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Sample records for intrapancreatic accessory spleen

  1. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  2. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (pre)malignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  3. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn P. M. van Dijck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (premalignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  4. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

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    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  5. Accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour from intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ankur; Pandey, Pallavi; Ghasabeh, Mounes Aliyari; Varzaneh, Farnaz Najmi; Khoshpouri, Pegah; Shao, Nannan; Pour, Manijeh Zargham; Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei; Kamel, Ihab R.; Hruban, Ralph H.; O'Broin-Lennon, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the accuracy of absolute apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalised ADC (lesion-to-spleen ADC ratio) in differentiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) from intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS). Study included 62 patients with the diagnosis of pancreatic NET (n=51) or IPAS (n=11). Two independent reviewers measured ADC on all lesions and spleen. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to differentiate NET from IPAS was performed and compared for absolute and normalised ADC. Inter-reader reliability for the two methods was assessed. Pancreatic NET had significantly higher absolute ADC (1.431 x 10 -3 vs 0.967 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; P<0.0001) and normalised ADC (1.59 vs 1.09; P<0.0001) compared to IPAS. An ADC value of ≥1.206 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s was 70.6% sensitive and 90.9% specific for the diagnosis of NET vs. IPAS. Lesion to spleen ADC ratio of ≥1.25 was 80.4% sensitive, and 81.8% specific while ratio of ≥1.29 was 74.5% sensitive and 100% specific in the differentiation. The area under the curve (AUCs) for two methods were similar (88.2% vs. 88.8%; P=0.899). Both methods demonstrated excellent inter-reader reliability with ICCs for absolute ADC and ADC ratio being 0.957 and 0.927, respectively. Both absolute and normalised ADC allow clinically relevant differentiation of pancreatic NET and IPAS. (orig.)

  6. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  7. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  8. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  9. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

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    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  10. B-mode and contrast-enhanced sonographic assessment of accessory spleen in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Rabba, Silvia; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Terragni, Rossella; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    Four dogs with an accessory spleen are described. The accessory spleens appeared as a round-to-triangular structure located in the perisplenic area. They were homogeneous and isoechoic with the adjacent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed using a second generation microbubble contrast medium (sulfur hexafluoride). The type and timing of enhancement of the accessory spleen was similar to that of the parent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a noninvasive modality useful in distinguishing an accessory spleen from a mass of another origin.

  11. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a simultaneous wandering spleen along with an ectopic accessory spleen. Case report and review of the literature

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    Antonia Rizzuto

    Full Text Available Background: Wandering spleen and accessory spleen are uncommon entity occurring during embryonic development. Wandering spleen results in an excessive mobility and migration of the spleen from its normal position in the left hypochondrium while accessory spleen is characterized by ectopic splenic masses or tissue disjointed from the main body of spleen.Due to the nonspecific and multiple symptoms the clinical diagnosis of both conditions is uncertain even with imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI. The coexistence of both diseases (wandering spleen ad accessory spleen is uncommon. Case report: A 17–year old European female with a history of minor beta thalassemia and recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. Pre- operative management consisted of routine laboratory tests, ultrasound, CT scan. An ectopic spleen along with an accessory spleen were diagnosed. After a multidisciplinary board a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 6th post-operative day with the indication to continue the therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH for 30 days Conclusions: This case represents a simultaneous condition of wandering splenomegaly along with an ectopic wandering spleen. The coexistence of these two rare conditions is peculiar such as the age of the patient, as literature reports such diseases to affect children or more commonly people in the range of 20–40 years of age. Laparoscopic treatment for this particular condition is also unusual. Keywords: Ectopic spleen, Wandering spleen, Laparoscopic splenectomy

  12. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

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    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  13. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

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    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  14. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  15. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

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    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  16. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  17. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  18. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

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    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  19. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders. (author)

  20. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lambert, Jack W.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  1. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

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    Winklhofer, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.winklhofer@usz.ch [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Lin, Wei-Ching, E-mail: d7466@mail.cmuh.org.tw [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Rd., Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological science, China Medical University, No. 91, Syueshih Rd., Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lambert, Jack W., E-mail: Jack.Lambert@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  2. Gastrointestinal bleeding: an accessory spleen causing a false-positive Tc-99m-sulfur colloid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Sunaryo, F.P.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Tc-99m-sulfur colloid abdominal scan was performed on a 12-year-old girl to localize the site of gastrointestinal bleeding. The study was normal. When bleeding recurred two weeks later, a repeat study revealed a focal abnormality in the upper abdomen. This was thought to be compatible with a small bleed. However, at surgery an accessory spleen was found, accounting for the abnormal scan

  3. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, C.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Vincent, L.M.; Peterson, N.P.; Staab, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Imaging modalities currently available for the evaluation of splenic disorders include /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (TcSC) radionuclide splenic scintigraphy, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). These techniques produce images of the spleen on the basis of reticuloendothelial function, echogenic properties, and x-ray attenuation, respectively. No one technique is clearly superior to another for all clinical situations or disease processes. Each modality has its strengths and limitations that relate to the properties being measured (function, echogenicity, attenuation) and the disease processes involving the spleen. This chapter offers a combined approach to splenic imaging in the evaluation of focal disease, diffuse disease, traumatic disorders, normal variations, congenital anomalies, and perisplenic disorders

  4. PET Study with false positive {sup 68}Ga-Dotatate caused by the presence of an accessory spleen; Estudio PET con {sup 68}Ga-Dotatate falso positivo causado por la presencia de un bazo accesorio

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    Massardo, Teresa [Centro PET de Imagenes Moleculares, Hospital Militar de Santiago / Seccion Medicina Nuclear, Departamento Medicina, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile. Santiago (Chile); Jofre, Josefina; Sierralta, M. Paulina; Canessa, Jose [Centro PET de Imagenes Moleculares, Hospital Militar de Santiago. Santiago (Chile)

    2013-05-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin receptor expression are suitable for imaging with somatostatin analogues. {sup 68}Ga-labeled peptides are useful for the diagnosis, staging and assessment of therapeutic response of these tumors. However, for a correct interpretation it is necessary to know the normal biodistribution of somatostatin receptors in the body. Asymmetric adrenal uptake may be a normal variant to cause confusion, or an accessory or ectopic spleen can lead to a false positive result. We report a case of asymmetric adrenal uptake which was correctly considered as a normal variant, but an accessory spleen caused the false impression of being a metastasis from a previously resected primary carcinoid tumor.

  5. Quantification of intrapancreatic fat in type 2 diabetes by MRI.

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    Ahmad Al-Mrabeh

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intrapancreatic fat may be important in type 2 diabetes, but widely varying data have been reported. The standard quantification by MRI in vivo is time consuming and dependent upon a high level of experience. We aimed to develop a new method which would minimise inter-observer variation and to compare this against previously published datasets.A technique of 'biopsying' the image to minimise inclusion of non-parenchymal tissues was developed. Additionally, thresholding was applied to exclude both pancreatic ducts and intrusions of visceral fat, with pixels of fat values of 20% being excluded. The new MR image 'biopsy' (MR-opsy was compared to the standard method by 6 independent observers with wide experience of image analysis but no experience of pancreas imaging. The effect of the new method was examined on datasets from two studies of weight loss in type 2 diabetes.At low levels of intrapancreatic fat neither the result nor the inter-observer CV was changed by MR-opsy, thresholding or a combination of the methods. However, at higher levels the conventional method exhibited poor inter-observer agreement (coefficient of variation 26.9% and the new combined method improved the CV to 4.3% (p<0.03. Using either MR-opsy alone or with thresholding, the new methods indicated a closer relationship between decrease in intrapancreatic fat and fall in blood glucose.The inter-observer variation for quantifying intrapancreatic fat was substantially improved by the new method when pancreas fat levels were moderately high. The method will improve comparability of pancreas fat measurement between research groups.

  6. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

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    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  7. Spleen removal

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    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  8. Agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of diaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst: a rare entity

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    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute pancreatitis in a 43-year-old male patient, which was eventually diagnosed as agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of left hemidiaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst is being reported.

  9. Wandering spleen

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    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature.

  10. Wandering spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature

  11. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  12. Wandering Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.; Sibiany, Abdulrehman M.; Maimani, Abdulraouf A.; Alem, Fayad K.

    2004-01-01

    Cogenital malformations of the spleen are rare. We report 3 cases of wandering spleen presented as abominal or pelvi-abdominal mass. Two patients were suffering from chronic lower abdominal pain with thrombosed splenic pedicle and the third patient had an acute abdomen. All patients underwent splenectomies. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, Doppler's ultrasound, and radioisotpes studies were used to cpnfirm the diagnosis. The clinical, diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed. (author)

  13. Spleen: development and functional evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Conway, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the fact that the spleen has multiple functions, only one has been widely used for evaluation of the organ by imaging techniques (phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid). The usual splenic uptake of this radiocolloid can by used to determine the size, location, and integrity of the organ. A major use of splenic radiocolloid imaging has been in the study of congenital defects. Thus, eventration of the diaphragm, accessory spleens, splenogonadal fusion, the asplenia and polysplenia syndromes, and the wandering spleen are amenable to study by means of intravenously administered radiocolloid. Interference with the splenic uptake of radiocolloid can be either focal or generalized (as in functional asplenia). Imaging of the spleen has a major role in evaluating suspected trauma of the organ and in following its clinical course. The return of splenic function after splenectomy (splenosis or accessory spleens) can be documented by radionuclide imaging, and likely by hematologic techniques when the volume of tissue is sufficiently large. The detection of intrasplenic lesions is important in tumor staging and as an alerting sign to an ongoing process. 96 references

  14. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of intrapancreatic nerves between chronic pancreatitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kota; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Yanagawa, Masato; Tomiyama, Takashi; Fukui, Toshiro; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Yoshiko; Satoi, Sohei; Yamada, Hisao; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    The abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) may be related to the increased number and size of intrapancreatic nerves. On the other hand, patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) rarely suffer from the pain syndrome, and there are no previous studies concerning the histopathological findings of intrapancreatic nerves in patients with type 1 AIP. The current study is aimed at investigating the differences in the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of intrapancreatic nerves in patients with CP and type 1 AIP. Neuroanatomical differences between CP and type 1 AIP were assessed by immunostaining with a pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). The number (neural density) and area (neural hypertrophy) of PGP9.5-immunopositive nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Furthermore, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), and a high affinity receptor for NGF, tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA), was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Both neural density and hypertrophy were significantly greater in pancreatic tissue samples from patients with CP than those with normal pancreas or type 1 AIP. NGF expression was stronger in type 1 AIP than in CP, whereas TrkA expression in type 1 AIP was poorer than in CP. Although CP and type 1 AIP are both characterized by the presence of sustained pancreatic inflammation, they are different in terms of the density and hypertrophy of intrapancreatic nerve fibers. It is possible that this may be related to the difference in the activity of the NGF/TrkA-pathway between the two types of pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrapancreatic Splenule in a Pancreas Allograft: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, K; Serrano, O K; Kandaswamy, R

    2016-11-01

    A 16-year-old white man was involved in a motor vehicle collision and suffered head, chest, and abdominal trauma. Despite initial resuscitative efforts, he progressed to brain death and was designated to be an organ donor by his family. He had no earlier medical or surgical history and no high-risk behaviors. Blood work revealed normal creatinine, liver function tests, lipase, and amylase. Viral serologies were negative except for cytomegalovirus IgG and Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid. Imaging revealed a right kidney contusion, a manubrial fracture, and fractures of right first rib and bilateral scapulae. No other abdominal trauma was identified, specifically to the pancreas, duodenum, or spleen. Our transplant center accepted the pancreas from this donor. During back-table inspection of the pancreas, a 1.5 × 1.5 cm dark purple rubbery mass was identified within the parenchyma of the pancreas in the tail. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was sent for frozen section, which yielded a mixed inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils and lymphocytes and an overlying fibrous capsule. The diagnosis of lymphoma or another neoplasm could not be definitely ruled out. Owing to uncertainty in diagnosis, the entire lesion was excised along with the distal pancreas with the use of a linear stapler. The staple line was oversewn with running 4-0 polypropylene suture, and the pancreas was transplanted. After surgery, the pancreas allograft functioned well with a small pancreatic leak, which had resolved by the first postoperative outpatient visit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor signaling in intrapancreatic ductal cells drives pancreatic morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Anderson

    Full Text Available In a forward genetic screen for regulators of pancreas development in zebrafish, we identified donut(s908 , a mutant which exhibits failed outgrowth of the exocrine pancreas. The s908 mutation leads to a leucine to arginine substitution in the ectodomain of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. This missense mutation impedes the proteolytic maturation of the receptor, its trafficking to the plasma membrane, and diminishes the phospho-activation of its kinase domain. Interestingly, during pancreatogenesis, met and its hgf ligands are expressed in pancreatic epithelia and mesenchyme, respectively. Although Met signaling elicits mitogenic and migratory responses in varied contexts, normal proliferation rates in donut mutant pancreata together with dysmorphic, mislocalized ductal cells suggest that met primarily functions motogenically in pancreatic tail formation. Treatment with PI3K and STAT3 inhibitors, but not with MAPK inhibitors, phenocopies the donut pancreatic defect, further indicating that Met signals through migratory pathways during pancreas development. Chimera analyses showed that Met-deficient cells were excluded from the duct, but not acinar, compartment in the pancreatic tail. Conversely, wild-type intrapancreatic duct and "tip cells" at the leading edge of the growing pancreas rescued the donut phenotype. Altogether, these results reveal a novel and essential role for HGF signaling in the intrapancreatic ducts during exocrine morphogenesis.

  17. The retrorenal spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Chantelois, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An uncommon but potentially disastrous situation for invasive percutaneous renal procedures is the placement of the spleen behind the upper left renal pole. The authors termed this unique anatomic variant ''retrorenal spleen.'' Recently the authors reviewed the CT studies of 85 patients 16-85 years of age scanned in both the supine and prone positions. The relationship of the left kidney and spleen was evaluated. The overall frequency of retrorenal spleen was 12.7% for the supine and 17.9% for the prone studies. Careful correlation was made between the supine and prone studies with respect to the changing anatomic relationship of the kidney and spleen. In addition, the position of the suprarenal spleen was also evaluated in an effort to determine the safety of the subcostal approach

  18. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  19. Computerized spleen volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Mohring, R.; Schertel, L.

    1981-01-01

    We examined in experimental studies and clinical investigations on 34 patients in how far volumetry of the spleen can be carried out with a commonly available program, a whole-body computerized tomograph (SOMATOM) and an analytic equipment (EVALUSKOP). In this connection the authors tried to find also other ways of spleen volumetry by means of this unit combination. Our final result was that the given program for the usage of labelled areas presents itself as the best-suited technique for spleen volumetry which is also applicable in practice. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neisseria meningitidis , and Haemophilus influenzae . Because of this risk, people receive vaccinations to help protect them from infection with these organisms. People should also be sure they receive the influenza vaccine every year, as is now ... the Spleen ...

  1. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  2. The painful accessory navicular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  3. Painful accessory navicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  4. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  5. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  6. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration

  7. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  8. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  10. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrapancreatic injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells alleviates hyperglycemia and modulates the macrophage state in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimitsu Murai

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in insulin dependency and hyperglycemia. While transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs have been explored as an alternative therapeutic approach for diseases, the choice of delivery route may be a critical factor determining their sustainability. This study evaluated the effects of intrapancreatic and intravenous injection of human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 115 mg/kg STZ on day 0. hBMMSCs (1 × 106 cells or vehicle were injected into the pancreas or jugular vein on day 7. Intrapancreatic, but not intravenous, hBMMSC injection significantly reduced blood glucose levels on day 28 compared with vehicle injection by the same route. This glucose-lowering effect was not induced by intrapancreatic injection of human fibroblasts as the xenograft control. Intrapancreatically injected fluorescence-labeled hBMMSCs were observed in the intra- and extra-lobular spaces of the pancreas, and intravenously injected cells were in the lung region, although the number of cells mostly decreased within 2 weeks of injection. For hBMMSCs injected twice into the pancreatic region on days 7 and 28, the injected mice had further reduced blood glucose to borderline diabetic levels on day 56. Animals injected with hBMMSCs twice exhibited increases in the plasma insulin level, number and size of islets, insulin-positive proportion of the total pancreas area, and intensity of insulin staining compared with vehicle-injected animals. We found a decrease of Iba1-positive cells in islets and an increase of CD206-positive cells in both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The hBMMSC injection also reduced the number of CD40-positive cells merged with glucagon immunoreactions in the islets. These results suggest that intrapancreatic injection

  12. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  13. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    membrane targeting and association with ERES. We determine the localization of Sec16B by transient expression in HeLa cells, and find that the protein is evenly distributed throughout the cell except the nucleus at 37°C, as is also observed with mSec16A. When the temperature is lowered to 15°C, mSec16B...... proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...

  14. The Spleen: A forgotten organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillon German; Montoya Maria del Pilar; Echeverri Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The spleen has traditionally been regarded as an orphan organ. Its embryological development is described together with the digestive system, although it is not part of the gastrointestinal tract. Its main function is during the early fetal development when it produces both red and white blood cells, losing this function during the late fetal life. Nevertheless, the spleen continues to work as a filter for blood cells and also has important immune functions. As it is not necessary for the preservation of vital life functions, the spleen receives limited attention by both radiologists and clinicians. It is, however, an organ with multiple pathological conditions that have representation in the different diagnostic imaging modalities; radiologists, therefore, must be aware of these conditions and their radiological characteristics. This article provides a diagnostic approach to the most common diseases affecting the spleen using tomography and magnetic resonance.

  15. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  16. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS/embryonic stem (ES cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1 to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available.

  17. Hydatid disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H.

    1992-01-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG)

  18. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  19. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  20. A long slanted transseptal accessory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old male with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was admitted for ablation of accessory pathway. Intracardiac electrogram revealed a left-side accessory pathway during tachycardia, which was successfully ablated from the right posterior tricuspid annulus because of a long slanted transseptal accessory pathway (2.2 cm.

  1. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  2. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. O...

  3. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  4. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  7. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  8. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  9. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device, it...

  10. Changing spleen size after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Aprahamian, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied the incidence and significance of splenic enlargement on serial CT after abdominal trauma. Spleen size and density in 44 trauma patients were studied with serial, contrast-enhanced Ct. In 58% of the patients, ≥ 10% enlargement of the spleen was seen on follow-up scans. Ten patients had >50% enlargement. In several, the initial density of the spleen was less than that of the liver. Spleen density returned to normal on subsequent scans. Correlations between splenic changes and clinical parameters (such as blood replacement, hypotension, and various trauma indexes) were weak. The author's study indicated that serial splenic enlargement was a physiologic return to normal after major trauma, not a pathologic condition requiring splenectomy

  11. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  12. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  13. Novel contrast agent for liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Blau, M.; Adams, D.F.; Janoff, A.; Minchey, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines whether the biodistribution and imaging characteristics of a liposome-encapsulated contrast agent, iotrolan-carrying interdigitation fusion (IF) vesicles, were acceptable for a liver-spleen CT contrast agent. IF vesicles with iotrolan in their aqueous phase were prepared by fusing small unilamellar liposomes into larger vesicles. The iodine-to-lipid ratio was 4.7. Biodistribution was measured with I-125 iotrolan-labeled IF vesicles in rats. CT imaging (Somatom Plus, Siemens Medical Systems) was performed in dogs. At the lowest dose (10 mg of iodine and 2.1 mg of lipid per kilogram) 72% of the ID was in the liver, 5% in spleen, and 1% in lungs at 1 hour. At the highest dose, (1,000 mg of iodine and 212 mg of lipid per kilogram), liver values were 68% ID, while spleen rose to 18%, lung 5%. Liver and spleen values stayed at peak for 24 hours then fell; the half-life was 6 days. In dogs, liver and spleen enhancement at 1 hour averaged 652 and 256 HU above baseline per gram of iodine per kilogram, respectively

  14. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal

  15. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  16. Blunt trauma to the spleen: ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, O. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Lyburn, D. [Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Govender, P. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Monk, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital (Canada); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2005-09-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in adults who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Splenic trauma accounts for approximately 25% to 30% of all intra-abdominal injuries. The management of splenic injury has undergone rapid change over the last decade, with increasing emphasis on splenic salvage and non-operative management. Identifying the presence and degree of splenic injury is critical in triaging the management of patients. Imaging is integral in the identification of splenic injuries, both at the time of injury and during follow-up. Although CT remains the gold standard in blunt abdominal trauma, US continues to play an important role in assessing the traumatized spleen. This pictorial review illustrates the various ultrasonographic appearances of the traumatized spleen. Correlation with other imaging is presented and complications that occur during follow-up are described.

  17. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  18. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  19. Accessory tragi in three successive generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vora N

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man presented with clinical and histopathological features of accessory tragi. His father and 3 sons and 1 daughter had similar lesions. In view of this vertical transmission through 3 successive generations involving both the sexes, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is suggested.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic... system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  6. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parts, or tools will be taken into account as originating or non-originating materials, as the case may... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  8. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  9. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases

  10. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases.

  11. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  12. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  13. MRI findings of spinal accessory neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.E.; Greditzer, H.G.; Melisaratos, D.P.; Wolfe, S.W.; Feinberg, J.H.; Sneag, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterise the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of patients with spinal accessory nerve (SAN) denervation. Material and methods: Twelve patients who had SAN denervation on electromyography (EMG) were included. The sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles and the SAN were assessed using MRI. Results: Trapezius muscle atrophy was seen in 11 (92%), and of those patients, T2/short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal hyperintensity was also demonstrated in seven (58%). All three patients with prior neck surgery had scarring around the SAN, and one of these patients demonstrated a neuroma, which was confirmed surgically. Conclusion: Features of SAN neuropathy on MRI include atrophy and T2/STIR signal hyperintensity of the trapezius, and in patients who have had posterior triangle neck surgery, scarring may be seen around the nerve. - Highlights: • Spinal accessory nerve injury is most commonly the result of neck surgery. • MRI findings include trapezius muscle atrophy and T2 signal hyperintensity. • In cases of suspected injury, the course of the spinal accessory nerve should be assessed on MRI.

  14. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  15. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  16. MR imaging of accessory muscles of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo; Nazar, Miguel E.; Martin, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe the normal anatomy and the characteristics in MRI of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle: the accessory soleus, accessory flexor digitorum longus, peroneus quartus, tibiocalcaneus internus and peroneocalcaneus internus. Material and methods: There were evaluated 280 symptomatic patients between 18 and 40 years old (85 % males). MR was performed in High Field Magnetic Resonance Units (1.5 T y 1.0 T) and multiplanar sequences. Results: We found 2 peroneus quartus (0.7%), 2 accessory soleus muscles (0.7%), 3 accessory flexor digitorum longus (1.07%) and 1 peroneocalcaneus internus (0.35%). Conclusion: The knowledge of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle allow to explain different painful pathologies with instability or tendinous tears, which are difficult to diagnose if the muscle are not adequately recognized. (author)

  17. Spinal Accessory Nerve Duplication: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Papagianni, Eleni; Kosmidou, Panagiota; Fergadaki, Sotiria; Pallantzas, Athanasios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis; Filippou, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the present study is to expand our knowledge of the anatomy of the 11th cranial nerve and discuss the clinical importance and literature pertaining to accessory nerve duplication. We present one case of duplicated spinal accessory nerve in a patient undergoing neck dissection for oral cavity cancer. The literature review confirms the extremely rare diagnosis of a duplicated accessory nerve. Its clinical implication is of great importance. From this finding, a further extension to our k...

  18. The accessory magnocellular neurosecretory system of the rostral human hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Busch, Johannes R.; Jacobsen, Christina

    2018-01-01

    magnocellular neurons were often located along the blood vessels and projections of some of these neurons penetrated the vascular endothelium. The accessory magnocellular cell bodies expressed either neurophysin I or neurophysin II immunoreactivity. Summarizing, the accessory magnocellular system in the human......The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen...

  19. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  20. Fuzzy-neural network in the automatic detection and volumetry of the spleen on spiral CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, K.R.; Mainz Univ.; Rueckert, S.; Heussel, C.P.; Thelen, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Uthmann, T.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess spleen segmentation and volumetry in spiral CT scans with and without pathological changes of splenic tissue. Methods: The image analysis software HYBRIKON is based on region growing, self-organized neural nets, and fuzzy-anatomic rules. The neural nets were trained with spiral CT data from 10 patients, not used in the following evaluation on spiral CT scans from 19 patients. An experienced radiologist verified the results. The true positive and false positive areas were compared in terms to the areas marked by the radiologist. The results were compared with a standard thresholding method. Results: The neural nets achieved a higher accuracy than the thresholding method. Correlation coefficient of the fuzzy-neural nets: 0.99 (thresholding: 0.63). Mean true positive rate: 90% (thresholding: 75%), mean false positive rate: 5% (thresholding>100%). Pitfalls were caused by accessory spleens, extreme changes in the morphology (tumors, metastases, cysts), and parasplenic masses. Conclusions: Self-organizing neural nets combined with fuzzy rules are ready for use in the automatic detection and volumetry of the spleen in spiral CT scans. (orig.) [de

  1. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  2. Evaluation of accessory cell heterogeneity. I. Differential accessory cell requirement for T helper cell activation and for T-B cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramila, G; Studer, S; Kennedy, M; Sklenar, I; Erb, P

    1985-01-01

    Several Ia+ tumor cell lines and peritoneal exudate macrophages were tested as accessory cells (AC) for the activation of antigen-specific T cells and for T-B cooperation. The macrophages and all the Ia+ tumor lines tested induced the release of lymphokines from T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted fashion and reconstituted the antibody responses of AC-depleted spleen cells or of purified T and B cells. However, only the normal macrophages but none of the tumor lines induced carrier-specific T helper (Th) cells which help B cells for specific antihapten antibody responses by linked recognition. For T-B cooperation accessory cells were also required, but in contrast to Th cell activation any type of Ia+ AC (e.g. macrophage or tumor line) was effective. Strong MHC-restriction between the lymphocytes and the AC was seen if antigen-pulsed AC were added into the AC-depleted T-B cooperation cultures. If the AC and antigen were concomitantly added to the AC-depleted T-B cultures, MHC-restriction was less obvious. Concanavalin A supernatant reconstituted the response of AC-depleted T-B cultures provided antigen-specific Th cells and the hapten-carrier conjugate were present. If, however, tumor line-activated T cells were added instead of macrophage-induced Th cells, no cooperation with B cells took place even in the presence of Con A supernatant. The results obtained demonstrate a differential AC requirement for the induction of Th cells depending on the differentiation stage of the Th cells.

  3. Dietary n-3 PUFA affect TcR-mediated activation of purified murine T cells and accessory cell function in co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPKIN, R S; ARRINGTON, J L; APANASOVICH, T V; CARROLL, R J; MCMURRAY, D N

    2002-01-01

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress several functions of murine splenic T cells by acting directly on the T cells and/or indirectly on accessory cells. In this study, the relative contribution of highly purified populations of the two cell types to the dietary suppression of T cell function was examined. Mice were fed diets containing different levels of n-3 PUFA; safflower oil (SAF; control containing no n-3 PUFA), fish oil (FO) at 2% and 4%, or 1% purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 2 weeks. Purified (>90%) T cells were obtained from the spleen, and accessory cells (>95% adherent, esterase-positive) were obtained by peritoneal lavage. Purified T cells or accessory cells from each diet group were co-cultured with the alternative cell type from every other diet group, yielding a total of 16 different co-culture combinations. The T cells were stimulated with either concanavalin A (ConA) or antibodies to the T cell receptor (TcR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory molecule CD28 (αCD3/αCD28), and proliferation was measured after four days. Suppression of T cell proliferation in the co-cultures was dependent upon the dose of dietary n-3 PUFA fed to mice from which the T cells were derived, irrespective of the dietary treatment of accessory cell donors. The greatest dietary effect was seen in mice consuming the DHA diet (P = 0·034 in the anova; P = 0·0053 in the Trend Test), and was observed with direct stimulation of the T cell receptor and CD28 costimulatory ligand, but not with ConA. A significant dietary effect was also contributed accessory cells (P = 0·033 in the Trend Test). We conclude that dietary n-3 PUFA affect TcR-mediated by T cell activation by both direct and indirect (accessory cell) mechanisms. PMID:12296847

  4. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  5. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a... mounting bracket or system-priming equipment. (b) Classification. (1) Class I. The device is classified as class I if it does not involve an electrical connection to the patient. The device is exempt from the...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In general. The tax attaches with respect to parts and accessories for articles specified in...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. 884... Surgical Devices § 884.4100 Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrocautery is a device used to perform female sterilization under endoscopic observation. It is designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. 884... Surgical Devices § 884.4120 Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic electrocautery is a device designed to destroy tissue with high temperatures by tissue contact with an...

  9. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or... parts, or tools are customary for the good. (a) Regional value content. If the good is subject to a regional value content requirement, the value of the accessories, spare parts, or tools is taken into...

  10. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  11. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  12. Incidence and characteristics of mandibular accessory canals: A radiographic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Taschieri, Silvio; Vavassori, Virna; Re, Dino; Francetti, Luca; Corbella, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore, through tridimensional reconstructions of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, the presence and the characteristics of mandibular accessory canals. For each included participant, the presence of accessory canals was recorded. The diameter of the canal, as well as the distance between the canal walls and the walls of the mandibular bone (lingual, buccal, cranial and caudal), were measured and recorded. Mandibular accessory canals could be found in 8.8% of participants. Retromolar canals were the most frequently found accessory mandibular canals. Accessory mandibular canals were found in a relatively high number of participants through the examination of CBCT scans and tridimensional reconstruction. The presence of such structures should be considered cautiously when planning and performing surgical interventions in mandibular area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of accessory cell heterogeneity. III. Role of dendritic cells in the in vitro activation of the antibody response to soluble antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, P; Ramila, G; Sklenar, I; Kennedy, M; Sunshine, G H

    1985-05-01

    Dendritic cells and macrophages obtained from spleen and peritoneal exudate were tested as accessory cells for the activation of lymphokine production by T cells, for supporting T-B cooperation and for the induction of antigen-specific T helper cells. Dendritic cells as well as macrophages were able to activate T cells for interleukin-2 secretion and functioned as accessory cells in T-B cooperation, but only macrophages induced T helper cells, which cooperate with B cells by a linked recognition interaction, to soluble antigens. Dendritic cell- and antigen-activated T cells also did not help B cells in the presence of Con A supernatants which contained various T cell- and B cell-stimulatory factors. The failure of dendritic cells to differentiate memory into functional T helper cells, but their efficient accessory cell function in T-B cooperation, where functional T helper cells are already present, can be best explained by a differential accessory cell requirement for T helper cell activation dependent on the differentiation stage of the T helper cell.

  14. Case report 376: Accessory (anomalous) soleus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Khoury, M.B.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 24-year-old woman who developed pain in the left lower extremity while jogging. Physical examination showed a soft, palpable mass medial and anterior to the Achilles tendon in the left lower extremity. Although a lipoma was suspected, plain films and CT studies indicated clearly that the mass was not of fatty density. In fact, the density of the mass was equivalent to adjacent muscles. The mass itself was lying in the soft tissues of the left ankle tissue. An open biopsy showed a normal muscle which represented an accessory soleus muscle - a muscle known to be anomalous on accoasion and reported as being symptomatic or asymptomatic in different individuals. (orig./SHA)

  15. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  16. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  17. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  18. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  19. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , Bruce ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

  20. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.

  1. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrosurgical unit and... device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode, flexible snare, electrosurgical alarm system, electrosurgical power supply unit, electrical clamp, self...

  2. 49 CFR 390.17 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and accessories, not inconsistent with or prohibited by this subchapter, provided such equipment... are used. [53 FR 18052, May 19, 1988, as amended at 60 FR 38744, July 28, 1995. Redesignated at 65 FR...

  3. Electric accessory drives in automobiles. Elektrische Hilfsantriebe in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Ten lectures were presented on the conference ''Electric accessory drives in automobiles'' subjects: - Survey on electric accessory drives in automobiles; cooperation of generator, battery and starter; technical solution of accessory drives, considerations on a system; comparison of various solutions for drives by viewing the example of a headlight vertical aim control; wiper motors and their control; blowers for heating, ventilation and air conditioning in automobiles; criteria for dimensioning of blower motors; drives in heating and air-conditioning applicances; permanent magnets for engine excitation; systematic quality assurance of electric accessory drives from car-development to serial production. Numerous illustrations and formulas are supplied which illustrate and explain the lectures. Each lecture is abstracted individually.

  4. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  5. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  6. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  7. [Lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. Report of a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, C; Cerasoli, V; Mancini, B; Mulieri, G; Cancellario D'Alena, F; Montemurro, L; Verna, F

    2000-01-01

    Lymphangiomatosis confined to the spleen is a very are condition. The authors in this article describes one new case and briefly reviews the literature. In this case, after the exclusion of an hydatidosis of the spleen, a total splenectomy was performed. The histologic findings confirmed the lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. The authors emphasize the surgical strategy in splenic lymphangiomyomatosis, infact the total splenectomy is mandatory, because the splenic parenchyma is nearly completely substitute by the cysts. For this reason is preferably, before surgery, to perform the antibateric profilaxis against the OPSI.

  8. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Stimulatory and cytotoxic effects of beryllium on proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R.J.; Skilleter, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    Low concentrations (1-5 ..mu..M) of beryllium (Be) salts were weakly mitogenic to mouse spleen cells in vitro as measured by an hydroxyurea-sensitive 2-3fold increase in pulse labelled (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into lymphocyte DNA. It is proposed the activation may be induced by a direct interaction of Be/sup 2 +/ with the lymphocyte membranes. Higher concentrations of Be/sup 2 +/ (5-20 ..mu..M) produced a gradual loss of the stimulatory response, possibly as the result of either a limited cytotoxic effect or by the established property of intracellularly-accumulated Be/sup 2 +/ to inhibit cell division. In contrast, Concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte mitogenesis was markedly decreased by a 20-h-preincubation of splenocytes with micromolar concentrations of Be/sup 2 +/, whereas similar pretreatment with lower concentrations (0.1 ..mu..M) actually enchanced the subsequent proliferative response. In both cases, supplementary addition of 0.1-1% peritoneal macrophages increased the level of Concanavalin A stimulation. It is concluded, therefore, that inhibition of the proliferative response to accessory cell-dependent mitogens may result from a dose-dependent destruction by Be/sup 2 +/ of the macrophage/adherent cell population.

  10. Benign neuroendocrine and other rare benign tumors of the pancreas; Benigne neuroendokrine und andere seltene benigne Tumoren des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, B.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Niederle, B. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Chirurgie, Wien (Austria); Puespoek, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin 3, Wien (Austria); Schima, W. [KH Goettlicher Heiland, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und Bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2008-08-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas are rare neoplasms, which arise from cells of the islets of Langerhans. The most common NET are the insulinoma, gastrinoma and hormone inactive NET. Very rare entities are the schwannoma, leiomyoma, teratoma, intrapancreatic lipoma, hemangioma and the intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Essential for therapy, which in most cases is difficult, are an exact localization and various modalities of imaging diagnostics. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Tumoren (NET) des Pankreas sind seltene Neoplasien, die aus Zellen der Langerhans-Inseln entstehen. Zu den haeufigsten NET zaehlen Insulinome, Gastrinome und hormoninaktive NET. Als sehr selten auftretende Entitaeten sind das Schwannom, Leiomyom, Teratom, intrapankreatische Lipom, Haemangiom sowie die intrapankreatische Nebenmilz zu nennen. Fuer die Therapie sind die exakte Lokalisation und verschiedene Modalitaeten der bildgebenden Diagnostik, die sich in aller Regel schwierig gestaltet, essenziell. (orig.)

  11. The Spleen Revisited: An Overview on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being well visualized by different cross-sectional imaging techniques, the spleen is many times overlooked during the abdominal examination. The major reason is the low frequency of splenic abnormalities, the majority consisting of incidental findings. There has been a steady increase in the number of performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies; therefore, it is important to be familiar to the major MRI characteristics of disease processes involving the spleen, in order to interpret the findings correctly, reaching whenever possible the appropriate diagnosis. The spleen may be involved in several pathologic conditions like congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, vascular disorders and hematologic disorders, benign and malignant tumors, and other disease processes that focally or diffusely affect the spleen. This paper presents a description and representative MRI images for many of these disorders.

  12. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light ... Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between .... obtained in the coronal plane passing through the renal.

  13. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  14. Effect of low dose radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with different doses of X-ray on apoptosis in mouse spleen. Methods: Time course changes and dose-effect relationship of apoptosis in mouse spleen induced by WBI were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) qualitatively and TUNEL method semi-quantitatively. Results: Many typical apoptotic lymphocytes were found by TEM in mouse spleen after WBI with 2 Gy. No marked alterations of ultrastructure were found following WBI with 0.075 Gy. It was observed by TUNEL that the apoptosis of splenocytes increased after high dose radiation and decreased following low dose radiation (LDR). The dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis showed a J-shaped curve. Conclusion: The effect of different doses of ionizing radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen was distinct. And the decrease of apoptosis after LDR is considered a manifestation of radiation hormesis

  15. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  16. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  17. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  18. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  19. Torsion of wandering spleen in patient with horseshoe kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molski, St.; Zurada, A.; Meder, G.; Lasek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Wandering spleen is rare pathology, mostly occurring in young women. Disease may be congenital or acquired. Absence or laxity of ligaments leads to spleen pathologic mobility and may cause torsion of its pedicle, resulting in ischemia or infarct even haemorrhagic shock and patients death. We report a case of young woman previously diagnosed (and treated nonoperative) with wandering spleen who presented acute abdomen after minor blunt trauma. She was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound (US) and spiral computed tomography (CT). Torsion of splenic pedicle and splenic rupture was diagnosed and a horseshoe kidney as well. Laparotomy followed by splenectomy confirmed the existence of an intrapelvic torsioned wandering spleen. The only definitive treatment of wandering spleen is operative since nonoperative treatment is associated with high complication rate. Earlier diagnosis of wandering spleen in asymptomatic patients lets to direct diagnosis when patient starts to present with acute abdomen. CT and abdominal US play most important role in diagnosing splenic pedicle torsion. To our knowledge this is a first case of torsion of splenic pedicle in patient with horseshoe kidney. We consider this coincidence to be a congenital defect as both conditions may develop in second month gestation. (author)

  20. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of spleen for the treatment of hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuxuan; Zhang Yanfang; Zheng Xuefen; Zhang Yuanhua; Kong Jian; Shen Xinying; Dou Yongchong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical effect and experience of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes in the treatment of hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods: CT-guided RFA of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes was performed in 15 patients with hypersplenism associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The routine blood count was studied both before and after the procedure. Enhanced CT or MR scanning was reexamined after the treatment to determine the ablated volume of the spleen. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The ablated volume of the spleen accounted for (31.0 ± 4.6)% of the whole spleen. Before the treatment the platelet count was (62 ± 9.8) x 10 9 /L. One month after the treatment, the platelet count was increased to (96 ± 11) x 10 9 /L, which was significantly higher than that before the treatment (P<0.05). One patient developed portal thrombosis four months after RFA, and no other serious complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes is an effective and safe treatment for hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. (authors)

  1. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  2. CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex

  3. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  4. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  5. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  6. [Evaluation of iatrogenic accessory nerve injury in forensic medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, E; Irányi, J

    1996-04-14

    The authors give a survey of the clinical and medical-legal characteristics of the accessory nerve injury. In the past two decades the conception of the successfulness of the surgical treatment of the accessory nerve injury became prevailing. About the medical-legal aspects of the iatrogenic injury of the nerve reported in connection of the reconstructive surgery chiefly also departments of neurosurgery, orthopedics and traumatology. In the case of the authors a 70 year old patient suffered 10 years ago a iatrogenic accessory nerve injury. The mild trapezius palsy recovered spontaneously practically with cosmetic disadvantage. In connection with the development of extreme dorso-lumbal scoliosis associated with torsion the trapezius atrophy worsened. Physical therapy was partly successful. But the patient became unfit for manual work. Their observations sustain the data of authors who established that in the case of accessory nerve injury not only the surgical but also conservative treatment is usually successful. In opposite to certain data of the literature the authors establish that the iatrogenic injuries of the accessory nerve may lead to significant lifelong disability. The diagnosis is not always made in time with consequent delay in repair. This may be regarded as an unfavorable issue during medical-legal discussions. The authors recommend in interest to prevent nerve injury in the posterior triangle of the neck to perform operation in special department.

  7. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  8. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  9. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  10. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: Stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, P.A.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding that the response to LPS was eliminated in irradiated (900 rads) mice and reinstated by reconstitution with bone marrow cells. Comparison of LPS-induced Ia expression in normal and LPS-primed mice revealed a faster secondary response to LPS. The memory response could be adoptively transferred to normal mice with nonadherent spleen cells prepared 60 days after LPS injection. Spleen cells prepared 5 days after LPS injection caused Ia induction in LPS-nonresponder mice; such induction was not observed in irradiated (900 rads) recipients. The cell responsible for this phenomenon was identified as a Thy-1+, immunoglobulin-negative nonadherent cell. The biosynthesis and expression of Ia were not increased by direct exposure of macrophages to LPS in vitro. Small amounts of LPS inhibited Ia induction by gamma interferon. LPS showed positive regulatory effects on Ia expression by delaying the loss of Ia expression on cultured macrophages and by stimulating the production of Ia-inducing factors. Supernatants from cultured spleen cells stimulated with LPS in vitro contained antiviral and Ia-inducing activity that was acid labile, indicating that the active factor is gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of Ia expression by LPS in vivo is a bone-marrow-dependent, radiation-sensitive process which involves the stimulation of a gamma interferon-producing accessory lymphocyte and a delay in Ia turnover

  11. An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

    2013-01-01

    Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications. PMID:24179919

  12. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  13. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  14. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  15. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  16. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  17. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  18. Semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Ho; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Sanghyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kye, Heewon; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we determined the relative accuracy of semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images compared to standard manual volumetry with DW-MR or CT images. Semiautomated spleen volumetry using simple thresholding followed by 3D and 2D connected component analysis was performed with DW-MR images. Manual spleen volumetry was performed on DW-MR and CT images. In this study, 35 potential live liver donor candidates were included. Semiautomated volumetry results were highly correlated with manual volumetry results using DW-MR (r = 0.99; P volumetry was significantly shorter compared to that of manual volumetry with DW-MR (P volumetry with DW-MR images can be performed rapidly and accurately when compared with standard manual volumetry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  20. Biomechanical response of human spleen in tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Stitzel, Joel D; Sparks, Jessica L; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-10

    Blunt splenic injuries are most frequently caused as a result of motor vehicle collisions and are associated with high mortality rates. In order to accurately assess the risk of automotive related spleen injuries using tools such as finite element models, tissue level tolerance values and suitable material models must be developed and validated based on appropriate biomechanical data. This study presents a total of 41 tension tests performed on spleen parenchyma coupons and 29 tension tests performed on spleen capsule/parenchyma coupons. Standard dog-bone coupons were obtained from fresh human spleen and tested within 48 h of death. Each coupon was tested once to failure at one of the four loading rates to investigate the effects of rate dependence. Load and acceleration data were obtained at each of the specimen grips. High-speed video and optical markers placed on the specimens were used to measure local displacement. Failure stress and strain were calculated at the location of failure in the gage length of the coupon. The results of the study showed that both the spleen parenchyma and the capsule are rate dependent, with higher loading rates yielding higher failure stresses and lower failure strains. The results also show that the failure stress of the splenic capsule is significantly greater than that of the underlying parenchyma. Overall, this study provides novel biomechanical data that demonstrate the rate dependent tissue level tolerance values of human spleen tissue in tensile loading, which can aid in the improvement of finite element models used to assess injury risk in blunt trauma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbura, O; Tudor, S; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is the removal of the pancreatic tissue at the left side of the superior mesenteric vein and it is traditionally approached by an open or laparoscopic exposure. Preservation of the spleen is optional but appears to have a better immunological outcome. We present the case of a 53-year old patient with a 2.4/2.2 tumor located in the tail of the pancreas, with high tumour marker values for whom we decided to perform a robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (RSPDP). The postoperative outcome was satisfactory. In conclusion, we recommend this type of approach for small pancreatic tail lesions.

  2. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  3. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric Volvulus and Wandering Spleen: A Rare Surgical Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Lianos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical entity due to possible gastric necrosis. A wandering spleen may also be associated with gastric volvulus. Patients presenting with the triad epigastralgia, vomiting followed by retching, and difficulty or inability to pass a nasogastric tube into the stomach are likely to have gastric volvulus. The operating surgeon should include this rare entity in the differential diagnosis when dealing with a patient with such a clinical profile. Herein, we present a case of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman and we provide a brief review of the literature on this issue.

  5. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  6. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of microscopes... light. (3) Inverted stage microscopes, which permit examination of tissue cultures or other biological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., and maintain gametes and/or embryos at an appropriate freezing temperature. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  9. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  10. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and...

  11. Cancer of the accessory breast - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, B.; Balak, B.; Winkler, I.; Burdan, F.

    2009-01-01

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left infra mammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligo biopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. (authors)

  12. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tonometer and accessories. 886.1930 Section 886.1930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... type) or to measure intraocular tension by applanation (applying a small flat disk to the cornea...

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  15. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification. Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories are devices intended to be...

  16. The treatment of spleen injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehli, Trond; Bågenholm, Anna; Trasti, Nora Christine; Monsen, Svein Arne; Bartnes, Kristian

    2015-10-29

    Hemorrhage after blunt trauma is a major contributor to death after trauma. In the abdomen, an injured spleen is the most frequent cause of major bleeding. Splenectomy is historically the treatment of choice. In 2007, non-operative management (NOM) with splenic artery embolization (SAE) was introduced in our institution. The indication for SAE is hemodynamically stable patients with extravasation of contrast, or grade 3-5 spleen injury according to the Abbreviated Organ Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. We wanted to examine if the introduction of SAE increased the rate of salvaged spleens in our trauma center. All patients discharged with the diagnosis of splenic injury in the period 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2013 from the University Hospital of North Norway Tromsø were included in the study. Patients admitted for rehabilitation purposes or with an iatrogenic injury were excluded. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. In the period 2000-7, 20 of 52 patients were splenectomized. During 2007-13, there were 6 splenectomies and 24 SAE among 57 patients. The reduction in splenectomies is significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in the rate of treated patients (splenectomy and SAE) from 38 to 53 % in the two time periods, but not significantly (p = 0.65). The rate of salvaged spleens has increased after the introduction of SAE in our center. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identification number NCT01965548.

  17. [Spleen injuries in Spain: at what point are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David; Jover Navalón, José María; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Ceballos Esparragón, José; Yuste, Pedro; Sánchez Tocino, Juan María; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Montmany, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them. A prospective study using the databases of six Spanish hospitals: Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Torrevieja Hospital, Getafe Hospital, Doce de Octubre Hospital and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. A total of 566 patients who had sustained spleen injuries were analyzed (448 males and 118 females), most of them were due to blunt trauma (94%), and the most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 25.2. The initial treatment was surgical in 56.6% of the patients (85.3% total splenectomy and 14.7% other conservative surgical procedures, of which 4.6% finally failed and required total splenectomy). The remaining 43.4% were initially managed conservatively, but 6.5% of them finally required surgical splenectomy, and in 8.8% angio-embolization was performed. In Spain, management of spleen trauma is mainly surgical (particularly splenectomy). Angio-embolization and conservative surgical procedures are now hardly used. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Torsion of the spleen with incomplete infarction: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lernau, O.Z.; Baron, J.; Nissan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Torsion and infarction of a ''wandering spleen'' is a rare disease which is often confused with other acute abdominal crises. A correct preoperative diagnosis, when made, has usually been determined by arteriographic studies. A child is described in whom changes in the TcSC scan made a correct diagnosis possible by non-invasive methods

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  20. Hydatid disease of the spleen; Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-09-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  1. Scintigraphic evidence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henne-Bruns, D.; Kremer, B.; Gramminger, K.; Broelsch, C.

    1986-01-01

    In rats suffering from hepatic enzymatic deficiency transplanted hepatocytes could be evidenced scintigraphically in liver, spleen and granulomas. In pigs, however, it is very difficult to demonstrate transplanted hepatocytes by scintiscanning because of the thickness of the tissues and the high background radiation in large animals

  2. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  3. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  4. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  5. KNOW-BLADE Task-2 report: Aerodynamic accessories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2004-01-01

    In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, thepotential of applying active flow control by means...... of the stall strip. Finally, the effect of surface roughness was modelled by either modifying the boundary condition of the turbulence model or by modifying the airfoil geometry. Using the roughness model gave relatively good agreement withmeasurements and it must be concluded that the effect of using...... to increase the oscillation amplitude, which is not very attractive for load control on wind turbines. Secondly, the effect of vortex generators hasbeen modelled using two phenomenological vortex generator models. The models have been applied to three airfoil configurations. For all cases investigated...

  6. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  7. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Luna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community, including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap, the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap, and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat. The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  9. Improving the supply chain agility of a fashion accessories company

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenlund, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to improve the supply chain agility of a case company that is engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and selling of fashion accessories and design services. This thesis explores agility in context of supply chain management and in fashion industry where the typical challenges are that demand is highly volatile and hard to predict, the number of products per sales season is large and products have a fairly short life-cycles. In this study, the research ...

  10. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H J; San Luis, T Jr; Lange, C E; Thelen, M; Veltman, G; Winkler, C [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik)

    1977-10-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants, liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and /sup 197/Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices, considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma.

  11. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  12. Inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgueral, M.; Naranjo, G.; Grasa, J.

    1998-01-01

    The inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor is an uncommon benign lesion of unknown etiology that usually is detected incidentally in patients being examined for other disorders. We present the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in two patients (a 56-year-old woman and 67-year-old man) with inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Ultrasound images of the inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor show a hypoechoic mass with or without calcifications. In CT, the mass presents a low attenuation that is slightly enhanced by intravenous injection of an iodinated contrast medium. MR images show an isointense spleen in T1-weighted spin-echo sequences that is hypointense in T2-weighted sequences. The differential diagnosis should consider other more common splenic masses. but the definitive diagnosis can not be based on imaging methods alone. In the both cases, the final diagnosis was reached after splenectomy and pathological study. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  14. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  15. Clinical Experiences in the Surgical Treatment of Accessory Tragus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Horoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tragus is a part of the external ear that develops from the first branchial arch. Accessory ear is a congenital external ear anomaly and has skin elevation containing remnant cartilage. The auricle develops between the 4th and 12th week of the embryonic stage, which groove the tissue from the 1st and 2nd branchial arches. Histologically, the lesions include a rugated epidermis with a thin layer stratum corneum, tiny mature hair follicles, fat lobules, and connective tissue framework that may include a central cartilage core. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accessory tragus lesions with our clinical surgical treatment results. Material and Methods: Lesions usually located anterior to the tragus and along an imaginary line drawn from the tragus to the angle of the mouth. Twelve patients admitted to our clinic between October 2011 and November 2014 were included in this study. Results: Seven boys and five girls between two–13 years old underwent operation. In total, 28 accessory ears were excised. No complications were observed during the procedure, and no complaints were noted in the postoperative period. Conclusion: Generally, limited anomaly is associated with the first and second branchial arch anomalies. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for the lesions which usually due to the esthetic concerns.

  16. Correction of accessory axillary breast tissue without visible scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo

    2004-01-01

    Various methods for correction of accessory axillary breast tissue have been proposed, including simple excision, diamond-shaped excision, a Y-V technique, and lipoplasty. We present an effective method for correction of a prominent axillary mound that combines lipoplasty with excision of accessory breast tissue along the axillary transverse line. Preoperative markings included an incision within the natural wrinkle line in the axillary fold, and demarcation of areas in which lipoplasty and excision were to be performed. After lipoplasty, deep dissection was performed to isolate and remove accessory breast tissue and excess fat tissue. A compression dressing was applied for 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively, and the patient was instructed to wear a sports bra for 1 to 2 months after removal of the dressing. We treated 7 patients using this procedure between October 1999 and March 2003. No major postoperative complications were detected and recurrence was not noted during the follow-up periods. Aesthetic results were satisfactory. We believe that a procedure that combines lipoplasty and excision provides numerous advantages as a surgical option in treating a prominent axillary mound. The main advantage is that the final scar is laid in the natural axillary fold, rendering scars less conspicuous and eliminating the need to remove excess skin. The one disadvantage was that elevation of the skin flap via small, remote incisions initially produced surgical difficulties, but these were overcome with experience.

  17. Partial discharge testing of in-situ power cable accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, H. E.

    2002-07-01

    An overview of commercially available diagnostic methods for in-situ power cable accessories is given and relevant field experiences with these diagnostics are described. The discussion includes both PILC and polymeric insulated cables. Two major types of degradation are most frequently involved in cable systems. One is an overall condition caused by chemical aging and /or water treeing. Diagnostics for this type of aging include dissipation factor (loss angle), harmonic analysis, return voltage, isothermal relaxation current, dielectric response, or dc leakage current. The second type of degradation is discrete or incremental; condition assessment utilizes dissipation factor measurements or partial discharge (PD) level measurements. The focus in this paper is on PD diagnostics, especially off-line methods such as the 60 Hz test, the combined AC and VLF diagnostic, and the oscillating wave test system test. Among on-line diagnostics, ultrasonic detection of partial discharge and measurement of partial discharge by installing direct, capacitive or inductive couplers near cable accessories, are described. Overall, partial discharge detection and location in cable accessories is considered inadequate, since interpretation of results is difficult due to the number of variables involved. 28 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  19. Spleens and holoendemic malaria in West New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    METSELAAR, D

    1956-01-01

    The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.

  20. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  1. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis. Keywords: Spleen, Rat, Protein extraction, Label-free quantitative proteomics

  2. Return to play after liver and spleen trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyia, Rushad F; Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-05-01

    Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Clinical review. Level 3. Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. C.

  3. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  4. Wandering spleen associated with omphalocele in a neonate: An unusual case with non-operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Masui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen with a history of omphalocele is extremely rare. We encountered a male baby with wandering spleen associated with omphalocele. This case of wandering spleen in a neonate was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography scans after surgery for omphalocele. Our case was able to be managed non-operatively due to the lack of any findings suggesting torsion of the spleen and its asymptomatic status. We herein report the clinical presentation as well as the treatment options regarding wandering spleen associated with omphalocele.

  5. Transplantation of homologous bone marrow cells to lethally irradiated mice: changes in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktora, L; Hach, P; Zoubkova, M

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow cell suspensions were administered intravenously to lethally irradiated mice. The number of colonies in the spleen and the regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in the spleen were studied on the 9th day after irradiation and transplantation. From a comparison of the histological picture and weight of the spleens, the authors conclude that the degree of regeneration of hematopoiesis in the spleen after irradiation and transplantation is reflected in the weight of the spleen as well as in the number of hematopoietic colonies.

  6. Long-term following-up of viability of spleen autotransplants in the Beagle canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajtos, Erika; Balint, Anita; Brath, Endre; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Kovacs, Judit; Galuska, Laszlo; Varga, Jozsef; Fodor, Zoltan; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2012-02-01

    To examine the possible late complications of splenectomy or spleen autotransplantation in large laboratory animal model, in which we need non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods for long-term monitoring of the experimental animals. Experimental groups of beagle dogs were: non-operated control, sham-operated control, splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation with 5 or 10 spleen-chips taken into the greater omentum (Furka's technique). Prior to operations, on the 1(st) postoperative week, monthly till the 6(th) as well as in the 9(th) and 12(th) month, hemorheological examinations were performed. In postoperative 12(th) month colloid scintigraphy and diagnostic laparoscopy were carried out. At the end of the investigation comparative morphological examinations were performed, too. From the 4(th)-5(th) postoperative month filtration function of spleen-autotransplants showed particular restoration compared to splenectomy group. However, the functional results did not reach the values of the control or sham-operated groups. Sham-operated control's scintigraphy nicely showed activity in the spleen. In spleen autotransplantation-groups scintigraphy indicated well the activity of spleen-chips. During diagnostic laparoscopy spleen-chips with their blood supply were found. Histologically, the structure of spleen-autotransplants was similar to normal splenic tissue. The autotransplants are regenerated, their functions have been partly restored, and thus spleen autotransplantation may prevent the possible complications of splenectomy. These parameters and the presented investigative protocol are suitable for long-term following-up of viability of the spleen-autotransplants.

  7. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andrew; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun; Veling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscop...

  8. Snapping wrist due to multiple accessory tendon of first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhiyaneswaran Subramaniyam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There are various causes for snapping wrist syndrome. Multiple accessory tendon can also cause snapping as shown in this case report. Moreover am presenting this case to highlight the diagnostic failure with non dynamic radiological investigation and to consider multiple accessory tendon as differential diagnosis for snapping wrist syndrome. Also suggest dynamic study could be a better choice of investigation to diagnosis snapping syndrome. First compartment tunnel release with few accessory tendon slip tenotomy gives good result.

  9. Management of Blunt Trauma to the Spleen (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Banani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSpleen is the most frequent solid organ to be injured in bluntabdominal trauma. Considering its important role in providingimmunity and preventing infection by a variety of mechanisms,every attempt should be made, if possible, to salvagethe traumatized spleen at any age particularly in children. Afterprimary resuscitation, mandatory requirements for nonoperativemanagement include absence of homodynamic instability,lack of associated major organ injury, admission inthe intensive care unit for high-grade splenic injury and in theward for milder types with close monitoring. About two thirdof the patients would respond to non-operative management.In most patients, failure of non-operative measures usuallyoccur within 12 hours of management. Determinant role ofabdominal sonography or computed tomography, and in selectedcases, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, for appropriate decisioncannot be overemphasized. However, the high status ofclinical judgment would not be replaced by any paraclinicalinvestigations. When operation is unavoidable, if possible,spleen saving procedures (splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomyshould be tried. In case of total splenectomy, autotransplantation,preferably in the omental pouch, may lead toreturn of immunity, at least partially, to prevent or reduce thechance of subsequent infection. Although total splenectomywith autograft is immunologically superior to total splenectomy-only procedure, these patients should also be protectedby vaccination and daily antibiotic for certain period of time.The essential steps for prevention of overwhelming infectionafter total splenectomy are not only immunization and administrationof daily antibiotic (up to 5 years of age or one year inolder children, but include education and information aboutthis dangerous complication. When non-operative managementis successful, the duration of activity restriction (inweeks is almost equal to the grade of splenic injury plus 2.Iran J Med Sci 2010

  10. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  11. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  12. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  13. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  14. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L.; Hingsbergen, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  15. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  16. [Spleen autotransplant. Natural history and description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S

    1989-09-30

    After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.

  17. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  18. Frequency of Syncope in Patients with Accessory Atrioventricular Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aslani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Syncope in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is related to rapid reciprocating tachycardia or rapid ventricular response over the accessory pathway during atrial fibrillation (AF. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the frequency of syncope in patients with WPW syndrome. Methods: We reviewed the records of 150 consecutive patients with WPW syndrome.Results: There were 20 patients (13.3% who reported at least one episode of syncope and 130 patients (86.7% without such a history.Conclusion: Syncope is relatively frequent in patients with WPW. Patient with WPW syndrome who has experienced this symptom should be thoroughly evaluated.

  19. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  20. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  1. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Andrew; Bradley, Kate; Birch, Sally; Browne, William J; Barberet, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement. Elastography was performed on the liver, spleen, and kidneys of 15 dogs at predefined depths within the parenchyma. Breed, age, gender, neuter status, and weight were documented for each animal. Depth at which measurements were taken had a significant negative relationship with the shear wave velocity value obtained. Individual dog effects, such as weight and gender, also appeared to have a significant effect on the shear wave velocity measurement for specific organs; weight had a significant positive effect on the shear wave velocity for each of the organs examined, whereas the effect of gender was inconsistent between organs (having a positive effect for the liver and a negative effect for the spleen). It is hoped that these results may act as a baseline to guide further work into the field of elastography in companion animals. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  3. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  4. Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raychel Chambers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I. Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range.

  5. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi; Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro

    2000-03-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO 4 (aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca 2+ is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution

  6. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  7. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  8. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  9. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  10. [Excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Honghui; Tang, Kanglai; Deng, Yinshuan; Tan, Xiaokang; Zhou, Binghua; Tao, Xu; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qianbo

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular and to evaluate its effectiveness. Between May 2006 and June 2011, 33 patients (40 feet) with flatfoot related with accessory navicular were treated. There were 14 males (17 feet) and 19 females (23 feet) with an average age of 30.1 years (range, 16-56 years). All patients had bilateral accessory navicular; 26 had unilateral flatfoot and 7 had bilateral flatfeet. The disease duration ranged from 7 months to 9 years (median, 24 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-midfoot score was 47.9 +/- 7.3. The X-ray films showed type II accessory navicular, the arch height loss, and heel valgus in all patients. All of them received excision of accessory navicular and reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular with anchor. All patients got primary wound healing without any complication. Thirty patients (36 feet) were followed up 6-54 months with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved complete pain relief at 6 months after surgery and had good appearance of the feet. The AOFAS ankle-midfoot score was 90.4 +/- 2.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=29.73, P=0.00). X-ray films showed that no screw loosening or breakage was observed. There were significant differences in the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar-first metatarsal angle between pre-operation and last follow-up (P < 0.01). The excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular is a good choice for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular, with correction of deformity, excellent effectiveness, and less complications.

  11. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Examples of articles which are taxable as parts or accessories are: Automobile air conditioners; baby seats...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber... motors, and other automobile parts or accessories. (c) Materials of a general use—(1) General rule. The...

  12. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines, together...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  14. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  15. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  16. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...... was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine...... acts on an early event in the antigen handling by accessory cells. Chloroquine is a well known inhibitor of lysosomal proteolysis, and it is likely that its effect on antigen presentation is caused by an inhibition of antigen degradation....

  17. Oligopeptide antigens of the angiotensin lineage compete for presentation by paraformaldehyde-treated accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    series are highly susceptible to proteolytic destruction in cultures containing prefixed accessory cells. The proteases responsible for the destruction of these peptides are apparently located in the plasma membrane of accessory cells. These enzymes represent a methodologic problem in studies...

  18. [Organ-preserving method in the surgical treatment of the spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Salikov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Popov, T V; Urvantseva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have experience in organ-preserving operations for spleen rupture with the splenic artery ligation in 156 casualties. They consider that such operations let to preserve the spleen, to avoid the postoperative rebleeding and ischemia of pancreas tail and body. Also it is accompanied by the low indications of lethality and postoperative complications. The authors consider that this operation is alternative to splenectomy and other techniques of organ-preserving operations in case of spleen trauma.

  19. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  20. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established

  1. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established.

  2. Post-Traumatic Pseudocyst of the Spleen: Sclerotherapy with Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard; Strotzer, Michael; Lock, Guntram; Manke, Christoph; Feuerbach, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment

  3. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  4. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; João, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.

  5. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  6. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  7. Antegrade or Retrograde Accessory Pathway Conduction: Who Dies First?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hadid, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old man with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome due to a left-sided accessory pathway (AP was referred for catheter ablation. Whether abolition of antegrade and retrograde AP conduction during ablation therapy occurs simultaneously, is unclear. At the ablation procedure, radiofrequency delivery resulted in loss of preexcitation followed by a short run of orthodromic tachycardia with eccentric atrial activation, demonstrating persistence of retrograde conduction over the AP after abolition of its antegrade conduction. During continued radiofrequency delivery at the same position, the fifth non-preexcitated beat failed to conduct retrogradely and the tachycardia ended. In this case, antegrade AP conduction was abolished earlier than retrograde conduction.

  8. Accessory mammary tissue associated with congenital and hereditary nephrourinary malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, C E; Betti, R

    1996-05-01

    The association between polythelia (supernumerary nipple) and kidney and urinary tract malformations (KUTM) is controversial. Some authors reported this association in newborns and infants. Case-control studies dealing with adult subjects are not found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of the association between accessory mammary tissue (AMT) and congenital and hereditary nephrourinary defects in an adult population compared to a control group. The study was performed in 146 white patients (123 men, 23 women) with AMT out of 2645 subjects consecutively referred to us for physical examination. The following investigations were undertaken: ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and the kidneys, ECG, echocardiogram, roentgenogram of the vertebral column, urinalysis, and other laboratory tests. A sex- and age-matched control group without any evidence of AMT or lateral displacement of the nipples underwent the same examinations. Kidney and urinary tract malformations were detected in 11 patients with AMT (nine men, two women) and in one control. These data indicate a significantly higher frequency of KUTM in the AMT-affected patients compared to controls (7.53% vs. 0.68%, P < 0.001). A broad spectrum of KUTM was discovered in association with AMT: adult dominant polycystic kidney disease, unilateral renal agenesis, cystic renal dysplasia, familial renal cysts, and congenital stenosis of the pyeloureteral joint. Accessory mammary tissue offers an important clue for congenital and hereditary anomalies of the kidneys and urinary collecting systems. Patients with AMT should, therefore, be extensively examined for the presence of occult nephrouropathies.

  9. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

    2013-04-01

    The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ∼20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs.

  10. Deleterious effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, E.A.; Elmets, C.A.; Fujiwara, H.; Wallis, R.S.; Ellner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells (ADH) for antigen and mitogen-induced responses, and production by ADH of the amplifying cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) were examined. Responder lymphocytes were rendered accessory cell dependent by treatment of nonadherent cells with OKIal + complement. UV-B depressed accessory function of ADH in a dose-dependent manner. UV-B decreased accessory function of ADH for tetanus toxoid-induced responses and phytohaemagglutinin-induced responses. UV-B also decreased accessory activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells for a PPD-reactive T cell line. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity of supernatants of ADH was assayed on C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes. Pretreatment of ADH with UV-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1 activity. Lysates of UV-B irradiated, LPS-stimulated ADH had no discernible IL-1 activity. Addition of IL-1 partially restored accessory activity of UV-B irradiated ADH for lymphocyte responses to TT. Exposure of ADH to TT or PHA for 30 min before irradiation blocked the inhibitory effect of UV-B on accessory activity. Thus, low doses of UV-B are deleterious to accessory function and to production of IL-1 by ADH. Interference with production of cytokines and with initial interactions of accessory cells with antigen and mitogen may be critical to the effects of UV-B on immunoregulatory function of ADH. (author)

  11. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  12. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  13. Detection of early gamma-postirradiation effects in murine spleen by proton NMR relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, G; Lewa, C J; Ramee, M P; Husson, F; De Certaines, J D

    2001-01-01

    It was our aim to evaluate the potential of proton relaxation times for the early detection of radiation-induced spleen changes. Female Swiss mice were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 4 Gy. The body weight, the spleen weight and the spleen water content of single animals were determined. Measurements of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) proton relaxation times of the spleen samples were performed in a 0.47 T spectrometer. Histological examinations of the control and irradiated organs were performed. NMR measurements during the first five days after irradiation showed that total body gamma-irradiation with doses from 1.5 Gy to 4 Gy results in decreasing T1 of the murine spleen. Significant shortening in T2 was observed for the spleen of animals irradiated with a dose of 4 Gy. Histological examinations demonstrated subnormal architecture in slices derived from animals irradiated with 2 Gy and 4 Gy. The fluctuations of the spleen T1 and T2 of irradiated mice are correlated with relative spleen weight and can be used to estimate radiation induced changes in this organ.

  14. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  15. Effects of boron on structure and antioxidative activities of spleen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qianqian; Li, Shenghe; Qiao, Enmei; Tang, Zhongtao; Jin, Erhui; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the relationship between boron and development of the spleen, especially in the promoting biological effects, we examined the effects of different levels of boron on weight, organ index, microstructure, and antioxidative activities of the spleen in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and treated with different concentrations of boron, and then, the organs were resected and weighed. One half of the tissue was fixed and embedded in paraffin to observe tissue structure changes. The other half of the tissue was homogenated for determining the antioxidant activities. The results showed that 40 mg/L of boron could increase weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and improve the spleen tissue structure, while the boron concentration above 80 mg/L could decrease weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and damage the spleen tissue structure. The higher the concentration, the more serious the damage was. Especially at the concentration of 640 mg/L, it could significantly inhibit the development of the spleen and even exhibit toxic effect. Hence, low boron concentration played a protective role in the development of the spleen, while high boron concentration could damage the organs and even produce toxic effect.

  16. Two different mechanisms of immune-complex trapping in the mouse spleen during immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of immune-complex (IC) trapping was examined using purified horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-anti-HRP (PAP) on frozen sections of mouse spleen in vitro. We investigated the trapping mechanisms by applying the IC with or without fresh mouse serum added on the spleen sections of naive as

  17. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  18. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  19. The spleen-to-liver ratios in hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorne, M.; Jurvelin, J.; Vaehaetalo, S.; Himanka, E.

    1984-01-01

    We compared light pen (LPEN) and Region of Interest (ROI) computer methods in determining spleen-to-liver (S/L) ratios both in anterior and posterior images in various liver diseases. The S/L ratio was independent of age or type of colloid used (equal particle size provided). Results with corresponding LPEN and ROI programs did not differ significantly from each other. The sensitivity and specificity were tested and the anterior view yielded somewhat better results than the posterior view but the best results were obtained when both projections were used. The sensitivity for all liver diseases was 60% and the corresponding specificity 93%. In hepatocellular diseases the sensitivity was 80-100%, but the S/L ratio had only 37% sensitivity for hepatic metastases. Hepatomegaly in the anterior view was found in 67% of fatty liver cases, in 25% of cirrhosis cases, in 20% of hepatitis and in 25% of metastatic livers. Splenomegaly was noted in 39-54% of patients with hepatocellular diseases but only in 4-10% of metastatic diseases. (orig.) [de

  20. TLR4 accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 regulates monocyte-driven arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J N M Bastiaansen

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigated the role of the TLR4-accessory molecule RP105 (CD180 in post-ischemic neovascularization, i.e. arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. TLR4-mediated activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes is crucial for effective neovascularization. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that RP105+ monocytes are present in the perivascular space of remodeling collateral arterioles. As RP105 inhibits TLR4 signaling, we hypothesized that RP105 deficiency would lead to an unrestrained TLR4-mediated inflammatory response and hence to enhanced blood flow recovery after ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: RP105-/- and wild type (WT mice were subjected to hind limb ischemia and blood flow recovery was followed by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging. Surprisingly, we found that blood flow recovery was severely impaired in RP105-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that arteriogenesis was reduced in these mice compared to the WT. However, both in vivo and ex vivo analyses showed that circulatory pro-arteriogenic Ly6Chi monocytes were more readily activated in RP105-/- mice. FACS analyses showed that Ly6Chi monocytes became activated and migrated to the affected muscle tissues in WT mice following induction of hind limb ischemia. Although Ly6Chi monocytes were readily activated in RP105-/- mice, migration into the ischemic tissues was hampered and instead, Ly6Chi monocytes accumulated in their storage compartments, bone marrow and spleen, in RP105-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RP105 deficiency results in an unrestrained inflammatory response and monocyte over-activation, most likely due to the lack of TLR4 regulation. Inappropriate, premature systemic activation of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes results in reduced infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes in ischemic tissues and in impaired blood flow recovery.

  1. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (Pchickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R., E-mail: m_vettorato@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  3. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  4. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  5. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management.

  6. Design of Fashion Accessories Using Akwa-Ocha Motifs and Symbols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Nkpopu: holes. 16. Osikapa na ... accessories anchors in both social semiotics and archetypal theories. Social semiotics theory as ... the two earrings incorporate the Onwa (moon) motif in spherical shape and in black colour. They are held ...

  7. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  8. Protein Tunnels: The Case of Urease Accessory Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Gioia, Dario; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-05-09

    Transition metals are both essential micronutrients and limited in environmental availability. The Ni(II)-dependent urease protein, the most efficient enzyme known to date, is a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Ni(II) insertion in the urease active site is performed through the action of three essential accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. The crystal structure of the UreD-UreF-UreG complex from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HpUreDFG) revealed the presence of tunnels that cross the entire length of both UreF and UreD, potentially able to deliver Ni(II) ions from UreG to apo-urease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations performed on the HpUreDFG complex in explicit solvent and at physiological ionic conditions demonstrate the stability of these protein tunnels in solution and provide insights on the trafficking of water molecules inside the tunnels. The presence of different alternative routes across the identified tunnels for Ni(II) ions, water molecules, and carbonate ions, all involved in urease activation, is highlighted here, and their potential role in the urease activation mechanism is discussed.

  9. Rock sealing - large scale field test and accessory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1988-03-01

    The experience from the pilot field test and the basic knowledge extracted from the lab experiments have formed the basis of the planning of a Large Scale Field Test. The intention is to find out how the 'instrument of rock sealing' can be applied to a number of practical cases, where cutting-off and redirection of groundwater flow in repositories are called for. Five field subtests, which are integrated mutually or with other Stripa projects (3D), are proposed. One of them concerns 'near-field' sealing, i.e. sealing of tunnel floors hosting deposition holes, while two involve sealing of 'disturbed' rock around tunnels. The fourth concerns sealing of a natural fracture zone in the 3D area, and this latter test has the expected spin-off effect of obtaining additional information on the general flow pattern around the northeastern wing of the 3D cross. The fifth test is an option of sealing structures in the Validation Drift. The longevity of major grout types is focussed on as the most important part of the 'Accessory Investigations', and detailed plans have been worked out for that purpose. It is foreseen that the continuation of the project, as outlined in this report, will yield suitable methods and grouts for effective and long-lasting sealing of rock for use at stategic points in repositories. (author)

  10. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  11. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  12. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT. We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P<0.01 and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P<0.01, which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  13. Accessory minerals of Permian volcanites of South Gemeric Unit and Borka Nappe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smelko, M; Vozarova, A [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-04-28

    The goal of this study was to summarize and complete the results from the study of metavolcanites and their accessory minerals (Zircon Zr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, Monazite CePO{sub 4} and Xenotime YPO{sub 4}) from the Southern Gemericum Unit and from the Borka Nappe. The acid metavolcanites and their accessory minerals were observed of the modern analytical methods.

  14. Innovative usage of accessory auricles as full-thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elankumar Subbarayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory auricles are relatively rare malformations arising from the first branchial arch which contains skin, fat and cartilage. The treatment is usually surgical removal for the cosmetic purpose. We are sharing our experience of utilising the accessory auricle skin as full thickness graft for post.burn reconstruction of the fingers contracture of a child. Even though this type of association is rare, it is an innovative idea following Sir Harold Gilles’ principle ‘Never throw anything away’.

  15. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  16. Influence of apoptosis on liver and spleen resistance in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Franciscato, Douglas Augusto; Rossit, Sabrina Micelli; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.

  17. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  18. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  19. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  20. Palliative Spleen Irradiation: Can we Standardize its Technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAZMY, M.S.; RADWAN, A.; MOKHTAR, M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the pattern of practice of palliative splenic irradiation (PSI) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University. Patients and Methods: The medical records of patients referred for PSI during the time period from 1990 to 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. We compared the three most common planning techniques (two parallel opposing, single direct field, anterior and lateral fields). Results: Eighteen patients who received PSI were identified. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as CML and 5 as CLL. The mean age of the patients was 44 (±16) years and the majority were men (60%). Spleen enlargement was documented in all cases. The single direct anterior field was the most commonly used technique. The dose per fraction ranged from 25 c Gy to 100 c Gy. The total dose ranged from 125 c Gy to 1200 c Gy and the median was 200 c Gy (mean 327 c Gy). There was no significant difference between CML and CLL patients regarding the dose level. Three out of 5 CLL patients and only one out of 13 CML patients received re-irradiation. All patients showed subjective improvement regarding pain and swelling. There was a significant increase in the hemoglobin level and a significant decrease in the WBC count. The single direct field shows variations in the dose from 56 to 102%; however, it is the simplest and the best regarding the dose to the surrounding normal tissues especially the kidney and the liver. Conclusion: PSI has a significant palliative benefit. Although the most widely accepted technique is the 2 parallel opposing anterior-posterior fields, single anterior field is also considered as a suitable option. Higher doses are needed for CLL patients compared to CML patients

  1. Spinal Accessory Motor Neurons in the Mouse: A Special Type of Branchial Motor Neuron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles; Tvrdik, Petr

    2018-04-16

    The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck. The unusual course of the spinal accessory nerve has long prompted speculation that it is not a typical spinal motor nerve and that it might represent a caudal remnant of the branchial motor system. Our cell lineage tracing data, combined with images from public databases, show that the spinal accessory motor neurons in the mouse transiently express Phox2b, a transcription factor that is required for development of brain stem branchial motor nuclei. While this is strong prima facie evidence that the spinal accessory motor neurons should be classified as branchial motor, the evolutionary history of these motor neurons in anamniote vertebrates suggests that they may be considered to be an atypical branchial group that possesses both branchial and somatic characteristics. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  3. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  4. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campanelli

    Full Text Available Primary myelofibrosis (PMF is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph- myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2 have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs, and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008 in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ.

  5. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  6. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen: report of a case in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardanelli, Esteban; Cermeno, Claudia; Rizzi, Ana Maria; Felipe, Laura; Goldberg, Alberto; Moguillansky, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen in a 4 years old child. Clinical findings were limited to diffuse abdominal pain and a palpable mass at the left hypochondrium. Ultrasonography and CT revealed a solid homogeneous mass in the lower pole of the spleen, with irregular enhancement with IV contrast. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. The diagnosis was histological. The pseudotumor of the spleen is extremely rare, especially in children, with only 4 cases (including our own) reported in the literature. Our patient constitutes the youngest case ever reported. (author)

  7. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  8. Recurrent spleen enlargement during cyclic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmer, A.; Karmochkine, M.; Cadiou, M.; Gerhartz, H.; Zittoun, R.

    1990-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with refractory anemia with excess of blasts received sequential courses of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy (GM-CSF) and low-dose cytosine arabinoside. Each course of GM-CSF induced a rapid and tremendous increase in leukocyte count as well as in spleen size, 111-indium chloride scanning suggested a myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. This observation suggests that in some patients the granulopoietic response to the myeloid growth factor stimulation may be predominant in the spleen

  9. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  10. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonAchen, Paige; Hamann, Jason; Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F; Daniels, Mary; Schwartz, Robert S

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p=0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p=0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p=0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in future clinical trials may improve RDN therapeutic efficacy

  11. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant Sl/Sld spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  12. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells (colony-forming cells, CFC) was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant S1/S1d spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations (CBA/CBA, CBA/C57BL, CBA/BALB/c, C57BL/C57BL, C57BL/CBA, C57BL/BALB/c) that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  13. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonAchen, Paige [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hamann, Jason [Boston Scientific Corporation, Maple Grove, MN (United States); Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F. [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Daniels, Mary [Vital Images/Toshiba, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Schwartz, Robert S., E-mail: rss@rsschwartz.com [Minneapolis Heart Institute and Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Background: Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Methods: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Results: Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p = 0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p = 0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p = 0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Conclusions: Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in

  15. Accessory renal arteries: Prevalence in resistant hypertension and an important role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VonAchen, Paige; Hamann, Jason; Houghland, Thomas; Lesser, John R.; Wang, Yale; Caye, David; Rosenthal, Kristi; Garberich, Ross F.; Daniels, Mary; Schwartz, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the role of accessory renal arteries in resistant hypertension, and to establish their role in nonresponse to radiofrequency renal denervation (RDN) procedures. Background: Prior studies suggest a role for accessory renal arteries in hypertensive syndromes, and recent clinical trials of renal denervation report that these anomalies are highly prevalent in resistant hypertension. This study evaluated the relationships among resistant hypertension, accessory renal arteries, and the response to radiofrequency (RF) renal denervation. Methods: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 58 patients with resistant hypertension undergoing RF renal denervation (RDN) were evaluated. Results were compared with CT scans in 57 healthy, normotensive subjects undergoing screening as possible renal transplant donors. All scans were carefully studied for accessory renal arteries, and were correlated with long term blood pressure reduction. Results: Accessory renal arteries were markedly more prevalent in the hypertensive patients than normotensive renal donors (59% vs 32% respectively, p = 0.004). RDN had an overall nonresponse rate of 29% (response rate 71%). Patients without accessory vessels had a borderline higher response rate to RDN than those with at least one accessory vessel (83% vs 62% respectively, p = 0.076) and a higher RDN response than patients with untreated accessory arteries (83% vs 55%; p = 0.040). For accessory renal arteries and nonresponse, the sensitivity was 76%, specificity 49%, with positive and negative predictive values 38% and 83% respectively. Conclusions: Accessory renal arteries were markedly over-represented in resistant hypertensives compared with healthy controls. While not all patients with accessory arteries were nonresponders, nonresponse was related to both the presence and non-treatment of accessory arteries. Addressing accessory renal arteries in

  16. Spleen artery embolization increases the success of nonoperative management following blunt splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Chun-Jen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: Performance of SAE for the patients with blunt splenic injury could increase the successful rate of NOM significantly and safely. An algorithm including the angioembolization might be beneficial in the management of patients with blunt spleen trauma.

  17. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  18. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  19. Dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Purdom, R.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Maxon, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative conjugate view external counting techniques were applied to determine radiation dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans. The effective half-life of /sup99m/Tc-SC was 5.8 +- 0.23 hours and 5.2 +- 0.68 hours in the liver and spleen, respectively. Dose per administered activity ranged from 0.34 to 0.63 rad/mCi (92 to 170 μGy/MBq) for the liver and 0.35 to 1.96 rad/mCi (95.0 to 530.0 μGy/MBq) for the spleen. The spleen to liver dose ratio ranged from 1.0 to 4.9. These values are compared with results extrapolated from published adult data to the pediatric population

  20. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  1. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  2. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  3. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  4. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary experimental study on splenic hemodynamics of radiofrequency ablation for the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Sadao; Nagasato, Kohei; Higashi, Michiyo; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    To test the splenic blood flow change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the spleen in a porcine experimental model. Six pigs underwent RFA of the spleen via laparotomy. During the procedure of RFA, clamping of splenic artery (one) and both splenic artery/vein (one) was also performed. Measurement of blood flow of both splenic artery (SA) and splenic vein (SV) with flow-wire at pre- and post-RFA of the spleen was also performed. Ablated splenic lesions were created as estimating ∼50% area of the spleen in all pigs. Resected specimens reveal not only the coagulated necrosis but also the congestion of the spleen. On the SA hemodynamics, maximum peak velocity (MPV) changed from 37 ± 7 to 24 ± 8 cm/s (normal), 11 to 10 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 12 to 7.5 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. On the SV hemodynamic, MPV changed from 15 ± 5 to 13 ± 4 cm/s (normal), 17 to 15 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 17 to 26 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. RFA of the spleen could induce coagulation necrosis and reduce the splenic arterial blood flow.

  7. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoori, Simon; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Breitenstein, Stefan; Doert, Aleksis; Pozdniakova, Viktoria; Koh, Dow-Mu; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  8. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  9. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, Pdogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Santhosh Kumar Vankayala; Günthner, Roman; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well described, but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their accessory molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of LBP, MD2, CD36, CD14, granulin, HMGB1, LL37, GRP94, UNC93b1, TRIL, PRAT4A, AP3B1, AEP and the respective TLRs in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. In addition, the expression profiles in transient tissue inflammation upon renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, in spleens and kidneys from mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, and in progressive tissue fibrosis upon unilateral ureteral obstruction were studied. Several TLR co-factors were specifically regulated during the different phases of these disease entities, suggesting a functional involvement in the disease process. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to TLR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in the tissue injury phase, in the phase of tissue regeneration, and in progressive tissue remodelling. PMID:23803655

  11. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  12. Does the presence of accessory renal arteries affect the efficacy of renal denervation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Id, Dani; Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Bertog, Stefan C; Hornung, Marius; Hofmann, Ilona; Vaskelyte, Laura; Sievert, Horst

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to assess the efficacy of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation in patients with accessory renal arteries and to compare the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect with that observed in patients with bilateral single renal arteries after renal denervation. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation causes significant BP reductions in patients with resistant hypertension. Seventy-four patients were included in this study. Patients were assigned to 2 main groups: a bilateral single renal arteries group I (n = 54) and an accessory renal arteries group II (n = 20). Group II consisted of 9 patients whose accessory renal arteries were all denervated (group IIa), and 11 patients whose accessory renal arteries were not, or only incompletely, denervated (group IIb). The primary endpoint was the change in office systolic BP after 6 months. The procedure was successful in all patients. Group I: mean BP at baseline was 166.2/89.4 ± 20.5/14.6 mm Hg and decreased by -16.6 (p renal denervation in patients with accessory renal arteries is less pronounced than in patients with bilateral single renal arteries. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uterine-sparing Laparoscopic Resection of Accessory Cavitated Uterine Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ann; Rindos, Noah B; Guido, Richard S; Donnellan, Nicole M

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate surgical techniques utilized during uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of accessory cavitated uterine masses (ACUMs). ACUMs represent a rare uterine entity observed in premenopausal women suffering from dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain. The diagnosis is made when an isolated extra-cavitated uterine mass is resected from an otherwise normal appearing uterus with unremarkable endometrial lumen and adnexal structures. Pathologic confirmation requires an accessory cavity lined with endometrial epithelium (and corresponding glands and stroma) filled with chocolate-brown fluid. Adenomyosis must be absent. Although the origin of ACUMs is currently unknown, the most common presentation is a 2-4 cm lateral uterine wall mass at the level of the insertion of the round ligament. Hence it has been hypothesized that gubernaculum dysfunction may be responsible for duplication or persistence of paramesonephric tissue leading to ACUM formation as a new Müllerian anomaly. A stepwise surgical tutorial describing 2 laparoscopic ACUM resections using a narrated video (Canadian Task Force classification III). An academic tertiary care hospital. In this video, we present 2 patients who underwent uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of their ACUM in order to preserve fertility (Case 1) or avoid the complications and surgical recovery time of a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (Case 2). Case 1 is a 19-year-old, gravida 0, para 0 woman with dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain who presented for multiple emergency room and outpatient evaluations. Transvaginal ultrasonography was unremarkable except for a 28×30×26mm left lateral uterine mass with peripheral vascular flow that was initially felt to be a leiomyoma or rudimentary uterine horn. MRI imaging, however, demonstrated this mass to be more consistent with an ACUM. This was based on the lack of communication between the lesion and the main uterine cavity exhibited by high T2 signal (compatible with

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Obesity-related chronic kidney disease is associated with spleen-derived IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kentaro; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Matsuoka, Kazue; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Fukunaga, Naoya; Aoki, Kohei; Nawata, Tomoko; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the molecular mechanism remains uncertain. We noticed spleen-derived interleukin (IL)-10 because it is observed that obesity reduces several cytokines in the spleen. We examined whether spleen-derived IL-10 regulates CKD caused by a high-fat diet (HF)-induced obesity as follows: (i) male mice were fed with HF (60% fat) during 8 weeks and IL-10 induction from the spleen was examined, (ii) glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammatory responses in the kidney and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated in splenectomy (SPX)-treated mice fed HF, (iii) exogenous IL-10 was systemically administered to HF-induced obese mice and the alteration of obesity-induced pathogenesis caused by IL-10 treatment was assessed. (iv) IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice were treated with SPX and glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis and the inflammatory condition in the kidney and SBP were also investigated. Obesity decreased serum levels of only IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine even though pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen was significantly lower in the obese group. SPX aggravated HF-induced inflammatory responses in the kidney and hypertension. These HF-induced alterations were inhibited by systemically administered IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on inflammatory responses and SBP in the kidney of IL-10KO mice. We suggest that obesity reduces IL-10 induction from the spleen, and spleen-derived IL-10 may protect against the development of CKD induced by obesity.

  16. Estimation of the volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Atushi

    1988-01-01

    The volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen were estimated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-phytate. Clinical usefulness of these parameters was evaluated by comparison with other liver function tests in 87 patients including 25 normal controls, 24 liver cirrhosis and 16 other chronic liver diseases. SPECT images were obtained by Maxi Camera 400T. Cut-off level for reconstruction of images and relationship between counts and activity (mCi) were obtained from phantom studies. Volumes estimated using SPECT and computed tomography were compared in 16 patients. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Optimal cut-off level for measurement of volumes for the liver was 37 % and for the spleen was 42 %. 2) Correlation between organ volumes estimated with CT and SPECT was good (r = 0.92 for the liver and r = 0.96 for the spleen), although volumes measured with SPECT were larger than those with CT. 3) Significant differences of percent uptake were observed between normal controls and liver cirrhosis. 4) Better correlation between spleen volumes and uptake was recognized in cases without liver cirrhosis than in cases with liver cirrhosis. The spleen uptake in liver cirrhosis was higher than those in others in comparison with the volume. 5) The liver/spleen ratio of 99m Tc-phytae uptake could most clearly differentiate liver cirrhosis from others. 6) Negative correlation was observed between liver volume or uptake and ICG (R 15 ). Estimation of volume and uptake of the liver and spleen could be a useful procedure to assess liver function, probably related with effective hepatic blood flow in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  17. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  18. Acquired cavo-varus deformity caused by an accessory calcaneus: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Baghla, Davinder Paul; Shariff, Sajid; Bashir, Waseem A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an unusual cause of an acquired cavo-varus foot deformity produced by progressive enlargement of an accessory calcaneal ossicle. A 13-year-old boy with constitutional plano-valgus flat feet noted a gradual change in foot shape associated with lateral ankle pain on ambulation following an inversion injury 2 years earlier. CT and MRI scans confirmed a large accessory calcaneal ossicle lying within the sinus tarsi, with associated marrow oedema. Following surgical excision of the ossicle, the foot returned to its original shape and the symptoms were alleviated. This is the fifth reported case of an accessory calcaneal ossicle, but the only case that has occurred in a flatfooted individual. We also present the first reported MRI images of the lesion confirming pathological marrow oedema as a response to mechanical stress. (orig.)

  19. Accessories for detention and protection used in small animals radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, Michel Campos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a medical method well established in the treatment of cancer in veterinary medicine worldwide. The radiotherapy protocols applied in animals vary according to several factors. In most procedures require sedation or anesthesia of the animal and this fact imposes the use of immobilization accessories specially developed for the different species of animals and treated as their specified procedures. Therefore, this study aims to describe the types of accessories used for immobilization and for the protection of small animals undergoing radiotherapy. For its development a literature search was performed by search sites like Google Scholar, Scielo, Bireme, PubMed, and consultations in books campus library Botucatu UNESP. Despite the limitations of each accessory rated this review, it was possible to identify the use of each and how this can be advantageous for the treatment of animals undergoing radiation therapy. (author)

  20. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  1. Accessory Axillary Breast Excision with Liposuction Using Minimal Incision: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Bae; Choi, Byung Seo; Byun, Geon Young; Koo, Bum Hwan; Lee, Sung Ryul

    2017-02-01

    Accessory breasts have received little attention in the surgical fields, although the condition is quite common in the female population, with 2-6% of women suffering from it. Its convexity and cyclic pain make women feel embarrassed and uncomfortable, so patients often desire surgical excision to improve their appearances and to remove the pain. A total of 967 patients who had been treated by an excision of accessory breast tissue with liposuction using minimal incision from September 2013 to Dec 2015 at the Damsoyu Hospital were analyzed for clinical factors retrospectively. All 967 patients were female. There were 514 (53.2%) unmarried patients and 453 (46.8%) married patients. The major clinical manifestation was the problem in the appearance with cyclic pain in both unmarried and married groups (82.7 vs. 87.9%). Three types of accessory breasts were observed: 779 (80.6%) breast tissue only in axillae, 182 (18.8%) breast tissue with accessory nipple, and 6 (0.6%) breast tissue with accessory nipple-areolar complex. The mean operation time was 58 min. All cyclic axillar pain in our cases was resolved after the operation. Postoperative complications developed in 160 patients (16.55%). Among them, seroma after operation was the most common (11.27%). In our study, 95.65% of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcomes. The surgical excision of accessory breasts with liposuction through the minimal incision is a safe and effective method to make women feel comfortable in clinical manifestations and be satisfied with their cosmetic axillar line. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  3. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Nishchint; Verma, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM) is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG), Ultrasonography (USG), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis

  4. Ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Proietti, MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old patient with recurrent palpitations and documented left bundle branch block superior axis wide complex tachycardia underwent an electrophysiological study and ablation with a zero-fluoroscopy procedure. The electrophysiological study showed a decremental antegrade conducting atriofascicular pathway. Three-dimensional CARTO-guided mapping of the tricuspid annulus in sinus rhythm was performed, and a distinct signal corresponding to the accessory pathway potential of the atriofascicular pathway was found in the posterolateral region. By using an SR0 sheath and a 4-mm-tip catheter, radiofrequency application was delivered at this point on the annulus and successfully eliminated conduction through the accessory pathway.

  5. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Chaoqun; Liu Yejin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will often be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects in spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of cadmium on splenic T and innate immune cells in rats is explored. • Differential effects of 1 mg/kg on T cell and innate immune activities were shown. • Lower Cd dose (0.5 mg/kg) cause less pronounced immunosuppressive effects. • Proinflammatory effects on innate immune activities were seen at that dose. • Presented data depict complexity of immunomodulatory potential of this metal. - Abstract: Conflicting data (both suppression and augmentation as well as lack of the effect) exist in respect to cadmium (Cd) and splenic T cell-based immune cell activity. Spleen is also the site of innate immune responses but impact of Cd on this type of immunity has been less explored. In the present study the effects of acute Cd administration on basic aspects of both T cell-based and innate immune spleen cell activity were examined in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of Cd/kg resulted in decrease in concanavalin A (ConA) induced proliferation which seems to be more related to altered spleen cells responsiveness to IL-2 than to apoptosis. Differential effects on proinflammatory T cell derived cytokines were observed (decreases of IFN-γ gene expression and ConA-stimulated production, but increases in IL-17 mRNA levels with no effect on concentrations of protein product). Reduction of IFN-γ production seemed not to rely on IL-4 and IL-10, but at least partly on nitric oxide (NO). Increased activity relevant for innate immunity (granulocyte and CD11b + cell accumulation in the spleen, inducible nitric oxide synthase/iNOS expression and NO production by spleen cells) was observed, but there was a decrease in respiratory burst (dihydrorhodamine/DHR oxidation and nitroblue tetrazolium/NBT reduction). Increases of TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein product were noted as well. Administration of 0.5 mg Cd/kg resulted in less pronounced (ConA-induced proliferation) or lack of the effect (IFN-γ production) on spleen T cell

  7. Trauma center variation in splenic artery embolization and spleen salvage: a multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aman; Duane, Therese M; Wilson, Sean P; Haney, Starre; O'Neill, Patrick J; Evans, Heather L; Como, John J; Claridge, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if variation in management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) among Level I trauma centers is associated with different outcomes related to the use of splenic artery embolization (SAE). All adult patients admitted for BSI from 2008 to 2010 at 4 Level I trauma centers were reviewed. Use of SAE was determined, and outcomes of spleen salvage and nonoperative management (NOM) failure were evaluated. A priori, a 10% SAE rate was used to group centers into high- or low-use groups. There were 1,275 BSI patients. There were intercenter differences in age, injury severity, and grade of spleen injury (Spleen Injury Scale [SIS]). Mortality was similar by center; however, BSI treatment varied significantly by center. Overall, SAE use was highest at center A compared with B, C, and D (19%, 11%, 1%, and 4%, respectively; p trauma centers. Centers with higher rates of SAE use have higher spleen salvage and less NOM failure. SAE was shown to be an independent predictor of spleen salvage. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  8. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  10. Comparative histology in the liver and spleen of three species of freshwater teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila F. Sales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe and compare the histology of liver and spleen ofGeophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes, Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes, tropical freshwater fishes. InG. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricusthe hepatocytes were arranged in tubular form whereas in H. franciscithey cord-like. In all species, hepatocytes presented glycogen, but in G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus they showed strong stained for hemossiderin in the cytoplasm. InG. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus, melanomacrophage centres (MMCs were associated to hepatic structures and only in G. brasiliensis was observed intrahepatic exocrine pancreas. The spleen, in all species, was characterized by red and white pulp without boundary between the two regions, but only in H. francisci was recorded nodular organization in splenic parenchyma. The G. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricuspresented in the white pulp MMCs linked mainly to ellipsoids. Besides, we observed large MMCs in the spleen in relation to liver of G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus. In liver, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were observed inG. brasiliensis. In spleen, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were recorded inH. aff. malabaricusandH. francisci, respectively. Histological differences confirm the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distance is reflected in liver and spleen.

  11. Pancreatic islet allograft in spleen with immunosuppression with cyclosporine. Experimental model in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, Jaques; Neff, Charles Benjamin; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Germini, Demetrius; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Zanotto, Arnaldo; Speranzini, Manlio Basilio

    2011-01-01

    To study the functional behavior of the allograft with immunosuppression of pancreatic islets in the spleen. Five groups of 10 Mongrel dogs were used: Group A (control) underwent biochemical tests; Group B underwent total pancreatectomy; Group C underwent total pancreatectomy and pancreatic islet autotransplant in the spleen; Group D underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen without immunosuppressive therapy; Group E underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen and immunosuppression with cyclosporine. All of the animals with grafts received pancreatic islets prepared by the mechanical-enzymatic method - stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient, implanted in the spleen. The animals with autotransplant and those with allografts with immunosuppression that became normoglycemic showed altered results of intravenous tolerance glucose (p < 0.001) and peripheral and splenic vein plasmatic insulin levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in animals that had allografts with immunosuppression than in those with just autotransplants. In the animals with immunosuppression with cyclosporine subjected to allograft of pancreatic islets prepared with the mechanical-enzymatic preparation method (stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient), the production of insulin is decreased and the response to intravenous glucose is altered.

  12. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  13. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Transcription factor TLX1 controls retinoic acid signaling to ensure spleen development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Elisa; Farinello, Diego; Penkov, Dmitry; Castagnaro, Laura; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Wuputra, Kenly; Tjaden, Naomi E. Butler; Bernassola, Francesca; Caridi, Nicoletta; Wagner, Michael; Kozinc, Katja; Niederreither, Karen; Blasi, Francesco; Pasini, Diego; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie spleen development and congenital asplenia, a condition linked to increased risk of overwhelming infections, remain largely unknown. The transcription factor TLX1 controls cell fate specification and organ expansion during spleen development, and Tlx1 deletion causes asplenia in mice. Deregulation of TLX1 expression has recently been proposed in the pathogenesis of congenital asplenia in patients carrying mutations of the gene-encoding transcription factor SF-1. Herein, we have shown that TLX1-dependent regulation of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is critical for spleen organogenesis. In a murine model, loss of Tlx1 during formation of the splenic anlage increased RA signaling by regulating several genes involved in RA metabolism. Uncontrolled RA activity resulted in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells and reduced vasculogenesis of the splenic primordium. Pharmacological inhibition of RA signaling in Tlx1-deficient animals partially rescued the spleen defect. Finally, spleen growth was impaired in mice lacking either cytochrome P450 26B1 (Cyp26b1), which results in excess RA, or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which results in RA deficiency. Together, these findings establish TLX1 as a critical regulator of RA metabolism and provide mechanistic insights into the molecular determinants of human congenital asplenia. PMID:27214556

  15. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  16. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kodama, Shohta

    2018-05-07

    This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  17. The Spleen Is an Ideal Site for Inducing Transplanted Islet Graft Expansion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Itoh

    Full Text Available Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV, beneath the kidney capsule (KC, or into the spleen (SP. The marginal number of islets by PV, KC, or SP was 200, 100, and 50, respectively. Some plasma inflammatory cytokine levels in the SP group were significantly lower than those of the PV group after receiving a marginal number of islets, indicating reduced inflammation in the SP group. Insulin contents were increased 280 days after islet transplantation compared with those immediately following transplantation (p<0.05. Additionally, Tlx1-related genes, including Rrm2b and Pla2g2d, were up-regulated, which indicates that islet grafts expanded in the spleen. The spleen is an ideal candidate for an alternative islet transplantation site because of the resulting reduced inflammation and expansion of the islet graft.

  18. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  19. The effect of lysate of spleen cells after low dose radiation (LDR) on NK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2003-01-01

    To find effect of lysate of spleen cells after LDR on NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 57 cells, lysate of spleen cells after LDR were extracted. McAb (anti CD 57 cells) was used to separate CD 57 cells from human peripheral blood by Panning direct method. The CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were used as effective cells. K 562 cells labelled by 3 H-TdR were used as target cells. The ratio of effect cells to target cells was 10:1. NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 5 -7 cells with the lysate of spleen cells after LDR was reflected by the efficiency of anti tumor cells. The 3 H-TdR incorporation in K 562 cells cultured with non-CD 57 cells was significantly lower than that with CD 57 cells. After use of the lysate of spleen cells after LDR, NK activities of CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were 1.24 and 1.58 respectively. They were both increased obviously compared with control groups. The effect of anti K 562 cells of non-CD 57 cells is even greater than that of CD 57 cells. The lysate of spleen cells after LDR can enhance the effect of both non-CD 57 cells and CD 57 cells

  20. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25343083

  1. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  2. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings

  3. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  4. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  5. Usefulness of liposomes carrying losefamate for CT opacification of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Shulkin, P.M.; Adams, D.F.; Davis, M.A.; Hoey, G.B.; Hopkins, R.M.; Bosworth, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Iosefamate, a hepatobiliary contrast agent, was encapsulated into liposomes to increase its ability to opacify the liver and spleen on computed tomographic (CT) images. Multilamellar lipid vesicles containing iosefamate in their aqueous phase were prepared. Seven dogs received intravenous injections of 100-300 mg l/kg in one of three forms; encapsulated, unencapsulated, or a mixture of the two in equal parts. Animals that received the opaque vesicles had marked opacification of their livers, bile ducts, gallbladders, spleens and gastrointestinal tracts. At the high-dose level, liver upake of the encapsulated materials was also greater. Liposome-encapsulated hepatobiliary contrast agents are effective liver and spleen opacifiers for CT imaging in the dog

  6. Extra-adrenal myelolipoma presenting in the spleen: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Aguilera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelolipoma is a rare neoplasm composed of mature fat and bone marrow occurring most frequently in the adrenal gland with rare occurrences in extra adrenal locations including lung, liver, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and testes. Splenic myelolipomas are seen most commonly in non-human species including cat and dog. Only rare cases of splenic myelolipoma in humans have been reported previously. We present two cases of myelolipoma in the spleen. The first is a 62 year old female presenting with abdominal pain and a splenic mass. The second is a 44 year old male presenting with hematuria and a mass in the spleen. Both cases showed trilineage bone marrow elements with mature fat. These cases demonstrate that myelolipoma do rarely occur in human spleen and we highlight the distinction from extramedullary hematopoiesis, mature extramedullary myeloid tumor (myeloid sarcoma, lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma.

  7. Effect of adeturone on the concentration of endogenous sulfhydryl groups in mouse spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.; Bychvarova, K.

    1981-01-01

    Levels of endogenous sulfhydryl groups (total, protein, and non-protein) in mouse liver and spleen were studied for response to the radioprotective drug Adeturone (AET adenosine triphosphate) as recorded at various time intervals (5 - 90 min) following administration of a 300 mg/kg b.w. dose. Spleen sulfhydryl concentration levels tended to elevation, with the peak effect noted at 45 min post-treatment. In the liver, augmentation was observed only for non-protein sylfhydryl groups, at 10 and 15 min post-treatment (time intervals when Adeturone affords maximum protection against radiation); at the 60 min, however, there was a statistically reliable drop. The findings indicate that Adeturone treatment produces response patterns of opposite directions in liver and spleen endogenous thiols. (A.B.)

  8. The Spleen Is an HIV-1 Sanctuary During Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David J; Rose, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Patricia H; Salemi, Marco; Singer, Elyse J; Lamers, Susanna L; McGrath, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eradicate HIV, which persists for years and can re-establish replication if treatment is stopped. The current challenge is identifying those tissues harboring virus through cART. Here, we used HIV env-nef single genome sequencing and HIV gag droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to survey 50 tissues from five subjects on cART with no detectable plasma viral load at death. The spleen most consistently contained multiple proviral and expressed sequences (4/5 participants). Spleen-derived HIV demonstrated two distinct phylogenetic patterns: multiple identical sequences, often from different tissues, as well as diverse viral sequences on long terminal branches. Our results suggested that ddPCR may overestimate the size of the tissue-based viral reservoir. The spleen, a lymphatic organ at the intersection of the immune and circulatory systems, may play a key role in viral persistence.

  9. Measurement of spleen size using gamma camera scintigraphy in essential thrombocythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, P. (Department of Medicine, Oestra Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Carneskog, J.; Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J. (Haematology Section, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Jarneborn, L. (Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1993-09-01

    By using gamma camera imaging the spleen size was determined in 33 consecutive patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and in 33 consecutive patients with reactive thrombocytosis (RT). All ET patients were newly diagnosed and had not received myelosuppressive treatment prior to study; they all fulfilled the criteria for ET as established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group. In both posterior and lateral projections, the spleen area in the group of ET patients was significantly larger than in the RT patients. The present study has shown that 39% of ET patients at diagnosis have splenic enlargement. Evaluation of Spleen size is therefore a useful diagnostic test in patients presenting with unexplained thrombocytosis. (au) (15 refs.).

  10. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  12. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  13. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  14. Parasitic load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagues, Naiara Carvalho Teixeira; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Dos-Santos, Washington L C; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2018-02-01

    Leishmania infantum causes from subclinical infection to severe disease in humans and dogs. The spleen is one of the organs most affected by the infection. Although evidence exists that the parasitic load distribution and histological alterations may not be homogeneous in the affected organs of naturally infected individuals, it has not been formally demonstrated using the current techniques used for studying the disease. In six dogs naturally infected with Leishmania, parasitic load and histological changes were compared in samples collected from the lower, middle and upper third of the spleen. Parasitic load in the spleen of the group of dogs was variable, revealing a difference of 61 times between animals with the lowest and the highest parasitism. The set of parasitic load values of each dog showed a cluster trend, when compared to the other animals. Nevertheless, the parasitic load values of each dog showed a variation ranging from 3.2 to 34.7 times between lowest and highest value. Histological changes showed recognizable variation in frequency (granulomas) or intensity (perisplenitis) in the spleen of 2 out of the 6 dogs. The agreement of histological findings between samples collected from the different thirds of the spleen was good (kappa coeficient, 0.61-0.80) very good (0.81-0.99) or perfect (1.00), for most of the parameters analyzed. Variability of parasitic load and, to a lesser extent, histological changes in spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is observed. Such variability may be taken in account in the design of studies on pathogenesis, vaccine and therapeutic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice....

  16. Locally advanced leiomyosarcoma of the spleen. A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recchia Franco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyosarcomas are rare tumours, predominantly localized in the stomach, small intestine and retroperitoneum. Only one case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the spleen is described in human beings in literature. Case presentation We report a case of locally advanced primary leiomyosarcoma of the spleen in a 54 year-old woman, diagnosed only after splenectomy, performed with the suspicion of splenic haematoma. Conclusion Due to the lack of cases, no specific chemotherapy regimen has been tested to provide a longer survival.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-technefit in radionuclide investigations of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovdienko, N.I.; Starovojtova, L.P.; Kodina, G.E.; Malysheva, A.O.; Tul'skaya, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an experimental study of pharmacokinetics of a new Soviet drug 99m Tc-technefit for scintigraphy of the liver and spleen. The results of biological distribution of the agent in rat, scintigrams of the liver and spleen in rabbits and dogs have shown a high accumulation of 99m Tc-technefit in the liver (up to 90%). The agent is prepared within one stage from a kit of reagents and 99m Tc-sodium pertechnate obtained using a generator

  18. Photon activation analysis of trace metals in the livers and spleens of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nondestructive photon activation analysis with 30 MeV bremsstrahlung was applied to determine trace element concentrations in the livers and spleens of five pigs. Samples were freeze-dried, pulverized and fractionated into four groups corresponding mesh size ; smaller than 60 mesh, 60-100 mesh, 100-200 mesh and larger than 200 mesh. Up to 9 elements in each fraction were analyzed. The concentrations of Br, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb and Zn in each liver fractions were almost constant, as were concentrations of Mg and Rb in spleens. (author). 10 refs., 7 tabs

  19. Accessory atrioventricular myocardial connections in the developing human heart: relevance for perinatal supraventricular tachycardias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, Nathan D.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Kolditz, Denise P.; Bökenkamp, Regina; Schalij, Martin J.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Blom, Nico A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardias can be life-threatening but resolve in most cases during the first year of life. The transient presence of accessory AV myocardial connections during annulus fibrosus development may explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND

  20. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  1. Does Accessory Ossicle Affect Management Plan in an Athlete After Ankle Sprain? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Şeyma TORĞUTALP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Os subfibulare is an accessory ossicle that lies at the distal part of lateral malleolus. It is typically asymptomatic and detected incidentally by the presence of ankle injuries. A case report of sixteen years old male athlete with ankle injury was presented.

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.3-Use and Care of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39.304 Modification or installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle or the permanent installation of...

  3. Tetralogy of Fallot with restrictive ventricular septal defect by accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipat Raj Soni; Deepak A. Bohara; Ajay U. Mahajan; Pratap J. Nathani

    2012-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot septal defect is usually large because of malalignment of outlet septum, restrictive defect has been reported rarely. We present a case of tetralogy of Fallot with accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue restricting ventricular septal defect. The report includes echocardiographic and catheter images of this rare presentation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  4. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification...

  5. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burazor Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  6. Prophylactic accessory-pathway ablation in asymptomatic patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White electrocardiographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozenc, S; Iscen, S; Kibrisli, E; Tok, D; Parlak, A; Altinel, O; Altinel, S

    2014-01-01

    The optimal approach is controversial in asymptomatic patients who are coincidentally found to have evidence of an accessory pathway (AP) on an ECG. The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is low, and the risk of developing symptoms also appears to be low, although a wide range of incidences have been reported. In our trial, we tested the hypothesis that if prophylactic accessory-pathway ablation performed at the time of the initial electrophysiological testing would improve the long-term outcome in asymptomatic patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White electrocardiographic pattern. Recruitment of patients began on February 1, 2004, and ended on February 5, 2009. All 110 asymptomatic patients were hospitalized and underwent electrophysiological testing the same day to assess the inducibility of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. The anterograde effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was defined as the longest coupling interval at which anterograde block in the bypass tract was observed. For the statistical analysis, the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Of 110 asymptomatic patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White electrocardiographic pattern, 80 patients were ablated. Ablation group consisted of these patients. Control group consisted of remaining 30 and were divided into two groups according to the anterograde effective refractory period of the accessory pathway. There was no significant difference between three groups in terms of arrhythmic events (p: 0.58). Asymptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome do not require prophylactic ablation, since they remain asymptomatic for many years.

  7. Accessory enzymes influence cellulase hydrolysis of the model substrate and the realistic lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fubao Fuebiol; Hong, Jiapeng; Hu, Jinguang; Saddler, Jack N; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Song

    2015-11-01

    The potential of cellulase enzymes in the developing and ongoing "biorefinery" industry has provided a great motivation to develop an efficient cellulase mixture. Recent work has shown how important the role that the so-called accessory enzymes can play in an effective enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, three newest Novozymes Cellic CTec cellulase preparations (CTec 1/2/3) were compared to hydrolyze steam pretreated lignocellulosic substrates and model substances at an identical FPA loading. These cellulase preparations were found to display significantly different hydrolytic performances irrelevant with the FPA. And this difference was even observed on the filter paper itself when the FPA based assay was revisited. The analysis of specific enzyme activity in cellulase preparations demonstrated that different accessory enzymes were mainly responsible for the discrepancy of enzymatic hydrolysis between diversified substrates and various cellulases. Such the active role of accessory enzymes present in cellulase preparations was finally verified by supplementation with β-glucosidase, xylanase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases AA9. This paper provides new insights into the role of accessory enzymes, which can further provide a useful reference for the rational customization of cellulase cocktails in order to realize an efficient conversion of natural lignocellulosic substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.5 Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation. (a... not be of welded construction. The installation shall be such as not to cause cracking, warping, or... high, by attachment of sideboards to the permanent body construction if necessary. Stake body...

  9. Shoulder complaints after neck dissection; is the spinal accessory nerve involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relation between shoulder morbidity (pain and range of motion), and the function of the spinal accessory nerve after neck dissection. Identifying dysfunction of the nerve gives insight in the mechanisms of post-operative shoulder complaints. In

  10. Electrophysiological mapping of the accessory olfactory bulb of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groen, T; Ruardy, L; da Silva, F H

    1986-07-01

    Field potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the vomeronasal nerve were measured in the accessory olfactory bulb of the rabbit. Maps were made of the distribution of surface field potentials and of the corresponding depth profiles. The surface maps followed closely the contours of the accessory olfactory bulb: at the frontal border the field potential tended to zero and at the center of the structure the field potential attained a maximum. Depth profiles of the field potentials through the accessory olfactory bulb presented a surface-negative wave and, in depth, a positive wave. The polarity reversal occurred at the deep part of the granule cell layer. The zero equipotential line followed closely the curvature of the granule cell layer. Current source density analysis of the depth profiles revealed a main sink at the external plexiform and granule cell layers. This indicates that the main activity in the accessory olfactory bulb is generated by the synapses between the mitral cells and the granule cells as is found in the main olfactory bulb.

  11. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  12. Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, G.A.; Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

  13. Amplification of the spleen macrophage population in malaria: possible role of a factor chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyler, D.J.; Gallin, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of amplification of the splenic macrophages' population was investigated using mice infected with malaria as a model of an obligate intravascular infection. It was observed that these macrophages derived from blood monocytes rather than by local proliferation in the spleen. A factor, chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells, was present in spleen cells shortly after infection and preceded detectable increases in spleen macrophage number by 48 hours. This factor, in concert with spleen derived macrophage migration inhibition factor, may be important in the amplification of splenic macrophage population in intravascular infections

  14. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  15. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  17. Competitive proliferation in the hematopoietic tissues of irradiated hybrid mice engrafted with parental bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, S.; Monnot, P.; Duplan, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    e kinetics of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells differ markedly according to their origin. A study of the ability of CFU from bone marrow (BM) or spleen to repopulate hemopoietic organs has been carried out in lethally irradiated mice restored with BM cells admixed with spleen cells bearing different chromosomal markers. Hemopoietic cells originating from AKR (40 acbrocentrics) and AKR/T1ALD (36 acrocentrics + 2 metacentrics) mice were engrafted into lethally irradiated (AKR x AKR/T1ALD)F1 or (C3H x AKR/T1ALD)F1 hybrid recipients. Within 10 days, the BM-derived elements outnumbered the spleen-derived population in BM and spleen. This held even when the number of injected spleen-CFU was twice that of BM-CFU. This difference of growth rate subsided within 20 days. The first cells to reappear in the thymus bore the recipient karyotype (endoregeneration); they were later replaced by BM-derived elements but spleen-derived cecells were never present in thymus in the case of competitive engraftment. In contrast, the lymph node cells bore the BM karyotype as well as the spleen karyotype. Injecting the spleen cells 3 days prior to the BM cells partially counterbalanced the overgrowth of the BM-derived elements in the BM and spleen but did not affect the thymic repopulation which remained strictly derived from BM-CFU. When mice were injected only with BM-CFU, or only with spleen-CFU, BM-derived cells were found in the thymus as early as 10-12 days after engraftment, whereas the spleen-derived cells did not appear in the thymus until days 18-20. (author)

  18. Forward Genetics Approach Reveals Host Genotype-Dependent Importance of Accessory Chromosomes in the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Habig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addressed the functional relevance of eight accessory chromosomes in reference isolate IPO323. We induced chromosome losses by inhibiting the β-tubulin assembly during mitosis using carbendazim and generated several independent isogenic strains, each lacking one of the accessory chromosomes. We confirmed chromosome losses by electrophoretic karyotyping and whole-genome sequencing. To assess the importance of the individual chromosomes during host infection, we performed in planta assays comparing disease development results in wild-type and chromosome mutant strains. Loss of the accessory chromosomes 14, 16, 18, 19, and 21 resulted in increased virulence on wheat cultivar Runal but not on cultivars Obelisk, Titlis, and Riband. Moreover, some accessory chromosomes affected the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy as strains lacking accessory chromosomes 14, 18, 19, and 21 showed a significantly earlier onset of necrosis than the wild type on the Runal cultivar. In general, we observed that the timing of the lifestyle switch affects the fitness of Z. tritici. Taking the results together, this study was the first to use a forward-genetics approach to demonstrate a cultivar-dependent functional relevance of the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici during host infection.

  19. Three-dimensional finite element analysis on canine teeth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nuo; Lei, Xue; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Xinhui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2018-04-01

    Objective: to compare canine tooth stress distribution condition during maxillary canine tooth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology after removal of maxillary first premolar, and provide basis for clinical design of invisible orthodontics technology. Method: CBCT scanning image of a patient with individual normal occlusion was adopted, Mimics, Geomagic and ProlE software were used for establishing three-dimensional models of maxilla, maxillary dentition, parodontium, invisible orthodontics appliance and accessories, ANSYS WORKBENCH was utilized as finite element analysis tools for analyzing stress distribution and movement pattern of canine tooth and parodontium when canine tooth was equipped with power arm and vertical rectangle accessory. Meanwhile, canine tooth none-accessory design group was regarded as a control. Result: teeth had even bistal surface stress distribution in the power arm group; stress was concentrated on distal tooth neck, and the stress was gradually deviated to mesial-labial side and distal lingual side in vertical rectangle group and none-accessory group. Conclusion: teeth tend to move as a whole in the Power arm group, vertical rectangle group has lower tooth gradient compared with the none-accessory group, teeth are inclined for movement in the none-accessory group, and canine teeth tend to rotate to the distal lingual side.

  20. Solitary metastasis of ampullary carcinoma to the spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report a first case of ampullary cancer with solitary metastasis of the spleen, which was successfully treated with pancreatoduodenectomy and splenectomy and was discharged 7 days after the operation with outpatient chemotherapy. In such cases, physicians should consider splenectomy as an effective treatment option.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  2. Enhanced gamma interferon responses of mouse spleen cells following immunotherapy for tuberculosis relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Vilaplana, Cristina; Guirado, Evelyn; Díaz, Jorge; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-11-01

    Gamma interferon responses of spleen cells in mice were examined during postchemotherapy relapse of intraperitoneally induced latent tuberculous infection. The mycobacterial extract RUTI, which prevented the relapse, significantly enhanced the immune responses to secreted and structural recombinant mycobacterial antigens, suggesting that RUTI-mediated protection was mediated by activated T cells.

  3. Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; Lee, van der M.K.; Tromp, P.C.; Kesteren, van P.C.E.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Undas, A.K.; Oomen, A.G.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal

  4. Recruitment of macrophages from the spleen contributes to myocardial fibrosis and hypertension induced by angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages migrated from the spleen are associated with angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to angiotensin II infusion in vehicle (500 ng/kg/min for up to four weeks. In splenectomy, the spleen was removed before angiotensin II infusion. In the angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade, telmisartan was administered by gastric gavage (10 mg/kg/day during angiotensin II infusion. The heart and aorta were isolated for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Angiotensin II infusion caused a significant reduction in the number of monocytes in the spleen through the AT1 receptor-activated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Comparison of angiotensin II infusion, splenectomy and telmisartan comparatively reduced the recruitment of macrophages into the heart. Associated with this change, transforming growth factor β1 expression and myofibroblast proliferation were inhibited, and Smad2/3 and collagen I/III were downregulated. Furthermore, interstitial/perivascular fibrosis was attenuated. These modifications occurred in coincidence with reduced blood pressure. At week 4, invasion of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the thoracic aorta was attenuated and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was upregulated, along with a reduction in aortic fibrosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that macrophages when recruited into the heart and aorta from the spleen potentially contribute to angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension.

  5. Differential Susceptibility of Spleen Focus-Forming Virus and Murine Leukemia Viruses to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The streptovaricin complex (SvCx) and rifamycin SV derivatives display potent antiviral activity against the polycythemic strain of Friend leukemia virus (FV-P), as measured by a reduction in the number of spleen foci produced in mice. Such reductions may be explained by inactivation of functions of (i) the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), (ii) its “helper” murine leukemia virus (MuLV), or (iii) both viruses normally present in FV-P. We noted that preincubation of FV-P with fractionation products of SvCx, or derivatives of rifamycin SV, at low concentrations (3 to 5 μg/ml) reduces the number of spleen foci 80 to 97%, whereas titers of MuLV (from the same inoculum) remain unaffected (MuLV titers were measured by XC, S+L−, and “helper activity” assays). Our findings indicate a remarkable biological selectivity of ansamycins, as well as nonansamycin components of SvCx, against the transforming and defective spleen focus-forming virus as compared to MuLV. Thus, the drugs might be useful in distinguishing other types of oncornaviruses. PMID:18986

  6. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of two porcine spleen ferritin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Van Gelder (Carin); M.I.E. Huijskes-Heins (M. I E); D. Klepper (D.); W.L. van Noort (W.); M.I. Cleton-Soeteman (Maud); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFerritin isolated from porcine spleen could routinely be separated in two fractions on nondenaturating gradient gels. Both fractions could be isolated with a purity of 96% when applied to two serially linked columns, each 200 cm in length, packed respectively with Sepharose 4B and

  8. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  9. 915 MHz microwave ablation with high output power in in vivo porcine spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongyan; Wang Yang; Duan Yaqi; Li Chunling; Sun Yuanyuan; Zhang Dakun; Lu Tong; Liang Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 915 MHz microwave (MW) ablation with high output power in in vivo porcine spleens. Materials and methods: MW ablations were performed in 9 porcine spleens with an internally cooled 915 MHz antenna. Thermocouples were placed at 5, 10, 15, 20 mm away from the antenna to measure temperatures in real-time during MW emission. The energy was applied for 10 min at high output power of 60 W, 70 W or 80 W. Gross specimens were sectioned and measured to determine ablation size. Representative areas were examined by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Coagulation sizes and temperatures were compared among the three power groups. Results: Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed irreversible necrosis in the splenic coagulation area after MW ablation. As the power was increased, long-axis diameter enlarged significantly (p .05). The coagulation size of long-axis and short-axis diameter with 80 W in vivo spleen ablation was 6.43 ± 0.52 and 4.95 ± 0.30 cm, respectively. With the increase of output power, maximum temperatures at 5, 10, 15, 20 mm from the antenna were increased accordingly (p o C respectively. Conclusion: With internally cooled antenna and high output power, 915 MHz MW ablation in the spleen could produce irreversible tissue necrosis of clinical significance. MW ablation may be used as a promising minimally invasive method for the treatment of splenic diseases.

  10. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  11. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  13. Hematopoietic differentiative properties of murine spleen implanted in the omenta of irradiated and nonirradiated hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, J E; Tjio, J H; Smith, W W; Brecher, G [California Univ., San Francisco (USA); National Inst. of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, Bethesda, Md. (USA); National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, Md. (USA). Lab. of Viral Oncology)

    1975-01-01

    Whole body irradiation of the recipients of syngeneic splenic implants into the omentum greatly enhances hematopoiesis and permits survival of and repopulation by stem cells of donor origin. Donor hematopoietic stem cells do not survive in spleen implants of the nonirradiated host.Irradiated hosts were therefore used in the bulk of the experiments. Differentiation in the implants of splenic fragments is predominantly erythrocytic at 10 days and shifts to predominantly granulocytic differentiation at 21 days. Suspensions of spleen cells injected into the omentum are predominantly granulocytopoietic at 10 days. The differentiation in fragments of spleen depleted of stem cells by irradiation, seeded with bone marrow cells and implanted into the omentum results in mixed erythrocytic and granulocytic hematopoiesis, with granulocytic predominance. Lymphocytic cells appeared late in the implants of irradiated recipients even at a time of prolific lymphocytopoiesis in the hosts' own spleens. The cause of the delay in the implants is not clear. The data are consistent with the concept that differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is influenced by the stromal cells of the parent organ. The erythrocytic inductive capacity of the stromal cells may belost by mechanical disruption or modified by irradiation or a prolonged period of implantation.

  14. The bovine spleen: Interactions among splenic cell populations in the innate immunologic control of hemoparasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, innate immunity has been recognized as having an important role as a front-line defense mechanism and as an integral part of the adaptive immune response. Innate immunity in cattle exposed to hemoparasites is spleen-dependent and age-related. In this review, we discuss g...

  15. Formation of accessory mineral bed layers during erosion of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, Timothy; Kanerva, Noora

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface, accessory phases within bentonite, such as quartz, feldspar, etc., might remain behind and form a filter bed or cake. As more and more montmorillonite is lost, the thickness of the accessory mineral bed increases and the continued transport of montmorillonite slows and possibly stops if the porosity of the filter bed is sufficiently compressed. Alternatively or concurrently, as the accessory mineral filter bed retains montmorillonite colloids, a filter cake composed of montmorillonite itself may be formed. Ultimately, depending on their extent, properties, and durability, such processes may provide the bentonite buffer system with an inherent, self-filtration mechanism which serves to limit the effects of colloidal erosion. A conceptual view of bentonite buffer extrusion and erosion in an intersecting fracture with formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and montmorillonite filter cake is presented in Figure 1. Due to the swelling pressure of the bentonite buffer, the situation described in Figure 1 may be analogous to that of the case of pressure filtration where a filter cake is formed by pressing a suspension through a filter medium and, by a mechanism known as expression, the filter cake is compressed by direct contact with a solid surface resulting in a reduction of its porosity. In order to examine whether the erosion of bentonite material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface could intrinsically result in 1) the formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and cake and/or 2) filter caking of montmorillonite itself, a series of laboratory tests were performed in a flow-through, horizontal, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. Bentonite buffer material was simulated by using mixtures (75/25 weight percent ratio) of purified sodium montmorillonite and various additives serving as accessory mineral proxies

  16. Signal changes in liver and spleen after Endorem administration in patients with and without liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Endorem on the signal intensity of the spleen in patients with normal liver tissue and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Thirty patients with normal liver tissue and 47 with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after i. v. Endorem administration. The patients were examined with a 1.5-T magnet system (Magnetom Vision) using a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were used: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression, and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of two areas of the liver and spleen were determined. The mean SNRs of the liver and spleen in patients with and without liver cirrhosis were compared. For assessment of statistical significance, the t-test at a level of P * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the SNRs of the liver and spleen in the noncirrhotic liver group, compared with the cirrhotic liver group, were 126.8 % and 45.6 % less, respectively. The effect of Endorem on the liver in patients with Child C-stage liver cirrhosis was 32.1 % less than in patients with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Likewise, the Endorem effect on the spleen was 27.1 % less in patients with Child C-stage compared with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Hepatic and splenic uptake of Endorem is significantly decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  17. The safety of low molecular-weight heparin after blunt liver and spleen injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Manley, Justin; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Frotan, Mohammad Amin; Mitchell, Ellen; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation is routinely administered to all trauma patients owing to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the timing of administration of anticoagulation is not clearly defined when patients have blunt spleen or liver injuries because of the perceived risk of hemorrhage with early administration. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients who sustained blunt liver and/or spleen injuries during the 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Data were collected for all patients managed with nonoperative therapy for these injuries while also receiving routine prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular-weight heparin. Patients were categorized based on the initiation of enoxaparin therapy after injury: early (72 hours). Primary and secondary outcomes were designated as need for operative or radiologic intervention secondary to spleen or liver hemorrhage, number of transfusions, and incidence of VTE. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. There were no enoxaparin-related hemorrhagic complications or hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention. Patients in the early, intermediate, and late groups received an average of .9, .93, and 1.55 units of blood, respectively. There was 1 pulmonary embolism in the early group, and there were 6 VTE complications in the late group (3 deep venous thromboses and 3 pulmonary embolisms). There are currently no standards for the initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation in trauma patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries. Early administration may be safe and reduce the incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with blunt spleen and liver injuries. Prospective studies in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  19. Long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs profiling during spleen development in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Tiandong; Li, Diyan; Jin, Long; Fu, Yuhua; Liu, Yingkai; Liu, Pengliang; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Qianzi; Ma, Jideng; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar. A total of 15,040 lncRNA transcripts were identified among these samples. We found that the temporal expression pattern of lncRNAs was more restricted than observed for protein-coding genes. Time-series analysis showed two large modules for protein-coding genes and lncRNAs. The up-regulated module was enriched for genes related to immune and inflammatory function, while the down-regulated module was enriched for cell proliferation processes such as cell division and DNA replication. Co-expression networks indicated the functional relatedness between protein-coding genes and lncRNAs, which were enriched for similar functions over the series of time points examined. We identified numerous differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lncRNAs in all five developmental stages. Notably, ceruloplasmin precursor (CP), a protein-coding gene participating in antioxidant and iron transport processes, was differentially expressed in all stages. This study provides the first catalog of the developing pig spleen, and contributes to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian spleen development.

  20. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  1. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  2. Spleen vagal denervation inhibits the production of antibodies to circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud M Buijs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently the vagal output of the central nervous system has been shown to suppress the innate immune defense to pathogens. Here we investigated by anatomical and physiological techniques the communication of the brain with the spleen and provided evidence that the brain has the capacity to stimulate the production of antigen specific antibodies by its parasympathetic autonomic output. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This conclusion was reached by successively demonstrating that: 1. The spleen receives not only sympathetic input but also parasympathetic input. 2. Intravenous trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA does not activate the brain and does not induce an immune response. 3. Intravenous TNP-OVA with an inducer of inflammation; lipopolysaccharide (LPS, activates the brain and induces TNP-specific IgM. 4. LPS activated neurons are in the same areas of the brain as those that provide parasympathetic autonomic information to the spleen, suggesting a feed back circuit between brain and immune system. Consequently we investigated the interaction of the brain with the spleen and observed that specific parasympathetic denervation but not sympathetic denervation of the spleen eliminates the LPS-induced antibody response to TNP-OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings not only show that the brain can stimulate antibody production by its autonomic output, it also suggests that the power of LPS as adjuvant to stimulate antibody production may also depend on its capacity to activate the brain. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the stimulation of the adaptive immune response may explain why mood and sleep have an influence on antibody production.

  3. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  4. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  5. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  6. Online monitoring of Accessories for Underground Electrical Installations through Acoustics Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casals-Torrens P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance to equipments or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables.

  7. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Gulen E.; Tuncbilek, Ergul; Lachman, Ralph S.; Krakow, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  8. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Morphological and clinical aspects of the occurrence of accessory (multiple) renal arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulas, Ewelina; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Szymański, Jacek; Majos, Agata; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Renal vascularization variants vastly differ between individuals due to the very complex embryogenesis of the kidneys. Moreover, each variant may have implications for clinical and surgical interventions. The number of operating procedures continues to grow, and includes renal transplants, aneurysmorrhaphy and other vascular reconstructions. In any surgical technique, unawareness of the presence of multiple renal arteries may result in a fatal outcome, especially if laparoscopic methods are used. The aim of this review is to comprehensively identify the variation within multiple renal arteries and to highlight the connections between the presence of accessory renal arteries and the coexistence of other variants of vascularization. Another aim is to determine the potential clinical implications of the presence of accessory renal arteries. This study is of particular importance for surgeons, intervention radiologists, nephrologists and vascular surgeons. PMID:29593819

  10. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  11. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanay, Yasemin [Hacettepe University, Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Utine, Gulen E.; Tuncbilek, Ergul [Hacettepe University, Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Lachman, Ralph S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Krakow, Deborah [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Medical Genetics Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  12. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  13. Type II intrapancreatic choledochal malignant cyst in adults: duodenopancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Ballester

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old female patient was admitted for abdominal pain and vomiting. Imaging tests revealed a solid-cystic lesion at the head of the pancreas communicating with the distal bile duct. A Todani type II choledochal cyst was diagnosed with neoplastic degeneration after cytological diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture. The patient was treated with a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with curative intention.

  14. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ∼ 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ∼ 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ∼ 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ∼ 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative

  15. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can promote a chronic inflammatory state and is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Since adipocytes can produce mediators that can regulate conventional immune cells, this study sought to determine if the presence of premalignant oral lesions would skew how immune cells respond to adipocyte-derived mediators to create an environment that may be more favorable for their progression toward cancer. While media conditioned by adipocytes stimulated normal spleen cell production of the T helper (Th) type-1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM CSF), media from premalignant lesion cells either blocked or had no added affect on the adipocyte-stimulated Th1 cytokine production. In contrast, media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells exacerbated adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-13, although it did not further enhance the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of IL-4 and TGF-β. The premalignant lesion environment also heightened the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the inflammatory mediators IL 1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-9, although it did not further increase the adipocyte-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). IL 17 production was unaffected by the adipocyte-derived mediators, but was synergistically triggered by adding media from premalignant lesion cells. These stimulatory effects on spleen cell production of Th2 and inflammatory mediators were not induced in the absence of media conditioned by adipocytes. In contrast, media conditioned by adipocytes did not stimulate production of predominantly monocyte-derived chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)9, chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)3 or CCL4, although it stimulated production of CCL2 and the predominantly T cell-derived chemokine CCL5, which was the only chemokine whose production was further increased by media from premalignant lesions

  16. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  17. Potential role of Arabidopsis PHP as an accessory subunit of the PAF1 transcriptional cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Oh, Sookyung; van Nocker, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Paf1C is a transcriptional cofactor that has been implicated in various transcription-associated mechanisms spanning initiation, elongation and RNA processing, and is important for multiple aspects of development in Arabidopsis. Our recent studies suggest Arabidopsis Paf1C is crucial for proper regulation of genes within H3K27me3-enriched chromatin, and that a protein named PHP may act as an accessory subunit of Paf1C that promotes this function.

  18. Mobile instrumentation platform and robotic accessory for real-time screening of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.S.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    An innovative mobile laboratory for real-time field screening of soils for inorganic hazardous waste using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry sampling and analysis technique is being developed at Ames Laboratory. This sampling technique as well as the concept for installing, monitoring, and controlling the instrumentation and utilities in the mobile laboratory, the robotic sampling accessory, and manual sampling method are discussed. Benefits of this mobile configuration and future development plans also are described

  19. Clinico-pathologic spectrum of accessory axillary breast; case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast and the diseases affecting these aberrant breast tissues are relatively uncommon, and with variable prevalence among different populations. These are commonly located in the axilla, chest wall, and vulva. The most common disease in these tissues is carcinoma; however, other benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions do occur. In this review, we present a clinicopathologic analysis of all the consecutive cases seen in a major referral teaching hospital over a period spanning 10 years (2006–2015.

  20. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  1. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  2. Can an accessory renal artery be safely covered during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair?

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, George A.; Karkos, Christos D.; Antoniou, Stavros A.; Georgiadis, George S.

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether coverage of an accessory renal artery (ARA) in patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is associated with increased risk of renal impairment. Altogether, 106 papers were located using the reported searches, of which 5 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, patient group studied, rel...

  3. Influence of Telecommunication Modality, Internet Transmission Quality, and Accessories on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Roger; Guignard, Jérémie; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Senn, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Background Telecommunication is limited or even impossible for more than one-thirds of all cochlear implant (CI) users. Objective We sought therefore to study the impact of voice quality on speech perception with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) under real and adverse network conditions. Methods Telephone speech perception was assessed in 19 CI users (15-69 years, average 42 years), using the German HSM (Hochmair-Schulz-Moser) sentence test comparing Skype and conventional telephone (public switched telephone networks, PSTN) transmission using a personal computer (PC) and a digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) telephone dual device. Five different Internet transmission quality modes and four accessories (PC speakers, headphones, 3.5 mm jack audio cable, and induction loop) were compared. As a secondary outcome, the subjective perceived voice quality was assessed using the mean opinion score (MOS). Results Speech telephone perception was significantly better (median 91.6%, P 15%) were not superior to conventional telephony. In addition, there were no significant differences between the tested accessories (P>.05) using a PC. Coupling a Skype DECT phone device with an audio cable to the CI, however, resulted in higher speech perception (median 65%) and subjective MOS scores (3.2) than using PSTN (median 7.5%, P<.001). Conclusions Skype calls significantly improve speech perception for CI users compared with conventional telephony under real network conditions. Listening accessories do not further improve listening experience. Current Skype DECT telephone devices do not fully offer technical advantages in voice quality. PMID:28438727

  4. Accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Benedito Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS muscle and tendon unit are frequently reported by anatomists and clinicians. Anatomical muscle variations of the FDS and its tendons may include variations of muscle belly, presence of accessory or duplicate tendons, abnormal tendon connections, and absence of muscle or tendon components. Such variations may or may not have clinical implications. This report presents a case not described previously: a unilateral accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis which was connected by a thick tendon to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle; it was directed proximally to the insertion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, next to the superficialis head of the pronator teres muscle. The belly of the accessory muscle was positioned anterior to the median and anterior interosseous nerve. This anatomical variation is known as type V in the classification of Elliot et al. The knowledge of these anatomical variations helps hand surgeons interpret the clinical examination, particularly in the evaluation of patients who have suffered tendon injuries or show sign s of possible peripheral nerve entrapment.

  5. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  6. Surface Layer Fluorination-Modulated Space Charge Behaviors in HVDC Cable Accessory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Space charges tend to accumulate on the surface and at the interface of ethylene–propylene–diene terpolymer (EPDM, serving as high voltage direct current (HVDC cable accessory insulation, which likely induces electrical field distortion and dielectric breakdown. Direct fluorination is an effective method to modify the surface characteristics of the EPDM without altering the bulk properties too much. In this paper, the surface morphology, hydrophobic properties, relative permittivity, and DC conductivity of the EPDM before and after fluorination treatment were tested. Furthermore, the surface and interface charge behaviors in the HVDC cable accessory were investigated by the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA method, and explained from the point of view of trap distribution. The results show that fluorination helps the EPDM polymer obtain lower surface energy and relative permittivity, which is beneficial to the interface match in composite insulation systems. The lowest degree of space charge accumulation occurs in EPDM with 30 min of fluorination. After analyzing the results of the 3D potentials and the density of states (DOS behaviors in EPDM before and after fluorination, it can be found that fluorination treatment introduces shallower electron traps, and the special electrostatic potential after fluorination can significantly suppress the space charge accumulation at the interface in the HVDC cable accessory.

  7. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  8. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.; Praslicka, M.; Misurova, E.

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R. (author)

  9. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackova, N; Praslicka, M; Misurova, E [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R.

  10. CT and MR findings of langerhans cell histiocytois involving the spleen: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyun, Hae Wook; Kim, Mee Eun; Kim, Jang Ho [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is systemic disease resulting from the proliferation and dissemination of abnormal histiocytic cells of the Langerhans cell system. Common sites of involvement include the skin, bone, bone marrow, lung, lymph nodes and central nervous system, and the condition manifests in variety of ways. We present the CT and MR findings of a case of LCH involving the spleen, an organ invloved relatively rarely. Post-contrast CT revealed multiple hypodense nodules. T1-weighted MR images of the spleen depicted no definitive lesion, but T2-weighted images showed abnormal low signals scattered throughout this organ. In addition, post-contrast, fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images lesions showed multiple, low-signal-intensity lesions.

  11. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  12. Incomplete development of the spleen and the deformity in the chimeras between asplenic mutant (Dominant hemimelia) and normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, J; Wakayama, T; Imamura, K; Goto, S; Fukuta, K

    1995-08-01

    The semidominant gene Dh (Dominant hemimelia) induces skeletal and visceral abnormalities of various degrees and failure of the spleen in mice. The homozygous individual (Dh/Dh) seems to be lethal. The present experiment was designed to investigate the ability Dh cells to form a spleen and the genesis of the hind limb malformations by Dh/Dh and Dh/+ cells in chimeric mice. The Dh/Dh and Dh/+ embryos were produced in the F2 progeny of a cross between inbred strains of Dh/+ and DDD mice. They were aggregated with C3H/He or C57BL/6 embryos to make chimeras. Identification of Dh/Dh or Dh/+ embryos was carried out by Pep-3, and chimerism was analyzed by Gpi-1. Of 25 chimeras carrying the Dh gene, four mice formed a small spleen, two mice had a vestigial spleen, and the others no spleen. The tissues of the incompletely developed spleens were normal histologically and Dh cells were involved in the tissues of the spleen. In the chimeric mice, hindlimb malformation by the Dh gene was reduced in severity and the lethality of the homozygote (Dh/Dh) was rescued.

  13. Activation of spleen cells by ArtinM may account for its immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago Aparecido da; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition.

  14. Management of spleen injuries in the adult trauma population: a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Margherita; Garnett, Anna; Al-Anezi, Khaled; Farrokhyar, Forough

    2006-12-01

    Increasing awareness of the postoperative risks associated with splenectomies has led physicians and surgeons to use an alternative nonoperative strategy in handling traumatic spleen injuries. Our primary objective was to compare clinical outcomes between operative and nonoperative managements in adult patients with blunt splenic injuries. The secondary objective was to assess the changes in the patterns of managing splenic injuries in the past 10 years. We performed a retrospective chart review on 266 adult patients with a spleen injury who were admitted to a tertiary trauma centre in Ontario between 1992 and 2001. We grouped and compared the patients according to the treatment received, either operative or nonoperative. Frequencies and confidence intervals are reported. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were reported as median and quartile (Q) and were compared with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Of 266 patients, 118 had surgery and 148 were managed nonoperatively. The mortality rate was similar between operative and nonoperative groups (9.3% v. 6.8%, p = 0.49), respectively. The rate of any complication was 47.9% for the operative group and 37.9% for the nonoperative group. The median length of stay in hospital was significantly higher in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (21.0 [Q 11.0-40.5] v. 14.0 [Q 7.0-31.5] d, p trauma has increased over time and has acceptable mortality and complication rates in selected patients. Additional prospective studies are needed to assess the feasibility and safety of nonoperative management in adult spleen injuries. Furthermore, the management of traumatic spleen injuries with respect to associated injuries, such as head injuries or intra-abdominal injuries, needs ongoing evaluation.

  15. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  16. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  17. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. [Liver and spleen biometrics in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariento, Andressa; Silva, Marco Felipe C; Tassetano, Priscilla S F; Rocha, Sílvia Maria S; Campos, Lúcia M A; Valente, Marcelo; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate liver and spleen dimensions in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) patients and healthy controls. 30 c-SLE patients and 30 healthy control volunteers underwent abdominal ultrasound. The following two liver measurements were performed in left hepatic lobe: craniocaudal and anteroposterior and three in right hepatic lobe (RHL): posterior craniocaudal (PCC-RHL), anterior craniocaudal and anteroposterior. Three spleen dimension measurements were also evaluated: longitudinal, transverse and anteroposterior. Demographic, clinical and laboratorial data, SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, SLAM and treatment were assessed. Mean current age was similar in c-SLE and controls (170.31 ± 27.81 vs. 164.15 ± 39.25 months; p = 0.486). The mean of PCC-RHL dimension was significantly higher in c-SLE compared to controls (13.30 ± 1.85 vs. 12.52 ± 0.93, p = 0.044). There were no differences between the other hepatic biometrics and splenic parameters (p > 0.05). Further analysis in c-SLE patients according to PCC-RHL dimension ≥ 13.3cm versus 0.05). Positive correlation was observed between SLEDAI-2K and PCC-RHL (p = 0.001, r = +0.595). Negative correlation was evidenced between disease duration and longitudinal dimension of spleen (p = 0.031, r = -0.394). Our data raises the possibility that disease activity could lead to a subclinical and localized hepatomegaly during the disease course. Long disease duration resulted to spleen atrophy in c-SLE patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shashi K; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-04-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  20. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-β production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-β production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Shashi K.; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  2. Pathological changes of Golgi complex in hemocytoblasts of spleen of young axolotls after x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turska, R.

    1975-01-01

    The data available up to now concerning the structure of Golgi complex in different types of normal and pathologically changed cells are very divergent. Results are reported from detailed studies on changes occurring within the Golgi complex in the spleen of three-month old axolotls after x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 1,200 R and killed by decapitation 15, 30, 60 minutes and 3, 6, and 12 hours after irradiation.

  3. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  4. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushira Abdulaziz Enani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  5. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joshua P; Kenedy, Melisha R; Iqbal, Henna; Akins, Darrin R

    2015-03-24

    Like all diderm bacteria studied to date, Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. The bacterial BAM complexes characterized thus far consist of an essential integral outer membrane protein designated BamA and one or more accessory proteins. The accessory proteins are typically lipid-modified proteins anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane through their lipid moieties. We previously identified and characterized the B. burgdorferi BamA protein in detail and more recently identified two lipoproteins encoded by open reading frames bb0324 and bb0028 that associate with the borrelial BamA protein. The role(s) of the BAM accessory lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is currently unknown. Structural modeling of B. burgdorferi BB0028 revealed a distinct β-propeller fold similar to the known structure for the E. coli BAM accessory lipoprotein BamB. Additionally, the structural model for BB0324 was highly similar to the known structure of BamD, which is consistent with the prior finding that BB0324 contains tetratricopeptide repeat regions similar to other BamD orthologs. Consistent with BB0028 and BB0324 being BAM accessory lipoproteins, mutants lacking expression of each protein were found to exhibit altered membrane permeability and enhanced sensitivity to various antimicrobials. Additionally, BB0028 mutants also exhibited significantly impaired in vitro growth. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that BB0028 and BB0324 each interact specifically and independently with BamA to form the BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B

  8. Ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver: a prognostic tool in canine cutaneous mast cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, D; Valenti, P; Faverzani, S; Bronzo, V; Fiorbianco, V; Pinto da Cunha, N; Romussi, S; Cantatore, M; Caniatti, M

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical staging of cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT), the diagnosis of metastasis is controversial based on cytological examination of lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and blood. To define the prognostic role of ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver in cMCT. The results of cytological evaluation were compared in relation with survival time. Fifty-two client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of cMCT. Selection of cases was based on cytological evaluation of liver and spleen to detect infiltration at distant sites. The Kaplan Meier method was used to compare survival in dogs with and without infiltration of spleen and liver (log-rank test P dogs with cMCT had mast cell infiltration of spleen, liver, or both and 4 of these dogs had involvement of the regional lymph nodes. The majority of dogs had 2 or more ultrasonographically abnormal findings simultaneously in spleen and liver. Nine dogs had grade II cMCT, and 1 had grade III cMCT. Dogs with positive evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had shorter survival times (34 versus 733 days) compared with dogs negative for mast cell infiltration at distant sites. Dogs with evidence of mast cell infiltration at distant sites have a shorter survival times than dogs without evidence of infiltration at distant sites. This study suggests that cytology of spleen and liver is indicated either for ultrasonographically normal or for ultrasonographically abnormal spleen and liver in dogs with cMCT.

  9. [Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Cuéllar, José Aurelio; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; López-Bernal, Francisco; García-Rivera, Carla; Pareja-Ciuró, Felipe; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Splenic involvement secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is often treated by performing a splenectomy. The severity of the post-splenectomy syndrome is currently well known (blood loss, sepsis), so there is an increasing tendency to preserve the spleen. The case is presented of splenic preservation after blunt abdominal trauma with hilum involvement, emphasising the role of Floseal as a haemostatic agent, as well as the use of resorbable meshes to preserve the spleen. A 22-year-old woman presenting with a grade IV splenic lesion secondary to a blunt abdominal trauma after a traffic accident. Partial splenic resection was performed and bleeding was controlled with Floseal and use of a reinforcing polyglycolic acid mesh. No postoperative complications occurred, being discharged on day 5. The long-term follow-up has been uneventful. The use of haemostatic agents such as thrombin and the gelatine gel (FloSeal) and the use of polyglycolic acid meshes enable spleen-preserving surgery, making it a feasible and reproducible procedure and an alternative to classical splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Radionuclide imaging in the nonsurgical treatment of liver and spleen trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzker, L.G.; Chun, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    As part of evaluation in patients with abdominal trauma severe enough to require hospital admission but not sufficiently severe to warrant immediate surgery, liver-spleen imaging with Tc-99m sulfur coloid was performed in 30 patients in the following age ranges: 10 mo-5 yr (3 patients), 6-10 yr (11), 11-15 yr (7), and 16-40 yr (9). Routine projections by gamma camera were acquired in the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterior oblique, and posterior oblique projections, supplemented with caudally angulated or upright views when indicated. Scintigraphically, there was a linear defect in ten patients, a round, intraparenchymal or wedge defect in 12, and an edge defect in eight. In 24 patients that underwent subsequent studies, the initial image was positive in 21 and equivocal in three. Of the 21 patients, partial resolution of the defects was seen on the images 2 wk to 7 mo following trauma in 14 patients, and nearly complete resolution in 2 wk to 10 mo in nine patients. Complete resolution was seen in 1-13 mo in nine patients. No defects enlarged over time. These authors presented a decision tree for the initial evaluation and subsequent studies in patients with liver-spleen trauma. They feel that consideration of clinical signs and serial liver-spleen imaging can eliminate some surgery when there is a question of delayed or missed splenic rupture.

  11. Radionuclide imaging in the nonsurgical treatment of liver and spleen trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzker, L.G.; Chun, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    As part of evaluation in patients with abdominal trauma severe enough to require hospital admission but not sufficiently severe to warrant immediate surgery, liver-spleen imaging with Tc-99m sulfur coloid was performed in 30 patients in the following age ranges: 10 mo-5 yr (3 patients), 6-10 yr (11), 11-15 yr (7), and 16-40 yr (9). Routine projections by gamma camera were acquired in the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterior oblique, and posterior oblique projections, supplemented with caudally angulated or upright views when indicated. Scintigraphically, there was a linear defect in ten patients, a round, intraparenchymal or wedge defect in 12, and an edge defect in eight. In 24 patients that underwent subsequent studies, the initial image was positive in 21 and equivocal in three. Of the 21 patients, partial resolution of the defects was seen on the images 2 wk to 7 mo following trauma in 14 patients, and nearly complete resolution in 2 wk to 10 mo in nine patients. Complete resolution was seen in 1-13 mo in nine patients. No defects enlarged over time. These authors presented a decision tree for the initial evaluation and subsequent studies in patients with liver-spleen trauma. They feel that consideration of clinical signs and serial liver-spleen imaging can eliminate some surgery when there is a question of delayed or missed splenic rupture

  12. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  13. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  14. [Professor WANG Yin's academic thoughts and clinical application of acupuncture for spleen-sto-mach care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hua; Cao, Haibo; Wang, Yin

    Professor WANG Yin 's academic thoughts and clinical application for difficult and miscellaneous di-seases, especially acupuncture for spleen-stomach care, are introduced. Based on TCM basic theory and "ten needles for elderly" by WANG Yueting , Professor WANG Yin proposes the acupuncture for spleen-stomach care. In this method, three-element acupoint selection is applied; the conception vessel, spleen meridian of foot taiyin and stomach meridian of foot yangming were selected. The deep and penetration acupuncture with 0.4 mm×100 mm elongated needles is used at Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6) and Zigong (EX-CA 1), and the mild reinforcing-reducing method is used at remaining acupoints. According to the severity of diseases, fire acupuncture combined with blood-letting cupping is applied at Tianshu (ST 25), Xuehai (SP 10) and Yinlingquan (SP 9); gene-rally, two acupoints are selected and 1 to 3 mL blood-letting is appropriate. The modification based on this me-thod can be applied for various difficult and miscellaneous diseases, leading to superior efficacy.

  15. Action of the schistosomotic spleen in male mices on the regulation of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, S.R.S.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.; Neves, E.S.; Silveira, M.F.G.

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose to study the action of the schistosomotic spleen on the regulation of TSH, T4 and albumin levels in serum, spleens from adults mice infected by Schistosoma mansoni were homogeneized, centrifuged and cromatographed in a column of Sephadex G-100, resulting in two proteans fractions (I and II). The biologic activity was determinated through the administration of the fractions by intraperitoneal way (IP), in male mice aged 27-30 days, in a period of three following days. Five days after the last administration, the animals were sacrified and their blood was collected for obtainment of serum and determination of TSH, T4 and albumin levels. Obtained results showed that the albumin levels no change when compared to control and that fraction I infected change the TSH and T4 levels, but the fraction II infected no change this levels. These results suggest that spleens from mice infected by S. mansoni have a factor that modifies the hormonal regulation in level hypophysial and the synthesis of thyroid hormones (T4), changing the basal metabolism. The seric levels of TSH and T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay using I-125. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  16. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma of the spleen in an adult: an initial case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Yang, Shou Jing

    2011-12-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare locally aggressive vascular neoplasm characterized by infiltrating nodules and sheets of spindle cells, and unmistakable resemblance to Kaposi's sarcoma. KHE occurs mainly in newborns and infants and presents most commonly in the skin, deep soft tissue, and bone. We report a case of KHE in a 36-year-old female who presented with a spleen mass and underwent splenectomy. Macroscopic examination revealed a large, dark-red, firm mass in the spleen. Histologically, the tumor consisted of irregular, infiltrating nodules of densely packed spindle-shaped tumor cells closely associated with small slit-like and sieve-like blood vessels, which were separated with hyalinized hypocellular fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemically, both spindle and epithelioid cells were positive for CD34, CD31, and vimentin, but negative for EMA, cytokeratin, CD21, CD35, CD1a, and S-100 protein. The well-formed capillaries and mature vessels but not spindle tumor cell showed reactivity for factor VIII- related antigen. Alpha-Smooth muscle actin was detected in pericytes surrounding small round or slit-like capillaries. The final histologic diagnosis was KHE. Follow-up 6 month after operation revealed no sign of recurrence or metastasis.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of KHE arising in the spleen.

  17. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy dogs of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronezi, M C; Feliciano, M A R; Crivellenti, L Z; Simões, A P R; Bartlewski, P M; Gill, I; Canola, J C C; Vicente, W R R

    2015-06-01

    To determine the elastographic characteristics of splenic parenchyma in clinically healthy dogs of various ages in order to establish preliminary qualitative and quantitative standards/reference intervals for this technique. Thirty three healthy dogs categorized as young, adult and elderly were used. Splenic echotexture, echogenicity, size and ages were assessed with B-mode ultrasonography. Using qualitative elastography, the spleen (head, body and tail) was examined for homogeneity and presence of deformities. Shear velocities in different splenic segments were then quantitatively evaluated. All splenic segments visualised with the B-mode ultrasonography appeared normal. Different splenic segments examined with qualitative elastography were free of any detectable malformations and the images appeared as homogeneous dark areas. The mean shear velocity values were 2 · 32 m/s for head, 2 · 16 m/s for body and 2 · 25 m/s for tail of the spleen (P = 0 · 40), and they did not vary between the different age groups (P > 0 · 05). Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of the spleen in clinically healthy dogs differing in age could be easily performed, and it may aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of splenic abnormalities routinely assessed in veterinary practice with B-mode ultrasonography. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  19. Graft irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host disease in combined pancreas-spleen transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulak, J.A.; Sharp, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    A model of combined pancreas-spleen transplantation (PST) was studied in LBN F1 recipients of Lewis grafts in order to evaluate the efficacy of pretransplant graft irradiation in preventing lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipients of unmodified PST uniformly developed severe GVHD and died (MST = 16.7 +/- 3.8 days). Whole body donor irradiation with either 500 or 250 rad prevented lethal GVHD. Similarly, ex vivo graft irradiation with either 1000 or 500 rad also resulted in normal weight gain, graft function, and host survival for the 6-week study period. Conversely, delay of graft irradiation until 3 days after transplantation failed to prevent this complication (MST = 15.8 +/- 3.7 days). Recipients of irradiated grafts displayed glucose tolerance tests that were identical to those in the control group indicating that the doses of radiation employed in these experiments were not deleterious to islet function. Irradiated spleen grafts appeared histologically normal at 6 weeks after transplantation. Cells derived from these grafts failed to stimulate lymph node enlargement in a popliteal lymph node assay for GVHD, suggesting that these spleens may have become repopulated with host cells. These experiments confirm that PST has the potential to cause lethal GVHD and suggest that pretransplant graft irradiation may be used to prevent its occurrence

  20. Compartmental analysis of colloidal radiogold kinetics in liver and spleen of patients with hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristanovic, D.; Kostic, K.; Djokic, D.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of colloidal substance kinetics in a five-compartment system is presented. If colloidal radioactive gold sup(198)Au is used, the model can be applied to the patient with enlarged and very active spleen. Radiogold activities in blood samples taken from patient's peripheral vein were measured. An indirect method of finding four out of five rate constants of the system is proposed. The facts presented by this study can be summarized as follows: in hypersplenism, the amount of radiogold, removed from the blood stream by the liver reticuloendothelial system, is about four times higher than the one coursing back from the liver through the hepatic vein into the systemic circulation. The radiogold amount, entering the liver in a given time, is twice as much as the substance amount passing from the systemic circulation to the spleen for the same period of time. The amount of the colloid injected before splenectomy is distributed in such a manner that, on an average, 60% is stored in liver and the rest, in the reticuloendothelial system of the spleen

  1. Creating computer aided 3D model of spleen and kidney based based on Visible Human Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldur, Muhammad M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of computer aided 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique on visualization and modeling of gross anatomical structures with an affordable methodology applied on the spleen and kidney. From The Visible Human Project Dataset cryosection images, developed by the National Library of Medicine, the spleen and kidney sections were preferred to be used due to their highly distinct contours. The software used for the reconstruction were Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac and Cinema 4D X L version 7.1 for Mac OS X. This study was carried out in May 2004 at the Department of Anatomy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of this study, it is determined that these 2 programs could be effectively used both for 3D modeling of the mentioned organs and volumetric analyses on these models. It is also seen that it is possible to hold the physical models of these gross anatomical digital ones with stereolithography technique by means of the data exchange file format provided by the program and present such images as anaglyph. Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac OS and Cinema 4 DXL version 7.1 for Mac OS X can be used effectively for reconstruction of gross anatomical structures from serial parallel sections with distinct contours such as spleen and kidney and the animation of models. These software constitute a highly effective way of getting volumetric calculations, spatial relations and morphometrical measurements of reconstructed structures. (author)

  2. Efficient stereological approaches for the volumetry of a normal or enlarged spleen from MDCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Stratakis, John; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-06-01

    To introduce efficient stereological approaches for estimating the volume of a normal or enlarged spleen from MDCT. All study participants underwent an abdominal MDCT. The first group included 20 consecutive patients with splenomegaly and the second group consisted of 20 subjects with a normal spleen. Splenic volume estimations were performed using the stereological point counting method. Stereological assessments were optimized using the systematic slice sampling procedure. Planimetric measurements based on manual tracing of splenic boundaries on each slice were taken as reference values. Stereological analysis using five to eight systematically sampled slices provided enlarged splenic volume estimations with a mean precision of 4.9 ± 1.0 % in a mean time of 2.3 ± 0.4 min. A similar measurement duration and error was observed for normal splenic volume assessment using four to seven systematically selected slices. These stereological approaches slightly but insignificantly overestimated the volume of a normal and enlarged spleen compared to planimetry (P > 0.05) with a mean difference of -1.3 ± 4.3 % and -2.7 ± 5.2 %, respectively. The two methods were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.96). The variability of repeated stereological estimations was below 3.8 %. The proposed stereological approaches enable the rapid, reproducible, and accurate splenic volume estimation from MDCT data in patients with or without splenomegaly. (orig.)

  3. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  4. [Rupture of the spleen and acute pancreatitis after ESWL therapy: a rare complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, Z; Derezic, D; Pasini, J; Stern-Padovan, R; Skegro, M; Mrazovac, D; Sosic, H

    2005-11-01

    ESWL is a safe and efficient method in the therapy of urolithiasis which, however, is not free of complications. ESWL was performed in a 54-year-old patient with a stone of 18 mm in size located in one of the upper calyces of the left kidney. Several hours after the ambulatory ESWL treatment the patient was admitted to the emergency room with strong pain in the left lumbar region and the upper abdomen. During examination low blood pressure, tachycardia and low Hb levels were found. Ultrasound and CAT scans revealed a subcapsular rupture of the spleen. Surgery was indicated, and a laparotomy with splenectomy was performed. Ten days after surgery the patient developed acute pancreatitis which was treated conservatively with success. Although ESWL is a safe method in the treatment of urinary stones with a relatively small number of complications, rare complications like ruptures of the spleen have to be considered. Special attention should be given to patients with kidney stones in the left upper calyces, pathological growth of the spleen, and accompanying diseases such as chronic heart failure or hypertension. In such patients ESWL should not be performed on an outpatient basis.

  5. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  6. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  7. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  8. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  9. Neurotization of the phrenic nerve with accessory nerve for high cervical spinal cord injury with respiratory distress: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ce; Zhang, Ying; Nicholas, Tsai; Wu, Guoxin; Shi, Sheng; Bo, Yin; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Xuhui; Yuan, Wen

    2014-01-01

    High cervical spinal cord injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatments carry various complications such as infection, pacemaker failure and undesirable movement. Thus, a secure surgical strategy with fewer complications analogous to physiological ventilation is still required. We hope to offer one potential method to decrease the complications and improve survival qualities of patients from the aspect of anatomy. The purpose of the study is to provide anatomic details on the accessory nerve and phrenic nerve for neurotization in patients with high spinal cord injuries. 38 cadavers (76 accessory and 76 phrenic nerves) were dissected in the study. The width, length and thickness of each accessory nerve and phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured. The distances from several landmarks on accessory nerve to the origin and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured too. Then, the number of motor nerve fibers on different sections of the nerves was calculated using the technique of immunohistochemistry. The accessory nerves distal to its sternocleidomastoid muscular branches were 1.52 ± 0.32 mm ~1.54 ± 0.29 mm in width, 0.52 ± 0.18 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.20mm in thickness and 9.52 ± 0.98 cm in length. And the phrenic nerves above clavicle were 1.44 ± 0.23 mm ~ 1.45 ± 0.24 mm in width, 0.47 ± 0.15 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.25 mm in thickness and 6.48 ± 0.78 cm in length. The distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and phrenic nerve were 3.24 ± 1.17 cm, and the distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were 8.72 ± 0.84 cm. The numbers of motor nerve fibers in accessory nerve were 1,038 ± 320~1,102 ± 216, before giving out the sternocleidomastoid muscular branches. The number of motor nerve fibers in the phrenic nerve was 911 ± 321~1,338 ± 467. The accessory nerve and the phrenic were similar in width, thickness and the number of motor nerve fibers. And

  10. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G. (Dept. of Imaging Science and Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Policlinico Universitario, Cagliari (Italy))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  11. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  12. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen in a 24 Years Old Female: a Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KavianiFar Kamran

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare condition characterized by increased splenic mobility due to the absence or laxity of its suspensory ligaments that may present as acute abdomen when it is twisted on its pedicle. Herein we report a case of torsion of a wandering spleen in a 24- year-old female patient without any history of trauma. The patient was admitted to emergency ward at February 2008 with clinical findings of acute abdomen. Laparotomy was performed and the infarcted spleen was removed. Although wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity, the possibility of torsion should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen to avoid serious complications.

  13. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H. [Department of CT-MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece); Stagianis, K.D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Larissa (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  14. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Stagianis, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  15. Clinical value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Da-Feng; Zhang, Mei-Wu; Fan, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-12-07

    To explore the relationship of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in patients with liver cirrhosis combined with portal hypertension, and assess the value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension. All 67 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed as portal hypertension by hepatic venous pressure gradient in our hospital from June 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study. The baseline information of these patients was recorded. Furthermore, 67 patients were followed-up at 20 mo after treatment, and liver and spleen shear wave velocity were measured by acoustic radiation force impulse at the 1 st week, 3 rd month and 9 th month after treatment. Patients with favorable prognosis were assigned into the favorable prognosis group, while patients with unfavorable prognosis were assigned into the unfavorable prognosis group. The variation and difference in liver and spleen shear wave velocity in these two groups were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the effect of liver and spleen shear wave velocity on the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension, Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis was applied. The ability of those factors in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The liver and spleen shear wave velocity in the favorable prognosis group revealed a clear decline, while those in the unfavorable prognosis group revealed an increasing tendency at different time points. Furthermore, liver and spleen shear wave velocity was higher in the unfavorable prognosis group, compared with the favorable prognosis group; the differences were statistically significant ( P portal hypertension was significantly affected by spleen hardness at the 3 rd month after treatment [relative risk (RR) = 3.481]. At the 9 th month after treatment, the prognosis

  16. Hydrocortisone and insulin effect on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of liver and spleen th rats exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutkovoj, D.A.; Alferov, A.N.; Letov, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Total-body exposure of rats to fast neutrons (100 rad) elicits an increase in the content of 11-oxycorticosteroids in blood plasma and an appreciable decrease in the respiratory and phosphorylation activity of liver and spleen mitochondria. Administration of hydrocortisone (50 mg/kg) and particularly insulin (2 units/kg) intensifies energy generation in the liver. In the spleen, a beneficial effect was only produced by insulin. Glucocorticoid considerably aggravates the postradiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

  17. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  18. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  19. A study of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Lyophilized samples of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen were measured at room temperature using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution. An increase in the velocity resolution of Moessbauer spectroscopy permitted us to increase accuracy and decrease experimental error in determining the hyperfine parameters of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen. Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution may be very useful for revealing small differences in hyperfine parameters during biomedical research.

  20. Retention of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes in the slow, open microcirculation of the human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safeukui, Innocent; Correas, Jean-Michel; Brousse, Valentine; Hirt, Déborah; Deplaine, Guillaume; Mulé, Sébastien; Lesurtel, Mickael; Goasguen, Nicolas; Sauvanet, Alain; Couvelard, Anne; Kerneis, Sophie; Khun, Huot; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Ottone, Catherine; Molina, Thierry Jo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Milon, Geneviève; David, Peter H; Buffet, Pierre A

    2008-09-15

    The current paradigm in Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis states that young, ring-infected erythrocytes (rings) circulate in peripheral blood and that mature stages are sequestered in the vasculature, avoiding clearance by the spleen. Through ex vivo perfusion of human spleens, we examined the interaction of this unique blood-filtering organ with P falciparum-infected erythrocytes. As predicted, mature stages were retained. However, more than 50% of rings were also retained and accumulated upstream from endothelial sinus wall slits of the open, slow red pulp microcirculation. Ten percent of rings were retained at each spleen passage, a rate matching the proportion of blood flowing through the slow circulatory compartment established in parallel using spleen contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in healthy volunteers. Rings displayed a mildly but significantly reduced elongation index, consistent with a retention process, due to their altered mechanical properties. This raises the new paradigm of a heterogeneous ring population, the less deformable subset being retained in the spleen, thereby reducing the parasite biomass that will sequester in vital organs, influencing the risk of severe complications, such as cerebral malaria or severe anemia. Cryptic ring retention uncovers a new role for the spleen in the control of parasite density, opening novel intervention opportunities.

  1. Use of the dog spleen for studying effects of irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents, with suggested uses of other organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, L.D.; De Rose, G.; Cooke, D.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation of the exteriorized spleen of the dog, with the animal lead-shielded, produced constant changes in the white blood cells. The time of recovery from the irradiation effect was determined. The normal canine spleen could handle live pneumococci injected into the splenic artery, as proven by sterile cultures of splenic vein samples. The size of the bolus used was determined by repeated trials and proved to be one billion pneumococci per pound of body weight. The capacity of the irradiated spleen to handle this number of pneumococci was impaired. It was found that whole body irradiation, nitrogen mustard, thio-tepa, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vinblastine, and azothioprine all impaired this capacity of the spleen. The dose of the chemotherapeutic agent was the same in milligrams per kilogram as that used in the cancer clinic. A method for determining the recovery time following the use of one or more agents was developed with the repeated use of the spleen model. By extending the methods used with the spleen it was found that similar use could be made, usually without surgery, of the liver, gut, and lungs

  2. Wandering spleen in children: a report of 3 cases and a brief literature review underlining the importance of diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Roberta; Menchini, Laura; Corneli, Teresa; Magistrelli, Andrea; Accinni, Antonella; Monti, Lidia; Tomà, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in children that is often caused by loss or weakening of the splenic ligaments. Its clinical presentation is variable; 64% of children with wandering spleen have splenic torsion as a complication. To provide up-to-date information on the diagnosis, clinical management and diagnostic imaging approaches for wandering spleen in infants and children and to underline the importance of color Doppler US and CT in providing important information for patient management. We report a series of three children with wandering spleen treated at our children's hospital over the last 6 years. All three underwent clinical evaluation, color Doppler US and CT and were surgically treated. We also reviewed 40 articles that included 55 patients younger than 18 years reported in the Medline database from 2002 to 2012. We correlated pathological data with imaging findings. Color Doppler US, the first imaging modality in investigating abdominal symptoms in children with suspected wandering spleen, yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.9%, whereas CT achieved about 71.7%. Radiologic evaluation has a major role in confirming the diagnosis of a suspected wandering spleen and avoiding potentially life-threatening complications requiring immediate surgery.

  3. Wandering spleen in children: a report of 3 cases and a brief literature review underlining the importance of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Roberta; Menchini, Laura; Corneli, Teresa; Magistrelli, Andrea; Monti, Lidia; Toma, Paolo [Bambino Gesu Pediatric Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Accinni, Antonella [Bambino Gesu Pediatric Hospital, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in children that is often caused by loss or weakening of the splenic ligaments. Its clinical presentation is variable; 64% of children with wandering spleen have splenic torsion as a complication. To provide up-to-date information on the diagnosis, clinical management and diagnostic imaging approaches for wandering spleen in infants and children and to underline the importance of color Doppler US and CT in providing important information for patient management. We report a series of three children with wandering spleen treated at our children's hospital over the last 6 years. All three underwent clinical evaluation, color Doppler US and CT and were surgically treated. We also reviewed 40 articles that included 55 patients younger than 18 years reported in the Medline database from 2002 to 2012. We correlated pathological data with imaging findings. Color Doppler US, the first imaging modality in investigating abdominal symptoms in children with suspected wandering spleen, yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.9%, whereas CT achieved about 71.7%. Radiologic evaluation has a major role in confirming the diagnosis of a suspected wandering spleen and avoiding potentially life-threatening complications requiring immediate surgery. (orig.)

  4. Wandering spleen in children: a report of 3 cases and a brief literature review underlining the importance of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Roberta; Menchini, Laura; Corneli, Teresa; Magistrelli, Andrea; Monti, Lidia; Toma, Paolo; Accinni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in children that is often caused by loss or weakening of the splenic ligaments. Its clinical presentation is variable; 64% of children with wandering spleen have splenic torsion as a complication. To provide up-to-date information on the diagnosis, clinical management and diagnostic imaging approaches for wandering spleen in infants and children and to underline the importance of color Doppler US and CT in providing important information for patient management. We report a series of three children with wandering spleen treated at our children's hospital over the last 6 years. All three underwent clinical evaluation, color Doppler US and CT and were surgically treated. We also reviewed 40 articles that included 55 patients younger than 18 years reported in the Medline database from 2002 to 2012. We correlated pathological data with imaging findings. Color Doppler US, the first imaging modality in investigating abdominal symptoms in children with suspected wandering spleen, yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.9%, whereas CT achieved about 71.7%. Radiologic evaluation has a major role in confirming the diagnosis of a suspected wandering spleen and avoiding potentially life-threatening complications requiring immediate surgery. (orig.)

  5. Perioperative spleen embolization as a useful tool in laparoscopic splenectomy for simple and massive splenomegaly in children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Veken, E; Laureys, M; Rodesch, G; Steyaert, H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the efficiency of perioperative spleen embolization prior to laparoscopic splenectomy indicated for hypersplenism. We conducted a prospective study exploring a technique combining ultra-selective perioperative embolization and splenectomy. Between January 2008 and March 2013, 16 splenectomies were performed in children suffering from hypersplenism due to varying hematologic diseases. Spleen embolization was performed by an interventional radiologist in the operating room (OR) just before splenectomy and during the same general anesthesia. Ages varied from 3 to 17 years. Spleen volume was measured by preoperative ultrasound. One patient underwent a laparotomy because of suspected adhesions due to previous surgery. All other operations were performed laparoscopically. One complication arose from embolization: a perforation of the splenic artery. After immediately placing a platinum coil proximal to the perforation, the splenectomy was carried out as usual. Fourteen children (87.5 %) had splenomegaly, of which eight (50 %) had massive splenomegaly. There were no deaths, no conversions to laparotomy, no reoperations and none of these patients had to be transfused. Perioperative spleen embolization performed in the OR by an interventional radiologist makes laparoscopic splenectomy a safer procedure. We propose a preoperative method for spleen measurement that is adapted to children: simple and massive splenomegaly is defined through patient body weight and a preoperative ultrasound. We conclude that spleen size is no more a limiting factor for laparoscopic splenectomy in children.

  6. Oxygen isotopes in garnet and accessory minerals to constrain fluids in subducted crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Regis, Daniele; Rosa Scicchitano, Maria; Vho, Alice; Williams, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. Garnet and U-Pb accessory minerals constitute some of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals in subducted crust and can preserve multiple growth zones that track the metamorphic evolution of the sample they are hosted in. Microbeam investigation of the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (oxygen and U-Pb) of garnet and accessory minerals is used to track significant fluid-rock interaction at different stages of the subduction system. This approach requires consideration of the diffusivity of oxygen isotopes particularly in garnet, which has been investigated experimentally. The nature of the protolith and ocean floor alteration is preserved in relict accessory phases within eclogites that have been fully modified at HP conditions (e.g. Monviso and Dora Maira units in the Western Alps). Minerals in the lawsonite-blueschists of the Tavsanli zone in Turkey record pervasive fluid exchange between mafic and sedimentary blocks at the early stage of subduction. High pressure shear zones and lithological boundaries show evidence of intense fluid metasomatism at depth along discontinuities in Monviso and Corsica. In the UHP oceanic crust of the Zermatt-Saas Zone, garnet oxygen isotopes and tourmaline boron isotopes indicate multistage fluid infiltration during prograde metamorphism. Localized exchanges of aqueous fluids are also observed in the subducted continental crust of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone. In most cases analyses of distinct mineral zones enable identification of multiple pulses of fluids during the rock evolution.

  7. Ventricular Dyssynchrony and Function Improve following Catheter Ablation of Nonseptal Accessory Pathways in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Abadir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paradoxical or hypokinetic interventricular septal motion has been described in patients with septal or paraseptal accessory pathways. Data regarding nonseptal pathways is limited. Methods and Results. We quantified left ventricular dyssynchrony and function in 16 consecutive children, 14.2±3.7 years, weighing 53 ± 17 kg, prior to and following catheter ablation of bidirectional septal (N=6 and nonseptal (N=10 accessory pathways. Following ablation, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 4.9±2.1% (P=0.038 from a baseline value of 57.0%±7.8%. By tissue Doppler imaging, the interval between QRS onset and peak systolic velocity (Ts decreased from a median of 33.0 ms to 18.0 ms (P=0.013. The left ventricular ejection fraction increased to a greater extent following catheter ablation of nonseptal (5.9%±2.6%, P=0.023 versus septal (2.5%±4.1%, P=0.461 pathways. The four patients with an ejection fraction 50% after ablation. Similarly, the improvement in dyssynchrony was more marked in patients with nonseptal versus septal pathways (difference between septal and lateral wall motion delay before and after ablation 20.6±7.1 ms (P=0.015 versus 1.4±11.4 ms (P=0.655. Conclusion. Left ventricular systolic function and dyssynchrony improve after ablation of antegrade-conducting accessory pathways in children, with more pronounced changes noted for nonseptal pathways.

  8. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  9. Wongabel Rhabdovirus Accessory Protein U3 Targets the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, D. Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J.; Paradkar, Prasad N.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the

  10. Special servicing equipment for reactor pressurized vessel stud hole and stud accessories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianglian

    1999-01-01

    The author briefly introduces the design and manufacture of nuclear island special servicing equipment of Nuclear Power Institute of China. Maintenance process of reactor pressurized vessel (RPV) stud hold and stud accessories the special servicing equipment include RPV flange dummy, closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection equipment, RPV stud hole expandable comb, RPV stud hole polisher, RPV stud hold thread lubricating equipment, RPV stud hole thread miller and RPV stud hole camera. It is presented how eight kinds of special servicing equipment perform the maintenance process concerning their function, structure, and characteristics, their practical use on site is also introduced

  11. Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Manual Gastroenterology-Urology Surgical Instruments and Accessories. Final rule; technical amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the identification of manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instruments and accessories to reflect that the device does not include specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogyencologic surgical mesh specifically intended for use as an aid in the insertion, placement, fixation, or anchoring of surgical mesh during urogynecologic procedures ("specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh"). These amendments are being made to reflect changes made in the recently issued final reclassification order for specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh.

  12. Posterior Coronary Vein as the Substrate for an Epicardial Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cipoletta, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is associated with up to 5% of failure. Coronary sinus (CS abnormalities or connections between CS myocardial coat and left ventricular epicardium are associated with posteroseptal and left posterior accessory pathways (AP. A 41-year-old patient with WPW syndrome was referred to our hospital after three unsuccessful ablations. The 12-lead ECG suggested a left posteroseptal AP. CT imaging and electro-anatomic mapping showed a relationship between AP electrical course and CS posterior branch. This finding supports the hypothesis CSAPs lie in the myocardial coat around CS and represent an extensive connection between atrial and ventricular epicardial surface.

  13. A rare case of fibrocystic disease at vulval accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Roy, Alok Kumar; Kar, Chinmoy; Giri, Parag Prasun

    2007-11-01

    A 40-year-old female presented with a non-itchy ulcerative nodular lesion at left labium majus since last 1 1/2 years. The lesion progressed to increase in size from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter. It was incised and drained. After that a non-healing ulcerative nodule formed. The nodule was firm in consistency and movable on all sides. The ulcer healed with a 5 days course of ceftriaxone. If was excised and biopsy of the lesion showed fibrocystic changes of accessory breast tissue. It is a rare disease entity for which the case report is presented.

  14. The male genital accessory gland complex of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA-FERNANDEZ, CASIMIRO; GARCIA, SONIA M. LAUER DE; GARCIA, ROSANE NUNES

    1998-01-01

    A topographical and histological study of the male genital accessory gland complex of Boophilus microplus was undertaken. Ten lobes were found, the most prominent of which is the single dorso-median lobe, subdivided into antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal lobes. The other lobes are: a pair of postero-ventral lobes, a pair of lateral lobes (subdivided into dorso-lateral and postero-lateral lobes), a pair of antero-ventral lobes, a single medio-ventral lobe and a pair of latero-ventral lobes. The...

  15. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging. PMID:25694665

  16. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2015-02-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.

  17. Abnormal Origin and Course of the Accessory Phrenic Nerve: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    In the current cadaveric study an unusual sizeable accessory phrenic nerve (APN) was encountered emerging from the trunk of the supraclavicular nerves and forming a triangular loop that was anastomosing with the phrenic nerve. That neural loop surrounded the superficial cervical artery which displayed a spiral course. The form of a triangular loop of APN involving the aforementioned artery and originating from the supraclavicular nerve to the best of our knowledge has not been documented previously in the literature. The variable morphological features of the APN along with its clinical applications are briefly discussed.

  18. Abnormal Origin and Course of the Accessory Phrenic Nerve: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Paraskevas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current cadaveric study an unusual sizeable accessory phrenic nerve (APN was encountered emerging from the trunk of the supraclavicular nerves and forming a triangular loop that was anastomosing with the phrenic nerve. That neural loop surrounded the superficial cervical artery which displayed a spiral course. The form of a triangular loop of APN involving the aforementioned artery and originating from the supraclavicular nerve to the best of our knowledge has not been documented previously in the literature. The variable morphological features of the APN along with its clinical applications are briefly discussed.

  19. Thermistor guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial insertion sites in patients with accessory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C M; Moore, H J; Solomon, A J; Rodak, D J; Fletcher, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has gained acceptance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between temperature and other electroconductive parameters in patients undergoing atrial insertion accessory pathway ablation utilizing a thermistor equipped catheter. The mean temperature and power at sites of atrial insertion ablation are lower than has been previously associated with creation of radiofrequency lesions in the ventricle. While high cavitary blood flow in the atrium may result in cooling, the thinner atrial tissue may require less energy to achieve adequate heating than ventricular myocardium.

  20. High-resolution mapping and ablation of recurrent left lateral accessory pathway conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Solimene, MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper localization of the anatomical target during ablation of the accessory pathways (AP and the ability to detect clear AP potentials on the ablation catheter are crucial for successful AP ablation. We report a case of recurring AP conduction that was finally eliminated using a novel ablation catheter equipped with high-resolution mini-electrodes. Smaller and closer electrodes result in high mapping resolution with less signal averaging and cancellation effects. Owing to improved sensitivity, the new catheter seems effective in detecting fragmented and high frequency signals, thus allowing more effective radiofrequency application and improving ablation success.