of fentanyl, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, aiming to attenuate the central projection of opioid-sensitive group III and IV muscle afferent nerves. The cardiovascular response to exercise of these subjects was compared with that of six normotensive men. During cycling, the hypertensive group demonstrated...... an exaggerated increase in blood pressure compared to the normotensive group (mean ± SEM: +17 ± 3 vs. +8 ± 1 mmHg, respectively; P 0.05). Fentanyl inhibited the blood pressure response to exercise...

  2. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cell in a rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-08

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  3. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  4. [Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spastic paraparesis due to aortic dissecting aneurysm; recent progress in treatment strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Akagawa, H; Ochiai, T; Hayashi, M; Goto, S; Taira, T; Okada, Y

    2009-11-01

    A 48-year-old man suffered from acute dissection of thoracic aortic aneurysm which eventually led to replacement of the ascending aorta with a tube graft. During this clinical course, circulatory failure in intercostal artery resulted in spinal cord infarction followed by moto-sensory disturbance below Th7 dermatomic area. Seven months later, spasticity with pain in both lower extremities became conspicuous that was uncontrollable by any oral medication. Eventually the patient underwent the implantation of continuous infusion pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB). The clinical condition was remarkably improved and now has been well controlled. ITB, authorized by Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare in 2006, has notable therapeutic effects on spasticity derived from any sort of central nervous disorder. More promotive enlightenment if ITB is indispensable for enhancement of its medical benefit in Japan.

  5. Actuarial risk of isolated CNS involvement in Ewing's sarcoma following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigg, M.E.; Makuch, R.; Glaubiger, D.

    1985-01-01

    Records of 154 patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated at the National Cancer Institute were reviewed to assess the incidence and risk of developing isolated central nervous system (CNS) Ewing's sarcoma. Sixty-two of the 154 patients had received CNS irradiation and intrathecal (i.t.) methotrexate as part of their initial therapy to prevent the occurrence of isolated CNS Ewing's sarcoma. The risk of developing isolate CNS Ewing's sarcoma was greatest within the first two years after diagnosis and was approximately 10%. The overall risk of CNS recurrence in the group of patients receiving DNS treatment was similar to the group receiving no therapy directed to the CNS. The occurrence of isolated CNS involvement was not prevented by the use of CNS irradiation and i.t. methotrexate. Because of a lack of efficacy to the CNS irradiation regimen, current treatment regimens do not include therapy directed to CNS

  6. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  7. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  8. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  9. Comparative Study of Constant Dose Intrathecal Hypobaric Levobupivacaine with Varying Baricities in Lower Limb Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K P; Sunil, M; Ramadas, K T

    2017-01-01

    Hypobaric spinal anesthesia is advantageous for unilateral lower extremity fractures as it obviates pain of lying on fractured limb for performing subarachnoid block. This study compares block characteristics and complications of three different baricities of constant dose intrathecal hypobaric levobupivacaine to determine an optimum baricity. One-twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 and 2 patients aged 18-65 years undergoing unilateral lower limb surgeries were divided into three equal groups for this prospective cohort study. To 2 mL intrathecal 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (10 mg), 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, and 0.8 mL of distilled water were added in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Baricities of Groups A, B, and C are 0.999294, 0.998945, and 0.998806, respectively. Development of sensory and motor block was assessed by the pinprick method and Bromage scale, respectively. The total duration of analgesia and complications were noted. Mean, standard error, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni were used to analyze quantitative variables; proportions and Chi-square tests for qualitative variables. Demographic parameters, motor block of operated limb, and complications were comparable. Group C had the fastest onset of sensory block (10.10 min) and maximum duration of analgesia (478.97 min; P < 0.001); but high sensory levels in 48.7%. Group B had T 10 sensory level in 92.5%; onset comparable to Group C ( P = 0.248), and reasonable duration of analgesia (332.50 min). Group A had inadequate sensory levels, slow onset, and early regression. Group B (baricity - 0.998945) has better block characteristics among three groups compared.

  10. Intrathecal tramadol as and adjuvant in subrachnoid block to prolong the duration of analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, F.; Tarar, H. M.; Tariq, M.; Nazir, H.; Zafar, I.; Munir, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of intrathecal tramadol added to bupivacaine to prolong the duration of analgesia in subarachnoid block for lower limb orthopedic surgeries. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Anesthesia department of Combined Military Hospital Sialkot, from Nov 2015 to Apr 2016. Material and Methods: Patients were selected by non-probability consecutive sampling. One hundred and fifty patients from American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I, II and III category fulfilling inclusion criteria undergoing various lower limb orthopedic surgeries were divided into two groups by lottery system. Group tramadol bupivacaine (TB) received 25mg (1 ml) of tramadol plus 2ml (10mg) of 0.5 percent bupivacaine while group bupivacaine alone (SB) received 1 ml normal saline plus 2ml (10mg) of 0.5 percent bupivacaine. Time to first analgesia request was noted as a measure of duration of analgesia. Time of onset of sensory block level and peak sensory block level and time to reach the peak sensory block level were also noted. Quality of anesthesia was compared among two groups. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Four patients were excluded from the study. The duration of anesthesia was effectively prolonged in group TB 181.56 ± 12.42 mins as compared to group SB 120.93 ± 15.54 mins. VAS score was significantly lower in group TB. Higher peak sensory block levels (T6) were achieved in group TB as compared to group SB. However time to reach the peak sensory block levels were significantly longer in group TB. (4.5 ± 0.47mins vs 3.09 ± 0.54 mins). Conclusion: This study showed that intrathecal tramadol (25mg) can safely be used along with bupivacaine in subarachnoid blockade to prolong the duration of analgesia and improve the quality of anesthesia as well. (author)

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL AS ADJUVANTS TO BUPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapalli Hanumanth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Uncontrolled postoperative pain may produce a range of detrimental acute and chronic effects. Spinal anaesthesia provided by bupivacaine may be too short for providing postoperative analgesia. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl and intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine with regards to the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, as well as postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. Hundred patients aged 18-55 years were randomly divided into two groups, each group consisting of 50 patients of either sex belonging to ASA class I and II posted for elective lower abdominal surgeries were given spinal anaesthesia using bupivacaine 0.5%, heavy 2.5 ml with either fentanyl 25µg (group F or 5µg of preservative free dexmedetomidine (group D. Assessment of the sensory and motor blockade were done at the end of each minute till the maximum level achieved. Measurement of blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and arterial oxygen saturation were obtained. Postoperatively the patients were observed for the duration of analgesia, time taken for complete regression of sensory blockade to S1 and time taken for complete recovery of motor power. RESULTS Our results showed a statistically highly significant prolongation of sensory and motor blockade, and postoperative analgesia in the dexmedetomidine group compared to the fentanyl group. In dexmedetomidine group four out of fifty patients, and in fentanyl group two out of fifty patients developed hypotension. In dexmedetomidine group five out of fifty patients, and in fentanyl group two out of fifty patients developed bradycardia. Incidence of pruritis is significantly high in fentanyl group.

  12. The analgesic effects of intrathecal xylazine and detomidine in sheep and their antagonism with systemic atipamezole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina Haerdi-Landerer, M; Schlegel, Urs; Neiger-Aeschbacher, Gina

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic and adverse side effects of intrathecal (IT) xylazine (XYL) and detomidine (DET) and the subsequent effects of two doses of intravenous (IV) atipamezole (ATI). Prospective, randomized, cross-over. Five adult healthy female sheep with mean body mass of 55 +/- 2.3 kg. Material and methods Each sheep underwent four treatments: 1) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 2) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 3) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 4) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV. Pain threshold (TH) was tested by applying pulsed and stepwise incremental direct current to the skin overlying the pastern. The current at the point of foot lift was recorded as the TH. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen (PO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) tensions were monitored. Outcomes were derived as differences between baseline assessment and measurements after treatment. Two-way anova was used to analyse drug effects, treatment differences between groups were examined with an F-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test in case of non-parametric data distribution. p was set at 0.05. Both drugs increased the pain TH, caused small increases in PCO(2), and small decreases in HR, the latter was only significant for XYL recipients. Xylazine produced a significantly higher TH, more rapidly and for longer than DET. Atipamezole only significantly affected PaCO(2) in the XYL group 2. The pain TH was not affected in either group after IV ATI. At the doses used, IT XYL, and to a lesser extent DET, induced pastern analgesia. Atipamezole 5 microg kg(-1) IV antagonized some side effects without affecting analgesia. Intrathecal XYL may be useful as an analgesic in sheep. Its safety is increased because IV ATI antagonizes side effects, but not analgesia.

  13. Distribution of label after intrathecal administration of 125I-substance P in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cridland, R.A.; Yashpal, K.; Romita, V.V.; Gauthier, S.; Henry, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the intrathecal route for the administration of neuroactive agents, little is known about the penetration of these agents into the spinal cord. In the present study, 125 I-substance P was injected via a spinal catheter to the thoracic or sacro-coccygeal spinal cord in the rat (350-400 g) anesthetized with urethane (2.5 g/kg). Spinal cords were removed rapidly at 1 or 10 min after injection and immediately frozen in CCl 2 F 2 . Frozen sections, 20 micron thick, were cut and mounted for autoradiography. Autoradiographs of transverse sections demonstrated that the label penetrated 700 to 1800 micron from the surface of the spinal cord at both levels. In longitudinal sections, this penetration extended about 0.5 cm rostrally and caudally from the site of injection. Serial autoradiographs of transverse sections showed a similar penetration rostro-caudally. In addition, venous blood samples were taken at 1, 6, 11 and 16 min after injection of the labelled peptide. Quantification of the radioactivity in the samples revealed that 0.8 to 3.5% of the total CPM injected had passed into the general circulation at these times. These data indicate that after intrathecal administration of radiolabelled substance P, the label penetrates into the grey matter of the spinal cord to presumed sites of action. They also suggest that the rostro-caudal extent of penetration is more localized than suggested from earlier studies which looked only at levels of radioactivity in pieces of whole spinal cord. Finally, our study has indicated that passage of label into the circulation is negligible at least for substance P

  14. Magnesium Sulphate and Dexmedetomidine used Intrathecally as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are used for prolongation of duration of subarachnoid block, and provide adequate analgesia. Aim: To evaluate the onset of sensory and motor block, level of sensory block, highest sensory level and Bromage grade at time of onset, induced by Dexmedetomidine and Magnesium sulphate when given intrathecally with 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. Materials and methods: 90 patients, of ASA grade I and grade II, age 18-65 years, of either gender, height 150 cm and above and weight 50 kg to 80 kg, scheduled for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery under spinal anaesthesia. They were randomly assigned according to table of randomization into three groups, 30 patients in each group. Patients in Group A were given 15 mg hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 10 μg (0.1 ml Dexmedetomidine and those in Group B were given 15 mg hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 50 mg (0.1 ml magnesium sulphate. Patients in Group C were given 15 mg hyperbaric Bupivacaine and normal saline (0.1 ml as control. The onset of sensory block, motor block, level of sensory and grade of motor block were recorded at the time of onset. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block was shorter in group Dexmed as compared to other two groups, and prolonged in group magnesium as compared to other two groups. The level of sensory block was higher at the time of onset and grade of motor block was more in group Dexmed than other two groups. Conclusion: Addition of Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine shortens the onset time whereas addition of Magnesium delays onset.

  15. A case of trigeminal hypersensitivity after administration of intrathecal sufentanil and bupivacaine for labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bechara de Souza Hobaika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rostral spread of intrathecal drugs and sensitization of supraspinal sites may provoke several adverse effects. This case describes a patient with right hemifacial paresthesia, trismus and dysphasia on the trigeminal nerve distribution after intrathecal sufentanil administration. Primigravida, 34 years, 39 weeks of pregnancy, with hypothyroidism and pregnancy induced hypertension. Allergic to latex. In the use of puran T4, 50 μg /day. When the patient presented cervical dilatation of 4 cm, she requested analgesia. She was placed in the sitting position and a spinal puncture was performed with a 27G needle pencil point in L4/L5 (1.5 mg of bupivacaine plus 7.5 μg of sufentanil. Next, was performed an epidural puncture in the same space. It was injected bupivacaine 0.065%, 10 ml, to facilitate the passage of the catheter. After 5 min lying down in the lateral upright position, she complained of perioral and right hemifacial paresthesia, mainly maxillary and periorbital, as well as trismus and difficulty to speak. The symptoms lasted for 30 min and resolved spontaneously. After 1 h, patient requested supplementary analgesia (12 ml of bupivacaine 0.125% and a healthy baby girl was born. Temporary mental alterations have been described with the use of fentanyl and sufentanil in combined epidural-spinal analgesia, such as aphasia, difficulty of swallowing, mental confusion and even unconsciousness. In this patient, facial areas with paresthesia indicated by patient appear in clear association with the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve and the occurrence of trismus and dysphagia are in association with the mandibular motor branch. The exact mechanism of rostral spread is not known, but it is speculated that after spinal drug administration, a subsequent epidural dose may reduce the intratecal space and propel the drug into the supraspinal sites.

  16. Prilocaine hydrochloride 2% hyperbaric solution for intrathecal injection: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassero A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Manassero,1 Andrea Fanelli2 1Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Prilocaine is a local anesthetic characterized by intermediate potency and duration and fast onset of action. As hyperbaric formulation of 5% solution, it was introduced and has been successfully used for spinal anesthesia since 1960. A new formulation of 2% plain and hyperbaric solution is currently available in Europe. Because of its lower incidence of transient neurological symptoms, prilocaine is suggested as substitute to lidocaine and mepivacaine in spinal anesthesia for ambulatory surgery, as well as a suitable alternative to low doses of long-acting local anesthetics. The National Library of Medicine database, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database, were searched for the period 1970 to September 2016, with the aim to identify studies evaluating the intrathecal use of 2% prilocaine. A total of 13 randomized clinical trials (RCTs, 1 observational study, 2 dose finding, and 4 systematic reviews has been used for this review. The studies evaluated showed that 2% hyperbaric prilocaine due to a favorable anesthetic and safety profile is an alternative drug to lidocaine and mepivacaine for spinal anesthesia of intermediate or short duration. In comparison with plain solutions, hyperbaricity remarkably accelerates the onset and offset times of intrathecal 2% prilocaine. Literature suggests a dose ranging between 40 and 60 mg of prilocaine for lower extremities and lower abdominal procedures lasting up to 90 min, whereas a dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg is appropriate for perineal surgery. Readiness for discharge occurs in ~4 h from spinal administration. Keywords

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  19. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  20. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  1. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  3. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  4. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  6. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  7. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  8. Low intrathecal antibody production despite high seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Klemens; Wildemann, Brigitte; Jarius, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently have an intrathecal production of antibodies to different common viruses, which can be detected by elevated antiviral antibody indices (AIs). There is a strong and consistent association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To systematically compare the frequencies of intrathecal antibody production to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in patients with MS. Review of the English and German literature on the frequencies of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody production, as defined by an elevated AI, to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, VZV and HSV in adult and pediatric patients with MS. In nine original studies identified, the frequencies of an intrathecal production of antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (33/340, 9.7%), EBV viral capsid antigen (12/279, 4.3%) and antigens from EBV-infected cell lines (14/90, 15.6%) in adult patients with MS were clearly lower (p ≤ 0.03 for all pairwise comparisons) than the frequencies of an intrathecal production of antibodies to measles virus (612/922, 66.4%), rubella virus (521/922, 56.5%), VZV (470/922, 51%; data from 17 original studies) and HSV (78/291, 26.8%; data from 6 original studies). Though based on a lower number of original studies and patients, findings in children with MS were essentially similar. As in adults and children with MS the seroprevalence of EBV is higher than the seroprevalences of the other investigated viruses, the lower frequency of elevated EBV AIs became even more pronounced after correction of the frequencies of elevated antiviral AIs for the seroprevalences of the respective viruses. Given the very high seroprevalence of EBV in MS, the frequency of intrathecally produced antibodies to EBV in patients with MS is paradoxically low compared to that of other common viruses. These findings are compatible with the recently proposed hypothesis that in individuals

  9. Abdominal girth and vertebral column length aid in predicting intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine dose for elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Na; Zhou, Qing-He; Wang, Li-Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there is no consensus on how to determine the optimal dose of intrathecal bupivacaine for an individual undergoing an elective cesarean section. In this study, we developed a regression equation between intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and abdominal girth and vertebral column length, to determine a suitable block level (T5) for elective cesarean section patients.In phase I, we analyzed 374 parturients undergoing an elective cesarean section that received a suitable dose of intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine after a combined spinal-epidural (CSE) was performed at the L3/4 interspace. Parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick were selected for establishing the regression equation between 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and vertebral column length and abdominal girth. Six parturient and neonatal variables, intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume, and spinal anesthesia spread were recorded. Bivariate line correlation analyses, multiple line regression analyses, and 2-tailed t tests or chi-square test were performed, as appropriate. In phase II, another 200 parturients with CSE for elective cesarean section were enrolled to verify the accuracy of the regression equation.In phase I, a total of 143 parturients were selected to establish the following regression equation: YT5 = 0.074X1 - 0.022X2 - 0.017 (YT5 = 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume for T5 block level; X1 = vertebral column length; and X2 = abdominal girth). In phase II, a total of 189 participants were enrolled in the study to verify the accuracy of the regression equation, and 155 parturients with T5 blockade were deemed eligible, which accounted for 82.01% of all participants.This study evaluated parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick after a CSE for elective cesarean section to establish a regression equation between parturient vertebral column length and abdominal girth and 0.5% hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine volume. This equation can accurately

  10. Radiation dose to the patient in radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    In medical radionuclide studies, the radiation risk has to be considered in addition to the general risk of administering a pharmaceutical. As radiation exposure is an essential factor in radiation risk estimation, some aspects of internal dose calculation, including radiation risk assessments, are treated. The formalism of current internal dose calculation is presented. The input data, especially the residence time and the absorbed dose per transformation, their origin and accuracy are discussed. Results of internal dose calculations for the ten most frequently used radionuclide studies are presented as somatically effective dose equivalents. The accuracy of internal dose calculation is treated in detail by considering the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical, the phantoms used for dose calculations, the absorbed dose per transformation, the administered activity, and the transfer of the dose, calculated for a phantom, to the patient. The internal dose calculated for a reference phantom may be assumed to be in accordance with the actual patient dose within a range described by a factor of about two to three. Finally, risk estimates for nuclear medicine procedures are quantified, being generally of sixth order. The radiation risk from the radioiodine test is comparably higher, but probably lower than calculated according to the UNSCEAR risk coefficients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results and to improve the quantification of the radiation risk from the medical use of radionuclides. (author)

  11. The transfer of radionuclides into domestic animals and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    The contamination of animal products, especially milk, with radionuclides, are regarded as the important problem in the food chain, and has been one of the remarkable public concerns in Japan since the nuclear tests in 1954. The transfer of several radionuclides into domestic animals and their products is described. 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs are very important as the radionuclides that transfer into domestic animals and their products. The data of the transfer of several orally administered radionuclides into milk from the references are summarized as follows: (1) 131 I transfered into milk was 5 -- 30% of dose (cow), 10 -- 40% (goat). (2) 90 Sr( 89 Sr) transfered into milk was 0.6 -- 1.9% (cow), 0.5 -- 0.6% (goat). (3) 137 Cs( 134 Cs) transfered into milk was 10 -- 13% (cow), 7.0% (goat). (4) 140 Ba- 140 La transfered into milk was 0.6% (cow), 0.1 -- 0.2% (goat). (5) 181 W transfered into milk was 0.06% (goat). (author)

  12. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  13. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  14. Effects of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebioğlu, Ayda; Gürol, Ayşe; Yildirim, Zuhal Keskin; Büyükavci, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Cancer and its treatment are stressful and reduce the quality of life in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer. We conducted a controlled pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study at a paediatric oncology unit in Turkey. Twenty-five children were enrolled in this study. Their pain and anxiety were determined using a visual analogue scale. When the pretest and posttest pain and anxiety levels of the groups were compared, no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). It was determined that pain and anxiety levels in the experimental group decreased significantly. This study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness in children of massage in reducing pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Intrathecal Morphine for Laparoscopic Segmental Colonic Resection as Part of an Enhanced Recovery Protocol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Mark V; Teunissen, Aart Jan W; van der Harst, Erwin; Ruijgrok, Elisabeth J; Stolker, Robert Jan

    2018-02-01

    Management of postoperative pain after laparoscopic segmental colonic resections remains controversial. We compared 2 methods of analgesia within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. The goal of the study was to investigate whether administration of intrathecal bupivacaine/morphine would lead to an enhanced recovery. A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was performed (NL43488.101.13). Patients scheduled for laparoscopic segmental intestinal resections were considered. Exclusion criteria were patients in whom contraindications to spinal anesthesia were present, conversion to open surgery, and gastric and rectal surgery. The intervention group received single-shot intrathecal bupivacaine/morphine (12.5 mg/300 μg), with an altered dose for older patients. The control group received a sham procedure and a bolus of piritramide (0.1 mg/kg). Both groups received standardized general anesthesia and a patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pump as postoperative analgesia. All patients were treated according to an ERAS protocol. A decrease in days to "fit for discharge" was the primary outcome. Fifty-six patients were enrolled. Intervention group patients were fit for discharge earlier (median of 3 vs 4 days, P = 0.044). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in opioid use and lower pain scores on the first postoperative day in the intervention group. There were no differences in adverse events (except for more pruritus), time to mobilization, fluid administration, or patient satisfaction. This randomized controlled trial shows that intrathecal morphine is a more effective method of postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic surgery than intravenous opioids within an ERAS program. Recovery is faster and less painful with intrathecal morphine. Other studies have confirmed these results, although data on faster recovery are new and require confirmation in future trials. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT

  16. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  18. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  19. Computer-Administered Interviews and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…

  20. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  1. Cautious Use of Intrathecal Baclofen in Walking Spastic Patients: Results on Long-term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Ivano; Nazzi, Vittoria; Tringali, Giovanni; Broggi, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    Intrathecal baclofen is presently the most effective treatment for diffuse spasticity whatever the cause. The fact that both spasticity is always accompanied by a degree of muscle weakness and that any antispastic treatment causes a decrease in muscle strength indicate that major attention must be paid in treating spasticity in ambulant patients. Methods.  We present here a retrospective study, approved by the insitutional ethics committee, of 22 ambulant spastic patients, selected as homogeneous for disease and disease duration, who were treated with intrathecal baclofen at the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "C.Besta" in Milan. These patients were followed-up for to 15 years of treatment and their clinical assessment was enriched by the evaluation of their functional independence measurement (FIM) before and during treatment. Results.  There was improvement in quality of life as measured by the FIM scale; however, an increase in the patient's motor performance could not be detected. Conclusion.  Although we did not show any improvement in muscle performance, intrathecal baclofen did improve daily quality of life, even in spastic patients who were able to walk.

  2. Perioperative analgesia after intrathecal fentanyl and morphine or morphine alone for cesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Wojciech; Bieryło, Andrzej; Wielgus, Monika; Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Świetlana; Kołacz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Michał J

    2017-12-01

    Intrathecal morphine is used in the postoperative management of pain after caesarean section (CS), but might not be optimal for intraoperative analgesia. We hypothesized that intrathecal fentanyl could supplement intraoperative analgesia when added to a local anesthetic and morphine without affecting management of postoperative pain. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study included 60 parturients scheduled for elective CS. Spinal anesthesia consisted of bupivacaine with either morphine 100 μg (M group), or fentanyl 25 μg and morphine 100 μg (FM group). The frequency of intraoperative pain and pethidine consumption in the 24 hours postoperatively was recorded. Fewer patients in the FM group required additional intraoperative analgesia (P fentanyl and morphine may provide better perioperative analgesia than morphine alone in CS and could be useful when the time from anesthesia to skin incision is short. However, an increase in PONV and possible acute spinal opioid tolerance after addition of intrathecal fentanyl warrants further investigation using lower doses of fentanyl.

  3. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  5. Intrathecal morphine attenuates acute opioid tolerance secondary to remifentanil infusions during spinal surgery in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripi PA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Tripi,1 Matthew E Kuestner,1 Connie S Poe-Kochert,2 Kasia Rubin,1 Jochen P Son-Hing,2 George H Thompson,2 Joseph D Tobias3 1Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology, 2Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA Introduction: The unique pharmacokinetic properties of remifentanil with a context-sensitive half-life unaffected by length of infusion contribute to its frequent use during anesthetic management during posterior spinal fusion in children and adolescents. However, its intraoperative administration can lead to increased postoperative analgesic requirements, which is postulated to be the result of acute opioid tolerance with enhancement of spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. Although strategies to prevent or reduce tolerance have included the coadministration of longer acting opioids or ketamine, the majority of these studies have demonstrated little to no benefit. The current study retrospectively evaluates the efficacy of intrathecal morphine (ITM in preventing hyperalgesia following a remifentanil infusion.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion with segmental spinal instrumentation, to evaluate the effects of ITM on hyperalgesia from remifentanil. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether they did or did not receive remifentanil during the surgery: no remifentanil (control group (n=27 and remifentanil (study group (n=27. Data included demographics, remifentanil dose and duration, Wong–Baker visual analog scale postoperative pain scores, and postoperative intravenous morphine consumption in the first 48 postoperative hours.Results: The demographics of the two study groups were similar. There were no differences in the Wong–Baker visual analog

  6. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  7. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  8. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  9. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  10. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  11. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  12. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intrathecal injection of naked plasmid DNA provides long-term expression of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Travis S; Langer, Stephen J; Johnson, Kirk W; Chavez, Raymond A; Watkins, Linda R; Milligan, Erin D; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic benefit has been reported to result from intrathecal (i.t.) injection of transgene vectors, including naked DNA. However, most studies using naked DNA have measured only the transgene expression of intracellular proteins. Here we demonstrate that i.t. injection of naked DNA can result in long-term expression of secreted proteins. Plasmids expressing either secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) or human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) were injected into the i.t. space in rats, and transgene products were repeatedly measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both SEAP and hIL-10 were maximal at 1 and 2 days after the injection and still detectable at 4 months. The utilization of a plasmid having two features that are hypothesized to increase gene expression (matrix attachment regions (MARs) and lack of CpG dinucleotides) resulted in a significant increase in gene expression. Reinjection of SEAP or hIL-10 plasmids after 4 months significantly increased protein levels at 1 and 14 days after the reinjection. SEAP was uniformly distributed between the DNA delivery site (approximately vertebral level T13) and the lumbar puncture site (L5/L6 inter-vertebral space), was reduced at the cisterna magna, and was detectable, though at much lower levels, in serum. These data suggest that naked DNA has the potential to be used as a therapeutic tool for applications that require long-term release of transgenes into the CSF.

  14. Treatment of severe spacticity in multiple sclerosis by continuous intrathecal baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Successful treatment of severe spasticity represents an imperative of symptomatic therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS due to a significant improvement of physical, psychic and social rehabilitation of MS patients, as well as a longterm cost savings for the additional treatments of conditions arising from uncontrolled severe spasticity. Continuous intrathecal administration of baclofen (ITB, using a subcutaneously implanted programmable infusion pump, is a minimally invasive, reversible method for the treatment of severe diffuse spasticity of the spinal origin. Case report. The first two cases in our country, treated by ITB due to severe spasticity caused by MS, were reported. Despite the local complications of surgical wound healing above the implanted components of the ITB-system in one patient, the optimal reduction of spasticity the with complete elimination of spastic pain was obtained in both patients. Conclusion. Our initial experiences confirmed ITB as a safe and effective therapeutical option for the treatment of intractable spasticity in patients with MS. Major prerequisites for this were adequate patient selection and good control of the basic disease. The use of the minimal invasive implantation technique and the experience in choosing of the adequate ITB-system components, could successfully prevent the occurrence of local complications related to the impaired healing of the ITB-system implantation site.

  15. Efficacy of the Bilateral Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Block with Intrathecal Morphine for Postoperative Cesarean Delivery Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C. Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (IIIH block is frequently used as multimodal analgesia for lower abdominal surgeries. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of IIIH block using ultrasound visualization for reducing postoperative pain after caesarean delivery (CD in patients receiving intrathecal morphine (ITM under spinal anesthesia. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for the bilateral IIIH block: Group A = 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, Group B = 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine on one side and 10 mL of a normal saline (NSS placebo block on the opposite side, and Group C = 10 mL of NSS placebo per side. Pain and nausea scores, treatment for pain and nausea, and patient satisfaction were recorded for 48 hours after CD. No differences were noted with respect to pain scores or treatment for pain over the 48 hours. There were no differences to the presence of nausea (P=0.64, treatment for nausea (P=0.21, pruritus (P=0.39, emesis (P=0.35, or patient satisfaction (P=0.29. There were no differences in pain and nausea scores over the measured time periods (MANOVA, P>0.05. In parturients receiving ITM for elective CD, IIIH block offers no additional postoperative benefit for up to 48 hours.

  16. Whole brain magnetization transfer histogram analysis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving intrathecal methotrexate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miki, Yukio [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: mikiy@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Souichi [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: sadachi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp (and others)

    2006-03-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the hypothesis that magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram analysis of the whole brain could detect early and subtle brain changes nonapparent on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Materials and methods: Subjects in this prospective study comprised 10 children with ALL (mean age, 6 years; range, 0-16 years). In addition to conventional MRI, magnetization transfer images were obtained before and after intrathecal and intravenous MTX therapy. MTR values were calculated and plotted as a histogram, and peak height and location were calculated. Differences in peak height and location between pre- and post-MTX therapy scans were statistically analyzed. Conventional MRI was evaluated for abnormal signal area in white matter. Results: MTR peak height was significantly lower on post-MTX therapy scans than on pre-MTX therapy scans (p = 0.002). No significant differences in peak location were identified between pre- and post-chemotherapy imaging. No abnormal signals were noted in white matter on either pre- or post-MTX therapy conventional MRI. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that MTR histogram analysis allows better detection of early and subtle brain changes in ALL patients who receive MTX therapy than conventional MRI.

  17. Comparison of intrathecal plain articaine and levobupivacaine with fentanyl for Caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Rüveyda I; Gozdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Hüseyin; Karabayirli, Safinaz; Muslu, Bünyamin; Keskin, Esra A

    2016-12-01

    Articaine is used as a local anesthetic for outpatient surgery because it offers rapid onset of anesthesia and short duration motor block. Levobupivacaine is often preferred for Caesarean section. We evaluated the anesthetic characteristics of fentanyl-supplemented plain articaine and levobupivacaine for Caesarean section under combine spinal epidural anesthesia. Patients undergoing Caesarean section received in random order plain articaine 40 mg (Group A, n=50) or plain levobupivacaine 10 mg (Group L, n=50) mixed with fentanyl 20 µg intrathecally. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, first analgesic request, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Onset times of maximum motor block were longer in Group L than Group A (P=0,001). Time to two-segment regression of sensory block were 70 min for Group A and 90 min group L (P=0.001). Times to complete regression of motor blockade were significantly longer in group L than group A (P =0,001). To have a faster onset and shorter duration of spinal anesthesia, we recommend the use of plain articaine for Caesarean section.

  18. Retrospective analysis of the financial break-even point for intrathecal morphine pump use in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Ji Yeon; Castañeda, Anyela Marcela; Lee, Seung Jae; Yoon, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Yong Chul; Moon, Jee Youn

    2017-10-01

    The high cost of intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) implantation may be the main obstacle to its use. Since July 2014, the Korean national health insurance (NHI) program began paying 50% of the ITMP implantation cost in select refractory chronic pain patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the financial break-even point and patients' satisfaction in patients with ITMP treatment after the initiation of the NHI reimbursement. We collected data retrospectively or via direct phone calls to patients who underwent ITMP implantation at a single university-based tertiary hospital between July 2014 and May 2016. Pain severity, changes in the morphine equivalent daily dosage (MEDD), any adverse events, and patients' satisfaction were determined. We calculated the financial break-even point of ITMP implantation via investigating the patient's actual medical costs and insurance information. During the studied period, 23 patients received ITMP implantation, and 20 patients were included in our study. Scores on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were significantly reduced compared to the baseline value ( P break-even point was 28 months for ITMP treatment after the NHI reimbursement policy. ITMP provided effective chronic pain management with improved satisfaction and reasonable financial break-even point of 28 months with 50% financial coverage by NHI program.

  19. ANALGESIC EFFECT OF INTRATHECAL BACLOFEN BOLUS ON NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN SPINAL CORD INJURY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Hatice; Benito-Penalva, Jesus; Kofler, Markus; Vidal, Joan

    2018-05-18

    GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were obtained for assessment of neuropathic pain. Spasticity was assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale and visual analogue scale. Evaluations were performed at baseline, and 4, 8, and 24 hours after application of ITB or placebo. Eight patients received ITB, 5 placebo. Neuropathic pain improved significantly in the ITB group based on NRS, BPI, and NPSI, which revealed an effect on all subtypes of pain. Spasticity declined significantly. In the placebo group, there was neither significant change in pain nor in spasticity. An ITB bolus exerted a significant analgesic effect on all subtypes of neuropathic pain in SCI patients. ITB has analgesic effects on all subtypes of neuropathic pain and can improve interference of neuropathic pain with activities of daily living. ITB might be a promising analgesic treatment to control neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Markedly Low Intrathecal Antibody Response in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. K. Gamage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a heterogeneous disease which is poorly studied in Asia, where the disease is known to be rare with significant differences in clinical and radiological presentations and intrathecal antibody response. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine clinical presentation, radiological and neurophysiological characteristics, and oligoclonal band status in Sri Lankan MS patients, following careful exclusion of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and other conditions mimicking multiple sclerosis. Sixty-nine MS patients were recruited to the study adhering to McDonald 2010 criteria. Their clinical presentation, characteristics of central nervous system lesions in magnetic resonance imaging, visual evoked potential (VEP results, oligoclonal bands (OCB, and AQP4 antibody status were studied. Of 69 MS patients, 54%, 6%, and 1% were relapsing remitting, secondary progressive, and primary progressive, respectively, and 39% were patients with clinically isolated syndrome. The commonest clinical presentations were cerebral motor followed by cerebral sensory and optic neuritis. Majority had typical periventricular and infratentorial lesions in MRI. Though not clinically apparent, bilateral delay of P100 wave latency was present in 52%. OCB positivity was 42% and AQP4 antibody was positive in only one patient. In conclusion, this group of Sri Lankan MS patients shares most of the clinical and radiological features of Caucasian MS patients. However, the OCB positivity is lower in this group, when compared to the Caucasian MS populations.

  1. Hospitalization for partial nephrectomy was not associated with intrathecal opioid analgesia: Retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Toby N; Del Mundo, Serena B; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C; Sprung, Juraj

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into "spinal" (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus "general anesthetic" group, and "early" discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus "late" group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged "early" and 151 (39.7%) were "spinal" cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1(st) postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay.

  2. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Systemically Administered Antileishmanial Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Anke E; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    This review describes the pharmacokinetic properties of the systemically administered antileishmanial drugs pentavalent antimony, paromomycin, pentamidine, miltefosine and amphotericin B (AMB), including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and potential drug-drug interactions.

  3. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  4. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  5. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  6. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  7. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  8. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  10. Correction factors of commercial radionuclide calibrators for several measurement geometries of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach therapy and diagnosis objectives, the activity must be determined with high accuracy to administer a radiopharmaceutical to a patient. Initially, a glass vial with the radiopharmaceutical is placed into the radionuclide calibrator to determine its activity. Subsequently, an aliquot is transferred to a syringe and again its activity is measured on the calibrator before being administered to the patient. The glass vial and the syringe are different in many aspects as the calibration factors too, which may cause incorrect activities administered to the patient. This study aims to determine the correction factors, as well as the values of the uncertainties associated to two distinct models of calibrators: one that uses ionization chamber and another Geiger-Mueller as detectors. The radionuclides chosen were 99 Tc m and 123 1 and the containers were glass vials (type lOR and P6) and plastic syringes of 3 and 5 mL. The correction factors for each type of vials or syringe were determined as a function of volume and type of calibrator. Activity measurements comparison was also made involving several radionuclide calibrators of different models belonging to four nuclear medicine hospitals and to National Metrology Laboratory of lionizing Radiation (LNMRI). In the measurements of activity values larger than allowed by CNEN NN-3.05 norm, results have shown deviations for syringes in calibrator with Geiger-Mueller detectors and for both radionuclides. (author)

  11. The toxicity of the bone seeking radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This editorial concludes that it is evident from work on radium dial painters at the Argonne National Laboratory and on beagles at the Universities of Utah and California that irradiation by α particles from 226 Ra and 239 Pu incorporated in bone results in tumours of bone but rarely if at all in tumours arising from bone marrow. The same can probably be said of α particle irradiation by other radionuclides deposited in bone or on bone surfaces. If α particles arise in bone or on bone surfaces, the trabecular marrow can be only partially irradiated with considerable fractions of marrow left intact. On the other hand it is evident from beagle data that when bone marrow is totally irradiated by the long range β particles from 90 Sr, whether fed orally or administered by single injection, both marrow neoplasms and bone tumours occur. Total irradiation of bone marrow by γ radiation, and some neutron radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki also resulted in leukaemia induction. (author)

  12. Use of labelled dextran in radionuclide lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Duska, F.; Vizda, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran labelled with 99m Tc is a new promising radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide lymphography. So far colloids were mainly used which either had an unsuitable type of emitted radiation or the particles were too large. Dextran with a molecular weight of 70,000 was used. This weight is optimal with regard to the quality of imaging and the risk of adverse reactions. The procedure of labelling is described in detail. The properties of labelled dextran were studied in experiments on dogs weighing 8 to 12 kg to whom 14.8 to 22.2 MBq was administered subcutaneously into the front or hind paws. Scans were made immediately on application and after 45 mins. A quick passage was detected of the labelled dextran from interstitial spaces to the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes were well visualized within 1 hour. The quality control of the prepared 99m Tc-dextran was made using paper chromatography; 10 to 20% of free technetium was found. The replacement of colloids used so far with the new preparation seems to be feasible. Examinations using colloids with 198 Au require the patient to be present for 2 days, while dextran tests will be a matter of 1 to 2 hours. (A.K.)

  13. Metabolism of radionuclides in a cephalopod, Iidako, Octopus ocellatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, T.; Nakahara, M.; Matsuba, M.; Hirano, S. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office)

    1982-03-01

    Retention, distribution and excretion of radionuclides in a cephalopod, Iidako, Octopus ocellatus, were observed by administering radioisotopes (/sup 54/Mn-, /sup 59/Fe-, /sup 60/Co-, /sup 65/Zn-chlorides and /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin) into the mantle cavity by injection. Whole body radioactivity of the octopus was measured periodically after the injection for one to ten weeks to obtain the retention curve. At different stages after the injection, the sacrificed octopus was dissected into eight parts to examine the distribution of radionuclides and its change with the lapse of time. For some organs of the octopus, gel filtration chromatography (GFC) with Sephadex G-75 was applied to elucidate the binding of radionuclides with the constituents of the octopus. Excretion patterns consisted of two or three components for every nuclides except /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin which showed monophasic elimination. /sup 54/Mn was lost most rapidly whereas the longest biological half-life was shown by /sup 59/Fe. The most significant distribution of radioactivity was observed for sup(57,60)Co and /sup 59/Fe in the branchial heart of the octopus, while no specific accumulation of /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn was shown in this organ. The different accumulation mechanisms between each chemical form of cobalt and among the nuclides were suggested from the GFC elution profiles of radioactivity in the branchial heart and the liver.

  14. Metabolism of radionuclides in a cephalopod, Iidako, Octopus ocellatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Nakahara, Motokazu; Matsuba, Mitsue; Hirano, Shigeki

    1982-01-01

    Retention, distribution and excretion of radionuclides in a cephalopod, Iidako, Octopus ocellatus, were observed by administering radioisotopes ( 54 Mn-, 59 Fe-, 60 Co-, 65 Zn-chlorides and 57 Co-cyanocobalamin) into the mantle cavity by injection. Whole body radioacti vity of the octopus was measured periodically after the injection for one to ten weeks to obtain t he retention curve. At different stages after the injection, the sacrificed octopus was dissected into eight parts to examine the distribution of radionuclides and its change with the lapse of time. For some organs of the octopus, gel filtration chromatography (GFC) with Sephadex G-75 was applied to elucidate the binding of radionuclides with the constituents of the octopus. Excretion patterns consisted of two or three components for every nuclides except 57 Co-cyanocobalamin which showed monophasic elimination. 54 Mn was lost most rapidly whereas the longest biological half-life was shown by 59 Fe. The most significant distribution of radioactivity was observed for sup(57,60)Co and 59 Fe in the branchial heart of the octopus, while no specific accumulation of 54 Mn and 65 Zn was shown in this organ. The different accumulation mechanisms between each chemical form of cobalt and among the nuclides were suggested from the GFC elution profiles of radioactivity in the branchial heart and the liver. (author)

  15. Performance evaluation of commercial radionuclide calibrators in Indonesian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra, Hermawan; Marsoem, Pujadi; Wurdiyanto, Gatot

    2012-01-01

    Dose calibrator is one of the supporting equipments in the field of nuclear medicine. At the hospitals, dose calibrator is used for activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical before it is administered to patients. Comparison of activity measurements of 131 I and 99m Tc with dose calibrators was organized in Indonesia during 2007–2010 with the the aim of obtaining information dose calibrator performance in the hospitals. Seven Indonesian hospitals participated in this comparison. The measurement results were evaluated using the E n criteria. The result presented in this paper facilitated the evaluation of dose calibrator performance at several hospitals. - Highlights: ► National comparisons of 131 I and 99m Tc radionuclides in Indonesian hospitals. ► Standardization using a Centronic IG11/A20 4πγ Ionization Chamber and participants using commercial radionuclide calibrators. ► Performance radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine in Indonesia. ► Measurement of activity of 99m Tc and 131 I was found satisfactory.

  16. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  17. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of active intrathecal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Bielekova

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of the neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS are hindered by the lack of reliable biomarkers of active intrathecal inflammation. We hypothesized that measuring several putative inflammatory biomarkers simultaneously will augment specificity and sensitivity of the biomarker to the clinically useful range. Based on our pilot experiment in which we measured 18 inflammatory biomarkers in 10-fold concentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF derived from 16 untreated patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS we selected a combination of three CSF biomarkers, IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8, for further validation.Concentrations of IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 were determined in a blinded fashion in CSF samples from an initial cohort (n = 72 and a confirmatory cohort (n = 167 of prospectively collected, untreated subjects presenting for a diagnostic work-up of possible neuroimmunological disorder. Diagnostic conclusion was based on a thorough clinical workup, which included laboratory assessment of the blood and CSF, neuroimaging and longitudinal follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA, which was used to combine information from all three biomarkers, assessed the diagnostic value of measured biomarkers.Each of the three biomarkers was significantly increased in MS and other inflammatory neurological disease (OIND in comparison to non-inflammatory neurological disorder patients (NIND at least in one cohort. However, considering all three biomarkers together improved accuracy of predicting the presence of intrathecal inflammation to the consistently good to excellent range (area under the ROC curve = 0.868-0.924.Future clinical studies will determine if a combinatorial biomarker consisting of CSF IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 provides utility in determining the presence of active intrathecal inflammation in diagnostically

  19. Comparative study of intrathecal hyperbaric versus isobaric ropivacaine: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbaric ropivacaine produce more reliable sensory and motor block, with faster onset, better quality of muscles relaxation than isobaric ropivacaine. So, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric ropivacaine with isobaric ropivacaine in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A randomized controlled double blind study in two groups of patients. group A (n=35 received 3 ml of isobaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. Group B (n=35 received 3 ml of hyperbaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. The onset and duration of sensory block at dermatome level T10, maximum upper and lower spread of sensory block, intensity, and duration of motor block were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Block characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Mann - Whitney U-test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results: The median time of onset of sensory block at the T10 dermatome was 4.4±1.3 min in group B and 6.0±1.03 min in group A. The median time to maximum block height was 16.7±3.7 min in group A and 12.03±1.96 min in group B. The median duration of complete motor recovery (B0 was significantly shorter in the heavy ropivacaine group (166.5±11.7 min compared with the isobaric ropivacaine group (192.9±9.6 min. Conclusions: Intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine provides more rapid, adequate, and good quality of sensory and motor block with rapid post-operative recovery as compare to isobaric ropivacaine.

  20. Preventive Effect of Intrathecal Paracetamol on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Murat; Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Gullu, Huriye; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ischemic injury of the spinal cord during the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms might lead to paraplegia. Although a number of different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact cause of paraplegia has remained unknown, hampering the development of effective pharmacologic or other strategies for prevention of this condition. A number of studies suggested that cyclooxygenases (COX) contribute to neural breakdown; thus, COX inhibitors might reduce injury. Objectives: We aimed to assess the preventive effect of intrathecal (IT) pretreatment with paracetamol on spinal cord injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Ataturk University Animal Research Laboratory Center, Erzurum, Turkey. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (n = 6) to receive IT physiologic saline (controls), 50 µg of paracetamol, or 100 µg paracetamol one hour before induction of spinal cord ischemia. Six other rats were considered as the sham group. For the assessment of ischemic injury, motor functions of the hind limbs and histopathologic changes of the lumbar spinal cord were evaluated. Additional 20 rats were divided into two equal groups for the second part of the study where the survival rates were recorded in controls and in animals receiving 100 µg of paracetamol during the 28-day observation period. Results: Pretreatment with 100 µg of paracetamol resulted in a significant improvement in motor functions and histopathologic findings (P < 0.05). Despite a higher rate of survival in 100 µg of paracetamol group (70%) at day 28, the difference was not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective effect of pretreatment with IT paracetamol on ischemic spinal cord injury during thoracolumbar aortic aneurysm surgery. PMID:25763224

  1. Intrathecal or intraventricular therapy for post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis: matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofty, B; Neuberger, A; Naffaa, M E; Binawi, T; Babitch, T; Rappaport, Z H; Zaaroor, M; Sviri, G; Paul, M

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative post-operative meningitis due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CR-GNPOM) is a dire complication of neurosurgical procedures. We performed a nested propensity-matched historical cohort study aimed at examining the possible benefit of intrathecal or intraventricular (IT/IV) antibiotic treatment for CR-GNPOM. We included consecutive adults with GNPOM in two centres between 2005 and 2014. Patients receiving combined systemic and IT/IV treatment were matched to patients receiving systemic treatment only. Matching was done based on the propensity of the patients to receive IT/IV treatment. We compared patient groups with 30-day mortality defined as the primary outcome. The cohort included 95 patients with GNPOM. Of them, 37 received IT/IV therapy in addition to systemic treatment (22 with colistin and 15 with amikacin), mostly as initial therapy, through indwelling cerebrospinal fluid drains. Variables associated with IT/IV therapy in the propensity score included no previous neurosurgery, time from admission to meningitis, presence of a urinary catheter and GNPOM caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Following propensity matching, 23 patients given IT/IV therapy and 27 controls were analysed. Mortality was significantly lower with IT/IV therapy: 2/23 (8.7%) versus 9/27 (33.3%), propensity-adjusted OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.99. Death or neurological deterioration at 30 days, 14-day and in-hospital mortality were lower with IT/IV therapy (OR <0.4 for all) without statistically significant differences. Among patients discharged alive, those receiving IT/IV therapy did not experience more neurological deterioration. Serious adverse events with IT/IV therapy were not documented. Our results support the early use of IT antibiotic treatment for CR-GNPOM when a delivery method is available. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of virus-specific intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulin G with a fully automated enzyme immunoassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissbrich Benedikt

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is useful for the diagnosis of virus associated diseases of the central nervous system (CNS and for the detection of a polyspecific intrathecal immune response in patients with multiple sclerosis. Quantification of virus-specific IgG in the CSF is frequently performed by calculation of a virus-specific antibody index (AI. Determination of the AI is a demanding and labour-intensive technique and therefore automation is desirable. We evaluated the precision and the diagnostic value of a fully automated enzyme immunoassay for the detection of virus-specific IgG in serum and CSF using the analyser BEP2000 (Dade Behring. Methods The AI for measles, rubella, varicella-zoster, and herpes simplex virus IgG was determined from pairs of serum and CSF samples of patients with viral CNS infections, multiple sclerosis and of control patients. CSF and serum samples were tested simultaneously with reference to a standard curve. Starting dilutions were 1:6 and 1:36 for CSF and 1:1386 and 1:8316 for serum samples. Results The interassay coefficient of variation was below 10% for all parameters tested. There was good agreement between AIs obtained with the BEP2000 and AIs derived from the semi-automated reference method. Conclusion Determination of virus-specific IgG in serum-CSF-pairs for calculation of AI has been successfully automated on the BEP2000. Current limitations of the assay layout imposed by the analyser software should be solved in future versions to offer more convenience in comparison to manual or semi-automated methods.

  3. Intrathecal trastuzumab in the management of HER2+ breast leptomeningeal disease: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Nicholas B; Long, Wendy; Yu, Michael; Robinson, Timothy J; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Etame, Arnold B; Tran, Nam D; Diaz, Roberto; Soliman, Hatem; Han, Heather S; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Forsyth, Peter A; Ahmed, Kamran A

    2018-06-01

    Leptomeningeal disease is a rare and devastating presentation of advanced stage metastatic breast cancer with historically poor overall survival. We assessed the safety and feasibility of intrathecal (IT) trastuzumab in HER2+ leptomeningeal disease. A total of 13 patients were treated at our institution with IT trastuzumab beginning November 2012 and followed until November 2017. Outcomes including craniospinal progression as well as overall survival (OS) following initiation of IT trastuzumab were assessed from review of the clinical chart and radiologic examinations. The median age of patients was 48 (range 29-75). Median time from breast cancer diagnosis to development of brain metastases was 87.7 months with a median of 4.6 months from brain metastases diagnosis to the development of leptomeningeal disease. Previous whole brain radiotherapy was received by the majority of patients (92%) and prior surgery for brain metastases was performed in 23%. Median duration of IT trastuzumab treatment was 6.4 months. Median time from IT trastuzumab start to craniospinal progression was 5.7 months with 6- and 12-month Kaplan-Meier rates of 41 and 21%, respectively. Sustained responses > 6 months were achieved in 4 patients. Median survival from the start of IT trastuzumab was 10.6 months with 6- and 12-month OS rates of 68 and 47%, respectively. IT trastuzumab was well tolerated with one patient developing ventriculitis, which resolved with IV antibiotics. IT trastuzumab was well tolerated with prolongation of OS over historical controls. IT trastuzumab should be considered for management of HER2+ leptomeningeal disease patients.

  4. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  5. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  6. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  7. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  8. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  9. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  10. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  11. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  12. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  13. Fast Track Liver Resection: The Effect of a Comprehensive Care Package and Analgesia with Single Dose Intrathecal Morphine with Gabapentin or Continuous Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Koea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A comprehensive care package for patients undergoing hepatectomy was developed with the aim of minimal physiological disturbance in the peri-operative period. Peri-operative analgesia with few gastrointestinal effects and reduced requirement for intravenous (IV fluid therapy was central to this plan. Methods. Data on 100 consecutive patients managed with continuous epidural infusion (n = 50; bupivicaine 0.125% and fentanyl 2 g/mL at 0.1 mL/kg/hr or intrathecal morphine (n = 50; 300 g in combination with oral gabapentin 1200 mg preoperatively and 400 mg bd postoperatively was compared. Results. The epidural and intrathecal morphine groups were equivalent in terms of patient demographics, procedures and complications. Patients receiving intrathecal morphine received less intra-operative IV fluids (median 1500 mL versus 2200 mL, =.06, less postoperative IV fluids (median 1200 mL versus 4300 mL, =.03 than patients receiving epidural infusion. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine established a normal dietary intake sooner (16 hours versus 20 hours, =.05 and had shorter hospital stays than those managed with epidural infusions (4.7 ± 0.9 days versus 6.8 ± 1.2 days, =.02. Conclusions. Single dose intrathecal morphine is a safe and effective means of providing peri-operative analgesia. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine have reduced peri-operative physiological disturbance and return home within a few days of hepatic resection.

  14. First-in-Man Intrathecal Application of Neurite Growth-Promoting Anti-Nogo-A Antibodies in Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Klaus; Johns, Donald; Maier, Doris; Abel, Rainer; Badke, Andreas; Baron, Hagen; Thietje, Roland; Casha, Steven; Meindl, Renate; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Pfister, Christian; Rupp, Rüdiger; Weidner, Norbert; Mir, Anis; Schwab, Martin E; Curt, Armin

    2018-05-01

    Neutralization of central nervous system neurite growth inhibitory factors, for example, Nogo-A, is a promising approach to improving recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). In animal SCI models, intrathecal delivery of anti-Nogo-A antibodies promoted regenerative neurite growth and functional recovery. This first-in-man study assessed the feasibility, safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the human anti-Nogo-A antibody ATI355 following intrathecal administration in patients with acute, complete traumatic paraplegia and tetraplegia. Patients (N = 52) started treatment 4 to 60 days postinjury. Four consecutive dose-escalation cohorts received 5 to 30 mg/2.5 mL/day continuous intrathecal ATI355 infusion over 24 hours to 28 days. Following pharmacokinetic evaluation, 2 further cohorts received a bolus regimen (6 intrathecal injections of 22.5 and 45 mg/3 mL, respectively, over 4 weeks). ATI355 was well tolerated up to 1-year follow-up. All patients experienced ≥1 adverse events (AEs). The 581 reported AEs were mostly mild and to be expected following acute SCI. Fifteen patients reported 16 serious AEs, none related to ATI355; one bacterial meningitis case was considered related to intrathecal administration. ATI355 serum levels showed dose-dependency, and intersubject cerebrospinal fluid levels were highly variable after infusion and bolus injection. In 1 paraplegic patient, motor scores improved by 8 points. In tetraplegic patients, mean total motor scores increased, with 3/19 gaining >10 points, and 1/19 27 points at Week 48. Conversion from complete to incomplete SCI occurred in 7/19 patients with tetraplegia. ATI335 was well tolerated in humans; efficacy trials using intrathecal antibody administration may be considered in acute SCI.

  15. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  17. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  18. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  19. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  20. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  1. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant for spinal anaesthesia for perianal ambulatory surgeries: A randomised double-blind controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Nethra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The newer trend in regional anaesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgeries advocate use of lower dose of local anaesthetic, providing segmental block with adjuvants such as opioids and α2 agonists to prolong analgesia. The current study investigated effects of addition of 5 μg of dexmedetomidine to 6 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of analgesia, sensory and motor block characteristics for perianal ambulatory surgeries. Methods: This study is a prospective randomised controlled double blind study. Forty adult patients between 18 and 55 years of age were divided into 2 groups. Group D received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml with injection dexmedetomidine 5 μg in 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group N received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml with 0.5 ml of normal saline. The parameters assessed were time to regression of sensory blockade, motor blockade, ambulation, time to void, first administration of analgesic. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate tests. Results: Time for regression of sensory level and time for first administration of analgesic were prolonged in Group D (430.05 ± 89.13 min, 459.8 ± 100.9 min, respectively in comparison to Group N (301.10 ± 94.86 min, 321.85 ± 95.08 min, respectively. However, the duration of motor blockade, time to ambulation, and time to void were also significantly prolonged in Group D (323.05 ± 54.58 min, 329.55 ± 54.06 min, 422.30 ± 87.59 min than in Group N (220.10 ± 63.61 min, 221.60 ± 63.84 min, 328.45 ± 113.38 min. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine 5 μg added to intrathecal bupivacaine 6 mg as adjuvant may not be suitable for ambulatory perianal surgeries due to prolongation of motor blockade.

  2. Relation of intrathecal oligoclonal band production to inflammatory mediator and immunotherapy response in 208 children with OMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; McGee, Nathan R; Tate, Elizabeth D

    2018-04-12

    In 208 children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), CSF IgG oligoclonal bands (OCB) and 22 immunomarkers in CSF and 21 in serum/blood were measured. In 36 untreated OMS, 58% were OCB(+), whereas 55% of treated OMS were OCB(-). OCB positivity or negativity did not alter concentrations or frequencies of immunomarkers. The phenotypes of OCB(+) and OCB(-) patients were not distinctive. CSF B cells were expanded in untreated OMS regardless of OCB positivity. These data reveal a much higher frequency of OCB positivity in untreated OMS than previously realized and a disconnect between intrathecal OCB and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Detection of endotoxins in radiopharmaceutical preparations--I. Comparison of rabbit hyperthermia after intravenous or intrathecal administration of reference endotoxin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, L; Bruneau, J; Cohen, Y; Michaud, T

    1986-01-01

    The rise of the rabbit internal temperature after endotoxin injection is related to the route of administration. A rise of 1.71 +/- 0.411/sup 0/C is obtained after i.v. injection of 1 ng/kg Escherichia coli 0111.B.4 endotoxin. An increase of 1.93 +/- 0.236/sup 0/C is obtained after suboccipital intrathecal injection of 0.1 ng/kg of the same endotoxin; with the intrathecal route, the hyperthermia is induced by E. coli endotoxin after a dose ten times lower than with i.v. injection as shown by statistical analysis.

  5. Intrathecal application of /sup 198/Au colloid in acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in chilhood. 2. Metaphylaxis of meningosis neoplastica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, O; Unverricht, A; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-08-01

    7 children suffering from acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, resp., were injected intrathecally with /sup 198/Au colloid for metaphylaxis. The children had been cured of 8 relapses of miningosis and received irregularly intrathecal injections of methotrexate for cerebral maintenance therapy. The median cerebral period of remission was 52 weeks. 1 child suffering from ALL had been free from meningosis relapses for 128 weeks. Continuous cytostatic therapy is necessary for methaphylaxis. However, despite of the good results presented, /sup 198/Au colloid can not be recommended for long-term therapy because radiation injuries are to be expected.

  6. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  7. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  8. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  9. Training and experience of doctors administering obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background All the published Saving Mothers Reports generated by the National Committee of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in South Africa have associated anaesthesia-related maternal deaths with the lack of skills of the doctors administering the anaesthesia. The Reports have shown the Free State to ...

  10. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  11. The Canadian experience in performing accuracy checks on administered doses of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santry, Dallas

    1998-01-01

    A calibration service was introduced in 1986 to assist the Canadian nuclear medicine community in determining more accurately the amount of radioactive material administered to patients for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This aspect of a quality assurance program in nuclear medicine provides an accuracy check on instruments and the technologists using them. The calibration report issued constitutes direct traceability of a facility to a national standards laboratory. Nuclides most frequently calibrated are 99m Tc and 131 I. Others include 67 Ga, 111 In, 123 I, 125 I and 201 Tl. All samples received are analysed for radionuclidic impurities by high-resolution X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. Ten years of testing has shown that, except for a few conscientious departments, accuracy checks on radionuclide (dose) calibrators are not a high priority. There are 285 nuclear medicine facilities in Canada and, since there is no legal requirement that the calibrators be checked for accuracy, only 29 have had their instruments checked using this service. Of these, 14 perform annual accuracy checks with NRCC. In this paper, the results of the intercomparisons are described, and quality control problems associated with the use of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine are discussed

  12. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  13. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  14. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  15. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  16. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  17. Methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    2004-01-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology, of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), comes leading a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) with the purpose to promote the quality control. This work presents a quality assurance program for the performance of such measurements, evaluated in the comparison runs between hospitals and LNMRI, under the statistic point of view and the compliment of regulatory authority norms. The performance of the radionuclides 67 Ga, 123 I, 131 I, 99m Tc and 210 Tl were evaluated and 201 TI have been standardized by absolute methods. Besides, it was established the traceability of the radioactivity standards used in nuclear medicine and a methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides. The comparison results prove that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology net is viable, important and feasible. (author)

  18. Permanent relief from intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like abnormal pain by repeated intrathecal administration of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Takehiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic widespread pain, which is often refractory to conventional painkillers. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that antidepressants are effective in treating FM pain. We previously established a mouse model of FM-like pain, induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS. Results In this study, we find that ICS exposure causes a transient increase in plasma corticosterone concentration, but not in anxiety or depression-like behaviors. A single intrathecal injection of an antidepressant, such as milnacipran, amitriptyline, mianserin or paroxetine, had an acute analgesic effect on ICS-induced thermal hyperalgesia at post-stress day 1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, repeated daily antidepressant treatments during post-stress days 1-5 gradually reversed the reduction in thermal pain threshold, and this recovery was maintained for at least 7 days after the final treatment. In addition, relief from mechanical allodynia, induced by ICS exposure, was also observed at day 9 after the cessation of antidepressant treatment. In contrast, the intravenous administration of these antidepressants at conventional doses failed to provide relief. Conclusions These results suggest that the repetitive intrathecal administration of antidepressants permanently cures ICS-induced FM pain in mice.

  19. [In vitro study on intrathecal application of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for meningeal dissemination of malignant tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H; Yamada, M; Fukushima, M; Shimizu, K; Ikenaka, K

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the possible clinical intrathecal use of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for malignant brain tumors, its anti-tumor activity and neurotoxicity were compared with that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluorouridine (FUrd) in vitro. FdUrd showed good tumoricidal activity against cultured mouse 203 glioma cells and rat Walker 256 carcinoma cells as well as A172 human glioblastoma cells. Daoy human medulloblastoma cells and CADO-LC4 human lung cancer cells. It also showed less toxicity for primary cultures of neurons from C57/BL6 mouse and human embryo compared to 5-FU and FUrd. Thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) and thymidine kinase (TK), key enzymes for metabolism of 5-FU derivatives, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TPase or TK activity was detected in the CSF of hardly any patients with malignant brain tumors including meningeal carcinomatosis. These data indicated that the CSF is a favorable site for FdUrd chemotherapy, because the rate of conversion of FdUrd injected to 5-FU would be minimal. In conclusion, FdUrd may be potentially useful for intrathecal treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis.

  20. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  1. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  2. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  3. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  4. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  5. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  6. Intrathecal hyperbaric versus isobaric bupivacaine for adult non-caesarean-section surgery: systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Vishal; Shanthanna, Harsha; Prabhakar, Christopher; McKeen, Dolores M

    2016-05-18

    Bupivacaine is the most commonly used local anaesthetic for spinal anaesthesia (SA). There are two forms of commercially available bupivacaine; isobaric bupivacaine (IB): a formulation with a specific gravity or density equal to cerebrospinal fluid, and hyperbaric bupivacaine (HB): a formulation with density heavier than cerebrospinal fluid. The difference in densities of the two available preparations is believed to affect the diffusion pattern that determines the effectiveness, spread and side-effect profile of bupivacaine. This systematic review will summarise the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety on the use of HB compared with IB, when used to provide SA for surgery. Primarily, we will analyse the need for conversion to general anaesthesia. As secondary outcomes, we will compare the incidence of hypotension, incidence of nausea/vomiting, the onset time and duration of anaesthesia. We will search key electronic databases using search strategy (1) injections, spinal OR intrathecal OR subarachnoid; (2) bupivacaine OR levobupivacaine; (3) hypobaric OR isobaric OR plain; (4) baricity. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, from their inception for randomised controlled trials, with no restrictions on language. Caesarean section surgery will be excluded. 2 reviewers will independently extract the data using a standardised form. Extracted items will include study characteristics, risk of bias domains, as per modified Cochrane risk of bias, participant disposition and study outcomes. We will conduct a meta-analysis for variables that can be compared across the studies. We will evaluate clinical heterogeneity by qualitatively appraising differences in study characteristics in participants, interventions and the outcomes assessed. We will report our findings as relative risks (dichotomous), and weighted mean differences (continuous) for individual outcomes, along with their 95% CIs. We plan to submit, and will publish, our

  7. Intrathecal baclofen pumps do not accelerate progression of scoliosis in quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul R P; Nasto, Luigi A; Aujla, Ranjit K; Ammar, Amr; Grevitt, Michael P; Vloeberghs, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    To compare scoliosis progression in quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy with and without intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps. A retrospective matched cohort study was conducted. Patients with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy, GMFCS level 5, treated with ITB pumps with follow-up >1 year were matched to comparable cases by age and baseline Cobb angle without ITB pumps. Annual and peak coronal curve progression, pelvic obliquity progression and need for spinal fusion were compared. ITB group: 25 patients (9 female), mean age at pump insertion 9.4 and Risser 0.9. Initial Cobb angle 25.6° and pelvic tilt 3.2°. Follow-up 4.3 (1.0-7.8) years. Cobb angle at follow-up 76.1° and pelvic tilt 18.9°. Non-ITB group: 25 patients (14 female), mean age at baseline 9.2 and Risser 1.0. Initial Cobb angle 29.7° and pelvic tilt 7.1°. Follow-up 3.5 (1.0-7.5) years. Cobb angle at follow-up 69.1° and pelvic tilt 21.0°. The two groups were statistically similar for baseline age, Cobb angle and Risser grade. Mean curve progression was 13.6°/year for the ITB group vs 12.6°/year for the non-ITB group (p = 0.39). Peak curve progression was similar between the groups. Pelvic tilt progression was comparable; ITB group 4.5°/year vs non-ITB 4.6°/year (p = 0.97). During follow-up 5 patients in the ITB group and 9 in the non-ITB group required spinal fusion surgery for curve progression (p = 0.35). Patients with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy with and without ITB pumps showed significant curve progression over time. ITB pumps do not appear to alter the natural history of curve progression in this population.

  8. The combined effect of two different bone-seeking radionuclides on the induction of osteosarcomas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.A.; Luz, A.; Linzner, U.; Murray, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of injection of 1.85kBq/kg of the long-lived radionuclide 227 Ac on the induction of osteosarcomas in female NMRI-mice by different dose levels of the short-lived radionuclide 227 Th (18.5, 74, and 185 kBq/kg), of the short-lived radionuclide 224 Ra (18.5 kBq/kg and 185 kBq/kg) and of the short-lived β-emitter 177 Lu (100 MBq/kg and 200 MBq/kg) was investigated. The results showed in all cases that combined incorporation of two radionuclides at the levels of radioactivity studied has a lower biological effect than the sum of the effects of the components administered singly. (author)

  9. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  10. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  11. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  12. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  13. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  14. Long term effect (more than five years) of intrathecal baclofen on impairment, disability, and quality of life in patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahavi, A; Geertzen, JHB; Middel, B; Staal, M; Rietman, JS

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate long term change in impairment, disability, and health related functional status in patients with severe spasticity who received intrathecal baclofen. Methods: A long term ( more than five years) observational longitudinal follow up study assessing 21 patients who received

  15. Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bergen, Nicholas H; Subieta, Alberto; Brennan, Timothy J

    2002-07-01

    Excitatory amino acid receptors are important for both sensory and motor function in the spinal cord. We studied the effects of intrathecal LY293558, a competitive non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, on motor and sensory function in rats to determine whether drugs blocking these receptors could potentially be used as alternative agents to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia. Rats were tested before and 15-240 min after intrathecal injection of 5 nmol (in 10 microl) LY293558. Sensory function was tested at the hind paw using withdrawal response to pin prick and withdrawal to pinch with sharp forceps. Motor performance (ambulation, placing reflex, and Rotorod time), blood pressure, and heart rate were also evaluated. Some tests were repeated the next day. Responses after LY293558 were compared to injection of 40 microl bupivacaine, 0.75%. Pin-prick responses at the forepaw, chest, abdomen, hind leg, and hind paw were also examined after intrathecal LY293558. Intrathecal LY293558 blocked both sensory and motor responses through 180 min; complete recovery was present the following day. No change in blood pressure or heart rate occurred. The effects of LY293558 were more pronounced and sustained than those of bupivacaine. Segmental blockade of the response to pin prick was present after LY293558. Drugs like LY293558 that block alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors may be an alternative to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia in humans.

  16. Intrathecal Fentanyl for Labour Analgesia in a Patient with Severe Mitral Stenosis and Atrial Fibrillation in Advanced Stage of Labour-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaijayanti Nitin Gadre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour is an intensely painful experience and puts considerable physiological stress on the circulation. A case of rheumatic valvular heart disease with severe mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation is discussed here in which analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl proved beneficial given during the advanced first stage of labour.

  17. ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine Coadministered with Sufentanil for Cesarean Delivery Under Combined Spinal-epidural in Severely Preeclamptic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xiao; Wen-Ping Xu; Xiao-Min Zhang; Yin-Fa Zhang; Li-Zhong Wang; Xin-Zhong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:Spinal anesthesia was considered as a reasonable anesthetic option in severe preeclampsia when cesarean delivery is indicated,and there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to spinal anesthesia.However,the ideal dose of intrathecal bupivacaine has not been quantified for cesarean delivery for severe preeclamptic patients.This study aimed to determine the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal bupivacaine for severely preeclamptic patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.Methods:Two hundred severely preeclamptic patients are undergoing elective cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia enrolled in this randomized,double-blinded,dose-ranging study.Patients received 4 mg,6 mg,8 mg,or 10 mg intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine with 2.5 μg sufentanil.Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as a T6 sensory level achieved within 10 minutes after intrathecal drug administration and/or no epidural supplement was required during the cesarean section.The ED50 and ED95 were calculated with a logistic regression model.Results:ED50 and ED95 ofintrathecal bupivacaine for successful spinal anesthesia were 5.67 mg (95% confidence interval [CI]:5.20-6.10 mg) and 8.82 mg (95% CI:8.14-9.87 mg) respectively.The incidence of hypotension in Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was higher than that in Group 4 mg and Group 6 mg (P < 0.05).The sensory block was significantly different among groups 10 minutes after intrathecal injection (P < 0.05).The use of lidocaine in Group 4 mg was higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05).The use of phenylephrine in Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was higher than that in the other two groups (P < 0.05).The lowest systolic blood pressure before the infant delivery of Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was lower than the other two groups (P < 0.05).The satisfaction of muscle relaxation in Group 4 mg was lower than other groups (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in patients' satisfaction and the newborns

  18. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  19. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  1. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  2. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  4. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  5. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  6. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  7. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  8. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  9. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  10. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  11. Intrathecal morphine plus general anesthesia in cardiac surgery: effects on pulmonary function, postoperative analgesia, and plasma morphine concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moraes dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22 or 400 µg of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20. Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV, and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05. RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine group, with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1 (p=0.085, FEV1/FVC (p=0.68 and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08. The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale, especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001. Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037. The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL-1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL-1, p=0.029. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter

  12. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  13. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  14. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  15. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  16. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  17. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  18. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  19. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for endosco......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both...... pressure was recorded in 451 patients (26%). Independent risk factors were type of intervention and level of experience of the staff performing the sedation. CONCLUSION: These results were obtained after development of a structured training program both for endoscopists and nurses using propofol...... for sedation, and can be used as basis for further comparison. NAPS for endoscopic procedures is safe when performed by personnel properly trained in airway handling and sedation with propofol, and has considerable advantages compared with conventional sedation for endoscopy....

  20. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Morihisa; Hiraoka, Atsunobu; Uchino, Haruto.

    1982-01-01

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg. (author)

  1. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Morihisa (Shiga Univ., Otsu (Japan)); Hiraoka, Atsumobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1982-07-01

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg.

  2. Dose estimation and radiation control measures for individuals having close contact with patients administered in vivo nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, E.; Abe, K.; Kusama, T.

    1993-01-01

    Patients who have been administered radiopharmaceuticals become a source of exposure to a non-occupational individual helping in support and comfort of these patients. We measured external dose rates at several distances from 84 adult patients administered radiopharmaceuticals, and urinary excretion of radioactivity in their patients. And we estimated the maximal dose for persons having close contact with patients administered radiopharmaceuticals from the combination of these measurement data and scenarios of contact with patients. On the basis of the estimated values, we proposed the following dose constraint for care givers. (1) The dose constraint for a non-occupational care givers to an adult nuclear medicine patient should in no case exceed 300 μSv per patient per examination of any kind. (2) The dose constraint in ordinary examinations employing a radionuclide should not be greater than 15 μSv per patient per examination. (3 tabs.)

  3. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  4. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  5. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  6. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  7. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  10. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  11. Investigations of Differential Scanning Techniques using Two Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrall, M. F.; French, Rosemary J.; Trott, N. G. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1969-01-15

    In the development of scanning procedures difficulties sometimes arise because a particular radiopharmaceutical, which is selectively concentrated in an organ of interest, is also widely distributed in neighbouring sites in the body. Investigations have been made of a method which involves the use of a second radioactive substance to label such sites. By means of suitable electrical circuits fitted to a conventional mechanical scanner (Picker Magnascanner III), a direct colour scan of the organ under study can be obtained. Signals from the two radionuclides are distinguished by pulse-height analysis and used to operate the colour shift mechanism. Experimental studies with phantoms and clinical trials are reported. An analysis of the statistical limitations of the technique is given, including a discussion of the most suitable operating conditions for particular pairs of radionuclides. Illustrations include the use of {sup 75}Se selenomethionine and {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid or {sup 198}Au colloid in the delineation of the pancreas, and reference is also made to work with {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 133m}In and {sup 197}Hg, which are used in various chemical forms to visualize specific types of tumours in vascular surroundings labelled with other suitable tracers. Some discussion of the dosimetry of these procedures is made, since the extent to which the technique can be applied may be limited by the activities which can be administered. However, successful results are being obtained using activities within the range generally accepted for single radionuclide scanning procedures. For example, the pancreas can be successfully visualised using 250 {mu}Ci {sup 75}Se selenomethionine in combination with 1 mCi {sup 99m}TC sulphur colloid. (author)

  12. Intrathecal IgM index correlates with a severe disease course in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and MRI results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakbas, Serkan; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Özcelik, Pinar; Baser, Hatice; Kosehasanoğullari, Gorkem

    2017-09-01

    Intrathecally synthesized IgM can be seen not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but also in that of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgM synthesis in MS seems to be correlated with an unfavorable disease course. In one cross-sectional study, intrathecal synthesis of IgM (IgM index) was found to be correlated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the IgM index and MRI and clinical parameters. Eighty-one patients with MS (58 female) undergoing lumbar puncture were included in the study. Fifty-one patients had a relapsing-remitting (RR) disease course, while 30 cases were secondary progressive MS (SPMS). IgM was detected in paired CSF and serum specimens using ELISA. The IgM index was calculated using the formula CSF IgM/serum IgM: CSF albumin/serum albumin. IgM indexes higher than 0.1 were considered "increased". All patients underwent brain and whole spinal cord MRI. The IgM index was normal in 43 of the 81 patients (53.1%) and increased in 38 (46.9%). A significant correlation was determined between the IgM index and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (r=0.638, p=0.001). Most of the subjects with increased IgM indexes were SPMS patients, 28 having a SPMS course and 10 a RRMS course. Only two patients with SPMS courses had normal IgM indexes. EDSS scores were significantly higher in patients with increased IgM indexes (EDSS 4.3 vs EDSS 2.8, p=0.000). All patients with EDSS >3 had increased IgM indexes. All patients with IgM index values higher than 0.2 IgM had SPMS courses and EDSS >6. Time to onset of the secondary progressive phase of the disease was correlated with IgM index values (p=0.004). IgM index values were also correlated with T1 hypointense lesions (r=0.0431, p=0.008) and Gd enhancing lesions (r=0.0396, p=0.006). Patients with increased IgM indexes also had more

  13. Case with high cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma associated with arteriovenous fistula. CT with simultaneous intravenous and intrathecal injection of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takao; Shoji, Shin-ichi; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Naoki

    1988-02-01

    A 34-year-old woman complained of right hemiparesis and pain in the right hand. Routine X-ray of the cervical portion failed to reveal abnormal findings. CT with intravenous contrast medium showed a large high-density mass in the spinal canal at the level of C2. Right vertebral angiography showed a hypervascular mass. With simultaneous intravenous and intrathecal injections of contrast medium, the tumor was shown as a moderately high-density area and the parenchyma of cord as a thin low-density area surrounding the tumor stain on CT. These CT appearances led to the final diagnosis of high cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma associated with arteriovenous fistulae. Pathological findings are typical of hemangioblastoma. The usefulness of CT in detecting the localization of hypervascular spinal cord lesions is stressed. (Namekawa, K.).

  14. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  16. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  17. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  18. THE EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL NEOSTIGMINE ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalha, Hamid; Mousavi, Zinat; Sadat Barikani, Ameneh; Yaghoobi, Siamak; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2015-06-01

    Several additives have been suggested to enhance analgesic effect of local anesthetic agents to decrease the adverse effects of them and increase the degree of satisfaction. We designed this randomized double-blind controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the neostigmine added to bupivacaine using spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Sixty patients 18-80 yr old American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, scheduled for femur surgery under spinal anesthesia, were recruited in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized way. The patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups of 30 each. The neostigmine group (group N) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 25 µg neostigmine, and the placebo group (group C) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 0.5ml distilled water (intrathecally) 5 minutes prior to surgery. The time to the first analgesic request, analgesic requirement in the first 12 hours after surgery, the duration of sensory and motor blockade, the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea,vomiting,hypotension, ephedrine requirements, bradycardia, and hypoxemia were recorded. Patients receiving neostigmine had a significantly prolonged duration of motor block (C95% CI 30.27 to 87.65; P < 0.001) and sensory block (C95% CI 101.04 to 224.64; P < 0.001) compared to the control group. The difference of the mean time to the first analgesic request was also significantly longer in neostigmine group (C95% CI 83.139 to 208.526; P < 0.001). The total analgesic consumption during the first 12 hours after surgery was devoid of any significant difference between groups N and C (p = 0.41).The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intraoperative and postoperative side effects. Intrathecal neostigmine 25 µg with bupivacaine caused a prolonged time to the first analgesic request and its use was not associated with any side effects.

  19. Comparative in Vivo Investigation of Intrathecal and Intracerebroventricular Administration with Melanocortin Ligands MTII and AGRP into Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Danielle N; Lunzer, Mary M; Lensing, Cody J; Wilber, Stacey L; Gancarz, Amy M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2018-02-21

    Central administration of melanocortin ligands has been used as a critical technique to study energy homeostasis. While intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection is the most commonly used method during these investigations, intrathecal (IT) injection can be equally efficacious for the central delivery of ligands. Importantly, intrathecal administration can optimize exploration of melanocortin receptors in the spinal cord. Herein, we investigate comparative IT and ICV administration of two melanocortin ligands, the synthetic MTII (Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH 2 ) MC4R agonist and agouti-related peptide [AGRP(87-132)] MC4R inverse agonist/antagonist, on the same batch of age-matched mice in TSE metabolic cages undergoing a nocturnal satiated paradigm. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test how central administration of these ligands directly to the spinal cord affects energy homeostasis. Results showed, as expected, that MTII IT administration caused a decrease in food and water intake and an overall negative energy balance without affecting activity. As anticipated, IT administration of AGRP caused weight gain, increase of food/water intake, and increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Unexpectantly, the prolonged activity of AGRP was notably shorter (2 days) compared to mice given ICV injections of the same concentrations in previous studies (7 days or more).1-4 It appears that IT administration results in a more sensitive response that may be a good approach for testing synthetic compound potency values ranging in nanomolar to high micromolar in vitro EC 50 values. Indeed, our investigation reveals that the spine influences a different melanocortin response compared to the brain for the AGRP ligand. This study indicates that IT administration can be a useful technique for future metabolic studies using melanocortin ligands and highlights the importance of exploring the role of melanocortin receptors in the spinal cord.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of transdermal nitroglycerine patch on intrathecal dexmedetomidine as additive, on postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Chatterji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of transdermal nitroglycerin on intrathecal dexmedetomidine as additive, on postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Totally 140 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I or II, posted for abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia, were randomized to four groups using computer-generated random number list. Group B received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 0.5 ml normal saline and placebo patch, Group BN received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 0.5 ml NS and transdermal nitroglycerin (t-NTG, Group BD received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 5 mcg (0.5 ml dexmedetomidine and placebo patch and Group BDN received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 5 μg (0.5 ml dexmedetomidine and t-NTG patch. Outcomes measured include the total duration of analgesia, onset, and duration of sensory and motor block and any adverse effects. Results: The total duration of analgesia was longest in Group BDN (349.9 ± 40.6 min. It was significantly longer than Group BD (252.3 ± 34.0 min and Group B and BN (130.5 ± 18.8, 138.3 ± 19.2 min. Time taken for two segment regression was comparable in Group B (79.9 ± 14.4 min and Group BN (87.1 ± 22.6 min, but it was significantly longer in Group BD (122.5 ± 17.2 min and Group BDN (136.4 ± 25.5 min. There was no significant difference in other variables between the groups. Conclusion: Transdermal nitroglycerine itself does not exhibit any analgesic potential of its own but, it enhances the analgesic potential of intrathecal dexmedetomidine.

  1. Association between change in normal appearing white matter metabolites and intrathecal inflammation in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Mellergård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is associated not only with focal inflammatory lesions but also diffuse pathology in the central nervous system (CNS. Since there is no firm association between the amount of focal inflammatory lesions and disease severity, diffuse pathology in normal appearing white matter (NAWM may be crucial for disease progression. Immunomodulating treatments for MS reduce the number of focal lesions, but possible effects on diffuse white matter pathology are less studied. Furthermore, it is not known whether intrathecal levels of inflammatory or neurodegenerative markers are associated with development of pathology in NAWM. METHODS: Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS was used to investigate NAWM in 27 patients with relapsing MS before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab as well as NAWM in 20 healthy controls at baseline. Changes in (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations during treatment were also correlated with a panel of intrathecal markers of inflammation and neurodegeneration in 24 of these 27 patients. RESULTS: The group levels of (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations were unchanged pre- to posttreatment, but a pattern of high magnitude correlation coefficients (r = 0.43-0.67, p<0.0005-0.03 were found between changes in individual metabolite concentrations (total creatine and total choline and levels of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and CXCL8. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a clinical improvement and a global decrease in levels of inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid during treatment, high levels of pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and IL-1β were associated with an increase in (1H-MRS metabolites indicative of continued gliosis development and membrane turnover in NAWM.

  2. Comparison of intrathecal clonidine and magnesium sulphate used as an adjuvant with hyperbaric bupivacaine in lower abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Khandelwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Use of various adjuvants to spinal anaesthesia is a well-known modality to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the analgesic efficacy of clonidine and magnesium when used as an additive to intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Methods: Ninety patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status grade I or II, scheduled for lower abdominal surgery under spinal anaesthesia, were randomly allocated into three groups. Group B received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL of normal saline, Group C received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL (30 μg of clonidine and Group M received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL (50 mg magnesium sulphate. The primary outcome variable was duration of analgesia and secondary outcome variables included onset and duration of sensory and motor block, sedation level and adverse effects. Data were analysed with ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results: The time to first rescue analgesia was significantly (P < 0.01 longer in the Group C (330.7 ± 47.7 min than both Groups. Group M (246.3 ± 55.9 min showed significantly prolonged analgesia than Group B (134.4 ± 17.9 min. Group C and Group M showed significantly prolonged duration of both sensory and motor block compared to Group B. Conclusion: Intrathecal clonidine added to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of post-operative analgesia, and hastens the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor block compared to magnesium or controls.

  3. Effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine on shivering after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Karim Nasseri,1,2 Negin Ghadami,1 Bijan Nouri2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; 2Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Background: Shivering is among the common troublesome complications of spinal anesthesia (SA, and causes discomfort and discontentment in parturients undergoing cesarean sections (CSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in the prevention of shivering in those who underwent CS under SA.Subjects and methods: Fifty parturients planned for elective CSs under SA were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded, controlled study and randomly divided into two equal groups. Spinal block was achieved with 12.5 mg 0.5% heavy bupivacaine plus 5 µg dexmedetomidine (BD group or 0.5 mL 0.9% normal saline (BN group. The incidence and intensity of shivering, peripheral and core body temperature, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events was recorded.Results: The incidence of shivering was significantly higher in the BN group (52% than the BD group (24% (P=0.04. Likewise, the intensity of shivering was significantly higher in the BN group than the BD group (P=0.04. The incidence of adverse events, such as hypotension, nausea/vomiting, and bradycardia, was not significantly different between the two groups, although the grade of sedation was higher in the BD group than the BN group (P=0.004.Conclusion: We conclude that intrathecal dexmedetomidine is effective in lowering the incidence and intensity of shivering in parturients undergoing CSs under SA without major adverse effects. Keywords: dexmedetomidine, shivering, spinal anesthesia, cesarean sections, bupivacaine

  4. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Itoh, H.; Ishii, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  5. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  6. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  7. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  8. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  9. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  11. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  12. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  13. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  15. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  16. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  17. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  18. Effects of the variation of samples geometry on radionuclide calibrator response for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Fragoso, Maria Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the nuclear medicine practice, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the subjects is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The instrument used for this purpose is the radionuclide calibrator. The radiopharmaceuticals are usually contained on glass vials or syringes. However, the radionuclide calibrators response is sensitive to the measurement geometry. In addition, the calibration factors supplied by manufactures are valid only for single sample geometry. To minimize the uncertainty associated with the activity measurements, it is important to use the appropriate corrections factors for the each radionuclide in the specific geometry in which the measurement is to be made. The aims of this work were to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators varying the geometry of radioactive sources and to determine experimentally the correction factors for different volumes and containers types commonly used in nuclear medicine practice. The measurements were made in two ionization chambers of different manufacturers (Capintec and Biodex), using four radionuclides with different photon energies: {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl. The results confirm the significant dependence of radionuclide calibrators reading on the sample geometry, showing the need of use correction factors in order to minimize the errors which affect the activity measurements. (author)

  19. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  20. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  1. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  2. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  3. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.; Earman, S.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-10-01

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  8. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  9. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  11. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  12. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  13. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  14. Behaviour of the radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This chapter approaches the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, the isotopes of the natural radioactive series, some aspects of the isotope behaviour on the environment and fission and activation radioactive isotopes

  15. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  16. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  17. Limit of the radionuclides in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaling; Jiang Rangrong

    2003-01-01

    Granite is an important sort of building materials. Their radionuclide contents are limited by the national standard GB6566-2001 just as other building materials. This standard divides them into main materials and decorative materials, and relaxes the limit of the latter obviously. Owing to the consideration of public dose limit and environment protection, this method needs discussion. Otherwise, red granite contains high radionuclide contents relatively, especially the sort of Indian Red, and need be paid more attention

  18. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  19. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  20. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  1. Transport of radionuclides from the LAMPF lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the discharge water from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility lagoons continued during June and December of 1983. The list of radionuclides being monitoring includes 7 Be, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, 54 Mn, 22 Na, and 83 Rb. The sampling locations and the data obtained to date are presented. Movement of radionuclides around the lagoons has been described in a previous report. 1 reference, 1 table

  2. Intrathecally enhanced spinal CT in the early diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid-borne metastasis in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Ahn, H.S.; Zinreich, S.J.; Diffley, D.M.; Killmond, T.A.; Strauss, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic intraspinal cerebrospinal fluid-borne metastases can obviate serious sequelae in pediatric patients with known intracranial tumors. MR imaging is a superior imaging modality; however, in very young patients who need general anesthesia for immobilization and also for evaluation of small subarachnoid seedings, the authors found CT to be a valuable alternative. Twelve patients ranging in age from 3 months to 13 years underwent CT screening of the entire spine after intrathecal enhancement with 3-5 ml of metrizamide (100 mg iodine per milliliter) via a lumbar puncture. Intrathecal spinal metastases were found in 67% of the studied patients and even in a patient whose MR imaging examination failed to disclose the lesion

  3. The effect of intrathecal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells on hippocampal neurons in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Eftekharzadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Intracerebral injection of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs is being investigated as a therapeutic tool to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD. Our aim was to investigate the effects of BMSCs by intrathecal injection in AD rat model. Materials and Methods: BMSCs were obtained from the bone marrow of Wistar rat and transplanted into AD rat model via intrathecal injection. The rat model had received an injection of β amyloid into the hippocampus for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Histological examination of the brains in transplanted rats compared to controls demonstrated the migration of BrdU-labeled BMSCs from the site of delivery, confirmed the differentiation of BMSCs transplanted cells into the cholinergic neurons, and increased number of healthy and decreased number of dark neurons. Conclusion: Our results showed that BMSCs intratechal administration could be a promising method for treatment ofAlzheimer’s disease in rat model.

  4. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  6. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  7. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  8. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  9. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  10. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  11. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of labetalol in a patient undergoing post-partum tubal ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, P J; Hamza, M S; Ting, P H; Blank, R S; Grubb, C T

    2005-10-01

    After receiving a continuous spinal anesthetic for labor following an inadvertent dural puncture with a 17-gauge epidural needle, a morbidly obese parturient underwent post-partum tubal ligation 12 h after vaginal delivery. The patient received a total of 2 mL of 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine for the surgery. In response to moderate hypertension the patient received intravenous labetalol hydrochloride 20 mg. She subsequently was inadvertently administered approximately 15 mg of labetalol through the spinal catheter. The spinal catheter was removed immediately after the procedure. She suffered no apparent adverse neurologic effects.

  12. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  13. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  14. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and availability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe

  15. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. A comparative study of the effect of clonidine, fentanyl, and the combination of both as adjuvant to intrathecal bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in total abdominal hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fareed; Khandelwal, Mamta; Sharma, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of sensory block, onset and duration of motor block, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of combination of clonidine and fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric bupivacaine (HB). Material and Methods: Three hundred and twenty eight patients were randomized into four groups. Group bupivacaine (group B) received 15 mg of HB; group bupivacaine clonidine (group BC) received 15 mg of HB plus 25 μg clonidine; group bupivacaine fentanyl (group BF) received 15 mg of HB plus 25 μg fentanyl and group bupivacaine clonidine fentanyl (group BCF) received 15 mg of HB plus 25 μg clonidine and 25 μg fentanyl intrathecally. All groups were evaluated for level of sensory block, onset and duration of motor block, postoperative analgesia, VAS score, sedation score and adverse effects of study drugs. All the data were analyzed using unpaired t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The level of sensory block, onset, and duration of motor block were comparable in all groups. Total duration of analgesia was 407.3 ± 20 min in group BCF compared to 242.1 ± 2 min and 209.2 ± 16 in groups BC and BF, respectively. Lesser doses of rescue analgesic were required in group BCF. The time interval from intrathecal injection to two-segment regression was statistically significant in study groups. Only 2.4% patients showed mild sedation in BCF group. Conclusion: We found that combination of intrathecal clonidine and fentanyl along with bupivacaine increases the total duration of analgesia without significant side effects. PMID:28413281

  17. The Comparison of Intrathecal Morphine and IV Morphine PCA on Pain Control, Patient Satisfaction, Morphine Consumption, and Adverse Effects in Patients Undergoing Reduction Mammoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Karamese, Mehtap; Akda?, Osman; Kara, ?nci; Y?ld?ran, Gokce Unal; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following breast reduction procedures, the level of postoperative pain can be severe, and sufficient pain control influences a patient's physiological, immunological, and psychological status. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the use of intrathecal morphine (ITM) in breast reduction surgery with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods: Sixty-two female patients who underwent breast reductions with the same technique participated in this study. The study group (I...

  18. Comparative study of two doses of intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant with low dose hyperbaric bupivacaine in ambulatory perianal surgeries: A prospective randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sudheesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine (DMT, as intrathecal adjuvant has been shown to successfully prolong duration of analgesia but delay the motor recovery. Hence, this study was designed to find out the dose of DMT which can provide satisfactory analgesia without prolonging motor block. Methods: A total of 50 patients scheduled for elective perianal surgeries were randomly allocated to Groups C or D (n = 25. Group D received hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 4 mg + DMT 5 μg and Group C received hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 4 mg + DMT 3 μg intrathecally. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia, time for ambulation and first urination were recorded. Adverse effects if any were noted. Results: Demographic characters, duration of surgery were comparable. The onset of sensory block to S1 was 9.61 ± 5.53 min in Group C compared to 7.69 ± 4.80 min in Group D (P = 0.35. Duration of sensory (145.28 ± 83.17 min – C, 167.85 ± 93.75 min – D, P = 0.5 and motor block (170.53 ± 73.44 min – C, 196.14 ± 84.28 min, P = 0.39 were comparable. Duration of analgesia (337.86 ± 105.11 min – C, 340.78 ± 101.81 min – D, P = 0.9 and time for ambulation (252.46 ± 93.72 min – C, 253.64 ± 88.04 min – D, P = 0.97 were also comparable. One patient in each group had urinary retention requiring catheterization. No other side effects were observed. Conclusion: Intrathecal DMT 3 μg dose does not produce faster ambulation compared to intrathecal DMT 5 μg though it produces comparable duration of analgesia for perianal surgeries.

  19. Intrathecal dihydroergotamine inhibits capsaicin-induced vasodilatation in the canine external carotid circulation via GR127935- and rauwolscine-sensitive receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna I; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2012-10-05

    It has been suggested that during a migraine attack trigeminal nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), producing central nociception and vasodilatation of cranial arteries, including the extracranial branches of the external carotid artery. Since trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation, the present study has investigated the effects of intrathecal dihydroergotamine on the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine. Anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid conductance. A catheter was inserted into the right common carotid artery for the continuous infusion of phenylephrine (to restore the carotid vascular tone), whereas the corresponding thyroid artery was cannulated for one-min intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine (which dose-dependently increased the external carotid conductance). Another cannula was inserted intrathecally (C(1)-C(3)) for the administration of dihydroergotamine, the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine or the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride monohydrate). Intrathecal dihydroergotamine (10, 31 and 100μg) inhibited the vasodilatation to capsaicin, but not that to α-CGRP or acetylcholine. This inhibition was: (i) unaffected by 10μg GR127935 or 100μg rauwolscine, but abolished by 31μg GR127935 or 310μg rauwolscine at 10μg dihydroergotamine; and (ii) abolished by the combination 10μg GR127935+100μg rauwolscine at 100μg dihydroergotamine. Thus, intrathecal (C(1)-C(3)) dihydroergotamine seems to inhibit the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin by spinal activation of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) (probably 5-HT(1B)) receptors and α(2) (probably α(2A/2C))-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal magnesium sulphate for hysterectomy under subarachnoid block with bupivacaine and fentanyl: A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Paban Nath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathecal magnesium has been found to prolong the duration of analgesia in various surgical procedures like lower limb surgeries and as adjuncts to general anesthesia for pain management. The present study was designed to examine whether addition of intrathecal magnesium sulfate would enhance the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: After taking informed consent, 60 patients were randomised into two groups with 30 patients. Group "S" received 2.5 mL (12.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine + 0.5 mL (25 mcg of fentanyl + 0.5 mL of normal saline and Group "M" received 2.5 mL (12.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine + 0.5 mL (25 mcg of fentanyl + 0.5 mL (100 mg of magnesium sulfate. Onset of sensory, motor block and duration of analgesia was noted. Results: Demographic profile and duration of surgery were comparable (P>0.5. Time of onset of sensory and motor blockade was delayed in Group M compared with Group S, and this was statistically significant. A statistically significant longer duration of analgesia was observed in Group M compared with the control Group S. However, the recovery of motor blockade was found to be statistically insignificant in both the groups. The hemodynamic parameters were comparable in the perioperative period (P>0.05. The incidence of side-effects in both the groups were also comparable (P>0.05. Conclusion: The addition of 100 mg intrathecal magnesium led to prolonged duration of analgesia significantly without increasing the incidence of side-effects. Also, there was a significant delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade.

  1. Clinically Isolated Syndrome According to McDonald 2010: Intrathecal IgG Synthesis Still Predictive for Conversion to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schwenkenbecher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the revised McDonald criteria of 2010 allow for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS in an earlier stage, there is still a need to identify the risk factors for conversion to MS in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. Since the latest McDonald criteria were established, the prognostic role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and visual evoked potentials (VEP in CIS patients is still poorly defined. We conducted a monocentric investigation including patients with CIS in the time from 2010 to 2015. Follow-ups of 120 patients revealed that 42% converted to MS. CIS patients with positive oligoclonal bands (OCB were more than twice as likely to convert to MS as OCB negative patients (hazard ratio = 2.6. The probability to develop MS was even higher when a quantitative intrathecal IgG synthesis was detected (hazard ratio = 3.8. In patients with OCB, VEP did not add further information concerning the conversion rate to MS. In patients with optic neuritis and negative OCB, a significantly higher rate converted to MS when VEP were delayed. In conclusion, the detection of an intrathecal IgG synthesis increases the conversion probability to MS. Pathological VEP can help to predict the conversion rate to MS in patients with optic neuritis without an intrathecal IgG synthesis.

  2. CNS penetration of intrathecal-lumbar idursulfase in the monkey, dog and mouse: implications for neurological outcomes of lysosomal storage disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pericles Calias

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS disorders is the lack of convenient and effective methods for delivering biological agents to the brain. Mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome is a rare inherited lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S. I2S is a large, highly glycosylated enzyme. Intravenous administration is not likely to be an effective therapy for disease-related neurological outcomes that require enzyme access to the brain cells, in particular neurons and oligodendrocytes. We demonstrate that intracerebroventricular and lumbar intrathecal administration of recombinant I2S in dogs and nonhuman primates resulted in widespread enzyme distribution in the brain parenchyma, including remarkable deposition in the lysosomes of both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Lumbar intrathecal administration also resulted in enzyme delivery to the spinal cord, whereas little enzyme was detected there after intraventricular administration. Mucopolysaccharidosis II model is available in mice. Lumbar administration of recombinant I2S to enzyme deficient animals reduced the storage of glycosaminoglycans in both superficial and deep brain tissues, with concurrent morphological improvements. The observed patterns of enzyme transport from cerebrospinal fluid to the CNS tissues and the resultant biological activity (a warrant further investigation of intrathecal delivery of I2S via lumbar catheter as an experimental treatment for the neurological symptoms of Hunter syndrome and (b may have broader implications for CNS treatment with biopharmaceuticals.

  3. Human interleukin-10 delivered intrathecally by self-complementary adeno-associated virus 8 induces xenogeneic transgene immunity without clinical neurotoxicity in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Mark D; Pleticha, Josef; Heilmann, Lukas F; Newman, Laura K; Maus, Timothy P; Beutler, Andreas S

    2018-05-25

    Intrathecal interleukin-10 delivered by plasmid or viral gene vectors has been proposed for clinical testing because it is effective for chronic pain in rodents, a potential therapeutic for various human diseases, and was found to be non-toxic in dogs, when the human interleukin-10 ortholog was tested. However, recent studies in swine testing porcine interleukin-10 demonstrated fatal neurotoxicity. To deliver vector-encoded human interleukin-10 in swine, measure expression of the transgene in cerebrospinal fluid, and monitor animals for signs of neurotoxicity. Human interleukin-10 levels peaked 2 weeks after vector administration followed by a rapid decline that occurred concomitant with the emergence of anti-human interleukin-10 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Animals remained neurologically healthy throughout the study period. This study suggests that swine are not idiosyncratically sensitive to intrathecal interleukin-10 because, recapitulating previous reports in dogs, they suffered no clinical neurotoxicity from the human ortholog. These results strongly infer that toxicity of intrathecal interleukin-10 in large animal models was previously overlooked because of a species mismatch between transgene and host. The present study further suggests that swine were protected from interleukin-10 by a humoral immune response against the xenogeneic cytokine. Future safety studies of interleukin-10 or related therapeutics may require syngeneic large animal models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority to... administer oaths to military personnel who are subject to the UCMJ. The authority to administer oaths to...

  5. Absorption of sediment-bound radionuclides through the digestive tract of marine demersal fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Nakahara, Motokazu; Iimura, Mitsue

    1978-01-01

    Retention of 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 65 Zn by marine demersal fish, Ishigarei (Kareius bicoloratus) was observed by administering sediment-bound radioisotopes orally to the fishes to elucidate the contribution of sediment to the accumulation of radionuclides by marine benthic organisms. The sediment had high distribution coefficients for these radionuclides and from the result of leaching experiments with acidified seawater, considerable fractions of radioactive Mn, Co and Zn in the sediment were assumed to be leached in the stomach of the fishes. Retention patterns of the nuclides in the whole-body of the fishes were analyzed by peeling off method and two components were obtained for all the nuclides. The parameters which characterized the retention patterns suggested relatively high absorption efficiencies of the radionuclides except 59 Fe through the digestive tract of the fishes and the retention patterns of the slower component were supposed to be similar to those observed for the nuclides taken up from seawater or food by the dishes. Rapid and higher transfer of the absorbed radionuclides to the particular organs of the fishes suggested the important role of the sediment in the radioactive contamination of marine demersal fishes. (author)

  6. Uso de morfina intratecal en artrodesis lumbar Uso da morfina intratecal na artrodese lombar Intrathecal morphine in lumbar spine fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Schulz Ibaceta

    2009-12-01

    controle da dor nas primeiras 12 horas pós-operatórias na cirurgia de artrodese lombar.OBJECTIVE: to determine the efficacy and safety of low-dose intrathecal morphine use in lumbar instrumented arthrodesis. METHODS: prospective, randomized, blind and controlled study, comparing two groups of patients, with and without the administration of intrathecal morphine at the end of surgery. RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found in the visual analogue score (VAS between the two groups, 12 hours after surgery. Average VAS (at rest in the Study Group was 2.15 cm versus 5 cm in the Control Group (p=0.013. In activity, average, VAS in the Study Group was 4.36 cm and in the Control Group, 6.9 cm (p=0.029. No differences were found when comparing complication rates. CONCLUSION: the use of low-dose intrathecal morphine in instrumented lumbar arthrodesis, for postoperative pain management, is safe and effective.

  7. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  8. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  9. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  10. Comparison of bone tumors induced by beta-emitting or alpha-emitting radionuclides: Schemes of pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Pool, R.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    Life-span studies in Beagle dogs have documented the occurrence of bone tumors following exposure to bone-seeking alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides administered by different routes of exposure. Bone tumors from dogs in four different life-span studies were analyzed according to tumor phenotype, tumor location, radiographic appearance, incidence of metastasis, and association with radiation osteodystrophy. Marked differences in these parameters were observed that did not correlate with differences in radionuclide type, route of exposure, or duration of radionuclide uptake. Radiation osteodystrophy, which is postulated to be a preneoplastic lesion, was not a significant component in one of the studies. Analysis of the data from these four studies suggests that at least two different mechanisms of bone tumor pathogenesis occur for radiation-induced bone tumors. (author)

  11. Efficacy of magnesium sulphate and/or fentanyl as adjuvants to intrathecal low-dose bupivacaine in parturients undergoing elective caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent developments in the field of intrathecal adjuvants have led to accelerated functional recovery with adequate postoperative analgesia following caesarean section. Encouraging results have been obtained with the use of intrathecal magnesium with or without fentanyl in parturients. This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of adding magnesium sulphate and/or fentanyl to low-dose intrathecal bupivacaine in parturients undergoing caesarean section under subarachnoid block (SAB. Materials and Methods: Ninety, American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II, parturients for the elective caesarean section were enrolled in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. The parturients were randomly assigned to three groups. In Group M, parturients received 8.5 mg (1.7 mL hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 50 mg (0.1 mL magnesium sulphate and 0.4 mL normal saline. Group F received 8.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 20 μg (0.4 mL fentanyl and 0.1 mL of normal saline and Group MF parturients received 8.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 20 μg fentanyl added to 50 mg magnesium sulphate. Results: Parturients in the group MF were pain free for longest period (273.70 ± 49.30 min as compared to group M (252.67 ± 40.76 min and group F (239.80 ± 38.45 mins [gp MF vs F and, gp M vs F (P = 0.00]. The total doses of rescue analgesics were least in group MF (2.43 ± 0.56 and maximum in group F (3.30 ± 0.63, with comparable neonatal outcomes in three groups. Conclusion: Our data supports synergistic action of intrathecal magnesium sulphate to fentanyl, and it is concluded that on addition of intrathecal magnesium sulphate and fentanyl to low-dose bupivacaine as adjuvant in subarachnoid block, results in prolonged duration of postoperative analgesia with lesser pain scores and lesser dose of rescue analgesia with better haemodynamic stability.

  12. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  13. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  14. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  17. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  18. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  19. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  20. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended