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Sample records for intraoperative risk factors

  1. Risk Factors for Intraoperative Hypertension during Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

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    Sabljak, Vera D.; Zivaljevic, Vladan R.; Milicic, Biljana R.; Paunovic, Ivan R.; Toskovic, Anka R.; Stevanovic, Ksenija S.; Tausanovic, Katarina M.; Markovic, Dejan Z.; Stojanovic, Marina M.; Lakicevic, Mirko V.; Jovanovic, Milan D.; Diklic, Aleksandar D.; Kalezic, Nevena K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and identify risk factors for the occurrence of intraoperative hypertension (IOH) during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Subjects and Methods The study included 269 patients surgically treated between January 2008 and January 2012 for pHPT. IOH was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure ≥20% compared to baseline values which lasted for 15 min. The investigated influence were demographic characteristics, surgical risk score related to physical status (based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] classification), comorbidities, type and duration of surgery, and duration of anesthesia on IOH occurrence. The investigated factors were obtained from the patients' medical history, anesthesia charts, and the daily practice database. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of IOH. Results Of the 269 patients, 153 (56.9%) had IOH. Based on the univariate analysis, age, body mass index, ASA status, duration of anesthesia, and preoperative hypertension were risk factors for the occurrence of IOH. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of IOH were a history of hypertension (OR = 2.080, 95% CI: 1.102–3.925, p = 0.024) and age (OR = 0.569, 95% CI: 0.360–0.901, p = 0.016). Conclusion In this study, a high percentage (56%) of the patients developed IOH during surgery for pHPT, which indicates that special attention should be paid to these patients, especially to the high-risk groups: older patients and those with a history of hypertension. Further, this study showed that advanced age and hypertension as a coexisting disease prior to parathyroid surgery were independent risk factors for the occurrence of IOH. PMID:28399538

  2. Anemia Is a Risk Factor of New Intraoperative Hemorrhagic Stroke During Valve Surgery for Endocarditis.

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    Yoshioka, Daisuke; Toda, Koichi; Okazaki, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Infective endocarditis is often associated with cerebral complications, the most serious of which is intraoperative hemorrhagic stroke owing to anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its prevalence and risk factors are unknown. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of intraoperative hemorrhagic stroke in patients with infective endocarditis. In 246 patients who underwent valve surgery for active endocarditis between 2005 and 2012, 127 patients had both preoperative and postoperative intracranial neuroimaging. The prevalence and risk factors of intraoperative stroke were analyzed in those 127 patients. Valve surgery was performed in 127 patients 19.6 ± 27.1 days after infective endocarditis diagnosis. Fourteen experienced intraoperative hemorrhagic stroke, and 1 died. None of 29 patients with preoperative hemorrhagic stroke showed exacerbation of hemorrhagic lesions, whereas 1 of 57 patients with preoperative cerebral infarction showed hemorrhagic transformation of infarct lesions. Thirteen of 14 hemorrhagic complications were new ectopic intracranial hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis showed not preoperative cerebral lesions but preoperative low hemoglobin level as the only risk factor for intraoperative hemorrhagic stroke (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.87; p = 0.03). A preoperative hemoglobin cutoff value of 9.2 g/dL was determined by receiver operating curve analysis. Of 41 patients with preoperative hemoglobin level less than 9.2 g/dL, 9 (22%) had intraoperative new hemorrhage, whereas 4 (5%) of 86 patients with hemoglobin level of at least 9.2 g/dL had ectopic new hemorrhage. Intraoperative hemorrhagic stroke was not rare, and ectopic hemorrhagic stroke, associated with preoperative anemia, was more prevalent than hemorrhagic transformation of existing cerebral lesions. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusion during craniotomy for brain tumor removal in children.

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    Vassal, Olivia; Desgranges, François-Pierrick; Tosetti, Sylvain; Burgal, Stéphanie; Dailler, Frédéric; Javouhey, Etienne; Mottolese, Carmine; Chassard, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Several clinical and surgical factors can influence the occurrence of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) during oncologic neurosurgery. To identify the potential predictive factors of ABT during craniotomy for the removal of brain tumors in children and the potential impact of intraoperative ABT on early postoperative outcome. A retrospective study was performed in all pediatric patients younger than 18 years who underwent craniotomy for brain tumor removal from December 2009 to December 2012 in our institution. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were collected from medical and stored electronic anesthesia records. The predictors of intraoperative ABT were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 110 patients were included. Twenty-seven patients (25%) received intraoperative ABT with a volume of 16 ± 8 ml·kg(-1) . On multivariate analysis, an age 270 min, and a preoperative hemoglobin craniotomy for brain tumor removal is at risk of intraoperative ABT. An age 270 min, and a preoperative hemoglobin <12.2 g·dl(-1) are the main factors associated with intraoperative ABT during this surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy for cancer.

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    Goense, L; van Rossum, P S N; Tromp, M; Joore, H C; van Dijk, D; Kroese, A C; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2017-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality after esophagectomy are often related to anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. This study aimed to assess the relationship of intraoperative and postoperative vital parameters with anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy. Consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis for esophageal cancer from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine potential associations of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters with anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. From a total of 82 included patients, 19 (23%) developed anastomotic leakage and 31 (38%) experienced pneumonia. The single independent factor associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage in multivariable analysis included a lower minimum intraoperative pH (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). An increased risk of pneumonia was associated with a lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the first 12 hours after surgery (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.99) and a higher maximum intraoperative pH (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). Interestingly, no differences were noted for the MAP and inotrope requirement between patients with and without anastomotic leakage. A lower minimum intraoperative pH (below 7.25) is associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy, whereas a lower postoperative average MAP (below 83 mmHg) and a higher intraoperative pH (above 7.34) increase the risk of postoperative pneumonia. These parameters indicate the importance of setting strict perioperative goals to be protected intensively. © International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A study of risk factors and predictive factors in intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during phacoemulsification

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    Jie-Xin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome(IFISin patients undergoing phacoemulsification in a Chinese hospital, and to assess new risk factors and predictive factors for IFIS. METHODS: A prospective, observational case series. In the consecutive cataract surgeries performed in one year, the medicine administration, pupil size(PSbefore and after mydriasis, and signs of IFIS were recorded. RESULTS: Totally 807 patients(1 068 eyesunderwent cataract surgeries. Among the 1 068 eyes, signs of IFIS were noted in 34 eyes. Strong positive correlations were showed between finasteride(6.4%, OR=5.885, tamsulosin(25%, OR=21.578, reserpine(16.7%, OR=12.947, clozapine(66.7%, OR=139.467, post-panretinal photocoagulation(14.3%, OR=10.789and IFIS. Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence(PPCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of IFIS was 3.18%. Reserpine, clozapine and post-panretinal photocoagulation emerged as new risk factors for IFIS. A small dilated pupil may imply IFIS occurrence.

  6. Intraoperative ventilation: incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes during general anesthesia

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    Fernandez-Bustamante Ana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern of the potential injurious role of ventilatory over-distention in patients without lung injury. No formal guidelines exist for intraoperative ventilation settings, but the use of tidal volumes (VT under 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW has been recommended in healthy patients. We explored the incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of our prospectively collected perioperative electronic database for current intraoperative ventilation practices and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. We included all adults undergoing prolonged (≥ 4 h elective abdominal surgery and collected demographic, preoperative (comorbidities, intraoperative (i.e. ventilatory settings, fluid administration and postoperative (outcomes information. We compared patients receiving exhaled tidal volumes > 10 mL/kg PBW with those that received 8-10 or Results Ventilatory settings were non-uniform in the 429 adults included in the analysis. 17.5% of all patients received VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. 34.0% of all obese patients (body mass index, BMI, ≥ 30, 51% of all patients with a height T > 10 mL/kg PBW. Conclusions Ventilation with VT > 10 mL/kg PBW is still common, although poor correlation with PBW suggests it may be unintentional. BMI ≥ 30, female gender and height

  7. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

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    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intraoperative Hypotension during Craniotomy for Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Sharma, Deepak; Brown, Michelle J; Curry, Parichat; Noda, Sakura; Chesnut, Randall M.; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypotension after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor outcomes. However, data on intraoperative hypotension (IH) are scarce and the effect of anesthetic agents on IH is unknown. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for IH, including the effect of anesthetic agents during emergent craniotomy for isolated TBI. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years who underwent emergent craniotomy for TBI at Harborview Medical Center (level-1 trauma center) between October 2007 and January 2010. Demographic, clinical and radiographic characteristics, hemodynamic and anesthetic data were abstracted from medical and electronic anesthesia records. Hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) craniotomy. The presence of multiple CT lesions, subdural hematoma, maximum thickness of CT lesion and longer duration of anesthesia increase the risk for IH. PMID:22504924

  9. Myocardial injury during off-pump surgery: The effect of intraoperative risk factors

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    Ketenci, B.; Enc, Y.; Ozay, B.; Cimen, S.; Gunay, R.; Orhan, G.; Gurer, O.; Gorur, A.; Teskin, O.; Demirtas, Mahmut M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to achieve better outcomes, the degree of myocardial injury due to off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) must be reduced. We studied the factors that render patients scheduled for OPCAB vulnerable to myocardial injury, using troponin T (cTnT) as a marker of myocardial injury. We prospectively investigated 123 patients being operated by a group of surgeons with off-pump technique between January 2001 and June 2006 in Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center. Myocardial injury occurring during surgery was assessed by post-operative cTnT measurement. Then, the relation between intraoperative factors and postoperative cTnT release were statistically evaluated. Blood samples for cTnT measurement were taken for all patients before operation, immediately after arrival at the intensive care unit, then at 6, 12 and 24 hours after distal revascularization. When regarding the intraopertive risk factors, we found that the heart rate, blood pressure and anastomosis time are the main determinant of myocardial cell injury occurring during OPCAB surgery. Although aortic cross-clamp and cardioplegic arrest were not used in off-pump myocardial revascularization, the ischemic myocardial cell destruction was also inevitable in off-pump technique. Therefore, management of heart rate and myocardial contractility was desirable not only for precise anastomosis but also for myocardial protection during OPCAB surgery. (author)

  10. Risk Factors for the Postoperative Transfusion of Allogeneic Blood in Orthopedics Patients With Intraoperative Blood Salvage

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    Tang, Jia-Hua; Lyu, Yi; Cheng, Li-Ming; Li, Ying-Chuan; Gou, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors affecting the postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in patients undergoing orthopedics surgery with intraoperative blood salvage (IBS). A retrospective study of 279 patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries with IBS from May 2013 to May 2015 was enrolled. The binary logistic regression was used to find out the risk factors associated with postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedics patients with IBS, and then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the optimal threshold of the regression model. Single factor analysis showed that age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, preoperative hemoglobin, operation time, received autologous blood, the laying time of autologous blood, bleeding volume, and postoperative drainage volume had significant effects on postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion. In binary logistic regression analysis, the independent factors predicting orthopedic patients with IBS need to transfuse allogeneic blood after surgeries were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.415, P = 0.006), ASA grade (OR = 2.393, P = 0.035), preoperative hemoglobin (OR = 0.532, P = 0.022), and postoperative drainage volume (OR = 4.279, P = 0.000). The area under ROC curve was 0.79 and the predicted accuracy rate of the model was 81.58%. After operation, the orthopedic patients with IBS still have a high allogeneic blood transfusion rate, and IBS is not a perfect blood protection method. The logistic regression model of our study provides a reliable prediction for postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedic patients with IBS, which have a certain reference value. PMID:26937919

  11. Risk factors for incisional surgical site infections in elective surgery for colorectal cancer: focus on intraoperative meticulous wound management.

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    Itatsu, Keita; Sugawara, Gen; Kaneoka, Yuji; Kato, Takehito; Takeuchi, Eiji; Kanai, Michio; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato

    2014-07-01

    An incisional surgical site infection (I-SSI) is a frequently observed complication following colorectal surgery. Intraoperative wound management is one of the most important factors that determine the incidence of postoperative I-SSI. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the methods used for intraoperative wound management on the incidence of I-SSI following elective surgery for colorectal cancer. Between November 2009 and February 2011, the data of 1,980 consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal resection for colorectal cancer were prospectively collected from 19 affiliated hospitals. The incidence of and risk factors for I-SSI were investigated. Overall, 233 I-SSIs were identified (11.7 %). Forty-two possible risk factors were analyzed. Using a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for I-SSI were identified to be a high body mass index, previous laparotomy, chronic liver disease, wound length, contaminated wound class, creation or closure of an ostomy, right hemicolectomy procedure, the suture material used for fascial closure and the incidence of organ/space SSI. To prevent I-SSI following elective colorectal surgery, it is crucial to avoid making large incisions and reduce fecal contamination whenever possible. A high quality randomized control trial is necessary to confirm the definitive intraoperative procedure(s) that can minimize the incidence of I-SSI.

  12. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in Indian population: A prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and impact on operative performance

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    Shilpa Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and impact of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS on surgical performance. Materials and Methods : Consecutive cataract surgeries from October 2010 to Feb 2011 (1003 eyes, 980 patients; 568 males, 412 females were analyzed prospectively. Operating surgeon, masked about medication history, noted the intraoperative details. Cases were identified as IFIS or non-IFIS. Multivariate analysis was performed to find risk factors for IFIS. Results : Prevalence of tamsulosin use among men undergoing cataract surgery was 7.0% (41 with incidence of IFIS 4.78% (48. On multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.39-6.57; P = 0.005, use of tamsulosin (OR: 133.32, 95% CI: 50.43-352.48; P < 0.0001, or alfuzosin (OR: 9.36, 95% CI: 2.34-37.50; P = 0.002 were the factors associated with IFIS. Among men taking tamsulosin (n = 41 and alfuzosin (n = 28, 68.3% and 16.6% developed IFIS, respectively. In subgroup analysis of men on tamsulosin, no factor added to the risk posed by tamsulosin. Seventeen of 944 eyes not exposed to any drug had IFIS (0.018%. On subgroup analysis, only risk factor for IFIS was hypertension (OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.63-13.35; P = 0.002. Of 48 IFIS eyes, the surgeon observed increased difficulty in 57.1% (21 and additional measures were required in 9 eyes. Mean operative time was increased in IFIS eyes (11.68 ± 3.46 vs. 10.01 ± 0.22 min; P = 0.001. Surgical outcome was good in all cases. Conclusion : The prevalence of tamsulosin intake and IFIS incidence is higher in India. Current tamsulosin/alfuzosin use and hypertension are important risk factors. IFIS makes the surgery more difficult, significantly prolongs the operative time, and predisposes for other intraoperative complications. However, with appropriate management, final operative outcome is not affected.

  13. Intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy for cancer

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    Goense, L.; van Rossum, P. S N; Tromp, M.; Joore, JCA; van Dijk, D.; Kroese, A. C.; Ruurda, J. P.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    Morbidity and mortality after esophagectomy are often related to anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. This study aimed to assess the relationship of intraoperative and postoperative vital parameters with anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy. Consecutive patients who underwent

  14. Identification of Preoperative and Intraoperative Risk Factors for Complications in the Elderly Undergoing Elective Craniotomy.

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    Johans, Stephen J; Garst, Jonathan R; Burkett, Daniel J; Grahnke, Kurt; Martin, Brendan; Ibrahim, Tarik F; Anderson, Douglas E; Prabhu, Vikram C

    2017-11-01

    Neurosurgical patients are aging as the general population is becoming older. A retrospective review of patients ≥65 years of age who underwent an elective craniotomy from 2007 to 2015 to identify risk factors for 30-day morbidity/mortality was conducted. Key preoperative variables included age, comorbidities, and functional status based on the Karnofsky Performance Status score and modified Rankin Scale score. Outcome variables included long-term care (LTC) complications, neurologic complications, systemic/infectious complications, length of stay, functional outcomes, and mortality. A total of 286 patients ≥65 years underwent elective craniotomy at Loyola University Medical Center over 8 years. Seventy-two patients had a preoperative neurologic deficit and 95 had a systemic morbidity before surgery. Postoperative neurologic and systemic morbidity was 14% and 23%, respectively. 7% of patients experienced a LTC complication and 5 patients (1.7%) died. Worse preoperative scores on both the Karnofsky Performance Status and modified Rankin Scale predicted increased length of stay and mortality (P craniotomies, particularly congestive heart failure, smoking history, chronic steroid use, anesthesia time, and estimated blood loss. Age alone should not preclude elective craniotomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for intraoperative gastroesophageal reflux and postanesthetic vomiting and diarrhea in dogs undergoing general anesthesia.

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    Torrente, Carlos; Vigueras, Isabel; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Villaverde, Cecilia; Fresno, Laura; Carvajal, Bibiana; Fiñana, Marina; Costa-Farré, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of intraoperative gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and postanesthetic vomiting and diarrhea, and to evaluate risk factors associated with these gastrointestinal disorders (GID) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Two hundred thirty-seven client-owned dogs undergoing general inhalant anesthesia for diagnostic or surgical purposes. None MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient, surgical, and anesthetic variables, and postanesthetic treatments administered in the immediate postanesthesia period were evaluated in relation to GID using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Seventy-nine of the 237 (33.4%) dogs developed GID during the perianesthetic period. The prevalences of GER, vomiting, and diarrhea were 17.3%, 5.5%, and 10.5%, respectively. Intraabdominal surgery (P = 0.016; odds ratio [OR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-6.62), changes in body position (P = 0.003; OR 3.17, 95% CI: 1.47-6.85), and length of anesthesia (P = 0.052; OR 1.006, 95% CI: 1.000-1.013) were associated with GER. Changes in the ventilation mode during surgery (P = 0.011; OR 6.54, 95% CI: 1.8-23.8), length of anesthesia (P = 0.024; OR 1.001, 95% CI: 1.001-1.020), and rescue synthetic colloid support due to hypotension (P = 0.005; OR 6.9, 95% CI: 1.82-26.3) were positively associated with postanesthetic vomiting. On the contrary, dogs that received acepromazine as premedication were significantly less likely (P < 0.019; OR 12.3, 95% CI: 1.52-100) to vomit. Finally, length of anesthesia, changes in body position, changes in ventilation mode, or hypoxemia during the procedure tended to increase the risk (univariate model) of diarrhea during the recovery phase. GID are common in dogs undergoing general anesthesia. Duration and characteristics of the procedure, anesthetic management, and changes in certain patient variables are significant risk factors for the presence of

  16. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection with double stapling technique anastomosis.

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    Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-07-07

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most devastating complications after rectal cancer surgery. The double stapling technique has greatly facilitated intestinal reconstruction especially for anastomosis after low anterior resection (LAR). Risk factor analyses for AL after open LAR have been widely reported. However, a few studies have analyzed the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR. Laparoscopic rectal surgery provides an excellent operative field in a narrow pelvic space, and enables total mesorectal excision surgery and preservation of the autonomic nervous system with greater precision. However, rectal transection using a laparoscopic linear stapler is relatively difficult compared with open surgery because of the width and limited performance of the linear stapler. Moreover, laparoscopic LAR exhibits a different postoperative course compared with open LAR, which suggests that the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR may also differ from those after open LAR. In this review, we will discuss the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR.

  17. Microclimate is an independent risk factor for the development of intraoperatively acquired pressure ulcers in the park-bench position: A prospective observational study.

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    Yoshimura, Mine; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Mikako; Uehata, Yoko; Kohno, Michihiro; Kasuya, Yusuke; Mae, Tomoko; Yamasaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Preventing pressure ulcers is important in patients undergoing procedures in the park-bench position. We hypothesized that the microclimate around the skin is a significant risk factor for developing pressure ulcers. This research continuously assessed factors of the microclimate in terms of skin temperature and perspiration as well as the interface pressure in order to determine whether the microclimate is an independent risk factor for the development of park-bench position-related pressure ulcers (PBP-PUs). A prospective observational study was conducted among patients undergoing elective surgery in the park-bench position at a general hospital in the metropolitan area of Japan between April and November 2014. Factors of the microclimate, including skin temperature and perspiration, in addition to the interface pressure were continuously measured throughout surgery. Twenty-nine patients were analyzed (mean age 44.4 ± 13.2 years, male 44.8%). Of these 29 patients, seven (24.1%) developed Category I PBP-PUs. The change in skin temperature from baseline to the end of surgery (2.7 ± 0.3 °C vs. 1.9 ± 0.8 °C) and the average peak pressure (119.1 ± 36.8 mmHg vs. 94.5 ± 23.1 mmHg) were significantly higher in the patients with PBP-PUs than in those without PBP-PUs. There were no significant differences in the amount of perspiration between the two groups. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that the change in skin temperature was significantly related to the development of PBP-PUs (unit = 0.1 °C: odds ratio 1.44, 95% confidential interval 1.09-2.33) when adjusted for the average peak pressure and length of surgery. Our results suggest that a change in skin temperature toward a higher value is an independent risk factor for the development of PBP-PUs. Proper intraoperative management of skin temperature may therefore be a promising candidate as a preventive method against PBP-PU development. © 2015 by the Wound

  18. [Intraoperative adverse events in minor oral surgery. Risk analysis].

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    Reich, W; Maurer, P; Schubert, J

    2005-11-01

    . However, in individual cases specific risk factors can be present and oral surgery may be temporarily contraindicated, at least as day surgery.

  19. Retrospective analysis of risk factors and predictors of intraoperative complications in neuraxial blocks at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP.

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    Pereira, Ivan Dias Fernandes; Grando, Marcela Miguel; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Castiglia, Yara Marcondes Machado; Vane, Luís Antônio; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; do Nascimento, Paulo; Amorim, Rosa Beatriz; Rodrigues, Geraldo Rolim; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular changes associated with neuraxial blocks are a cause of concern due to their frequency and because some of them can be considered physiological effects triggered by the sympathetic nervous system blockade. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraoperative cardiovascular complications and predictive factors associated with neuraxial blocks in patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing non-obstetric procedures over an 18-year period in a tertiary university hospital--HCFMB-UNESP. A retrospective analysis of the following complications was undertaken: hypertension, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, and sinus tachycardia. These complications were correlated with anesthetic technique, physical status (ASA), age, gender, and preoperative co-morbidities. The Tukey test for comparisons among proportions and logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. 32,554 patients underwent neuraxial blocks. Intraoperative complications mentioned included hypotension (n=4,109), sinus bradycardia (n=1,107), sinus tachycardia (n=601), and hypertension (n=466). Hypotension was seen more often in patients undergoing continuous subarachnoid anesthesia (29.4%, OR=2.39), ≥ 61 years of age, and female (OR=1.27). Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia were the complications observed more often. Hypotension was related to anesthetic technique (CSA), increased age, and female. Tachycardia and hypertension may not have been directly related to neuraxial blocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Factors related to intraoperative retinal breaks in macular hole surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, K; Ogino, N; Demizu, S; Atsumi, K; Kurihara, H; Iwaki, M; Ishigooka, H; Tachi, N

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the factors of intraoperative retinal breaks in macular hole surgery. This study included 558 eyes of 506 patients who underwent idiopathic macular hole surgery by one surgeon. Multiple regression was performed using the variables of gender, age, affected eye, lens status, stage, duration of symptoms, hole size, axial length, and lattice degeneration. The rate of retinal breaks was higher in stage 3 (16.0%) than in stage 4 (8.2%) (p = 0.014). In eyes with lattice degeneration intraoperative retinal breaks occurred in about 40% of the cases. Major factors were as follows: lattice degeneration (r = 0.24, p lattice degeneration, and gender (r = -0.18, p = 0.035) in eyes of stage 4 without lattice degeneration. The factors of intraoperative retinal breaks in macular hole surgery were lattice degeneration in all eyes and stage 3 in eyes without lattice degeneration. The high incidence of intraoperative retinal breaks in stage 3 was mainly due to the occurrence of posterior vitreous detachment. Male gender was a significant factor associated with intraoperative retinal breaks.

  1. The incidence of and risk factors for ischemic complications after microsurgical clipping of unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms and the efficacy of intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Si Un; Jo, Seong-Rae; Kim, Dong-Gun; Park, Kyung Seok

    2016-12-01

    Ischemic complications (ICs) account for 6.7% after microsurgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring during microsurgical clipping of unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms and evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for ischemic complications after clipping of unruptured MCA aneurysms. Herein, 1208 patients with cerebral aneurysms and treated with microsurgical clipping between May 2003 and February 2015 were enrolled. Those with multiple aneurysms, history of head trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, bypass and/or endovascular treatment, and intraoperative rupture were excluded. Subsequently, 411 patients with single unruptured MCA aneurysms treated with simple microsurgical clipping were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups based on the application of SSEP monitoring during surgery. The IC rate was 0.9% and 5.6% in the SSEP and non-SSEP groups, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that age≥62.5years, aneurysm size≥4.15mm, temporary clipping, history of hyperlipidemia and stroke, and no-SSEP monitoring were risk factors for ICs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age≥62.5years (odds ratio [OR]=7.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.5-37.7; P=0.011), previous stroke (OR=26.8, 95% CI=2.4-289.2, P=0.007), and inversely SSEP monitoring (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.02-0.72, P=0.019) were independent risk factors for ICs. Clinicians should consider the possibility of IC during microsurgical clipping of unruptured MCA aneurysms in patient≥62.5years and/or a history of stroke. Intraoperative SSEP monitoring is an effective and feasible tool for preventing IC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergistic interactions with a high intraoperative expander fill volume increase the risk for mastectomy flap necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas; Lovecchio, Francis; Fine, Neil A; Kim, John

    2013-12-01

    Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction is performed with increasing frequency in the United States. Major mastectomy skin flap necrosis is a significant complication with outcomes ranging from poor aesthetic appearance to reconstructive failure. The present study aimed to explore the interactions between intraoperative fill and other risk factors on the incidence of flap necrosis in patients undergoing mastectomy with immediate expander/implant-based reconstruction. A retrospective review of 966 consecutive patients (1,409 breasts) who underwent skin or nipple sparing mastectomy with immediate tissue expander reconstruction at a single institution was conducted. Age, body mass index, hypertension, smoking status, premastectomy and postmastectomy radiation, acellular dermal matrix use, and application of the tumescent mastectomy technique were analyzed as potential predictors of flap necrosis both independently and as synergistic variables with high intraoperative fill. The following three measures of interaction were calculated: relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion of risk due to interaction, and synergy index (SI). Intraoperative tissue expander fill volume was high (≥66.7% of the maximum volume) in 40.9% (576 of 1,409 breasts) of cases. The unadjusted flap necrosis rate was greater in the high intraoperative fill cohort than in the low fill cohort (10.4% vs. 7.1%, p=0.027). Multivariate logistic regression did not identify high intraoperative fill volume as an independent risk factor for flap necrosis (odds ratio 1.442, 95% confidence interval 0.973-2.137, p=0.068). However, four risk factors were identified that interacted significantly with intraoperative fill volume, namely tumescence, age, hypertension, and obesity. The SI, or the departure from additive risks, was largest for tumescence (SI, 25.3), followed by hypertension (SI, 2.39), obesity (SI, 2.28), and age older than 50 years (SI, 1.17). In the postmastectomy, hypovascular

  3. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  4. Screening Models for Cardiac Risk Evaluation in Emergency Abdominal Surgery. I. Evaluation of the Intraoperative Period Risk based on Data from the Preoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A classification of intraoperative cardio-vascular complications (CVC was performed, based on data from 466 patients subjected to emergency surgery, due to severe abdominal surgical diseases or traumas, in accordance with the severe criteria of ACC/AHA for CVC in noncardiac surgery. There were 370 intraoperative CVC registered, distributed as follows: groups with low risk (148, moderate risk (200, and high risk (22. Patient groups were formed, according to the CVC risk level, during the intraoperative period, for which the determinant factor for the group distribution of patients was the complication with the highest risk. Individual data was collected for each patient, based on 65 indices: age, physical status, diseases, surgical interventions, anaesthesiological information, intra and postoperative cardio-vascular complications, disease outcome, causes of death, cardiovascular disease anamnesis, anamnesis of all other nonsurgical diseases present, laboratory results, results from all imaging and instrumental examinations, etc. On the basis of these indices, a new distribution of the risk factors was implemented, into groups with different levels of risk of CVC during intraoperative period. This result is a solid argument, substantiating the proposal to introduce these adjustments for determining the severity of CVC in the specific conditions of emergency abdominal surgery.

  5. Risk of intraoperative hypotension with loop diuretics: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadia A; Campbell, Norman R; Frost, Shaun D; Gilbert, Ken; Michota, Frank A; Usmani, Ali; Seal, Doug; Ghali, William A

    2010-11-01

    There is growing concern regarding the safety of blood pressure-lowering medications administered during the perioperative period. Whether loop diuretics also induce intraoperative hypotension is uncertain. Our objective was to compare the effects of continuing or withholding furosemide on the day of noncardiac elective surgery on intraoperative hypotension among chronic users of furosemide. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted at 3 North American university centers between September 2000 and December 2006. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either furosemide or placebo on the day of surgery. The primary outcome was risk of developing intraoperative hypotension. A priori secondary outcomes included risk of heart failure; composite cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or death); and change in renal function and electrolytes. Of the 212 patients enrolled, 193 patients underwent surgery. There was no significant difference in risk of developing intraoperative hypotension between the furosemide (49%) and placebo (51.9%) groups (relative risk [RR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.24; P = .78). The intraoperative administration of vasopressors and fluids were similar between both groups. The risk of developing postoperative cardiovascular events was not significantly different between those randomized to furosemide (4.8%) or placebo (2.8%) (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.42-7.06; P = .49). There was no significant difference in renal function or electrolytes between the 2 groups. Among elective, noncardiac surgeries in patients chronically treated with furosemide, the administration of furosemide on the day of surgery did not significantly increase the risk for intraoperative hypotension. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole-breast radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max

    2014-01-01

    The TARGIT-A trial compared risk-adapted radiotherapy using single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) versus fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for breast cancer. We report 5-year results for local recurrence and the first analysis of overall survival....

  7. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...

  8. Predictive factors for intraoperative excessive bleeding in Graves’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosho Yamanouchi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A huge goiter presented as a predictive factor for excessive bleeding during surgery for Graves’ disease, and preparation for blood transfusion should be considered in cases where thyroids weigh more than 200 g.

  9. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors ... do smoke, quit. Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines . Controlling high blood pressure through diet, ...

  10. Risk reduction in craniofacial surgery using computer-based modeling and intraoperative immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salb, Tobias; Burgert, Oliver; Gockel, Tilo; Brief, Jakob; Hassfeld, Stefan; Muehling, Joachim; Dillmann, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    We present a two-stage concept for risk reduction in craniofacial surgery, consisting of preoperative risk modeling and intraoperative risk reduction. Preoperatively it is important to find and to visualize risk sources in order to minimize them. Our risk model is composed by superimposition of an isotropic risk potential and an anisotropic tissue field constituent. It is being applied to preoperative planning and simulation of craniofacial surgeries, for example to determine an access path with least overall risk value. In the operation room risks arise mainly from the absence of preoperative planning and simulation data in the operation field. We use a see-through head-mounted display to optimize this situation in order to allow the surgeon to maintain accuracy in the whole process of computer aided surgery. Main steps of the intraoperative immersion are optical tracking of the surgeon wearing the head-mounted display and of the patient, registration of preoperatively calculated planning data with the patient and visualization of the data within the glasses.

  11. Prospective study of preoperative factors predicting intraoperative difficulty during laparoscopic transperitoneal simple nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Ganpule, Arvind; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh R

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively study and identify, the preoperative factors which predict intraoperative difficulty in laparoscopic transperitoneal simple nephrectomy. Seventy seven patients (41 males and 36 females) with mean age of 43 ± 17 years, undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic simple nephrectomy at our institute between February 2012 to May 2013 were included in this study. Preoperative patients' characteristics recorded were: Gender of patients, history of intervention, palpable lump, BMI, urine culture, side, size of kidney, fixity of kidney on USG, perinephric fat stranding on preoperative CT scan, periureteral fat stranding, perinephric collection, enlarged hilar lymph nodes, renal vascular anomalies, differential renal function on renogram. Preoperative factors of these patients were noted and intraoperative difficulty in the surgery was scored between 1 (easiest) to 10 (most difficult or open conversion) by a single surgeon (who was a part of all studies either as operating surgeon or assistant). Using SPSS 15.0 software, multivariate and univariate analysis was done. In multivariate analysis presence of pyonephrosis on preoperative evaluation and BMI fixity of kidney on USG with surrounding structures. Our findings suggest that presence of pyonephrosis as identified on preoperative imaging and a BMI of less than 25 Kg/m(2) are the most significant factors predicting intraoperative difficulty during laparoscopic simple nephrectomy.

  12. Intraoperative radiotherapy for early breast cancer: do health professionals choose convenience or risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corica, Tammy; Joseph, David; Saunders, Christobel; Bulsara, Max; Nowak, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The randomized TARGIT trial comparing experimental intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) to up to 7 weeks of daily conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) recruited participants in Western Australia between 2003 and 2012. We aimed to understand preferences for this evolving radiotherapy treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) in health professionals, and how they changed over time and in response to emerging data. Preferences for single dose IORT or EBRT for EBC were elicited in 2004 and 2011, together with factors that may be associated with these preferences. Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients were invited to complete a validated, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire used hypothetical scenarios and trade-off methodology to determine the maximum increase in risk of local recurrence health professionals were willing to accept in order to have a single dose of IORT in the place of EBRT if they were faced with this decision themselves. Health professional characteristics were similar across the two time points although 2011 included a higher number of nurse (49% vs. 36%) and allied health (10% vs. 4%) participants and a lower number of radiation therapists (17% vs. 32%) compared to 2004. Health professional preferences varied, with 7.5% and 3% judging IORT unacceptable at any risk, 18% and 21% judging IORT acceptable only if offering an equivalent risk, 56% and 59% judging IORT acceptable with a low maximum increase in risk (1-3%) and 19% and 17% judging a high maximum increase in risk acceptable (4-5%), in 2004 and 2011 respectively. A significantly greater number of nurses accepted IORT as a treatment option in 2011. Most Western Australian health professionals working with breast cancer patients are willing to accept an increase in risk of local recurrence in order to replace EBRT with IORT in a hypothetical setting. This finding was consistent over two time points spanning 7 years despite the duration of

  13. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... Scientists are working diligently to understand what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does ...

  14. Persistent seroma after intraoperative placement of MammoSite for accelerated partial breast irradiation: Incidence, pathologic anatomy, and contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Kaufman, Seth A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Cardarelli, Gene; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Wazer, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of, and possible factors associated with, seroma formation after intraoperative placement of the MammoSite catheter for accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study evaluated 38 patients who had undergone intraoperative MammoSite catheter placement at lumpectomy or reexcision followed by accelerated partial breast irradiation with 34 Gy in 10 fractions. Data were collected regarding dosimetric parameters, including the volume of tissue enclosed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose shells, dose homogeneity index, and maximal dose at the surface of the applicator. Clinical and treatment-related factors were analyzed, including patient age, patient weight, history of diabetes and smoking, use of reexcision, interval between surgery and radiotherapy, total duration of catheter placement, total excised specimen volume, and presence or absence of postprocedural infection. Seroma was verified by clinical examination, mammography, and/or ultrasonography. Persistent seroma was defined as seroma that was clinically detectable >6 months after radiotherapy completion. Results: After a median follow-up of 17 months, the overall rate of any detectable seroma was 76.3%. Persistent seroma (>6 months) occurred in 26 (68.4%) of 38 patients, of whom 46% experienced at least modest discomfort at some point during follow-up. Of these symptomatic patients, 3 required biopsy or complete cavity excision, revealing squamous metaplasia, foreign body giant cell reaction, fibroblasts, and active collagen deposition. Of the analyzed dosimetric, clinical, and treatment-related variables, only body weight correlated positively with the risk of seroma formation (p = 0.04). Postprocedural infection correlated significantly (p = 0.05) with a reduced risk of seroma formation. Seroma was associated with a suboptimal cosmetic outcome, because excellent scores were achieved in 61.5% of women with seroma compared with 83% without seroma

  15. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply...... that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  16. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...

  17. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...

  18. Intraoperative radiotherapy combined with resection for pancreatic cancer. Analysis of survival rates and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Hirotaka; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroaki; Suehara, Nobuhiro; Abe, Yuji; Ihara, Takaaki; Iwashita, Toshimitsu; Mitsuyama, Shoshu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) combined with surgical resection. Subjects were consecutive 69 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with surgery alone (n=31) or surgical resection combined with IORT (n=38) in a 13 year period between 1991 and 2003. We evaluated the effects of IORT against local recurrence of cancer and patients' survival, retrospectively. Furthermore, clinicopathological factors affecting the 5-year survival rate in the two groups were comparatively investigated. The IORT group showed a significantly lower local recurrence rate of cancer than that in the surgery alone group (7.8% and 22.6%, respectively; p<0.05). The 5-year survival probability in the IORT group was significantly higher than that in the surgery alone group (29.9% and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.05). According to the Japanese classification of pancreatic cancer, cancers located in the pancreas body or tail, no local residual cancer post operative procedure (R0), low grade local cancer progression (t1, 2), and low grade intrapancreatic neural invasion (ne0, 1) were significantly better prognostic factors in the IORT group than those in the surgery alone group. There were no significant differences between the both groups in the 5-year survival rate in terms of the sex of the patients, cancer of the pancreas head, histological type, more than R1, the presence of lymph node involvement, ne2-3, and clinical stages. IORT is a useful intraoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, when the curative resection is achieved. Our data have suggested that IORT suppresses the local recurrence of cancer and provides the significant survival benefit for those patients. (author)

  19. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...... and for prevention and possible treatment of this important entity of chronic pain....

  20. Intraoperative fluorescence delineation of head and neck cancer with a fluorescent Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, P.B.A.A.; Van Der Vorst, J.R.; Verbeek, F.P.R.; Oliveira, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841455; Snoeks, T.J.A.; Keereweer, S.; Chan, B.; Boonstra, M.C.; Frangioni, J.V.; Van Bergen En Henegouwen, P.M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071919481; Vahrmeijer, A.L.; Lowik, C.W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a technology with high potential to provide the surgeon with real-time visualization of tumors during surgery. Our study explores the feasibility for clinical translation of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting nanobody for

  1. The incidence and risk factors for intra-operative hypothermia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at the Kenyatta National Hospital is 30%. Gender (male), lower body temperature at induction, use of caudal block and the volume of intravenous fluids infused were significant independent predictors of core hypothermia. The most significant predictor was body temperature at the time of induction of general anaesthesia.

  2. Predictive Value of Intraoperative Thromboelastometry for the Risk of Perioperative Excessive Blood Loss in Infants and Children Undergoing Congenital Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Shim, Haeng Seon; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Sue-Young; Park, Sun-Kyung; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kim, Chung Su

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory hemostatic variables and parameters of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) were evaluated for their ability to predict perioperative excessive blood loss (PEBL) after congenital cardiac surgery. Retrospective and observational. Single, large university hospital. The study comprised 119 children younger than 10 years old undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intraoperative excessive blood loss was defined as estimated blood loss≥50% of estimated blood volume (EBV). Postoperative excessive blood loss was defined as measured postoperative chest tube and Jackson-Pratt drainage≥30% of EBV over 12 hours or≥50% of EBV over 24 hours in the intensive care unit. PEBL was defined as either intraoperative or postoperative excessive blood loss. External temogram (EXTEM) and fibrinogen temogram (FIBTEM) were analyzed before and after CPB with ROTEM and laboratory hemostatic variables. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Incidence of PEBL was 19.3% (n = 23). Independent risk factors for PEBL were CPB time>120 minutes, post-CPB FIBTEM alpha-angle, clot firmness after 10 minutes20%. Laboratory hemostatic variables were not significant in multivariate analysis. The risk prediction model was developed from the results of multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.99). Post-CPB ROTEM may be useful for predicting both intraoperative and postoperative excessive blood loss in congenital cardiac surgery. This study provided an accurate prediction model for PEBL and supported intraoperative transfusion guidance using post-CPB FIBTEM-A10 and EXTEM-A10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  4. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Trespass event risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    The Volpe Center has used three sources of datathe Federal Railroad Administrations required accident reports, locomotive video, and U.S. Census datato investigate common risk factors for railroad trespassing incidents, the leading cause of ...

  6. Outcome of intraoperative goal-directed therapy using Vigileo/FloTrac in high-risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Elgendy

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The applied protocol for intraoperative GDT provided significant reduction of PO morbidities, ICU and hospital LOS but couldn‘t significantly reduce mortality rates in high risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries.

  7. Factors Associated With Discordance Between Preoperative Parathyroid 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Scans and Intraoperative Findings During Parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Shonan; Yuen, Alexander D; Yeh, Michael W; Livhits, Masha J; Sepahdari, Ali R

    2017-12-01

    Parathyroid 4-dimensional computed tomographic scans (4D-CTs) have emerged as an accurate and cost-effective initial localization study for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. However, potential limitations and factors affecting the accuracy of preoperative 4D-CTs remain poorly defined. To characterize factors associated with missed parathyroid lesions on preoperative 4D-CTs and to investigate patterns of commonly observed errors. A prospectively accrued patient database was analyzed from September 1, 2011, through October 31, 2016. The study was performed in a tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing preoperative 4D-CTs and subsequent parathyroidectomy were included in the study. Discordance between preoperative 4D-CTs and intraoperative findings in the number and location of abnormal parathyroid lesions. Of 411 patients studied (mean [SD] age, 59 [14] years; 325 [79.1%] female), 123 (29.9%) had discordance between preoperative 4D-CTs and intraoperative findings. Among the 411 patients, 75 (18.2%) had major discordance, including incorrectly localized adenoma on the contralateral side of the neck, missed double adenoma, and absence of any abnormal lesion detected on 4D-CTs. Compared with concordant cases, discordant cases had higher frequencies of multigland disease (66.7% [82 of 123] vs 24.3% [70 of 288], P preoperative 4D-CTs and intraoperative findings, followed by parathyroid lesion in the inferior position and parathyroid lesion size of 10 mm or less. Awareness of these potential pitfalls may allow surgeons to better leverage this new localization technique in preoperative planning and intraoperative troubleshooting.

  8. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Risk factors for hypospadias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were

  10. Intraoperative awareness risk, anesthetic sensitivity, and anesthetic management for patients with natural red hair: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradwohl, Stephen C; Aranake, Amrita; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; McNair, Paul; Lin, Nan; Fritz, Bradley A; Villafranca, Alex; Glick, David; Jacobsohn, Eric; Mashour, George A; Avidan, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The red-hair phenotype, which is often produced by mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, has been associated with an increase in sedative, anesthetic, and analgesic requirements in both animal and human studies. Nevertheless, the clinical implications of this phenomenon in red-haired patients undergoing surgery are currently unknown. In a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of intraoperative awareness, red-haired patients were identified and matched with five control patients, and the relative risk for intraoperative awareness was determined. Overall anesthetic management between groups was compared using Hotelling's T(2) statistic. Inhaled anesthetic requirements were compared between cohorts by evaluating the relationship between end-tidal anesthetic concentration and the bispectral index with a linear mixed-effects model. Time to recovery was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and differences in postoperative pain and nausea/vomiting were evaluated with Chi square tests. A cohort of 319 red-haired patients was matched with 1,595 control patients for a sample size of 1,914. There were no significant differences in the relative risk of intraoperative awareness (relative risk = 1.67; 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 8.22), anesthetic management, recovery times, or postoperative pain between red-haired patients and control patients. The relationship between pharmacokinetically stable volatile anesthetic concentrations and bispectral index values differed significantly between red-haired patients and controls (P red-haired patients and controls in response to anesthetic and analgesic agents or in recovery parameters. These findings suggest that perioperative anesthetic and analgesic management should not be altered based on self-reported red-hair phenotype.

  11. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females.

  12. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  13. Blood transfusion requirement during liver transplantation is an important risk factor for mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abbas; Petrowsky, Henrik; Hong, Johnny C; Agopian, Vatche G; Kaldas, Fady M; Farmer, Douglas; Yersiz, Hasan; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2013-05-01

    Blood loss during liver transplantation is not incorporated into the dominant models for post-transplant survival. Our objective was to investigate blood transfusion requirement as a risk factor for mortality after liver transplantation, and to further analyze risk factors for intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and hepatectomy time. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 233 consecutive liver transplant recipients over a span of 3 years by a single experienced surgeon. Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. Independent risk factors for patient survival after liver transplantation were identified using Cox proportion hazard regression. Independent risk factors for intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and hepatectomy time were identified using logistic regression. Two factors were identified as significant predictors in multivariate analysis for survival after liver transplantation: hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2) and intraoperative blood transfusion requirement per unit (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.02). Threshold analysis revealed that intraoperative blood transfusion volume ≥28 units or 85(th) percentile (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.7) was a significant risk factor for patient survival. Four covariates were identified as significant risk factors for intraoperative blood requirement: warm ischemia time (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18), bilirubin (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08), previous surgery (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.9), and hepatectomy time (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02). The only risk factor for prolonged hepatectomy time was previous major abdominal surgery (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 9.5). Intraoperative blood transfusion requirement is an important risk factor for mortality after liver transplantation. The strongest risk factors for intraoperative blood transfusion requirement are warm ischemia time and bilirubin levels. Intraoperative blood loss and its risk factors should be incorporated into models to predict

  14. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  15. Mechanisms, Predisposing Factors, and Prognosis of Intraoperative Vertebral Subluxation During Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy in Surgical Correction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis Secondary to Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bang-Ping; Mao, Sai-Hu; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Qiu, Yong

    2017-08-15

    A retrospective study. To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in patients with AS with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research designed to conceptualize the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and discuss the complication-avoidance strategies and prognosis. A retrospective single-center review was performed for a consecutive series of 153 patients with AS with rigid thoracolumbar kyphosis who underwent one-level PSO from April 2000 to December 2013. The incidence of the VS at the level of PSO during correction was analyzed and the potential causative factors were investigated. VS occurred in six patients with the incidence being 3.9% in this patient cohort. The predisposing factors were (1) early fracture of the anterior cortex of the osteotomized vertebra (OV); (2) excessive decancellation from vertebral body causing parallel collapse of the vertebral column with significant loss of the ability to create local lordosis; (3) improper manual osteoclasis due to insufficient decancellation of the OV; and (4) inappropriate application of cantilever technique and concomitant long instrumentation. The early surgical complication involved one patient with cerebrospinal fluid leakage at the osteotomized site, but no devastating neurological deficits. During follow-up, bone healing and adaptive vertebral remodeling with no rod breakage were observed for all these six patients. Intraoperative VS was a rare occurrence associated with inappropriate manual manipulation of osteotomy, gap closure, and rod insertion. Neurological complication was a potential risk, but could be well prevented with extensive laminectomy and emergency actions favoring partial

  16. Intraoperative fluorescence delineation of head and neck cancer with a fluorescent anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, P B A A; van der Vorst, J R; Verbeek, F P R; Oliveira, S; Snoeks, T J A; Keereweer, S; Chan, B; Boonstra, M C; Frangioni, J V; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Vahrmeijer, A L; Lowik, C W G M

    2014-06-01

    Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a technology with high potential to provide the surgeon with real-time visualization of tumors during surgery. Our study explores the feasibility for clinical translation of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting nanobody for intraoperative imaging and resection of orthotopic tongue tumors and cervical lymph node metastases. The anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 and the negative control nanobody R2 were conjugated to the NIR fluorophore IRDye800CW (7D12-800CW and R2-800CW). Orthotopic tongue tumors were induced in nude mice using the OSC-19-luc2-cGFP cell line. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with 25 µg 7D12-800CW, R2-800CW or 11 µg 800CW. Subsequently, other mice were injected with 50 or 75 µg of 7D12-800CW. The FLARE imaging system and the IVIS spectrum were used to identify, delineate and resect the primary tumor and cervical lymph node metastases. All tumors could be clearly identified using 7D12-800CW. A significantly higher tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) was observed in mice injected with 7D12-800CW compared to mice injected with R2-800CW and 800CW. The highest average TBR (2.00 ± 0.34 and 2.72 ± 0.17 for FLARE and IVIS spectrum, respectively) was observed 24 hr after administration of the EGFR-specific nanobody. After injection of 75 µg 7D12-800CW cervical lymph node metastases could be clearly detected. Orthotopic tongue tumors and cervical lymph node metastases in a mouse model were clearly identified intraoperatively using a recently developed fluorescent EGFR-targeting nanobody. Translation of this approach to the clinic would potentially improve the rate of radical surgical resections. © 2013 UICC.

  17. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  18. A Novel Stress-Diathesis Model to Predict Risk of Post-operative Delirium: Implications for Intra-operative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée El-Gabalawy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI carbon dioxide (CO2 stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD.Methods: The study was approved by the ethics board at the University of Manitoba and registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02126215. Twelve patients were studied. Pre-operative psychiatric symptom measures and neuropsychological testing preceded MRI featuring a BOLD MRI CO2 stress test whereby BOLD scans were conducted while exposing participants to a rigorously controlled CO2 stimulus. During surgery the patient had hemodynamics and end-tidal gases downloaded at 0.5 hz. Post-operatively, the presence of POD and POD severity was comprehensively assessed using the Confusion Assessment Measure –Severity (CAM-S scoring instrument on days 0 (surgery through post-operative day 5, and patients were followed up at least 1 month post-operatively.Results: Six of 12 patients had no evidence of POD (non-POD. Three patients had POD and 3 had clinically significant confusional states (referred as subthreshold POD; ST-POD (score ≥ 5/19 on the CAM-S. Average severity for delirium was 1.3 in the non-POD group, 3.2 in ST-POD, and 6.1 in POD (F-statistic = 15.4, p < 0.001. Depressive symptoms, and cognitive measures of semantic fluency and executive functioning/processing speed were significantly associated with POD. Second level analysis revealed an increased inverse BOLD responsiveness to CO2 pre-operatively in ST-POD and marked increase in the POD groups when compared to the non-POD group. An association was also noted for

  19. Surgical risk factors and maxillary nerve function after le fort I osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Norholt, SE

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Data on intraoperative risk factors for long-term postoperative complications after Le Fort I osteotomy (LFO) are limited. The aim of this study was to describe prospectively the overall postoperative changes in maxillary nerve function after LFO, and to correlate these changes with a nu......PURPOSE: Data on intraoperative risk factors for long-term postoperative complications after Le Fort I osteotomy (LFO) are limited. The aim of this study was to describe prospectively the overall postoperative changes in maxillary nerve function after LFO, and to correlate these changes...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  1. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  2. Risk factor based investing:case: MSCI risk factor indices

    OpenAIRE

    Pieskä, J. (Jukka)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study risk factor based investing and test how well MSCI constructs their risk factor based indices. Risk factor based investing has gained a lot of media exposure in the recent years and “Smart Beta” products are becoming more popular. Blackrock estimated that there are more than 700 exchange traded products available and they have over $ 529 billion in assets under management. Risk fa...

  3. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  4. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  5. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  6. Incidence and risk factors for chronic uveitis following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Kim, Stephen Jae; Chomsky, Amy; Saboori, Mazeyar

    2013-04-01

    To determine the incidence of and associated risk factors for uveitis after cataract surgery. A total of 17,757 eyes were identified and records of 42 eyes that developed uveitis and 2320 eyes that did not were reviewed. Postsurgical uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation for ≥ 6 months after surgery. Forty-two eyes of 35 patients developed uveitis (0.24%). Eleven patients underwent consecutive cataract surgery but developed unilateral uveitis, and intraoperative complications occurred in 55% of uveitic eyes compared to 0% in fellow eyes (p < 0.05). Median duration of inflammation was 8 and 11.5 months in eyes with and without vitrectomy (p < 0.05). Intraocular complications occurred in 44 and 8.3% of eyes that did and did not develop uveitis, respectively (p = 0.01). Postsurgical uveitis developed after approximately 1 in 400 cataract surgeries and occurred more frequently in eyes experiencing intraoperative complications.

  7. Intra-operative techniques to reduce the risk of capsular contracture in patients undergoing aesthetic breast augmentation - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsnell, J D; Searle, A E; Harris, P A

    2017-10-01

    Capsular contracture is a significant complication following aesthetic breast augmentation. Efforts to reduce this incidence have focused on the surgical approach, implant selection and IV antibiotics. Intra-operative methods to reduce the risk have had less investigation. This review focuses on these interventions and will document evidence to support pocket irrigation, nipple shields, drains and the use of an implant insertion funnel. A comprehensive review of Pubmed, Scopus and Embase was performed to identify relevant papers published since 2000. These were reviewed and pertinent papers selected. Data regarding the intervention and its impact were recorded and compared. Ten relevant studies were identified. A total of 11,772 patients were included in the studies, with a pooled capsular contracture rate of 2.54%. Six papers reported the use of antibiotic irrigation, two papers reported the use of drains, two the use of an insertion funnel, two the use of povidone-iodine and one the use of nipple shields. Antibiotic irrigation was shown to reduce capsular contracture 10 fold in two papers, have no effect in one and increase it in a further paper. However these changes did not persist after multivariate analysis. There was limited evidence to support intra-operative techniques to reduce capsular contracture rate. Where available the literature tends to support the use of antibiotic and povidone-iodine irrigation, the use of insertion funnels and nipple shields and the avoidance of drains. However due to the poor quality of the evidence these findings should be treated cautiously. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Recurrent diverticulitis - risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Z; Slováček, R; Sankot, J

    2013-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a common illness, especially in the elderly population. It may be asymptomatic and cause chronic intestinal problems, colonic diverticular bleeding or inflammatory complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. We have attempted at finding factors that would help us identify patients with a higher risk of diverticulitis recurrence as well as patients with a higher likelihood of perforated diverticulitis. This retrospective study included all patients admitted to our surgical ward for inflammatory complications of diverticular disease between 2000 and 2012: 278 patients, 88 men and 190 women. We looked up the first attack of diverticulitis in our documentation as well as the relapses, if any, their number and course, and the time from the first attack to the relapse. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, overweight, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, gastroduodenal disease), nicotine abuse and medication (glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs, acetylsalicylic acid) on diverticulitis recurrence and its complicated course. We compared the results of conservative and surgical therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test and Man-Whitney U tests. We did not demonstrate any statistically significant dependence of diverticulitis recurrence on age or gender. Colectomy (both acute and elective surgery) clearly decreases the likelihood of recurrence (p=0.00007). Comorbidities, nicotine abuse and medication were not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Steroid and immunosuppressive drugs use was significantly associated with higher perforation rates, without impacting on the likelihood of recurrence. Regular smoking of cigarettes had no impact on recurrence or on its severity. We did not find any reliable indicator of recurrent diverticulitis. Age, gender, comorbidities, smoking and medication are not significant. Immunocompromised

  9. Increased risk of intraoperative and early postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture with uncemented stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Solgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    .4 per 10 years, CI: 1.2-1.6) were associated with increased risk of periprosthetic femoral fracture when analyzed using multivariable regression analysis. Interpretation - Uncemented femoral components were associated with an increased risk of early periprosthetic femoral fractures, especially...

  10. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  11. Risk factors of postoperative pneumonia after lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jin, Sang-Man; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jun; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yang, Seok-Chul; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Han, Sung Koo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Shim, Young Soo; Kim, Young Whan

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of postoperative pneumonia (POP) after lung cancer surgery. The 417 lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection in a tertiary referral hospital were included. Clinical, radiological and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively. Male and female ratio was 267:150 (median age, 65 yr). The incidence of POP was 6.2% (26 of 417) and in-hospital mortality was 27% among those patients. By univariate analysis, age ≥ 70 yr (P pneumonia (P = 0.020), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) risk of POP. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 70 yr (OR = 3.563, P = 0.014), intraoperative RBC transfusion (OR = 4.669, P = 0.033), the presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (OR = 3.032, P = 0.046), and FEV(1)/FVC risk factors of POP. In conclusion, patients with advanced age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative complications other than pneumonia and a decreased FEV(1)/FVC ratio have a higher risk for pneumonia after lung cancer surgery.

  12. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  13. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  14. EnViSoRS: Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery. A User-Defined Safety Volume Tracking to Minimize the Risk of Intraoperative Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Penza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In abdominal surgery, intraoperative bleeding is one of the major complications that affect the outcome of minimally invasive surgical procedures. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins, and one of the possible risk factors falls on the surgeon’s skills. This paper presents the development and application of an Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery (EnViSoRS, based on a user-defined Safety Volume (SV tracking to minimize the risk of intraoperative bleeding. It aims at enhancing the surgeon’s capabilities by providing Augmented Reality (AR assistance toward the protection of vessels from injury during the execution of surgical procedures with a robot. The core of the framework consists in (i a hybrid tracking algorithm (LT-SAT tracker that robustly follows a user-defined Safety Area (SA in long term; (ii a dense soft tissue 3D reconstruction algorithm, necessary for the computation of the SV; (iii AR features for visualization of the SV to be protected and of a graphical gage indicating the current distance between the instruments and the reconstructed surface. EnViSoRS was integrated with a commercial robotic surgical system (the dVRK system for testing and validation. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the accuracy, robustness, performance, and usability of EnViSoRS during the execution of a simulated surgical task on a liver phantom. Results show an overall accuracy in accordance with surgical requirements (<5 mm, and high robustness in the computation of the SV in terms of precision and recall of its identification. The optimization strategy implemented to speed up the computational time is also described and evaluated, providing AR features update rate up to 4 fps, without impacting the real-time visualization of the stereo endoscopic video. Finally, qualitative results regarding the system usability indicate that the proposed system integrates well with the commercial surgical robot and

  15. Preoperative risk factors for haemodynamic instability during pheochromocytoma surgery in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minchun; Ding, Huanyu; Liang, Ying; Tang, Juying; Lin, Ying; Xiang, Kexu; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Shaoling

    2018-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma surgery carries a high risk of haemodynamic instability (HI). However, there are few studies investigating the risk factors for HI for pheochromocytoma surgery in a Chinese population. Therefore, our objective was to identify preoperative risk factors for HI during surgery in a Chinese population with pheochromocytoma. In this retrospective study, 134 patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma at a single university-affiliated hospital between November 2002 and July 2017 were enrolled. Demographics, comorbidities, preoperative medical preparation, operation details and perioperative haemodynamics of these patients were retrospectively collected and analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the preoperative risk factors for intraoperative HI. 32.8% (44/134) patients suffered from intraoperative HI. According to the result of multivariate analysis, tumour diameter >50 mm (odds ratio [OR] 2.526; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.163-5.485; P = .019), diabetes/prediabetes (OR 2.251; 95% CI 1.039-4.876; P = .040) and preoperative systolic blood pressure fluctuation >50 mm Hg (OR 3.163; 95% CI 1.051-9.522, P = .041) were independent predictors for intraoperative HI. The observed incidence of HI was 8.9%, 42.6%, 47.8% and 60% when zero, one, two or three risk factors were present, respectively. HI is common among Chinese patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma. Our study identified three predictive factors for intraoperative HI: a large tumour diameter, diabetes/prediabetes and a great preoperative systolic blood pressure fluctuation. Furthermore, patients are more likely to suffer from HI when they have more predictive risk factors. Identification of these risk factors can help to improve perioperative management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk factors for hypertensive attack during pheochromocytoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Yun Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the risk factors for hypertensive attack during adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Despite the development of newer surgical and anesthetic techniques for the management of pheochromocytoma, intraoperative hypertensive attack continues to present a challenge. Materials and Methods: Data from 53 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma at Kyungpook National Uriversity Medical Center between January 2000 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of hypertensive attack at the time of surgery. Patient demographic characteristics and preoperative evaluations were assessed for their prognostic relevance with respect to hypertensive attack. A univariate analysis was conducted, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Results: In the univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure at presentation, preoperative hormonal status (including epinephrine, norepinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, and metanephrine levels in a 24-hour urine sample, tumor size, and postoperative systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the development of hypertensive attack. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative epinephrine level and tumor size were independent factors that predicted hypertensive attack. The highest odds ratio for tumor size (2.169 was obtained at a cutoff value of 4.25 cm and the highest odds ratio for preoperative epinephrine (1.020 was obtained at a cutoff value of 166.3 μg/d. Conclusions: In this study, a large tumor size and an elevated preoperative urinary epinephrine level were risk factors for intraoperative hypertensive attack in patients with pheochromocytoma.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  18. [Risk factors related to surgical site infection in elective surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for surgical site infections in surgery should be measured and monitored from admission to 30 days after the surgical procedure, because 30% of Surgical Site Infection is detected when the patient was discharged. Calculate the Relative Risk of associated factors to surgical site infections in adult with elective surgery. Patients were classified according to the surgery contamination degree; patient with surgery clean was defined as no exposed and patient with clean-contaminated or contaminated surgery was defined exposed. Risk factors for infection were classified as: inherent to the patient, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. Statistical analysis; we realized Student t or Mann-Whitney U, chi square for Relative Risk (RR) and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards. Were monitored up to 30 days after surgery 403 patients (59.8% women), 35 (8.7%) developed surgical site infections. The factors associated in multivariate analysis were: smoking, RR of 3.21, underweight 3.4 hand washing unsuitable techniques 4.61, transfusion during the procedure 3.22, contaminated surgery 60, and intensive care stay 8 to 14 days 11.64, permanence of 1 to 3 days 2.4 and use of catheter 1 to 3 days 2.27. To avoid all risk factors is almost impossible; therefore close monitoring of elective surgery patients can prevent infectious complications.

  19. Transversus abdominis plane block in combination with general anesthesia provides better intraoperative hemodynamic control and quicker recovery than general anesthesia alone in high-risk abdominal surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, M; Takahashi, R; Furukawa, A; Suehiro, K; Mizutani, K; Nishikawa, K

    2012-11-01

    Patients with severe cardiovascular disease are frequently hemodynamically unstable during abdominal surgery. Improving the safety of such patients by stabilizing intraoperative hemodynamics remains a major concern for anesthesiologists. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in combination with general anesthesia may facilitate optimum anesthetic management of these high-risk patients. Patients with cardiovascular disease classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 3 were enrolled. The patients were undergoing elective abdominal surgery and were randomized to a group receiving general anesthesia and TAP block (Group T, N.=33) or a group receiving general anesthesia alone (Group G, N.=35). We compared the groups for intraoperative hemodynamic stability, anesthesia emergence time, amounts of anesthetics and opioids given, and frequency of emergency treatment with cardiovascular agents. A preliminary study demonstrated that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained stable within 70-110% of their preanesthesia values throughout surgery in ASA 1 elderly patients without cardiovascular disease. Thus, the hemodynamically stable time was defined as the time when systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 70-110% of their preanesthesia values. The ratio of hemodynamically stable time to total operative time was used as an index of hemodynamic stability. The median (minimum-maximum) percentage of hemodynamically stable time was longer in Group T (91[50-100]%) than Group G (79[40-91]%, Pabdominal surgery in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, combining TAP block with general anesthesia promotes intraoperative hemodynamic stability and early emergence from anesthesia.

  20. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  1. Risk factors and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Jusufović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.

  2. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212 ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  3. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  4. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  5. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Soyama

    Full Text Available Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa.We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38% developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00, need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25, and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13 were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to

  6. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to investigate whether

  7. Primary Gallbladder Lymphoma in a Male Patient with No Risk Factors Detected Incidentally by CT Colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Monil; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios; Patel, Ketan; Rafique, Akkib; Sheth, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Primary gallbladder lymphoma, although rare, usually presents in females with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. We present a rare case of primary gallbladder in an 81-year-old male with no risk factors whose only symptom was weight loss. Routine blood tests including liver function tests were unremarkable. A CT colonography was carried out to exclude colonic malignancy. Unilateral gallbladder wall thickening and lymphadenopathy were incidentally detected and confirmed by ultrasound and a decision for the patient to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiogram was made. Histology confirmed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with follow-up staging and biopsy of the bone marrow not demonstrating spread. Cholecystectomy was therefore deemed curative and no adjuvant therapy was necessary. Thickening of the gallbladder wall on any imaging with or without symptoms should not be ignored or assumed to be cholecystitis, even in males with no risk factors. In these patients urgent cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram is indicated with histology and haematology follow-up.

  8. INTRAOPERATIVE PREDONATION CONTRIBUTES TO BLOOD SAVING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; BREDEE, JJ; TJIAN, D; EVERTS, PAM; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1993-01-01

    The merits of reinfusing prebypass-removed autologous blood (intraoperative predonation) to salvage blood and improve postoperative hemostasis are still debated, specifically for patients at a higher risk for bleeding. To evaluate the effect of intraoperative predonation on the platelet count, blood

  9. Incidental intracardiac thromboemboli during liver transplantation: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Victor W; Ho, Jonathan K; Nourmand, Hamid; Wray, Christopher; Busuttil, Ronald W; Steadman, Randolph H

    2010-12-01

    Even though numerous cases of massive thromboemboli have been reported in the literature, intracardiac thromboemboli (ICTs) incidentally found during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have not been examined. In this study, we retrospectively examined the incidence, risk factors, and management of incidental ICTs during OLT. After institutional review board approval, adult patients who underwent OLT between January 2004 and December 2008 at our center were reviewed. ICTs were identified and confirmed by the examination of OLT datasheets, anesthesia records, and recorded transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) clips. The clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of the patients with ICTs were reviewed. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. During the study period, 426 of the 936 adult OLT patients (45.5%) underwent intraoperative TEE monitoring. Incidental ICTs were identified in 8 of these 426 patients (1.9%). Two ICTs occurred before reperfusion, and 6 ICTs occurred after reperfusion. The treatment was at the discretion of the treating physicians; however, none of the patients received an anticoagulant or thrombolytics. Multivariate analysis identified 2 independent risk factors for intraoperative incidental ICTs: the presence of symptomatic or surgically treated portal hypertension (a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure, or portocaval shunt surgery) before OLT and intraoperative hemodialysis (odds ratios of 4.05 and 7.29, respectively; P ICTs during OLT occurred at a rate of 1.9% and were associated with several preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. The use of TEE allows early identification, which may be important. Our management for incidental ICTs is described; however, no conclusions can be made about the optimal therapy. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  11. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should...

  13. Intraoperative adverse events associated with extremely preterm cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholdt, Charline; Menard, Sophie; Delorme, Pierre; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Goffinet, François; Le Ray, Camille

    2018-05-01

    At the same time as survival is increasing among premature babies born before 26 weeks of gestation, the rates of cesarean deliveries before 26 weeks is also rising. Our purpose was to compare the frequency of intraoperative adverse events during cesarean deliveries in two gestational age groups: 24-25 weeks and 26-27 weeks. This single-center retrospective cohort study included all women with cesarean deliveries performed before 28 +0 weeks from 2007 through 2015. It compared the frequency of intraoperative adverse events between two groups: those at 24-25 weeks of gestation and at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events were a classical incision, transplacental incision, difficulty in fetal extraction (explicitly mentioned in the surgical report), postpartum hemorrhage (≥500 mL of blood loss), and injury to internal organs. A composite outcome including at least one of these events enabled us to analyze the risk factors for intraoperative adverse events with univariate and multivariable analysis. Stratified analyses by the indication for the cesarean were performed. We compared 74 cesarean deliveries at 24-25 weeks of gestation and 214 at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events occurred at higher rates in the 24-25-week group (63.5 vs. 30.8%, p cesarean. These results should help obstetricians and women making decisions about cesarean deliveries at these extremely low gestational ages. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. "Risk factors of birth asphyxia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish

    2014-12-20

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth

  15. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  16. The Clinical Value of Intraoperative Mobile Computed Tomography in Managing High-Risk Surgical Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury-A Single Tertiary Trauma Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-02-01

    A subset of surgically treated patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) cannot be stabilized by initial surgery. Mobile computed tomography (CT) provides real-time information for diagnosis in these TBI surgically high-risk (TBI-SHR) patients. The objective of this study was to analyze a 5-year series of TBI-SHR patients to evaluate the impact of intraoperative mobile CT (imCT) on prognosis. Of 1017 surgically treated patients with TBI retrospectively reviewed over a 5-year period (2009-2013), 59 patients required second operations within 72 hours of their initial surgery because of progressive or delayed hematomas (TBI-SHR group). Their clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings were compared among 19 patients who received imCT versus 40 patients who received fixed-unit CT. Our TBI-SHR group accounted for 5.8% of all surgically treated patients with TBI. The use of imCT led to a change in surgical plan in 56% of patients with TBI intraoperatively. Younger patients (≤55 years; P 20 mm Hg or acute brain swelling after adequate decompression (P = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) significantly benefited from imCT in the TBI-SHR group. imCT also provided a quicker diagnosis (P < 0.001), led to a trend toward shorter intensive care unit stays (P = 0.077), and was associated with better neurologic outcomes at discharge days (P = 0.044). The use of imCT is associated with better neurologic outcomes at discharge days compared with the use of fixed-unit CT in TBI-SHR patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Soares, Evelyn Figueira; Santos, Cecília Andrade; Figueiredo, Omar Jacobina; Lima, Renato Oliveira Albuquerque; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; de Rueda, Fábio Gonçalves; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Mediastinitis is a serious complication of median sternotomy and is associated to significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for mediastinitis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), without the use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA), at the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE. A retrospective study of 500 consecutive patients operated on between May 2007 and April 2010. Ten preoperative variables, seven intraoperative variables and seven postoperative variables possibly involved in the development of postoperative mediastinitis were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. The incidence of mediastinitis was 5.6% (n=28), with a lethality rate of 32.1% (n=9). In multivariate analysis using logistic regression, five variables remained as independent risk factors: obesity (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.11 to 6.68), diabetes (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.18 to 6.65), smoking (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.67), use of pedicled internal thoracic artery (OR 5.17, 95% CI 1.45 to 18.42) and on-pump CABG (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.85). This study identified the following independent risk factors for mediastinitis after CABG: obesity, diabetes, smoking, use of pedicled ITA and on-pump CABG.

  18. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (p......RBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. METHODS: We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month...... period in 2013. RESULTS: The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone...

  19. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  20. Factors related to disagreement in implant size between preoperative CT-based planning and the actual implants used intraoperatively for total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Takao, Masaki; Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2017-12-13

    In total hip arthroplasty, prediction of the optimal implant size is important in order to prevent perioperative complications. However, it is not easy to achieve complete agreement between the planned size and the actual size required appropriate implant fit. No previous report has adequately discussed the factors related to mismatch between predicted and actual implant sizes. The purpose was to report the results of a single surgeon case series of patients undergoing THA using computed tomography (CT)-based templating and the possible factors related to implant size mismatch. The study included 141 hips of 126 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty with CT-based navigation. We retrospectively reviewed the planned and actual implant sizes used in these patients. Cup position, cup orientation and stem alignment were evaluated as surgical factors that could possibly be related to mismatch in implant size. Cortical index and canal flare index were also evaluated as morphological factors. The final inclusions in this study were 124 hips of 111 patients including 82% of those were developmental dysplasia of the hip. Agreement in implant size was seen for 94.4% of cups and 85.5% of stems, respectively. No related factors were found for cup size mismatch. Stem alignment in the sagittal and coronal planes showed significant differences between the size-matched stem group and the smaller stem group ([Formula: see text]). Implant size agreement rates between the three-dimensional plan and the actual implants used intraoperatively were high. However, broach alignment should be checked in the coronal and sagittal planes if the intraoperative broach is smaller than the planned size.

  1. Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velásquez-Forero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

  2. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  3. Risk factors for surgical site infection following operative ankle fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E G; Cashman, J P; Groarke, P J; Morris, S F

    2013-09-01

    Ankle fracture is a common injury and there is an increasingly greater emphasis on operative fixation. The purpose of the study was to determine the complication rate in this cohort of patients and, in doing so, determine risk factors which predispose to surgical site infection. A prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary referral trauma center examining risk factors for surgical site infection in operatively treated ankle fractures. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Female gender and advancing age were determined to be the risk factors in univariate analysis. Drain usage and peri-operative pyrexia were found to be significant for infection in multivariate analysis. This study allows surgeons to identify those at increased risk of infection and counsel them appropriately. It also allows for a high level of vigilance with regard to soft tissue handling intra-operatively in this higher risk group.

  4. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  5. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraoperative iatrogenic peripheral retinal break in 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy versus 20-gauge conventional vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong Min; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung; Chung, Hum

    2013-06-01

    To compare the incidence of intraoperative iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks (IPRBs) during 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) and conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy for various indications. This was a single-center, comparative, retrospective, interventional case series of 973 23-gauge TSVs and 402 conventional 20-gauge vitrectomies done by two surgeons between January 2004 and December 2009. The incidence rate of intraoperative IPRBs and risk factors were analyzed in association with various clinical and surgical factors. IPRBs occurred significantly less often during 23-gauge TSV (16 of 973 cases, 1.6 %) than during conventional vitrectomy (25 of 402 cases, 6.2 %, Pgauge TSV procedure with the trocar system has a lower incidence of intraoperative IPRBs than conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy. Longer operation time and induction of PVD are also independent risk factors of the complication.

  7. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Risk factors for diarrheal duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, N M; Caulfield, L E; Black, R E; Macharia, W M

    1997-11-01

    To identify child feeding behavior and household hygiene practices that are risk factors for prolonged diarrheal illness, a longitudinal community study was conducted over a 14-month period among 920 children aged 3-37 months who lived in an urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Morbidity surveillance was done by home visits every third day in the absence of diarrhea and daily during diarrheal illness until termination of the episode. In-home observations were made to characterize maternal hygiene, cooking, and child feeding practices. Overall, 1,496 episodes of diarrhea were detected. The average diarrheal incidence was 3.5 episodes/child-year, and the incidence of diarrhea > 14 days was 3 episodes/100 child-years. Cox regression was used to examine the independent effects of covariates on time to recovery from a diarrheal episode. Adjusted behavioral factors that were observed to influence recovery from diarrhea included: uncovered water containers (rate ratio (RR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.94); giving no fluids (as opposed to oral rehydration solutions (ORS)/sugar salt solutions (SSS)) (RR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77); and administration of diluted cow's milk during the first 3 days of an episode (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52). These associations remained significant after adjusting for diarrheal severity. The authors recommend, among other measures, improvement of water storage and promotion of continued feeding with cereal-milk mix during diarrhea.

  9. Impact of intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy on organ/space surgical site infection in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Duan, X; Xu, J; Jin, Q; Chen, F; Wang, P; Yang, Y; Tang, X

    2015-11-01

    Various risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) have been identified such as age, overweight, duration of surgery, blood loss, etc. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy during surgery is a common procedure in patients with gastric cancer, yet its impact on SSI has not been evaluated. To evaluate whether intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a key risk factor for organ/space SSI in patients with gastric cancer. All patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery between January 2008 and December 2013 were studied. The organ/space SSI rates were compared between patients who received intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy and patients who did not receive intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the risk factors for organ/space SSI were analysed by univariate and multi-variate regression analyses. The microbial causes of organ/space SSI were also identified. Of the eligible 845 patients, 356 received intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the organ/space SSI rate was higher in these patients compared with patients who did not receive intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (9.01% vs 3.88%; P = 0.002). Univariate analysis confirmed the significance of this finding (odds ratio 2.443; P = 0.003). As a result, hospital stay was increased in patients who received intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy {mean 20.91 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.76-22.06] vs 29.72 days (95% CI 25.46-33.99); P = 0.000}. The results also suggested that intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be associated with more Gram-negative bacterial infections. Intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a significant risk factor for organ/space SSI in patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Prenatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia: how risk for each?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Li; He, Rui-Zhi; Peng, Qian; Guo, Ke-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qiong; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal asphyxia is the third leading cause of neonatal death and main cause of long-term neurodevelopmental handicap throughout the world. Prevention is more important than treatment. Most previous reports are limited to retrospective investigations of the relationships between some prenatal risk factors and low Apgar scores. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the relationship between prenatal risk factors and neonatal asphyxia and the influence of single or multiple risk factors on the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and examine significant risk factors for neonatal asphyxia. From April 2002 through October 2004, a total of 10 376 live-born newborns were enrolled. Forty-six prenatal risk factors were investigated. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on the following four items: 1. 1-min Apgar score asphyxia was analyzed. The significant risk factors were screened by single logistic regression analysis and forward stepwise conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, with enrolled threshold alphaor=0.10 and pasphyxia occurred in 117 cases (1.13%) out of the 8 530 cases. In the 1 846 cases without risk factors, none had asphyxia (x2=25.6, pasphyxia increased with increasing numbers of risk factors, from 0.23% in newborns with one risk factor to 14.29% in newborns who had nine risk factors (r=0.96, pasphyxia by systematically examining prenatal risk factors and giving interventions for the newborns with risk factors, especially those with the above significant risk factors or with multiple risk factors. Proper cesareon section according to indications might be helpful to decrease the incidence of birth asphyxia.

  11. the incidence and risk factors for intra-operative hypothermia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... 99.9 ± 83.9min, that reported by Abelha et al. (5) was. 218 ± 108min while the patients in this study had an average length of general anaesthesia of 79 ± 42min. Unfortunately the studies quoted did not report their ambient theatre temperatures and comparisons cannot be drawn. The incidence of 30% is ...

  12. FMECA Application to Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiotherapy Procedure As a Quality Method to Prevent and Reduce Patient’s Risk in Conservative Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Vidali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFailure Mode Effects and Criticalities Analysis (FMECA represents a prospective method for risk assessment in complex medical practices. Our objective was to describe the application of FMECA approach to intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT, delivered using a mobile linear accelerator, for the treatment of early breast cancer as an anticipated boost.Materials and methodsA multidisciplinary Working Group, including several different professional profiles, was created before the beginning of clinical practice in 2012, with the purpose of writing the Flow Chart and applying the FMECA methodology to IOERT procedure. Several criticalities were identified a priori in the different steps of the procedure and a list of all potential failure modes (FMs was drafted and ranked using the risk priority number (RPN scoring system, based on the product of three parameters: severity, occurrence, and detectability (score between 1 and 5. The actions aimed at reducing the risk were then defined by the Working Group and the risk analysis was repeated in 2014 and in 2016, in order to assess the improvement achieved.ResultsFifty-one FMs were identified, which represented the issues prospectively investigated according to the FMECA methodology. Considering a set threshold of 30, the evaluated RPNs show that 33 out of 51 FMs are critical; 6 are included in the moderate risk class (RPN: 31–40; 16 in the intermediate risk class (RPN: 41–50, and 11 in the high risk class (RPN: >50.DiscussionThe most critical steps concerned the surgical procedure and IOERT set-up. The introduction of the corrective actions into the clinical practice achieved the reduction of the RPNs in the re-analysis of the FMECA worksheet after 2 and 4 years, respectively.ConclusionFMECA proved to be a useful tool for prospective evaluation of potential failures in IOERT and contributed to optimize patient safety and to improve risk management culture among all the

  13. The efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of intra-operative cell salvage in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a prospective randomized and controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yihong; Shen, Sheliang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenyuan; Zheng, Jiayin

    2015-01-01

    Intra-operative cell salvage (CS) was reported to be ineffective, safe and not cost-effective in low-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but studies in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of intra-operative CS in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with CPB. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly assigned to either with intra-operative CS group (Group CS) or without intra-operative CS group (Group C). Study endpoints were defined as perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, perioperative impairment of blood coagulative function, postoperative adverse events and costs of transfusion-related. Both the proportion and quantity of perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion were significantly lower in Group CS than that in Group C (p=0.0002, operative CS in high-bleeding-risk cardiac surgery with CPB is effective, generally safe, and cost-effective in developed countries but not in China.

  14. Analysis of radiation risk to patients from intra-operative use of the mobile X-ray system (C-arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Sub Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical applications of mobile C-arms and consequent radiation risk, to increase medical attention on radiation protection, and to provide basic data for safe radiation use in the operating room. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 374 surgical operations, conducted using a portable fluoroscopic X-ray system from January to March of 2013, were analyzed. Dose summaries produced by the General Electric C-arm and data elements in digital imaging and communications in the medicine header of Ziehm C-arm, fluoroscopy time were used to obtain dose-area product (DAP and effective dose. Corresponding mean and maximum values were calculated, and the resulting data on the frequency of application, fluoroscopy time, DAP, and effective dose were compared and analyzed in terms of surgical specialty and operation types. Results: Orthopedic surgery was the most frequent with 165 cases (44.1%. The highest DAP value and effective dose were found in liver transplant among surgical specialty fields, with mean values of 2.90 ± 3.76 mGy∙m 2 and 58 ± 75.2 mSv, respectively (P = 0.0001. The highest DAP value and effective dose were observed in intra-operative mesenteric portography among types of surgery, showing mean values of 2.90 ± 3.81 mGy∙m 2 and 58.03 ± 76.24 mSv, respectively (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Because DAP varies significantly across surgical specialties and types of operation, aggressive efforts to understand the effects of radiation dose is critical for radiation protection from intra-operative use of mobile C-arms.

  15. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients.

  16. Polyhydramnios. Risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.

  17. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: The specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A.; Kubyshin, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. Material and methods: A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal–oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Results: Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into ‘treatment cancellation’ and ‘delivering an unintended dose’. They were graded from ‘inconvenience’ or ‘suboptimal treatment’ to ‘total cancellation’ or ‘potentially wrong’ or ‘very wrong administered dose’, although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. Conclusions: FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure

  18. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: the specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A; Kubyshin, Yuri; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into 'treatment cancellation' and 'delivering an unintended dose'. They were graded from 'inconvenience' or 'suboptimal treatment' to 'total cancellation' or 'potentially wrong' or 'very wrong administered dose', although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  20. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruţa Florina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  1. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  2. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  3. Analysis of the risk factors for development of post-operative extradural hematoma after intracranial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Joo, Wonil; Chough, Chung Kee; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Rha, Hyoung Kyun

    2015-04-01

    Post-operative extradural hematoma (EDH) is a relatively common complication in patients undergoing intracranial operations. The risk factors associated with the occurrence of EDH are not well described in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors and the incidence of post-operative EDH adjacent and regional to the craniotomy or the craniectomy site. This was a retrospective study of 24 (2.6% of total) patients who underwent extradural hematoma evacuation after primary intracranial supratentorial surgery between January 2005 and December 2011. During this period, 941 intracranial operations were performed. The control group (72 patients) was selected on the basis of having undergone the same pre-operative diagnosis and treatment within 2 months of the operations for the 24 hematoma patients. The Glasgow Coma Scale score and operation character (emergency or elective) of the hematoma and control group were individually matched to minimize pre-operative conditional bias. The ages of both groups were individually matched with similar ages within 10 years of each other to minimize age bias. Univariate analysis showed that the significant pre-operative and intra-operative factors associated with post-operative EDH were an intra-operative blood loss of greater than 800 mL (p=0.007), maximal craniotomy length of greater than or equal to 100 mm (p=0.001), and craniotomy area of greater than or equal to 71.53 cm2 (p=0.018). In multivariate analysis, intra-operative blood loss exceeding 800 mL (median of total patients) placed a patient at significantly increased risk for post-operative EDH. The data did not examine established risk factors for post-operative hematoma, such as thrombocytopenia, anti-coagulant and anti-platelet therapy, and a history of heavy alcohol consumption and/or tobacco intake. Recognizing the limitations of the study, large intra-operative blood loss and wide craniotomy area are implicated with an increased risk of

  4. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present. History of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia: Women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia have an increased risk of future hypertension and stroke one to 30 years after delivery. Hypertension: Women with chronic primary or secondary hypertension, ...

  5. Clinical analysis of risk factors contributing to recurrence of pterygium after excision and graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Ha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To find the risk factors related to the reproliferation of the pterygial tissue after excision and graft surgery.METHODS:Charts of 130 eyes of 130 patients who had pterygial excision from March 2006 to April 2011 were reviewed. Preoperative pterygium morphology, surgical methods, and adjunctive treatments were statistically analyzed for their relationship with recurrence.RESULTS: During the follow-up period, recurrence was observed in 20 eyes (15.4%. None of the preoperative morphologic features were affected the rate of the recurrence. However, an age < 40y [P =0.085, odds ratio (OR 3.609, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.838-15.540] and amniotic membrane graft instead of conjunctival autograft (P =0.002, OR 9.093, 95% CI 2.316-35.698 were statistically significant risk factors for recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC (P=0.072, OR 0.298, 95% CI 0.080-1.115 decreased the rate of recurrence.CONCLUSION:Younger age is a risk factor for reproliferation of pterygial tissue after excision and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT are less effective in preventing recurrence of pterygium after excision based on the comparison between conjunctival autograft and AMT. Intraoperative MMC application and conjunctival autograft reduce recurrence.

  6. Do Stroke Patients Know Their Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomann, Maarja; Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Janika

    2016-03-01

    Risk factor management is the key to stroke prevention. Although several studies have assessed the awareness of different risk factors in the general public, there are limited data available on how well acute stroke patients know their own risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess stroke patients' informedness of their own stroke risk factors. All consecutive eligible acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients hospitalized at the Tartu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, during 9 months in 2010 were interviewed about different stroke risk factors within 72 hours from hospitalization. The respective information was also retrieved from medical records. Of the 341 patients admitted during the study period, 195 were eligible for the interview. Diabetes was the best known risk factor (89%) followed by hypertension (80%), atrial fibrillation (78%), previous stroke (77%), and heart failure and/or ischemic heart disease (66%). We found that acute stroke patients are best informed of their diabetes and worst informed of their ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. There is, however, room for amelioration in the awareness of all of the studied risk factors. More attention should be addressed to explaining the risks and treatment options to patients at risk of stroke and the general population. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...

  8. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  9. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... therapy. Several risk factors are shared between ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke and these have been well documented. Stroke has .... history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest.

  10. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  11. Lifestyle and other risk factors for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan K; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of the carriers of diverticula are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant diseases in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allow defining risk factors for the development of diverticulitis and its complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulitis and associated conditions reviewed. Besides non-controllable risk factors like age and sex, lifestyle factors like food, drinks and physical activity, drugs are described to increase or decrease the risk to develop diverticulitis or to suffer from complications. The recognition of risk factors for the development of diverticular disease or even complicated disease like lifestyle habits or medication is crucial for patient management.

  12. [Intraoperative multidimensional visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J; Kauffels, A; Grade, M; Alves, F; Kühn, P; Ghadimi, B M

    2016-12-01

    Modern intraoperative techniques of visualization are increasingly being applied in general and visceral surgery. The combination of diverse techniques provides the possibility of multidimensional intraoperative visualization of specific anatomical structures. Thus, it is possible to differentiate between normal tissue and tumor tissue and therefore exactly define tumor margins. The aim of intraoperative visualization of tissue that is to be resected and tissue that should be spared is to lead to a rational balance between oncological and functional results. Moreover, these techniques help to analyze the physiology and integrity of tissues. Using these methods surgeons are able to analyze tissue perfusion and oxygenation. However, to date it is not clear to what extent these imaging techniques are relevant in the clinical routine. The present manuscript reviews the relevant modern visualization techniques focusing on intraoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as augmented reality, fluorescence imaging and optoacoustic imaging.

  13. [Selective intraoperative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickuth, D; Leutloff, U

    1995-01-01

    Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still widely advocated and standard in many departments; however, it is controversial. We have developed a new diagnostic strategy for the detection of bile duct stones. The concept is based on an ultrasound examination and on screening for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis. A total of 120 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively screened for the presence of these six risk indicators: history of jaundice, history of pancreatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperamylasemia, dilated bile duct, and unclear ultrasound findings. The sensitivity of ultrasound and intraoperative cholangiography in diagnosing bile duct stones was also evaluated. For the detection of bile duct stones, the sensitivity was 77% for ultrasound and 100% for intraoperative cholangiography. Twenty percent of all patients had at least one risk indicator. The presence of a risk indicator correlated significantly with the presence of choledocholithiasis (P concept, we would have avoided 80% of intraoperative cholangiographies without missing a stone in the bile duct. This study lends further support to the view that routine use of intraoperative cholangiography is not necessary.

  14. Risk Factors Associated With Pressure Ulcer Formation in Critically Ill Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditi D; Preston, Ave M; Strauss, Robyn; Stamm, Rebecca; Zalman, Demetra C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery patients are among those most at risk for developing pressure ulcers (PUs), with a reported incidence as high as 29.5%. Although numerous studies documenting PU risk factors and prevention strategies exist, the availability of literature examining risk factors specific to the cardiac surgery population is limited. A systematic review was completed that aimed to identify the risk factors associated with PU development in critically ill, adult, cardiac surgery patients. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies that focused on PU risk factors in critical care, surgical intensive care, or cardiac surgery populations and used PU occurrences as an outcome variable were included in the review. Twelve high-quality studies were retrieved and included in the review; they revealed 30 potential PU risk factors. Current evidence is limited in 2 important ways. First, the impact of intraoperative factors, such as cardiopulmonary bypass time or body temperature, appears to be underexplored. Second, a substantive discussion of the risk factors associated specifically with deep tissue injuries, a unique PU category, is absent. The relatively high PU incidence among cardiac surgery patients suggests that typical PU prevention methods are insufficient for this population. Targeted prevention measures must be developed and implemented. Completion of this task required identification of risk factors unique to this population. Specific risk factors likely to increase risk among cardiac surgery patients include prolonged exposure to pressure during long surgical procedures, vascular disease, and/or vasopressor use postoperatively. Additional research concerning risk factors specific to this population is urgently needed.

  15. Intraoperative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, J C; Schichor, C; Schnell, O; Zausinger, S; Uhl, E; Morhard, D; Reiser, M

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) has gained increasing impact among modern neurosurgical techniques. Multislice CT with a sliding gantry in the OR provides excellent diagnostic image quality in the visualization of vascular lesions as well as bony structures including skull base and spine. Due to short acquisition times and a high spatial and temporal resolution, various modalities such as iCT-angiography, iCT-cerebral perfusion and the integration of intraoperative navigation with automatic re-registration after scanning can be performed. This allows a variety of applications, e.g. intraoperative angiography, intraoperative cerebral perfusion studies, update of cerebral and spinal navigation, stereotactic procedures as well as resection control in tumour surgery. Its versatility promotes its use in a multidisciplinary setting. Radiation exposure is comparable to standard CT systems outside the OR. For neurosurgical purposes, however, new hardware components (e.g. a radiolucent headholder system) had to be developed. Having a different range of applications compared to intraoperative MRI, it is an attractive modality for intraoperative imaging being comparatively easy to install and cost efficient.

  16. Risk factors for perinephric hematoma formation after shockwave lithotripsy: a matched case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Hassan; Fuller, Andrew; Nott, Linda; Méndez-Probst, Carlos E; Leistner, Rasmus; Foell, Kirsten; Davé, Sumit; Denstedt, John D

    2012-11-01

    To determine the incidence of and evaluate the potential risk of a symptomatic perinephric hematoma (PNH) after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) with the Storz Modulith SLX-F2 device. Patient and treatment-related data from 6172 SWL treatments for proximal ureteral and kidney stones were collected prospectively from April 2006 to August 2010. Patients in whom signs or symptoms of a PNH developed after SWL were investigated with imaging studies. Each patient identified with a PNH was matched with four controls using sex, age (±5 years), shockwave rate, energy and number, and no SWL within the previous 6 months as the matching variables. The baseline characteristics of the 21 cases and 84 controls were compared using the Student t test. The independent variables of hypertension (intraoperative value >140/90 mm Hg), anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs, obesity (body mass index ≥30), and diabetes were compared using a conditional logistic regression analysis. The dependent variable was hematoma. A PNH developed after SWL with the Storz Modulith SLX-F2 device in 21 (0.34%) adult patients (19 men, 2 women) with a mean age of 55.2 years. Significant risk factors identified included intraoperative hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] 3.302, 1.066-10.230, P=0.0384) and anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications (HR 4.198, 1.103-15.984, P=0.0355). Diabetes (P=0.1043) and obesity (P=0.1021) were not associated with PNH. A clinical PNH occurred in less than 1% of our population. This is consistent with reports from earlier generation devices. Risk factors identified for hematoma formation were intraoperative hypertension and the use of anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs.

  17. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  18. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  19. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  20. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  1. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Forney, K Jean

    2013-07-01

    One goal in identifying psychosocial risk factors is to discover opportunities for intervention. The purpose of this review is to examine psychosocial risk factors for disordered eating, placing research findings in the larger context of how etiological models for eating disorders can be transformed into models for intervention. A qualitative literature review was conducted focusing on psychological and social factors that increase the risk for developing eating disorders, with an emphasis on well-replicated findings from prospective longitudinal studies. Epidemiological, cross-cultural, and longitudinal studies underscore the importance of the idealization of thinness and resulting weight concerns as psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders. Personality factors such as negative emotionality and perfectionism contribute to the development of eating disorders but may do so indirectly by increasing susceptibility to internalize the thin ideal or by influencing selection of peer environment. During adolescence, peers represent self-selected environments that influence risk. Peer context may represent a key opportunity for intervention, as peer groups represent the nexus in which individual differences in psychological risk factors shape the social environment and social environment shapes psychological risk factors. Thus, peer-based interventions that challenge internalization of the thin ideal can protect against the development of eating pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  3. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Intra-Operative Inspired Fraction of Oxygen and the Risk of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Type 1 Surgical Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanta, Brendan T; Hanson, Kristine T; Hyder, Joseph A; Stewart, Thomas M; Curry, Timothy B; Berbari, Elie F; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Kor, Daryl J; Brown, Michael J

    2018-04-02

    Whether the fraction of inspired oxygen (F I O 2 ) influences the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) is controversial. The World Health Organization and the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists offer conflicting recommendations. In this study, we evaluate simultaneously three different definitions of F I O 2 exposure and the risk of SSI in a large surgical population. Patients with clean (type 1) surgical incisions who developed superficial and deep organ/space SSI within 30 days after surgery from January 2003 through December 2012 in five surgical specialties were matched to specialty-specific controls. Fraction of inspired oxygen exposure was defined as (1) nadir F I O 2 , (2) percentage of operative time with F I O 2 greater than 50%, and (3) cumulative hyperoxia exposure, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) of F I O 2 by time for the duration in which F I O 2 greater than 50%. Stratified univariable and multivariable logistic regression models tested associations between F I O 2 and SSI. One thousand two hundred fifty cases of SSI were matched to 3,248 controls. Increased oxygen exposure, by any of the three measures, was not associated with the outcome of any SSI in a multivariable logistic regression model. Elevated body mass index (BMI; 35+ vs. operative oxygen exposure was associated with higher odds of SSI in the neurosurgical and spine populations. Increased intra-operative inspired fraction of oxygen was not associated with a reduction in SSI. These findings do not support the practice of increasing F I O 2 for the purpose of SSI reduction in patients with clean surgical incisions.

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  6. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted.

  7. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among the elderly (Bernert, 2007) and, mediated by depression, are associated with suicide ideation among the elderly (Nadorff et al., 2013). ... suicidal behavior in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ... (2013) 5 Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for ...

  8. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infections: Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria NTM Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors The symptoms caused by NTM infection ... Low-grade fever Night sweats Weight loss What Causes NTM Lung Infections? NTM lung infections are caused ...

  9. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design  Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting  Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population  Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods  Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...

  10. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  11. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  12. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk

  14. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  15. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  16. Genetic risk factors of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, R. F.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, whose main clinical presentations include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major health problem worldwide. Numerous conditions are known to predispose to venous thrombosis and these conditions are commonly referred to as risk indicators or risk factors.

  17. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  19. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  20. Risk factors for homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-02-01

    Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.

  1. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  2. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  3. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  5. Risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A I A; El-Malik, E M A; Ismail, G; Rashid, M; Al Zahrani, A B

    2002-01-01

    The effect of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on sexual function continues to be a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual functions in Saudi patients suffering from BPH before and after TURP. The influence of TURP on libido, erection and ejaculation was prospectively studied in 179 patients undergoing TURP for BPH. The risk factors studied for erectile dysfunction (ED) were old age, polygamy, comorbidities, late presentation, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative capsular perforation and bacteriuria. Patients reporting ED underwent intracavernosal injection (ICI) of 20-40 AA(1/4)g of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) before and/or after surgery. Before surgery, ED was present in 33/179 patients (18%) and was significantly associated with old age and comorbidities but not with polygamy or late presentation. In the patients with normal erection before surgery, dry ejaculation, ED and diminished libido developed after TURP in 71/134 (53%), 20/137 (15%), and 22/137 (16%), respectively. Postoperative ED was significantly associated with diminished libido (P=0.001), but not with postoperative dry ejaculation. The only significant risk factor associated with ED following TURP was capsular perforation. The response to ICI before and after TURP was comparable. ED associated with TURP is most likely of neurogenic origin due to capsular perforation, or of psychogenic nature as suggested by the significant association with diminished libido.

  6. Primary Gallbladder Lymphoma in a Male Patient with No Risk Factors Detected Incidentally by CT Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monil Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary gallbladder lymphoma, although rare, usually presents in females with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. We present a rare case of primary gallbladder in an 81-year-old male with no risk factors whose only symptom was weight loss. Routine blood tests including liver function tests were unremarkable. A CT colonography was carried out to exclude colonic malignancy. Unilateral gallbladder wall thickening and lymphadenopathy were incidentally detected and confirmed by ultrasound and a decision for the patient to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiogram was made. Histology confirmed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with follow-up staging and biopsy of the bone marrow not demonstrating spread. Cholecystectomy was therefore deemed curative and no adjuvant therapy was necessary. Thickening of the gallbladder wall on any imaging with or without symptoms should not be ignored or assumed to be cholecystitis, even in males with no risk factors. In these patients urgent cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram is indicated with histology and haematology follow-up.

  7. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Janáčková, P.; Šerý, Omar; Zeman, T.; Ambrož, P.; Kovalová, M.; Vařechová, K.; Hosák, L.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-8 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * epidemiology Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  8. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  10. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  11. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  12. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

  13. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  14. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  16. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  17. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  20. SEP Montage Variability Comparison during Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine; Lolis, Athena Maria; Beric, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring is performed to provide real-time assessment of the neural structures that can be at risk during spinal surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most commonly used modality for intraoperative monitoring. SEP stability can be affected by many factors during the surgery. This study is a prospective review of SEP recordings obtained during intraoperative monitoring of instrumented spinal surgeries that were performed for chronic underlying neurologic and neuromuscular conditions, such as scoliosis, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. We analyzed multiple montages at the baseline, and then followed their development throughout the procedure. Our intention was to examine the stability of the SEP recordings throughout the surgical procedure on multiple montages of cortical SEP recordings, with the goal of identifying the appropriate combination of the least number of montages that gives the highest yield of monitorable surgeries. Our study shows that it is necessary to have multiple montages for SEP recordings, as it reduces the number of non-monitorable cases, improves IOM reliability, and therefore could reduce false positives warnings to the surgeons. Out of all the typical montages available for use, our study has shown that the recording montage Cz-C4/Cz-C3 (Cz-Cc) is the most reliable and stable throughout the procedure and should be the preferred montage followed throughout the surgery.

  1. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Risk Factors and Risk-Based Protective Factors for Violent Offending: A Study of Young Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.

  3. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  4. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  5. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exfoliated cervical cells were harvested and processed using Polymerase Chain Reaction to identify the DNAs of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. The prevalence rate of HPV infection was 76% [(38/50) at 95% CI=61.8-86.9] with 60.5% (23/38) having co-infections with both HPV type 16 and 18. Risk factors of the infection ...

  7. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Risk factors, diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhiyenko, Victoria A; Serhiyenko, Alexandr A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is strongly associated with approximately five-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. CAN manifests in a spectrum of things, ranging from resting tachycardia and fixed heart rate (HR) to development of “silent” myocardial infarction. Clinical correlates or risk markers for CAN are age, DM duration, glycemic control, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (DLP), development of other microvascular complications. Established risk factors for CAN are poor glycemic control in type 1 DM and a combination of hypertension, DLP, obesity, and unsatisfactory glycemic control in type 2 DM. Symptomatic manifestations of CAN include sinus tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension (OH), abnormal blood pressure (BP) regulation, dizziness, presyncope and syncope, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and infarction. Methods of CAN assessment in clinical practice include assessment of symptoms and signs, cardiovascular reflex tests based on HR and BP, short-term electrocardiography (ECG), QT interval prolongation, HR variability (24 h, classic 24 h Holter ECG), ambulatory BP monitoring, HR turbulence, baroreflex sensitivity, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, catecholamine assessment and cardiovascular sympathetic tests, heart sympathetic imaging. Although it is common complication, the significance of CAN has not been fully appreciated and there are no unified treatment algorithms for today. Treatment is based on early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization of glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Pathogenetic treatment of CAN includes: Balanced diet and physical activity; optimization of glycemic control; treatment of DLP; antioxidants, first of all α-lipoic acid (ALA), aldose reductase inhibitors, acetyl-L-carnitine; vitamins, first of all fat-soluble vitamin B1; correction of vascular endothelial

  8. Intraoperative ultrasound in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, J.; Manzanares, R.; Fernandez, L.; Hernando, A.; Ramos, M. del Mar; Garcia, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is a review of the major indications for intraoperative ultrasound in the field of neurosurgery, stressing the exploratory method and describing what we consider to be the most illustrative cases. We attempt to provide a thorough view of this constantly developing technique which, despite its great practical usefulness, may be being underemployed. (Author) 47 refs

  9. Risk Factors for Dehiscence of Stapled Functional End-to-End Intestinal Anastomoses in Dogs: 53 Cases (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Kyle A; Smeak, Daniel D; Chiang, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for dehiscence in stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses (SFEEA) in dogs. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 53) requiring an enterectomy. Medical records from a single institution for all dogs undergoing an enterectomy (2001-2012) were reviewed. Surgeries were included when gastrointestinal (GIA) and thoracoabdominal (TA) stapling equipment was used to create a functional end-to-end anastomosis between segments of small intestine or small and large intestine in dogs. Information regarding preoperative, surgical, and postoperative factors was recorded. Anastomotic dehiscence was noted in 6 of 53 cases (11%), with a mortality rate of 83%. The only preoperative factor significantly associated with dehiscence was the presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Surgical factors significantly associated with dehiscence included the presence, duration, and number of intraoperative hypotensive periods, and location of anastomosis, with greater odds of dehiscence in anastomoses involving the large intestine. IBD, location of anastomosis, and intraoperative hypotension are risk factors for intestinal anastomotic dehiscence after SFEEA in dogs. Previously suggested risk factors (low serum albumin concentration, preoperative septic peritonitis, and intestinal foreign body) were not confirmed in this study. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  11. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  12. Risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessous, Roy; Danor, Daniela; Weintraub, Y Adi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sergienko, Ruslan; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-11-01

    To investigate risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section (CS). A retrospective case-control study comparing all CS that were complicated with relaparotomy to cesarean deliveries without this complication. Relaparotomy complicated 0.23% (n=80) of CS during the study period (n=34,389). Independent risk factors for relaparotomy following CS from a multivariable logistic regression model were post partum hemorrhage, cervical tears, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, severe preeclampsia and previous CS. Most women (51.2%) underwent relaparotomy during the first 24 h after CS. The leading causes for relaparotomy was bleeding (70%) and burst abdomen (8.8%). Hysterectomy was performed in 31.3% of the patients. Risk factors for relaparotomy after CS are previous CS, severe preeclampsia, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, cervical tear and PPH. Experienced obstetricians should be involved in such cases and the possibility for complications including relaparotomy should be emphasized.

  13. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  14. Determination of risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A M; Nargis, S; Mollah, A H; Kabir, L M; Sarkar, R N

    2010-07-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. The best way to reduce the high prevalence of pneumonia at this age group is through identification and elimination of its risk factors. This case-control study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital during Nov 2007 to Nov 2008 with an aim to identify the risk factors of pneumonia. Data were collected from 100 neonates, 50 cases and 50 controls who met the predefined inclusion criteria. Results shows mean birth weight (pneonatal resuscitation (ppneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed inadequate antenatal care (OR 168.9), home delivery (OR 13.8), intrapartum fever (OR 225.9), obstetric problem of mother (OR 33.4), requirement of resuscitation (OR 12.5), prolonged labour (OR 15.2) as significant risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

  15. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  16. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Singh; T K Ray; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  17. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  18. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  19. Risk factors for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis after expanded endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Michael E; Iorgulescu, J Bryan; El-Sayed, Ivan; McDermott, Michael W; Parsa, Andrew T; Pletcher, Steven D; Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey; Aghi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery, which can lead to meningitis and often requires reparative surgery. We sought to identify preoperative risk factors for CSF leaks and meningitis. We reviewed 98 consecutive expanded endoscopic endonasal surgeries performed from 2008-2012 and analyzed preoperative comorbidities, intraoperative techniques, and postoperative care. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The most common pathologies addressed included pituitary adenoma, Rathke cyst, chordoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. There were 11 CSF leaks (11%) and 10 central nervous system (CNS) infections (10%). Univariate and multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors showed that patients with non-ideal body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher rate of postoperative CSF leak and meningitis (both p<0.01). Also, patients with increasing age were associated with increased CSF leak (p = 0.03) and the length of time a lumbar drain was used postoperatively was associated with infection in a univariate analysis. In addition, three of three endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries combined with open cranial surgery had a postoperative CSF leak and CNS infection rate which was a considerably higher rate than for transsphenoidal surgeries alone or surgeries staged with open cases (p<0.01 and p=0.04, respectively) In this series of expanded endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, preoperative BMI remains the most important preoperative predictor for CSF leak and infection. Other risk factors include age, intraoperative CSF leak, lumbar drain duration, and cranial combined cases. Risks associated with complex surgical resections when combining open and endoscopic approaches could be minimized by staging these procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  1. Pulmonary embolism: sifting the risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, K G; Roush, M B

    1998-12-01

    A 20-year-old female college cross-country runner developed chest pain and dyspnea that increased with running. A chest radiograph revealed a right-side pleural effusion, and a ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a probable pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis was left-side pulmonary emboli. Testing for genetic risk factors was negative, leaving oral contraceptive use as the likely cause of the condition. The patient was treated with anticoagulant drugs and discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and was allowed to resume running gradually. Discussion covers genetic and other risk factors, anticoagulation therapy, and return to play.

  2. Genetic risk factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti-Pellié, C

    1999-12-01

    Familial risk factors are known to play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, particularly when the relatives are affected by early-onset cancer. Part of this familial aggregation can be accounted for by inherited forms of colorectal cancer, i.e. familial adenomatous polyposis (less than 1% of all CRC) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (about 3%). Other genetic factors may be involved in the development of adenoma or in the transformation of adenoma into carcinoma. That the existence of polymorphisms of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene increase susceptibility to both adenomas and cancer favours this hypothesis. Interactions between environmental factors, and most of all dietary factors, and polymorphisms of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may also be involved. Better knowledge of these mechanisms will substantially widen the scope of colorectal cancer prevention.

  3. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  4. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  5. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  6. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of ke...

  7. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term".

  9. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  11. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  12. Hypospadias: risk factor patterns and different phenotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with

  13. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  14. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  15. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  16. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  17. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  18. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  19. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  20. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  1. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  2. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Genetics, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption are among the known risk factors for this deadly cancer. ... Methods: A case-control study where volunteer adult patients aged 18 and above with diagnosis of oesophageal cancer (cases) and non-esophageal cancer ...

  3. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  4. Risk factors for autism: An Egyptian study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    Abstract This study has been conducted to determine the possible risk factors of autism. This case control study was conducted at pediatric hospital, Ain Shams University on, 100 autistic patients who were subjected to the followings tools: Confirmation of diagnosis using DSM-IV-TR criteria,. IQ assessment using ...

  5. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  6. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  7. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    was generally seen with increasing age in both countries, but deviating patterns were seen for alcohol intake, red/processed meat, obesity and age 70+. Conclusions: This study supports findings from other European studies that generally demonstrate modest public awareness of many established cancer risk factors...

  8. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or

  9. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk factors ... Psychiatry. 2017; 74(7): 740-746. Related Links Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Child Development Positive Parenting Tips A-Z ...

  10. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  11. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  12. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  13. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  14. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a ... of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that ...

  15. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  16. [Mortality risk factors in ventilator associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren B, Osvaldo; Aranda T, Jacquelin; Dorn H, Lilian; Ferrada M, Mónica; Ugarte E, Héctor; Koscina M, Vinka; López R, Daniel; Morel F, Mauro

    2009-06-01

    to identify lethality and mortality rates and, mortality risk factors in ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) on 114 patients treated between 2000 and 2007. Twenty five risk factors were analyzed, emphasizing age, gender, APACHE score, associated diseases, hypotension at intake, coma, hospitalization time, length of time of ventilation, emergency intubation, reintubation, previous antibiotics, and resistant microrganisms. Lethality was 25.4 %, and mortality was 2.4 %. Association between lethality, and APACHE score was found (p: 0.04). Critical APACHE value was 22. Also, in early pneumonia, association between lethality and nasogastric tube (p: 0.01, I.C. 95 % 1.39 - 6.35) was found. No association with late pneumonia was found among mortality and clinical practices. Death's RR (relative risk) increase in following values with: previous neurological disease 2.7 (p: 0.15, IC 95 % 1.15 - 6.5), neurological comaRR 2 (p: 0.2, IC 95 % 0.54 - 7.53). Nevertheless, at multivariate analysis no mortality risk factors were identified. Fair association with time in ICU (p: 0.051 IC 95 % 0.99 - 1.17) and, male sex (p: 0.051, IC 95 % 0.99 - 6.72) was found. We observed multiple factors associated to mortality in VAP: use of nasogastric catheter, longer stay in ICU and male sex.

  17. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among Ethiopian patients: a case control study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  18. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfa Berriche

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone den- sity and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporo- sis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of ...

  19. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis | Berriche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... embolism(5,18). Intra-cardiac thrombosis: This occurs in the setting of post myocardial infarction particularly in the anterior cardiac area (19). AC with INR .... of left ventricular thrombi in patients with acute anterior.

  1. Risk factors in oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.; Kipp, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that with the increasing internationalization of the petroleum industry, lenders to the industry must understand and overcome several new credit risk factors. As a result, new financial products are now available to reserve-based borrowers. Traditional project financing now also may include futures hedging, swaps, and collar elements

  2. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  3. Perioperative outcomes following surgery for brain tumors: Objective assessment and risk factor evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasgar V Moiyadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perioperative outcomes following surgery for brain tumors are an important indicator of the safety as well as efficacy of surgical intervention. Perioperative morbidity not only has implications on direct patient care, but also serves as an indicator of the quality of care provided, and enables objective documentation, for comparision in various clinical trials. We document our experience at a tertiary care referral, a dedicated neuro-oncology center in India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety-six patients undergoing various surgeries for intra-axial brain tumors were analyzed. Routine microsurgical techniques and uniform antibiotic policy were used. Navigation/ intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring was not available. The endpoints assessed included immediate postoperative neurological status, neurological outcome at discharge, regional complications, systemic complications, overall morbidity, and mortality. Various risk factors assessed included clinico-epidemiological factors, tumor-related factors, and surgery-related factors. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: Median age was 38 years. 72% had tumors larger than 4 cm. Neurological morbidity, and regional and systemic complications occurred in 16.8, 17.3, and 10.7%, respectively. Overall, major morbidity occurred in 18% and perioperative mortality rate was 3.6%. Although a few of the known risk factors were found to be significant on univariate analysis, none achieved significance on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our patients were younger and had larger tumors than are generally reported. Despite the unavailability of advanced intraoperative aids we could achieve acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Objective recording of perioperative events is crucial to document outcomes after surgery for brain tumors.

  4. Variation among cardiovascular risk calculators in relative risk increases with identical risk factor increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Nouri, Faeze; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Vandermeer, Ben; McCormack, James

    2015-09-07

    Risk estimates for the same patient can vary substantially among cardiovascular risk calculators and the reasons are not fully explained. We compared the relative risk increases for consistent risk factors changes across different cardiovascular risk calculators. Five clinicians independently selected 16 calculators providing absolute risk estimations. Hypothetical patients were generated using a combination of seven risk factors [age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol and diabetes] dichotomized to high and low risk, generating 2(7) patients (128 total). Relative risk increases due to specific risk factors were determined and compared. The 16 selected calculators were from six countries, used 5- and 10-year predictions, and estimated CVD or coronary heart disease risk. Across the different calculators for non-diabetic patients, changing age from 50 to 70 produced average relative risk increases from 82 to 395%, gender (female to male) 35-225%, smoking status 31-118%, systolic blood pressure (120-160 mmHg) 16-124%, total cholesterol (4-7 mmol/L) 51-302% and HDL (1.3-0.8 mmol/L) 27-133%. Similar results were found among diabetic patients. Some calculators appeared to have consistently higher relative risk increases over multiple risk factors. Cardiovascular risk calculators weigh the same risk factors differently. For each risk factor, the relative risk increase from the calculator with the highest increase was generally three to eight times greater than the relative risk increase from the calculator with lowest increase. This likely contributes to some of the inconsistency in risk calculator estimation. It also limits the use of risk calculators in estimating the benefits of therapy.

  5. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  6. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.9), being distracted by someone (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), non-routine task (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.3-12.5), altered surroundings (OR 20.9, 95% CI 12.2-35.8), and broken machinery or materials (OR 20.6, 95% CI 13.5-31.7). The risk of occupational injury did not vary substantially....... In particular, equipment (broken machinery or materials) and work-practice-related factors (non-routine task and altered surroundings) increased the risk of an occupational injury. Elaboration of results in relation to hazard period and information bias is warranted....... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  7. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge...... of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...

  8. [High risk factors analysis of stillbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Xia, H X; Wang, Y S; Lin, X L; Zhu, T T; Zhao, Y; Li, X T

    2017-12-25

    Objective: To explore the high risk factors of stillbirth. Methods: 176 cases of stillbirth were collected in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 1(st), 2010 to December 31(st), 2016. All cases were analyzed retrospectively, including general profile, high risk factors of stillbirth in different years and pregnancy periods. Results: (1) The incidence of stillbirth was 0.178%(176/98 785). Stillbirth occured mostly at 28-28(+6) gestational weeks (10.8%,19/176), and the second peak was 29-29(+6) weeks(10.2%,18/176), while the third common period was 37-37(+6) weeks (9.1%,16/176). After 39 weeks, it maintained at a low level. (2) The top 5 high risk factors of stillbirth were infection (18.2%,32/176), unexplained (13.6%,24/176), hypertention disorders in pregnancy (13.1%, 23/176), umbilical cord torsion (12.5%, 22/176) and fetal malformations (10.2%, 18/176). (3) From 2010 to 2012, the top 3 high risk factors were unexplained, the umbilical cord torsion and infection, while hypertention in pregnancy, infection and fetal malformation became the top 3 high risk factors after 2013. (4) Early stillbirth (20-27(+6) weeks) accounted for 21.6%(38/176); and unexplained (47.4%, 18/38), fetal edema (13.2%, 5/38),infection (13.2%, 5/38), umbilical cord torsion (5.3%, 2/38) were the top 4 high risk factors. Late stillbirth (≥28 weeks) accounted for 78.4%(138/176), with infection (19.6%,27/138), hypertention in pregnancy (15.9%,22/138), umbilical cord torsion (14.5%,20/138) and fetal malformation(12.3%,17/138)being the top 4 high risk factors. Conclusions: More attention should be paid to maternal complications, especially infection and hypertension in pregnancy. Antenatal fetal monitoring, timely termination of pregnancy, standard management of stillbirth and looking for the causes may help reduce the incidence of stillbirth.

  9. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  10. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  12. Renal Dysfunction after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery- Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative renal dysfunction is a relatively common and one of the serious complications of cardiac surgery. Though off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery technique avoids cardiopulmonary bypass circuit induced adverse effects on renal function, multiple other factors cause postoperative renal dysfunction in these groups of patients. Acute kidney injury is generally defined as an abrupt and sustained decrease in kidney function. There is no consen-sus on the amount of dysfunction that defines acute kidney injury, with more than 30 definitions in use in the literature today. Although serum creatinine is widely used as a marker for changes in glomerular filtration rate, the criteria used to define renal dysfunction and acute renal failure is highly variable. The variety of definitions used in clinical studies may be partly responsible for the large variations in the reported incidence. Indeed, the lack of a uniform definition for acute kidney injury is believed to be a major impediment to research in the field. To establish a uniform definition for acute kidney injury, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative formulated the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE classification. RIFLE , defines three grades of increasing severity of acute kidney injury -risk (class R, injury (class I and failure (class F - and two outcome classes (loss and end-stage kidney disease. Various perioperative risk factors for postoperative renal dysfunction and failure have been identified. Among the important preoperative factors are advanced age, reduced left ventricular function, emergency surgery, preoperative use of intraaortic balloon pump, elevated preoperative serum glucose and creatinine. Most important intraoperative risk factor is the intraoperative haemodynamic instability and all the causes of postoperative low output syndrome com-prise the postoperative risk factors. The most important preventive strategies are the identification of the

  13. Risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Tariq Farooq; Zaman, Mir; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Khan, Mohammad Daud

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the frequency and major risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. A cross-sectional analytical study. The Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2003 to December 2006. All consecutive patients between ages 6 and 40 years, admitted to the institute with the diagnosis of preseptal and orbital cellulitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with ages 6-16 years and group II with ages 17-40 years. The clinical features, diagnosis and risk factors were entered on a specially-designed proforma. The risk factors included were trauma, insect bite, localized or systemic infection and postsurgical. Odd ratio and p-values were calculated for potential risk factors. The frequency of orbital cellulitis was 0.1% of total admission. Out of 26 patients, 42.30% patients were in group I and 57 in group II. In group I, insect bite was the most common risk factor identified in 40% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and trauma as a common cause in 50% with orbital cellulitis. In group II, trauma was the leading cause in 50% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and sinusitis as a common cause in 18.1% with those of orbital cellulitis. In both groups the p-values were found insignificant (p>0.5). Complications included cicatricial ectropion in 44.4% and orbital abscess in 41.1%. For preseptal cellulitis, insect bite was the most common cause in group I and trauma was the leading cause in group II. For orbital cellulitis, trauma was important cause in group I and sinusitis in group II.

  14. [Risk factors associated with massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Jia, R; Gu, X P; Ma, Z L

    2017-11-28

    Objective: To identify risk factors that influence the massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis. Methods: A total of 1 461 patients from 11 to 18 years old diagnosed with adolescent scoliosis who underwent first posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery in affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University between November 2010 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized on the basis of massive or normal drainage, with the boundary 30(th) percentile of drainage/estimated blood volume. Preoperative factors including age, gender, body mass index(BMI), ASA physical status, diagnostic type of scoliosis, main Cobb angle, laboratory tests, intraoperative factors including the number of fusion level and screws, tranexamic acid used or not, use of osteotomy and thoracoplasty, use of cell salvage technology, duration of operation, the volume of urine output, blood loss, fluid therapy and transfusion, postoperative factors including the length of hospital stay, number of transfusion, the volume of drainage, time of drain were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine risk factors which were independently associated with massive drainage. Results: The average drainage was (856.3±333.4)ml. 479(32.8%) patients had massive drainage(drainage≥30% of drainage/estimated blood volume). Multivariate analysis identified risk factors of massive drainage: BMIfactor. Conclusion: BMIfactors associated with massive drainage after posterior spinal orthopaedic surgery for adolescent scoliosis, while the use of tranexamic acid could decrease the possibility of massive drainage.

  15. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD......-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma...

  16. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma......The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...

  17. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... in this first large-scale study. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among all psychiatric inpatients in Denmark, following 112,233 individuals during 1999-2014. Data from Danish registers were analysed using logistic regression for repeated measures. RESULTS: 24,594 inpatients were exposed to a coercive...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  18. Intraoperative contamination influences wound discharge and periprosthetic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobben, Bas A. S.; Engelsma, Yde; Neut, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Intraoperative bacterial contamination increases risk for postoperative wound-healing problems and periprosthetic infection, but to what extent remains unclear. We asked whether bacterial contamination of the instruments and bone during primary prosthesis insertion was associated with prolonged

  19. Risk factors for fatal outcome in surgical patients with postoperative aspiration pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Peter; Räber, Genevieve; Ott, Daniel; Candinas, Daniel; Schnüriger, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Aspiration pneumonia in hospitalized surgical patients has been associated with a mortality of approximately 30%. The aim of this study was to assess pre-, intra- and postoperative risk factors for mortality in patients suffering aspiration pneumonia after abdominal surgery. Retrospective study from 01/2006-12/2012 of patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed aspiration pneumonia after abdominal surgery. A total of 70 patients undergoing abdominal surgery and postoperative aspiration pneumonia were identified. There were 53 (76%) male patients, the mean age was 71 ± 12 years and the mean ASA score was 3 ± 1. The surgical procedures included 32 colorectal or small bowel resections, 10 partial liver resections, 9 gastric surgeries, 8 esophageal resections, 5 pancreatic surgeries, and 6 hernia repairs. Aspiration pneumonia occurred at mean postoperative day 7 ± 10. Overall, 53% (n = 37) of patients required re-intubation, with 4 ± 5 days of additional mechanical ventilation. Mean hospital and ICU length of stay was 32 ± 25 days and 6 ± 9 days, respectively. Overall mortality was 27% (n = 19). Forward logistic regression revealed older age [OR 7.41 (95% CI: 1.29-42.62)], bilateral aspiration pneumonia [OR 7.39 (95% CI: 1.86-29.29)] and intraoperative requirement of blood component transfusion [OR 5.09 (95% CI: 1.34-19.38)] as independent risk factors for mortality (overall R(2) = 0.336). Postoperative aspiration pneumonia remains a severe complication with significant mortality. Increasing age, the need for intraoperative blood component transfusion and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are independent risk factors for fatal outcome after aspiration pneumonia. Therefore, these patients suffering aspiration pneumonia require special attention and increased monitoring. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  1. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  2. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  3. Risk factors in child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  5. Recurrent Shoulder Dystocia: Risk Factors and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D

    2016-12-01

    A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.

  6. Liberal perioperative fluid administration is an independent risk factor for morbidity and is associated with longer hospital stay after rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M R; Reynolds, I; McCawley, N; Galvin, E; El-Masry, S; Deasy, J; McNamara, D A

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Recent studies have advocated the use of perioperative fluid restriction in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery as part of an enhanced recovery protocol. Series reported to date include a heterogenous group of high- and low-risk procedures but few studies have focused on rectal cancer surgery alone. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of perioperative fluid volumes on outcomes in patients undergoing elective rectal cancer resection. METHODS A prospectively maintained database of patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective surgery over a 2-year period was reviewed. Total volume of fluid received intraoperatively was calculated, as well as blood products required in the perioperative period. The primary outcome was postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo grade I-IV) and the secondary outcomes were length of stay and major morbidity (Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV). RESULTS Over a 2-year period (2012-2013), 120 patients underwent elective surgery with curative intent for rectal cancer. Median total intraoperative fluid volume received was 3680ml (range 1200-9670ml); 65/120 (54.1%) had any complications, with 20/120 (16.6%) classified as major (Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV). Intraoperative volume >3500ml was an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative all-cause morbidity (P=0.02) and was associated with major morbidity (P=0.09). Intraoperative fluid volumes also correlated with length of hospital stay (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.33; Prectal cancer.

  7. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Peach MSN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  8. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingre C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Ingre,1 Per M Roos,2 Fredrik Piehl,1 Freya Kamel,3 Fang Fang4 1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, risk factors, genetics, lifestyle, environment

  9. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2017-02-01

    Scientific studies show that many factors related to lifestyles affect the reduction of bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The goal of this study was to determine whether smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol in menopausal women contribute to the reduction of bone mass and osteoporosis, as well as the impact of physical activity on bone mass. The study was carried out as case study and matched controls. The group of cases consisted of 100 females in postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was newly diagnosed osteoporosis at the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (±2 years). In order to collect demographic data and information on risk factors for osteoporosis and lifestyle of patients was used the questionnaire Bone Mineral Density Questionnaire- Female of the Irish Association for osteoporosis. Testing the significance of differences in terms of smoking showed that the studied groups are statistically significantly different in terms of smoking (χ 2 =24.025, p=0.000). In terms of consumption of coffee, a statistically significant difference was found between the group of cases and control group (χ 2 =0.615, p=0.735). When observing the obtained information about the consumption of alcohol, we find that this preventable risk factor in the present study did not show as significant for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (χ 2 =4.35, p=0.114). Statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the group of cases and control group in terms of physical activity (χ 2 =7.30, p=0.026). Analysis of the data of our study by univariate logistic regressions showed that smoking (p=0.000) was statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis, while physical activity is a protective factor for bone mass (p

  10. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  11. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  12. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  14. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  15. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  16. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for plasma glucose measurements. The glucose disposal rate measured during HGC was lower in normal glucose-tolerant cats than in normal glucose-tolerant humans, apparently related to the cat’s lower insu...

  17. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...

  18. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  19. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins; Marília Fontenele e Silva Câmara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment ...

  20. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.

  1. Eating Disorders: Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlová, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorders. It focuses on the impact of the political and cultural changes that occured in the Czech Republic in the early 1990s. The term eating disorders includes mental illnesses characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and various eating disorders not otherwise specifieed. It appears that the incidence of anorexia nervosa was increasing until 1970s and remains stable since. The inci...

  2. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  3. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Peery

    Full Text Available Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids.We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex.The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86. Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98. We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40. Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03. Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06.Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.

  4. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Fan Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  5. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  6. Factores predisponentes de fractura intraoperatoria de fémur en artroplastia total de cadera primaria. [Predisposing factors for intraoperative femur fracture in primary total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Arroquy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el objetivo de este reporte fue caracterizar los factores predisponentes de la fractura periprotésica intraoperatoria de fémur durante una artroplastia primaria de cadera. Materiales y Métodos: entre 1999 y 2010, se analizaron 1943 reemplazos de cadera, en 28 casos, se produjo una fractura de fémur durante una artroplastia total de cadera primaria, lo que arroja una incidencia del 1,4%. Se utilizó la clasificación de Vancouver y se estudiaron la presencia de factores predisponentes, el tratamiento realizado, la evolución clínica y radiográfica. Resultados: del total de la muestra, 23 (82,1% fracturas eran de tipo A y 5 (17,9%, de tipo B. El promedio obtenido del ángulo cervicodiafisario del fémur de 140° (rango 120°-160°. El 71,4% de la muestra eran mujeres. El 7,1% presentaba osteosíntesis previa. La incidencia de fracturas fue del 3,54% para los implantes no cementados (16/452 y del 0,8% para los tallos cementados (12/1491. Se realizó lazada de alambre en 18 pacientes (64,3%, malla metálica más lazada de alambre en un paciente (3,6% y en 9 (32,1% tratamiento conservador. En 27 (96,4% casos, la evolución fue buena y el puntaje promedio posoperatorio del Harris Hip Score fue de 93 puntos (rango 89-95. Conclusiones: el sexo femenino, el aumento del ángulo cervicodiafisario, la presencia de caderas displásicas, implantes no cementados y zonas de debilidad luego de retirar una osteosíntesis son factores predisponentes para sufrir este tipo de complicación, por lo que es recomendable realizar una lazada de alambre profiláctica cuando se conjuguen varios de los factores de riesgo mencionados.

  7. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  8. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  9. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection with DST anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kenji; Hasegawa, Suguru; Hida, Koya; Hirai, Kenjiro; Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Akinari; Kawamura, Junichiro; Nagayama, Satoshi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery involving rectal transection and anastomosis with stapling devices is technically difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) after laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with double-stapling technique (DST) anastomosis. This was a retrospective single-institution study of 154 rectal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis between June 2005 and August 2013. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The outcome of interest was clinical AL. The overall AL rate was 12.3% (19/154). In univariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.001), operative time (P = 0.049), intraoperative bleeding (P = 0.037), lateral lymph node dissection (P = 0.009), multiple firings of the linear stapler (P = 0.041), and precompression before stapler firings (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with AL. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size (odds ratio [OR] 4.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-12.89; P = 0.02) and precompression before stapler firings (OR 4.58; CI 1.22-17.20; P = 0.024) as independent risk factors for AL. In particular, precompression before stapler firing tended to reduce the AL occurring in early postoperative period. Using appropriate techniques, laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis can be performed safely without increasing the risk of AL. Important risk factors for AL were tumor size and precompression before stapler firings.

  10. Clinical Risk Factors Affecting Procedure-Related Major Neurological Complications in Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, E-Wook; Kim, Yong Bae; Chung, Joonho; Suh, Sang Hyun; Hong, Chang-Ki; Joo, Jin-Yang

    2015-07-01

    The operative risk and natural history rupture risk for the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with treating UIAs and to outline clinical risk factors associated with procedure-related major neurological complications. We treated 1158 UIAs in 998 patients over the last 14 years. All patients underwent operation performed by a single microvascular surgeon and two interventionists at a single institution. Patient factors, aneurysm factors, and clinical outcomes were analyzed in relation to procedure-related complications. The total complication rate was 22 (2.2%) out of 998 patients. Among them, complications developed in 14 (2.3%) out of 612 patients who underwent microsurgery and in 8 (2.1%) out of 386 patients who underwent endovascular procedures. One patient died due to intraoperative rupture during an endovascular procedure. The procedure-related complication was highly correlated with age (p=0.004), hypertension (p=0.002), and history of ischemic stroke (p<0.001) in univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis revealed previous history of ischemic stroke (p=0.001) to be strongly correlated with procedure-related complications. A history of ischemic stroke was strongly correlated with procedure-related major neurological complications when treating UIAs. Accordingly, patients with UIAs who have a previous history of ischemic stroke might be at risk of procedure-related major neurological complications.

  11. Risk Factors for Complications Differ Between Stages of Tissue-Expander Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Francis; Jordan, Sumanas W; Lim, Seokchun; Fine, Neil A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-09-01

    Tissue-expander (TE) placement followed by implant exchange is currently the most popular method of breast reconstruction. There is a relative paucity of data demonstrating patient factors that predict complications specifically by stage of surgery. The present study attempts to determine what complications are most likely to occur at each stage and how the risk factors for complications vary by stage of reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed on all 1275 patients who had TEs placed by the 2 senior authors between 2004 and 2013. Complication rates were determined at each stage of reconstruction, and these rates were further compared between patients who had pre-stage I radiation, post-stage I radiation, and no radiation exposure. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of complications at each stage of reconstruction. A total of 1639 consecutive TEs were placed by the senior authors during the study period. The overall rate for experiencing a complication at any stage of surgery was 17%. Complications occurred at uniformly higher rates during stage I for all complications (92% stage I vs 7% stage II vs 1% stage III, P higher intraoperative percent fill (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.3). Post-stage I radiation was the only independent risk factor for a stage II complication (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.2). Complications occur at higher rates after stage I than after stage II, and as expected, stage III complications are exceedingly rare. Risk factors for stage I complications are different from risk factors for stage II complications. Body mass index and smoking are associated with complications at stage I, but do not predict complications at stage II surgery. The stratification of risk factors by stage of surgery will help surgeons and patients better manage both risk and expectations.

  12. Maternal and Gestational Risk Factors for Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:18709149

  13. Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroubakis, I; Manousos, O N; Meuwissen, S G; Pena, A S

    1996-01-01

    Besides a genetic predisposition, a causal role of various environmental factors have been taken into consideration in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most consistent association of environmental factors so far identified is the association between non smoking and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well a between smoking and Crohn's disease (CD). Other factors such as oral contraceptives, refined sugar, perinatal events, childhood infections, microbial agents, and domestic hygiene have been found to be associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease but further evaluation is required to confirm the consistency and to define the strength of the association. Recent data also suggest that measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue and early exposure to the virus may be a risk factor for development of CD. The further investigation of environmental factors on IBD and the explanation of their role is expected to open new avenues for basic scientific research and may lead to the development of a more rational approach to the prevention and treatment of IBD. The available data suggest that UC and CD are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditary and environmental factors interact to produce the disease.

  14. Risk Factors and Comorbidities in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Derrick; Kubala, Stephanie; Toskala, Elina

    2016-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disorder that creates a significant burden on the healthcare system. It is caused by a combination of inflammatory, environmental, and host factors; however, the precise mechanism of how each factor leads to CRS continues to be a source of debate. Previous data regarding this topic is often inconsistent or of lower quality. In this article, we review the recent literature on the risk factors and comorbidities in CRS. Large population-based studies have helped establish smoking as a significant risk factor for CRS. The focus has now shifted towards smoking and its effect on long-term outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Ciliary dyskinesia, both primary and secondary, can affect both the sinonasal cavity and lower airways simultaneously by decreasing the beat frequency of cilia and inducing mucostasis. The effects of secondary dyskinesia may be reversible and there is some evidence to suggest the use of topical mucolytics in patients with CRS. Allergy and variants of sinonasal anatomy have been hypothesized to increase the risk of developing CRS by inducing chronic inflammation and obstructing the sinus ostia. Nevertheless, emerging data regarding these topics continue to produce inconclusive results. Inflammation of the upper and lower airways can occur simultaneously as seen in patients with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. The connection between these pro-inflammatory disease states has been known for many years. Newer evidence include large population-based studies and studies that correlate objective tests, such as computer tomography scans to pulmonary function tests. However, the treatment of CRS and its effects on obstructive airway disease continues to be a topic of debate. More large prospective studies are needed in order to continue refining our knowledge of the disease processes in CRS.

  15. Risk Factors for Postoperative Encephalopathies in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    , comorbidity, lower Hb and total protein, higher creatinine and urea, concomitant DEP, and a more than 50% ICA steno-_sis. The risk factor of PONC was lower CO values in both preoperative and intraoperative periods. A reduction in perfusion pressure, determinants of oxygen delivery determinants and hypocapnia should be avoided in risk-group patients. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  16. Trends of risk factors in coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabri Mikloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In current era of widespread use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI, it is debatable whether coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG patients are at higher risk. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in risk profile of isolated CABG patients. Methods. By analysing the EuroSCORE and its risk factors, we reviewed a consecutive group of 4675 isolated CABG patients, operated on during the last 8 years (2001-2008 at our Clinic. The number of PCI patients was compared to the number of CABG patients. For statistical analyses, Pearson’s chi-square and ANOVA tests were used. Results. The number of PCI increased from 159 to 1595 (p<0.001, and the number of CABG from 557 to 656 (p<0.001. The mean EuroSCORE increased from 2.74 to 2.92 (p=0.06. The frequency of the following risk factors did not change over years: female gender, previous cardiac surgery, serum creatinine >200μmol/l, left ventricular dysfunction and postinfarct ventricular septal rupture. Chronic pulmonary disease, neurological dysfunction, and unstable pectoral angina declined significantly (p<0.001. Critical preoperative care declined from 3.1% in 2001 to 0.5 % in 2005, than increased and during the last 3 years did not change (2.3%. The mean age increased from 56.8 to 60.7 (p<0.001 and extracardiac arteriopathy increased from 9.2% to 22.9% (p<0.001. Recent preoperative myocardial infarction increased from 11% to 15.1% (p=0.021, while emergency operations increased from 0.9% to 4.0% (p=0.001. Conclusion. The number of CABG increases despite the enlargement of PCI. The risk for isolated CABG given by EuroSCORE increases over years. The risk factors, significantly contributing to higher EuroSCORE are: older age, extracardiac arteriopathy, recent myocardial infarction and emergency operation.

  17. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  18. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Occupational risk factors for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P

    1992-01-01

    To investigate possible associations between cardiovascular malformations and maternal occupational exposure to various factors during the first trimester of pregnancy, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied retrospectively. The cases were taken from all infants diagnosed with cardiovascular malformations born in Finland during 1982 and 1983. The controls were randomly selected from all normal births in the country during the same period. All mothers were interviewed approximately 3 months after delivery by a midwife, using a structured questionnaire. Maternal overall exposure to chemicals at work was more prevalent among the case group (35.8%) than the control group (26.2%, P less than 0.01). Among the specific chemical groups, maternal exposure to dyes, lacquers, or paints was significantly associated with the risk of congenital heart disease. Exposure to organic solvents during the first trimester seemed to increase to risk of ventricular septal defect (P less than 0.05). Work at video display terminals was slightly more prevalent among the case group (6.3%) than among the control group (5.0%). The mothers' education level, regular exposure to passive smoking at work, or temperature at the workplace were not risk factors for congenital heart disease in the offspring, neither was maternal exposure to microwave ovens, disinfectants, pesticides, or anesthetic gases. It is concluded that many maternal exposures at work seem not to have a teratogenic effect on the fetal heart, although the limited power of this investigation needs to be borne in mind.

  20. Risk Factors in Osteporotic Vertebral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Günaydın

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. 44 postmenopausal women whose L 2-L4 T scores were £ -2.5 SD with a mean age of 66.38+ 6.47 years were included in this study. Age, postmenopausal years, body mass index, milk consumption (before and after age 50, family history of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, patient’s previous fracture history, tobacco use, number of pregnancies, surgical menopause were questioned in all patients. DEXA was used to evaluate bone mineral density . Kleerekoper method was used to evaluate the fractures between T4 and L5 vertebra on lateral thoracal and lumbar X rays. When 25 patient with vertebral fractures compared with 19 patients without fracture ,only patient’s age showed statistically significant difference between groups ( p=0.035. Of the 5 risk factors chosen (age, L2-L4 BMD, L2-L4 T score, body weight <57 kg, milk consumption before age 50 only patient’s age was found to be statistically important in estimating vertebral fracture risk (p=0.032.There was statistically significant positive correlation between vertebral deformity score (evaluated according to Kleerekoper method and patient’s age and postmenopausal years (respectively p=0.001, p=0.006.

  1. Risk factors for local recurrence of fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V; Troncoso, S; Mejías, L; Idoate, M Á; San-Julián, M

    To evaluate the clinical, radiological and histological factors that can predict local recurrence of fibromatosis. A retrospective study was conducted on 51 patients diagnosed with fibromatosis in this hospital from 1983 to 2014. The mean follow-up was 83 months. A study was made of the clinical parameters, location, depth, size, surgical margins, and proliferation index (Ki-67). An evaluation was also made of the risk of recurrence depending on the adjuvant treatment and the relationship between treatment and patient functionality. Tumour location and depth were identified as risk factors for local recurrence, showing statistically significant differences (P<.001 and P=.003, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, size, surgical margins, or adjuvant treatments, or in the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score according to the treatment received. The mean Ki-67 was 1.9% (range 1-4), and its value was not associated with the risk of recurrence. Deep fibromatosis fascia tumours, and those located in extremities are more aggressive than superficial tumours and those located in trunk. The Ki-67 has no predictive value in local recurrence of fibromatosis. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or other adjuvant treatments such as tamoxifen have not been effective in local control of the disease. Given the high recurrence rate, even with adequate margins, a wait and see attitude should be considered in asymptomatic patients and/or stable disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  4. [Risk factors for anorexia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (Panorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.

  5. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  6. Risk factors affecting prognosis in infantile spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Mert, Gulen; Herguner, Mihriban Ozlem; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Sahan, Duygu; Unal, Ilker

    2017-11-01

    To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p Infantile spasm is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy, and it was observed that it is still catastrophic, and that the most important factor affecting prognosis of epilepsy is etiology, age at the time of presentation and the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond.

  7. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  8. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N Ph L; de Bruijn, J G M

    2012-10-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further research on the context, nature, and severity of domestic violence in the Caribbean is necessary. Studies should preferably combine the strengths of national crime surveys and family conflict studies: nationally representative samples (including men and women) and questionnaires that include all possible experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual assaults by current and former partners, family, and friends.

  9. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  10. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  11. Obesity risk factors in Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipagaoglu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Süt, Necdet; Akdikmen, Oznur; Oner, Naci; Bundak, Rüveyde

    2009-08-01

    On the basis of the knowledge that the prevalence of obesity in children has increased steadily in recent years, this study aimed to assess the association between obesity and certain risk factors in a group of 6- to 14-year-old children living in Istanbul. The study was carried out at the Istanbul University School of Medicine Hospital. Data were collected from 592 children aged between 6 and 14 years who were examined in general pediatrics clinics. Weight and height measurements were performed on the children and their parents. The children were classified as obese and nonobese in accordance with the body mass index reference values for Turkish children. Energy intake of children was estimated with a 3-day food consumption recording form. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the information from the parents on possible risk factors causing obesity. The physical activity state of the children was assessed. A logistic regression model was developed to examine the relationships between obesity and possible risk factors. Almost 32% (n = 184) and 69% (n = 408) of children were assessed as obese and nonobese, respectively. Although there was no difference in daily energy intakes of obese and nonobese children, 13.6% of obese and 40.9% of nonobese children were reported to do physical activity regularly. Obesity was strongly associated with parental obesity. Furthermore, energy intake; having regular physical activity; presence of obesity in the mother, the father, and the mother's family; and having a mother working out of home were also significantly associated with obesity. Creating awareness in mothers on the importance of a healthy nutrition and encouraging families to participate in physical activities are important points in the prevention of childhood obesity.

  12. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...

  14. Testicular cancer - epidemiology, etiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)

  15. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  16. STROKE AND PREGNANCY: THE MAIN RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Taitubayeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify risk factors for the development of acute cerebral circulatory impairments (ACCI in pregnant women.Materials and methods. The material for the study was the medical history of 31 pregnant women with diagnosis ACCI. The average age was 29,5 ± 5,1 years. The comparison group consisted of pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (n = 30 with different gestation periods, the mean age was 29,1 ± 6,7 years. In this study, a comparative analysis of risk factors for stroke was carried out: gynecological and allergic history, smoking and taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, indicators of the hemostasis and lipid spectrum, polymorphism of thrombophilia genes.Results. The prevalence of ischemic stroke over hemorrhagic stroke was found, which was 77.4% and 22.6%, respectively. In 93.5% of cases, a stroke occurred during pregnancy, in 79.3% of them in the third trimester of gestation. The number of recuperated women was 67.7%. As a result of statistical treatment, a significant difference in study and comparison groups was obtained (p < 0.05 as a result of a burdened obstetric-gynecological history. Among the women taking contraceptives, 11 (35.5% women were in the study group, and 3 (10% women were found in the comparison group (p < 0.05. At the analysis of smoking in the history the number of women in the study group prevailed comparing to the comparison group (35.5–13.3%, p < 0.05. Changes in the lipid spectrum system and hemostasis were detected, but there were no significant differences between the study group and the comparison group (p> 0.05. Various forms of mutations were identified in the group with ischemic stroke in 14 (58.3% women, in 2 (28.5% women in the group with hemorrhagic stroke.Conclusion. Of all the data analyzed in pregnant women with stroke, statistically significant risk factors are: smoking, taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, including an obstructed obstetric

  17. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  18. Risk factors for corneal ectasia after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Kotb, Amgad A

    2006-09-01

    To establish a grading system that helps identify high-risk individuals who may experience corneal ectasia after LASIK. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. One hundred forty-eight consecutive patients (148 eyes) were included in this study. Thirty-seven patients who underwent LASIK at other refractive centers experienced corneal ectasia in 1 eye after LASIK. One hundred eleven eyes of 111 patients who underwent successful LASIK during the same period were age and gender matched and served as controls. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative topographic analysis of the cornea. The follow-up period in both groups of patients ranged from 2 to 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. All patients underwent LASIK for myopia (spherical equivalent, -4.00 to -8.00 diopters). Corneal keratometry, oblique cylinder, pachymetry, posterior surface elevation, difference between the inferior and superior corneal diopteric power, and posterior best sphere fit (BSF) over anterior BSF were given a grade of 1 to 3 each. An ectasia grading system was established, and the cumulative risk score was assessed. Patients who had a grade of 7 or less showed no evidence of corneal ectasia, whereas 16 (59%) of 27 patients who had a grade of 8 to 12 had corneal ectasia. Twenty-one (100%) of 21 patients with a grade of more than 12 had corneal ectasia after LASIK (P<0.0001). A risk score may help in the prediction of patients who are at risk of experiencing corneal ectasia after LASIK. A prospective clinical study is needed to assess the validity of these risk factors.

  19. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Their Associated Risk Factors

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    M Jahangiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace.  Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should

  20. Nutritional risk index as an independent predictive factor for the development of surgical site infection after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkawa, Hiroji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Uenishi, Takahiro; Sakae, Masayuki; Ohata, Kazunori; Urata, Yorihisa; Kaneda, Kazuhisa; Nozawa, Akinori; Kubo, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition has been considered a risk factor for the development of a surgical site infection (SSI). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between preoperative nutritional screening scores and the development of SSI after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We examined 64 patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy. Their clinical data, nutritional risk index (NRI), and nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS-2002) score were recorded. SSIs were diagnosed according to the definitions of wound infection established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and were confirmed by a microbiological examination. Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact probability method and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. SSIs developed in 21 patients (33 %). Eleven patients had wound infections, and 14 patients had an intra-abdominal abscess. A univariate analysis of perioperative factors revealed that a pancreatic fistula, the NRS-2002, and the NRI were significantly associated with the development of SSI (p NRI were independent risk factors for SSI. By analyzing the pre- and intra-operative factors after excluding the 11 patients with pancreatic fistulas, the NRI was still an independent risk factor for SSI. The present study showed the NRI to be an independent factor for predicting the risk of SSI after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  1. Severe Intraoperative Hyperglycemia Is Independently Associated With Postoperative Composite Infection After Craniotomy: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Toscani, Laura; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Ruskin, Keith J; Dai, Feng; Qeva, Ega; Rosa, Giovanni; Meng, Lingzhong; Bilotta, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative infection after craniotomy carries an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Identification and correction of the risk factors should be prioritized. The association of intraoperative hyperglycemia with postoperative infections in patients undergoing craniotomy is inadequately studied. A total of 224 patients were prospectively enrolled in 2 major medical centers to assess whether severe intraoperative hyperglycemia (SIH, blood glucose ≥180 mg/dL) is associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection in patients undergoing craniotomy. Arterial blood samples were drawn and analyzed immediately after anesthetic induction and again before tracheal extubation. The new onset of any type of infection within 7 days after craniotomy was determined. The incidence of new postoperative composite infection was 10% (n = 22) within the first week after craniotomy. Weight, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative and/or intraoperative steroid use, and diabetes mellitus were not associated with postoperative infection. SIH was independently associated with postoperative infection (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 4.17 [1.50-11.56], P = .006) after fitting a multiple logistic regression model to adjust for emergency surgery, length of surgery, and age ≥65 years. SIH is independently associated with postoperative new-onset composite infections in patients undergoing craniotomy. Whether prevention of SIH during craniotomy results in a reduced postoperative risk of infection is unknown and needs to be appraised by further study.

  2. Post biopsy pneumothorax: Risk factors and course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.A.; Retamar, J.A.; Blazquez, J.; Castano, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs

  3. Sexting; your definition, risk factors and consecuences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.

  4. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  5. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  6. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

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    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  7. Risk Factors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

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    Estrella de la Caridad Armenteros Espino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: cervix cancer constitutes the second cause of death worldwide, with new diagnosis each year. Objective: to determine the risk factors of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the municipality of Cruces. Methods: it was developed an analytical research with case and control design from November 2013 to November 2014. The group of cases was formed of the 34 women with this diagnosis. There were selected 64 females from the same environment with the same age for the control group. The data obtained by surveys and clinical records reviews were presented in absolute numbers and percentages. It was used Chi-squared test and odd ratio. Results: 52 % of women with neoplasia were less than 25 years old. Significant differences were found which associate neoplasia with early sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections by Papilloma virus, Plane genital condyloma, and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Multiple sex partner was a frequent antecedent. Conclusion: risk factors associated to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the group of women studied in the Cruces municipality were early sexual intercourse, mainly before 15 years old, multiple sex partner, sexually communicated diseases and the use of oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years.

  8. Injury risk factors among telemark skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L; Ong, R

    2000-01-01

    We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with 19,962 skier-days of data. The number of self-reported injuries was 178, for an overall self-reported injury rate of 8.9 per 1000 skier-days. Knee injuries (N = 48) were the most common injury (27%), followed by thumb (N = 32, 18%) and shoulder (N = 21, 12%) injuries. Specific risk factors for injury were identified with multivariate regression and survival analysis. The skill level of the skier had a significant injury-sparing effect, as did the use of plastic telemark boots. The protective effect of the plastic boots was likely due to the increased stability they provided compared with traditional leather boots. There were fewer knee injuries with the recently available releasable bindings for telemark skis. Sex and age had no significant impact on injury rates in this study population. As all reported deaths associated with telemark sking were due to environmental hazards, skiers must continue to pay close attention to these hazards in the backcountry.

  9. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  10. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

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    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  12. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  13. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, R.; Rajar, U.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  14. The Incidence and Risk Factors of Lens-iris Diaphragm Retropulsion Syndrome during Phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Hui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Han, Gyule; Chung, Eui Sang; Chung, Tae Young

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, the incidence and risk factors of lens-iris diaphragm retropulsion syndrome (LIDRS) were evaluated. Patients who underwent cataract surgery using phacoemulsification between June 2014 and December 2014 were included in the study. The preoperative ocular biometric and intraoperative surgical parameters were examined. The incidence of LIDRS and various risk factors were analyzed using an independent t-test, Pearson's chi-square test, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Among 124 eyes of 124 patients, 100 (80.6%) had no LIDRS and 24 (19.4%) had LIDRS. LIDRS occurred in 13 of 31 vitrectomized eyes (41.9%) and 11 of 93 non-vitrectomized eyes (11.8%). Based on univariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.920; p = 0.001), vitrectomized eye (OR, 5.038; p = 0.001), spherical equivalent (OR, 0.778; p < 0.001), axial length (OR, 1.716; p < 0.001), anterior chamber depth (OR, 3.328; p = 0.037), and 3.0 mm vs. 2.2 mm incision size (OR, 4.964; p = 0.001) were statistically significant risk factors associated with the development of LIDRS. Conditional multivariable logistic regression showed that vitrectomized eye (OR, 3.865; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.201 to 12.436; p = 0.023), long axial length (OR, 1.709; 95% CI, 1.264 to 2.310; p = 0.001), and 3.0 vs. 2.2 mm incision size (OR, 3.571; 95% CI, 1.120 to 11.393; p = 0.031) were significant independent risk factors associated with LIDRS. LIDRS is a relatively common occurrence and was found to be associated with vitrectomized eye, long axial length, and larger incision size. Evaluating risk factors prior to cataract surgery can help reduce associated morbidity.

  15. [Intraoperative radiotherapy. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingon, P; Fraisse, J; Brun, O; Salas, S; Naudy, S; Bernard, A; Goudet, P; Chalencon, J L; Minello, C; Pillet, M

    1995-01-01

    We report a series of 40 patients treated by intraoperative radiotherapy between 1988 and 1992 (18 primary tumors, 13 local recurrences and 9 nodal extensions). The doses delivered were 15 Gy to 25 Gy, completed by external radiotherapy (15 to 45 Gy) in 13 cases. The local tumor control rate was 61% for initial therapy in primary tumors (70% for adenocarcinoma of the stomach) and 80.9% after complete en bloc surgery. The local control rate after palliative surgery for local recurrences is 38% and 33% for nodal extension. Two patients died (5%) during the postoperative period. We observed 2 hemorrhages and 3 cases of stone-free cholecystitis. The value of this approach must be confirmed in rigorous indications in comparison with surgery alone in controlled and randomised clinical trials.

  16. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM. 

  17. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Etiology, symptomatology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibaa, L; Fakhfakh, N; Kallel, A; Belhadj, S; Belhaj Salah, N; Bada, N; Kallel, K

    2017-06-01

    To determine epidemiological, clinical and mycological characteristics of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Tunisian population and to evaluate predisposing factors. In this retrospective study, 2160 vaginal swabs were performed over 2 years (January 2014-December 2015). It was carried out at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Rabta Hospital in Tunisia. After swab collecting, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Actidione media were implemented to research yeasts. Then identifying of yeast species was through chlamydosporulation test and auxanogram. For each patient, a questionnaire was filled noting age, medical and surgical history, symptoms and risk factors. Statistical analysis of data was performed on SPSS 16 using Khi 2 test, P<0.05 was considered significant. Direct examination was positive showed spore and/or pseudohypha in 24.72%. Candida albicans was isolated most frequently (76.61%) followed by Candida glabrata (17.18%). The maximum frequency of Candida-positive cultures was in 25-34 years old age group. Leucorrhea was the most common symptom (72.25%) followed by vulvar prurits (63.23%), dyspareunia (32.25%) and urinary burning (24.92%). Only pregnancy was correlated positively with VVC. It appears from our study that VVC is relatively common in Tunisia. His diagnosis results from confrontation of anamnestic, clinical and mycological data. The knowledge of risk factors and their correction would be necessary to prevent the occurrence of VVC, especially in its recurrent form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  19. Intraoperative floppy iris and prevalence of intraoperative complications: results from ophthalmic surgery outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, David E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Chomsky, Amy; Daly, Mary K; Baze, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Mary

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of untoward events during cataract surgery with the use of pupillary expansion devices and intraoperative floppy iris (IFIS). Retrospective analysis of 4923 cataract surgery cases from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. Outcomes from 5 Veterans Affairs medical centers were analyzed, including use of alpha-blockers (both selective and nonselective), IFIS, intraoperative iris trauma, intraoperative iris prolapse, posterior capsular tear, anterior capsule tear, intraoperative vitreous prolapse, and use of pupillary expansion devices. P values were calculated using the χ(2) test. A total of 1254 patients (25.5%) took alpha-blockers preoperatively (selective, 587; nonselective, 627; both, 40). Of these 1254 patients, 428 patients (34.1%) had documented IFIS. However, 75.2% of patients with IFIS (428/569) had taken alpha-blockers preoperatively (P < .00001). A total of 430 patients (8.7%) had a pupillary expansion device used during their cataract surgery, of which 186 patients (43.4%) had IFIS (P < .0001). Eighty-six patients with IFIS had at least 1 intraoperative complication and 39 patients with IFIS had more than 1 intraoperative complication (P < .001). The use of either selective or nonselective alpha-antagonists preoperatively demonstrated a significant risk of IFIS. Nonselective alpha-antagonists caused IFIS at a higher prevalence than previously reported. This study did demonstrate statistically significant increased odds of surgical complications in patients with IFIS vs those without IFIS in all groups (those taking selective and nonselective alpha-antagonists and also those not taking medications). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Dias dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an inserted query in Pubmed, other references relevant to the topic in question were included. Results: Colorectal cancer risk varies according to the presence of certain factors, and an example of this is Crohn's disease. Chronic inflammation seems to be an important contribution to carcinogenesis, since it creates a microenvironment suitable for the onset and progression of the disease. There are molecular changes that are common to two conditions, thus justifying the fact of Crohn's disease being a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma. The disease control with an appropriate therapy and with surveillance are two ways to control this risk. Conclusions: A proinflammatory state is the cornerstone in the association between Crohn's disease and colorectal carcinoma. The implementation of surveillance strategies allowed a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer. Resumo: Introdução: A doença de Crohn é uma doença inflamatória que pode atingir todo o trato gastrointestinal. Esta patologia tem sido associada a um risco neoplásico aumentado, nomeadamente de carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os mecanismos responsáveis pelo aumento do risco de carcinoma colorretal na doença de Crohn. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados Pubmed. Para além dos artigos obtidos com a query inserida na Pubmed, foram também incluídas outras referências com relevância para o tema em questão. Resultados

  1. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT – INFLUENCE FACTORS AND NEW TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vasilescu

    2014-01-01

    Financial or corporate risk management is a part of the firm risk management with which deal with the financial risks, such as market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. In the context of international financial crisis, a variety of factors are influencing the development of corporate risk management: the increased volatility and deregulation of financial markets; developments in information and communications technology; the complexity of financial products and so on. The objective of risk...

  2. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated

  3. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  4. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  5. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  6. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...

  7. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  8. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss

  9. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Xu

    Full Text Available Postoperative pneumonia (POP is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC surgery.Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later.The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP.Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  10. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieyun; Hu, Jing; Yu, Pei; Wang, Weiwang; Hu, Xingxue; Hou, Jinsong; Fang, Silian; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC) surgery. Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later. The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP. Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  11. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  12. Intraoperative anaphylaxis: an association with latex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M; Swartz, J S; Braude, B M; Dolovich, J; Shandling, B; Gilmour, R F

    1991-03-01

    Latex products have recently been identified as the cause of severe intraoperative anaphylactic reactions. We have identified a group of pediatric patients who appear to be at increased risk for such reactions. Fifteen patients with either spina bifida or congenital urologic abnormalities experienced 19 intraoperative anaphylactic reactions. All patients had frequent previous exposures to rubber materials since infancy as part of their management and/or investigative procedures. Seven of 15 patients had a previous history of local skin reactions to rubber. Only four patients were atopic. All patients had undergone multiple (two of 26) operative procedures before their reactions, the onset of which ranged from 40 to 290 minutes after induction of anesthesia. The reactions varied in intensity from urticaria to severe cardiorespiratory collapse. All these patients subsequently had positive allergy skin tests and positive RAST to latex antigen. We conclude that this group is at risk when they are exposed to latex intraoperatively as a result of frequent past exposure to these materials. Allergic evaluation for latex allergy may assist in the preoperative evaluation of similar patients. In sensitized patients, appropriate prophylactic measures, particularly the avoidance of latex, is required.

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  14. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.

  15. RISK FACTORS FOR VERY PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Витальевна Батырева

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  16. INCISIONAL HERNIA - A CLINICAL STUDY, OBESITY - A MAJOR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kota; Ramesh Lingala

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Incisional hernia is a common surgical problem with which a patient presents to the surgical OPD. There are certain modifiable risk factors, which if corrected can prevent incisional hernia. Among these risk factors, obesity is a major risk factor. Present study aims to prove that obesity is a major risk factor for incisional hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care centre from December 2014 to December 2017...

  17. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  18. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  20. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  1. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...

  2. Harvest surgical site infection following coronary artery bypass grafting: risk factors, microbiology, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Fakih, Mohamad G; Berriel-Cass, Dorine; Meisner, Susan; Saravolatz, Louis; Khatib, Riad

    2009-10-01

    Our goals were to evaluate the risk factors predisposing to saphenous vein harvest surgical site infection (HSSI), the microbiology implicated, associated outcomes including 30-day mortality, and identify opportunities for prevention of infection. All patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures from January 2000 through September 2004 were included. Data were collected on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, in addition to microbiology and outcomes. Eighty-six of 3578 (2.4%) patients developed HSSI; 28 (32.6%) of them were classified as deep. The median time to detection was 17 (range, 4-51) days. An organism was identified in 64 (74.4%) cases; of them, a single pathogen was implicated in 50 (78%) cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen: 19 (38% [methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) = 12, methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) = 7]). Gram-negative organisms were recovered in 50% of cases, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa predominating in 11 (22%) because of a single pathogen. Multiple pathogens were identified in 14 (22%) cases. The 30-day mortality was not significantly different in patients with or without HSSI. Multivariate analysis showed age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery to be associated with increased risk. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery were associated with increased risk for HSSI. S aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen.

  3. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Helge Klingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF. Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%. Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; P=0.0493. Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P=0.0657. Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135.

  4. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-13

    Oct 13, 2011 ... risk factor and 104(76%) recognized history of previous benign breast lump as a risk factor . Other risk factors .... nurses in Nigeria where 89% would agree to have mastectomy should they develop breast cancer [11]. ... Only seventy five percent carried out the procedure at least once every month. A lower.

  5. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the ...

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  7. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  8. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... Diabetes was the second common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (17%) of patients. Conclusion: Stenosis and infection are the most common complications of the vascular access. DM is an important risk factor for the incidence of infection. Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older ...

  9. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of hypertension in ... Ibekwe: Correlation between modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio‑demographic profile in Oghara, Delta State. 72. Annals of ..... non‑communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa.

  10. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose. Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 ...

  11. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Kinoshita

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

  12. Risk factors for scabies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Sai-Cheong; Huang, Shie-Shian; Kao, Yu-Chin; See, Lai-Chu; Yang, Shih-Hsien

    2012-08-01

    Scabies is a global problem. Transmission of scabies is usually due to direct or indirect contact. Delay in diagnosis may result in the spread of the scabies mite. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important. In this study, we collected data from 52 scabies patients and analyzed the risk factors for scabies with the case-control method. Our study has revealed that the patients who were bedridden [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, p scabies infection. To prevent scabies, proper management of the nursing home setting, including adequate cleaning of the contaminated clothing, bedding and equipment, in combination with treating all suspected scabies patients, and contact isolation are important and necessary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  14. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...... made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...

  15. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  16. Consanguinity as risk factor for cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, S

    2003-03-01

    Cervical carcinoma is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Among the risk factors for HPV infection are having multiple sex partners and sex partners who themselves had multiple sex partners. Women married to relatives are more likely to become infected with HPV and develop cervical carcinoma. Consanguineous spouses have a mild sexual aversion to each other that leads to sex avoidance and increases likelihood of satisfying sexual desire outside the marriage. Sexual aversion develops as a result of spouses growing together in early childhood, which triggers biological imprinting of Westermarck. Westermarck's effect prevents incest in nuclear family. In consanguineous family, it extends to spouses, producing mild sexual antipathy. Because of high prevalence of consanguinity worldwide, it is important to test this hypothesis.

  17. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  18. Sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  20. Risk factors in iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

  1. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Dabaghmanesh, Alireza; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmat; Malek-Hosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  2. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  3. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  4. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  5. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  6. Hoarseness and Risk Factors in University Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Antonio; Abranches, Denise; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Paulo

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the presence of hoarseness and the risk factors in male and female university teachers in private institutions in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey. Voice self-evaluation forms prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor were administered to 846 university teachers in a private institution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of hoarseness in the sample is 39.6%. Percentage of hoarseness is higher in females (51.8%) than in males (32.6%). Comparing hoarseness and time of teaching, it was observed that the percentage of hoarseness is lower in a time shorter or equal to 1 year, and it is higher in a time between 10 and 20 years. Percentage of hoarseness is lower in the maximum workload of one to three class hours per day compared with the other workloads. Percentage of hoarseness is lower when the maximum number of students per classroom is less than 30 than when it is between 101 and 150 students. Other factors like in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life are related to the presence of hoarseness. University teachers show high percentage of hoarseness. Factors, such as time of teaching, females, work organization, workplace, in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life, are related to the presence of hoarseness in this group. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in treatment of portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the possible risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in the treatment of portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, and to provide a certain basis for reducing the incidence of digestive tract re-hemorrhage for these patients. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 238 cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension who underwent splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in the First Hospital of Lanzhou University from December 2003 to December 2013. These patients were divided into postoperative rebleeding group (n=32 and non-bleeding group (n=206. Univariate analysis (t test or chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization. ResultsOf the 32 patients with postoperative rebleeding, 17 had esophagogastric variceal bleeding, 11 had bleeding due to portal hypertensive gastropathy, and 4 had stress ulcer bleeding. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the following factors: Child-Pugh classification of liver function, degree of liver cirrhosis evaluated intraoperatively, pathological changes of the gastric mucosa, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and presence of diabetes (all P<0.05. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the significant independent influential factors for postoperative rebleeding were presence of diabetes, Child-Pugh classification of liver function, degree of liver cirrhosis evaluated intraoperatively, diffuse lesion of the gastric mucosa, PT, and APTT. ConclusionFor cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, the appropriate methods for managing these risk factors are of great clinical significance for preventing rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization.

  8. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  9. Urbanization and noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors: WHO STEPwise Iranian NCD risk factors surveillance in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-27

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  10. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  11. RISK FACTORS IN SUICIDE AMONG MALE ALCOHOL DEPENDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Prasanna; Gandhibabu; Asok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a potent risk factor for completed suicide but data are limited on factors that distinguish risk within this high risk population. AIM: To study the risk factors for suicide attempts among male alcohol dependents. METHODS: This was a case control study conducted from January to July in the Year 2014. Cases and controls were recruited from Department of Psychiatry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, using various tools such as semi structured p...

  12. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with ...

  13. Selected versus routine use of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickuth, D

    1995-12-01

    Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still widely advocated and standard in many departments, however, this is discussed controversially. We have developed a new diagnostic strategy to detect bile duct stones. The concept is based on an ultrasound examination and on a screening for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis. 120 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively screened for the presence of six risk indicators of choledocholithiasis: history of jaundice; history of pancreatitis; hyperbilirubinemia; hyperamylasemia; dilated bile duct; unclear ultrasound findings. The sensitivity of ultrasound and of intraoperative cholangiography in diagnosing bile duct stones was also evaluated. For the detection of bile duct stones, the sensitivity was 77% for ultrasound and 100% for intraoperative cholangiography. 20% of all patients had at least one risk indicator. The presence of a risk indicator correlated significantly with the presence of choledocholithiasis (p concept, we would have avoided 80% of intraoperative cholangiographies without missing a stone in the bile duct. This study lends further support to the view that the routine use of intraoperative cholangiography in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.

  14. Intraoperative lung ultrasound: A clinicodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of evidence-based medicine, ultrasonography has emerged as an important and indispensable tool in clinical practice in various specialties including critical care. Lung ultrasound (LUS has a wide potential in various surgical and clinical situations for timely and easy detection of an impending crisis such as pulmonary edema, endobronchial tube migration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion, and various other causes of desaturation before it clinically ensues to critical level. Although ultrasonography is frequently used in nerve blocks, airway handling, and vascular access, LUS for routine intraoperative monitoring and in crisis management still necessitates recognition. After reviewing the various articles regarding the use of LUS in critical care, we found, that LUS can be used in various intraoperative circumstances similar to Intensive Care Unit with some limitations. Except for few attempts in the intraoperative detection of pneumothorax, LUS is hardly used but has wider perspective for routine and crisis management in real-time. If anesthesiologists add LUS in their routine monitoring armamentarium, it can assist to move a step ahead in the dynamic management of critically ill and high-risk patients.

  15. Intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John; Lu, Xiaoying; Thompson, Zoe; Peterson, Gordon W; Losey, Travis E

    2016-05-01

    An acute symptomatic seizure is a clinical seizure occurring at the time of or in close temporal association with a brain insult. We report an acute symptomatic seizure occurring during a surgical procedure in a patient who did not have a prior history of epilepsy and who did not have a lesion associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. To characterize the incidence and clinical features of intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia, we reviewed cases where continuous EEG was acquired during craniotomy. Records of 400 consecutive cases with propofol as general anesthesia during craniotomy were reviewed. Demographic data, indication for surgery, clinical history, history of prior seizures, duration of surgery and duration of burst suppression were recorded. Cases where seizures were observed were analyzed in detail. Two out of 400 patients experienced intraoperative seizures, including one patient who appeared to have an acute symptomatic seizure related to the surgical procedure itself and a second patient who experienced two seizures likely related to an underlying diagnosis of epilepsy. This is the first report of an acute symptomatic seizure secondary to a neurosurgical procedure. Overall, 0.5% of patients monitored experienced seizures, indicating that intraoperative seizures are rare, and EEG monitoring during craniotomies is of low yield in detecting seizures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  18. Risk factors for low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Nogueira, Joana Rosa Costa; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Figueiredo, Omar Jacobina; Cavalcante, Wagner Cid Palmeira; Cavalcante, Thiago Cid Palmeira; Silva, Hugo Thiago Torres da; Santos, Cecília Andrade; Lima, Renato Oliveira de Albuquerque; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for LCOS in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE (Recife, PE, Brazil). A historical prospective study comprising 605 consecutive patients operated between May 2007 and December 2010. We evaluated 12 preoperative and 7 intraoperative variables. We applied univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The incidence of LCOS was 14.7% (n = 89), with a lethality rate of 52.8% (n = 47). In multivariate analysis by logistic regression, four variables remained as independent risk factors: age > 60 years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.20 to 6.14, P = 0.009), on-pump CABG (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.08, P = 0.006), emergency surgery (OR 4.71, 95% CI 1.34 to 26.55, P = 0.028), incomplete revascularization (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.32 to 5.86, P = 0.003), and ejection fraction 60 years of off-pump CABG, emergency surgery, incomplete CABG and ejection fraction <50%.

  19. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Arrhythmias Following Pediatric Open Heart Surgery in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ahmed Abdel Gawad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early postoperative arrhythmias after cardiac operation in the pediatric population, and to analyse possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study included 30 postoperative patients, with age range four up to 144 months. They were selected from those admitted to the Cardiology Unit in the Pediatric department of Ain Shams University hospitals, after undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB surgery for correction of congenital cardiac defects. All patients had preoperative sinus rhythm and normal preoperative electrolytes levels. All patients’ records about age, weight, type of surgery, intraoperative arrhythmias, cardiopulmonary bypass time, ischemic time and use of inotropic drugs were taken before they were admitted to the specialised pediatric post-surgery intensive care unit (ICU. RESULTS: Arrhythmia was documented in 15 out of 30 patients (50%. Statistically significant difference between the arrhythmic and non-arrhythmic group were recorded in relation to the age of operation (23 vs 33 months, weight (12 vs. 17 kg, ischemic time (74.5 vs. 54 min, cardiopulmonary bypass time (125.5 vs. 93.5min, inotrope use (1.6 vs. 1.16 and postoperative ICU stay (5.8 vs. 2.7 days, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Early postoperative arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease are relatively frequent in children (50%.Younger age, lower body weight, longer ischemic time and bypass time, and more inotrope use are all risk factors for postoperative arrhythmias and lead to increase the hospital stay.

  20. [Amblyopia. Epidemiology, causes and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, H M

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.

  1. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  2. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  3. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five

  4. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, ppregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent. Investigar os fatores de risco para a incontinência urinária (IU) no puerpério e as suas características. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com 344 puérperas (77 casos e 267 controles), com até 90 dias pós-parto. Foi aplicado, em um único momento, um questionário para os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, e dois outros para avaliar a perda urinária, situações de perda e o tipo de IU. Apresentaram IU de esforço 45,5%, perda urinária diversas vezes ao dia 44,2%, sendo 71,4% em pequena quantidade e 57,1% ao tossir ou espirrar. Em 70,1% dos casos a IU iniciou-se na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. Ao ajustar-se um modelo de regressão logística binária, apenas IU na gestação (OR 12,82, IC 95% 6,94 - 23,81, p<0,0001), multiparidade (OR 2,26, IC 95% 1,22 - 4,19, p=0,009), idade gestacional no parto maior ou igual a 37 semanas (OR 2,52, IC 95% 1,16 - 5,46, p=0,02) e constipação (OR 1,94, IC

  5. Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk ...

  6. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...... and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results: HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health...

  7. Management of intraoperative fluid balance and blood conservation techniques in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vretzakis, George; Kleitsaki, Athina; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2011-02-01

    Blood transfusions are associated with adverse physiologic effects and increased cost, and therefore reduction of blood product use during surgery is a desirable goal for all patients. Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of donor blood products, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used, because hematocrit drops precipitously during CPB due to blood loss and blood cell dilution. Advanced age, low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, complex or re-operative procedures or emergency operations, and patient comorbidities were identified as important transfusion risk indicators in a report recently published by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. This report also identified several pre- and intraoperative interventions that may help reduce blood transfusions, including off-pump procedures, preoperative autologous blood donation, normovolemic hemodilution, and routine cell saver use.A multimodal approach to blood conservation, with high-risk patients receiving all available interventions, may help preserve vital organ perfusion and reduce blood product utilization. In addition, because positive intravenous fluid balance is a significant factor affecting hemodilution during cardiac surgery, especially when CPB is used, strategies aimed at limiting intraoperative fluid balance positiveness may also lead to reduced blood product utilization.This review discusses currently available techniques that can be used intraoperatively in an attempt to avoid or minimize fluid balance positiveness, to preserve the patient's own red blood cells, and to decrease blood product utilization during cardiac surgery.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  9. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  10. Reproductive risk factors surveyed in Matamoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been distributed through a community-based distribution (CBD) program in Matamaros, Mexico under the auspices of the Centro pro Orientacion Familiar (COFAC). Family Health International (FHI) has provided technical assistance enabling COFAC to conduct a Reproductive Risk Factors Survey to determine if any substantial group of women were placed at a greater risk of death or serious health damage because of this program than if the program had not existed, and, if so, how might such women be protected. The health of CBD acceptors was compared with that of women accepting OC from other sources and women who had never taken OC, using parameters ranging from anemia to cardiovascular disorders. The objective was to investigate the behavior of women who may have serious contraindications to OC and/or pregnancy. About 500 women were interviewed in their homes by specially trained nurses with a questionnaire supplemented by some simple, objective measurements. For validation, a complete medical history was taken and physical examination given for a subsample in the COFAC clinic. Some 40 separate reproductive health indicators were developed from this data. Findings indicated that the CBD program in Matamoros did not introduce any new source of danger to women of reproductive age. As a generality across the 40 indicators, CBD acceptors were as healthy as acceptors from other sources and were somewhat more likely to have consulted a physician. Current OC users were healthier than never users, after controlling for age and parity. The fact of regular contact with neighborhood promotoras (promoters), backed up by the COFAC medical center, represented an additional source of safety not previously available. The promoters were responsible for promotion of family planning, including sale at a subsidized price of OCs and contraceptive foam, and were trained in the use of a checklist for possible contraindications to OC. The CBD program introduced an

  11. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  12. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  13. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  14. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  15. Incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Sen; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeon and surgically treated patients.By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital, 237 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of ASD at follow up, patients were divided into 2 groups: ASD and N-ASD group. To investigate risk values for the occurrence of ASD, 3 categorized factors were analyzed statistically: Patient characteristics: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), duration. Surgical variables: surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, intraoperative superior facet joint violation. Radiographic parameters: preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative angular motion at adjacent segment, preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration.Postoperative ASD was developed in 15 of 237 patients (6.3%) at final follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics of age, sex composition, BMD, duration, while the BMI was higher in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in surgical variables of surgical strategy, number of fusion level, surgery segment, surgery time, blood loss, while intraoperative superior facet joint violation was more common in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. There was no difference in radiographic parameters of preoperative lumbar lordosis, preoperative paraspinal muscle degeneration, while preoperative adjacent segment disc degeneration were more severe in ASD group than that in N-ASD group. The Logistic regression analysis revealed that, BMI >25 kg/m, preoperative disc degeneration, and superior facet joint

  16. Additional risk factors for lethal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Fiona; Gilbert, John D; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2013-08-01

    An 86-year-old woman was found dead lying on her back on the floor of an unkempt kitchen. She had last been seen four days before. Her dress was pulled up and she was not wearing underpants. The house was noted to be in "disarray" with papers covering most surfaces and the floor. Rubbish was piled up against one of the doors. At autopsy the major findings were of a fractured left neck of femur, fresh pressure areas over her right buttock, Wischnewski spots of the stomach and foci of pancreatic necrosis, in keeping with hypothermia. No significant underlying organic diseases were identified and there was no other evidence of trauma. Death was due to hypothermia complicating immobility from a fractured neck of femur. This case confirms the vulnerability of frail, elderly and socially-isolated individuals to death from hypothermia if a significant illness or injury occurs. Additional risk factors for hypothermia are also illustrated in this case that involve inadequate housing construction with absent insulation and window double glazing. The approach to hypothermic deaths should, therefore, include checking for these features as well as measuring room and environmental temperatures, evaluating the type and quality of heating and the nature of the floor and its coverings, Given the ageing population in many Western countries, increasing social isolation of the elderly, cost of fuel and electricity, and lack of energy efficient housing, this type of death may become an increasingly witnessed occurrence during the colder months of the year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  19. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively......, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable....

  20. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...

  1. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  2. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    OpenAIRE

    Koziol-McLain, J.; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage.

  3. A study on risk factors and diagnostic efficiency of posthepatectomy liver failure in the nonobstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Lei; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Liver failure remains as the most common complication and cause of death after hepatectomy, and continues to be a challenge for doctors.t test and χ test were used for single factor analysis of data-related variables, then results were introduced into the model to undergo the multiple factors logistic regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed for related postoperative indexes, and a diagnostic evaluation was performed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of postoperative indexes.Differences in age, body mass index (BMI), portal vein hypertension, bile duct cancer, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), operation time, cumulative portal vein occlusion time, intraoperative blood volume, residual liver volume (RLV)/entire live rvolume, ascites volume at postoperative day (POD)3, supplemental albumin amount at POD3, hospitalization time after operation, and the prothrombin activity (PTA) were statistically significant. Furthermore, there were significant differences in total bilirubin and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3. ROC analysis of the average PTA, albumin amounts, ascites volume at POD3, and their combined diagnosis were performed, which had diagnostic value for postoperative liver failure (area under the curve (AUC): 0.895, AUC: 0.798, AUC: 0.775, and AUC: 0.903).Preoperative total bilirubin level and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3 were independent risk factors. PTA can be used as the index of postoperative liver failure, and the combined diagnosis of the indexes can improve the early prediction of postoperative liver failure.

  4. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  5. Risk Factors for Increased Severity of Paediatric Medication Administration Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian paediatric centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential erro...

  6. Intraoperative Evaluation of Reverse Bypass Using a Naturally Formed "Bonnet" Superficial Temporal Artery: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takatoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In reverse bypass that used a naturally formed "bonnet" superficial temporal artery, intraoperative volume flow measurement quantifies flow augmentation after revascularization, confirms flow preservation, and identifies inadvertent vessel compromise. A 75-year-old man presented with transient ischemic attacks attributed to right internal carotid artery stenosis. He underwent successful reverse bypass via a naturally formed "bonnet" superficial temporal artery middle cerebral artery bypass. As the result of proper intraoperative volume flow evaluation, a successful reverse bypass was achieved. Modification of the intraoperative stroke risk and prediction of the long-term patency after reverse bypass can be achieved by meticulous intraoperative blood flow evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between Sleep Duration and Risk Factors for Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...

  8. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...

  9. Prevalence of mental health risk factors among students in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...

  10. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  11. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  12. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, ...

  13. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Dana; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-02-01

    The health of an airline pilot is imperative to the safe travels of millions of people worldwide. Medical providers evaluate the cardiovascular risks for airline pilots and the medical requirements to obtain and maintain licensure as an airline pilot. It is the role of the occupational health nurse practitioner to evaluate and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  16. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  17. Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lysý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...

  18. Intraocular VEGF level as a risk factor for postoperative complications after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Usui, Yoshihiko; Okunuki, Yoko; Ueda, Shunichiro; Kimura, Keisuke; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi

    2012-09-21

    To investigate whether vitreous and aqueous humor concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predict postoperative complications after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Sixty eyes of 52 patients with PDR who underwent vitrectomy were enrolled. Vitreous and aqueous humor were obtained from eyes with PDR during primary vitrectomy and the levels of VEGF were measured using a commercial flow cytometer. Patients were followed for more than 6 months after surgery. Demographic data and both intraoperative and postoperative findings were recorded. The relationship between VEGF levels in ocular fluids and the main postoperative complications of early vitreous hemorrhage (VH) and neovascular glaucoma (NVG) occurring during follow-up was analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine risk factors related to postoperative complications. Early VH occurred in 25%, and NVG occurred in 8% of 60 eyes. The vitreous levels of VEGF were significantly higher (P = 0.015) in eyes with early VH than in those without. The aqueous humor and vitreous levels of VEGF were significantly higher (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively) in eyes with NVG than in those without. Axial length was significantly shorter in eyes with early VH than in those without (P = 0.028). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the higher vitreous VEGF level was associated with a risk of early VH after vitrectomy for PDR (odds ratio, 5.1; P = 0.020). High intraocular VEGF level at the time of primary vitrectomy in patients with PDR was identified as a significant risk factor for postoperative early VH.

  19. Evaluation of antenatal risk factors lit Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, H; Bergstrorn, S; Cnattingius, S; Dupret, A; Reitmaier, P

    1996-08-01

    The prevalence of antenatal risk factors and their association with adverse pregnancy outcome were prospectively studied in the county of Praia, Cape Verde. Of 4693 women registering for antenatal care, 8% were randomly selected from October 1991 through December 1992. Eventually 358 women were observed until puerperium when a physical examination and a structured interview took place. Three out of four women of the cohort were exposed to risk factors according to the existing risk classification in Praia, and 9% presented high risk factors. Thirty two percent of the cohort faced adverse pregnancy outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly increased among women who presented high risk factors, but 82% of all adverse outcomes occurred among other women. The antenatal risk classification investigated cannot be considered an effective tool for detection of women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  20. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...

  1. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  2. Intra-operative maternal complications of emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor is a big challenge in obstetrics due to increased risk of intraoperative complications. In the last decade, a rapid increase in cesarean section done in advanced labor has been observed. Difficult deli-very of the fetal head during cesarean section carries a high risk of intraoperative complications like cervical and uterine tears, intra operative hemorrhage and trauma to the baby. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find out the frequency and risk factors for intra-operative complications in emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor, so that appropriate management protocols can be planned to reduce these complications. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit - 2 of Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Services Hospital, Lahore; from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2007. All patients undergoing emergency cesarean sections done on laboring mothers were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups; emergency C-section done in advanced labor as the study group and emergency C-section in early labor as the control group. Data were collected regarding age, parity, booked or unbooked status, indications for cesarean section, level of competence of operating surgeon, intra-operative complications and the risk factors for these complications. Data were recorded on a structured proforma and compared between the two groups. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer programme SPSS Version 14 for windows applying student t-test for quantitative and chai square test for qualitative parameters. A p-value < 0.05 was used as statistically significant. Results: Out of 2064 total deliveries in the year 2007, 1290 (62.5%) were vaginal deliveries and 774 (37.5%) were C-Sections. Out of 774 C-Section, 174 (23%) were elective and 600 (77%) were emergency. Out of 600 emergency C

  3. Factors associated to the development of hypothermia in the intraoperative period Factores relacionados al desarrollo de hipotermia en el período intraoperatorio Fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento de hipotermia no período intra-operatório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Brito Poveda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess factors associated to body temperature changes intraoperatively in patients undergoing elective surgery. A prospective study including 70 patients was carried out in a charity hospital. A data collection instrument was developed and its face and content validity was established. The variables measured were operating room temperature and humidity and patient body temperature at different times. In the multivariate linear regression, the variables type of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, body mass index, and operating room temperature were directly associated to mean body temperature. Nurses are responsible for planning and implementing effective interventions that can contribute to minimize costs and most importantly reduce hypothermia complications.La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar los factores relacionados a las alteraciones de la temperatura corporal del paciente sometido a cirugía electiva en el período intraoperatorio. Para esto, se realizó un estudio de correlación, prospectivo, en un hospital filantrópico. Fue elaborado un instrumento y sometido a validación aparente y de contenido, el cual fue utilizado para recolectar datos de 70 pacientes. La temperatura y humedad de la sala de operación y la temperatura corporal del paciente, en diferentes momentos, fueron las variables mensuradas. En la regresión linear multivariada, las variables: tipo de anestesia, duración de la anestesia, índice de masa corporal y temperatura de la sala de operación estaban directamente relacionadas a la temperatura corporal promedio de los sujetos investigados. Es el enfermero quien debe planificar e implementar intervenciones efectivas que contribuyan para minimizar los costos y principalmente reducir las complicaciones asociadas a la hipotermia.A pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar os fatores relacionados às alterações da temperatura corporal do paciente submetido à cirurgia eletiva no período intra

  4. Predictive risk factors for intra- and postoperative complications in 526 laparoscopic sigmoid resections due to recurrent diverticulitis: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Philipp; Matz, Daniel; Dincler, Selim; Buchmann, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic sigmoid resection is a feasible and frequent operation for patients who suffer from recurrent diverticulitis. There is still an ongoing debate about the optimal timing for surgery in patients who suffer from recurrent diverticulitis episodes. In elective situations the complication rate for this procedure is moderate, but there are patients at high risk for perioperative complications. The few identified risk factors so far refer to open surgery. Data for the elective laparoscopic approach is rare. The objective of this study was to identify potential predictive risk factors for intra- and postoperative complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid resection due to diverticular disease. Uni- and multivariate analyses of a prospectively gathered database (1993-2006) were performed on a consecutive series of 526 patients who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid resection due to recurrent diverticulitis in a single institution. Patients were assessed for demographic data, operative indications, and intra- and postoperative complications. Altogether, we analyzed 17 potential risk factors to identify significant influence on the intra- and postoperative outcome, including timing of surgery. Statistical analysis of specific medical and surgical complications revealed anemia, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, experience of the surgeon, and male gender, as independent predictive risk factors for postoperative complications. Patients older than age 75 years was the only independent risk factor for intraoperative complications in a multiple logistic regression model. Early elective surgery led to increased conversion rate but did not influence the postoperative complication rate. This large, single-center study provides first evidence of the significance of specific predictive risk factors for intra- and postoperative complications in laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease.

  5. Statistical evaluation of adding multiple risk factors improves Framingham stroke risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Xiaonan; Duncan, Ashlee; Hu, Guizhou; Zheng, Jiayin

    2017-04-14

    Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS) is the most well-regarded risk appraisal tools for evaluating an individual's absolute risk on stroke onset. However, several widely accepted risk factors for stroke were not included in the original Framingham model. This study proposed a new model which combines an existing risk models with new risk factors using synthesis analysis, and applied it to the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) data set. Risk factors in original prediction models and new risk factors in proposed model had been discussed. Three measures, like discrimination, calibration and reclassification, were used to evaluate the performance of the original Framingham model and new risk prediction model. Modified C-statistics, Hosmer-Lemeshow Test and classless NRI, class NRI were the statistical indices which, respectively, denoted the performance of discrimination, calibration and reclassification for evaluating the newly developed risk prediction model on stroke onset. It showed that the NEW-STROKE (new stroke risk score prediction model) model had higher modified C-statistics, smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values after recalibration than original FSRS model, and the classless NRI and class NRI of the NEW-STROKE model over the original FSRS model were all significantly positive in overall group. The NEW-STROKE integrated with seven literature-derived risk factors outperformed the original FSRS model in predicting the risk score of stroke. It illustrated that seven literature-derived risk factors contributed significantly to stroke risk prediction.

  6. Intraoperative radiotherapy - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Willett, Christopher G.; Harrison, Louis B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Intraoperative irradiation (IORT) in its broadest sense refers to the delivery of irradiation at the time of an operation. This refresher course will discuss the use of both electrons (IOERT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) in conjunction with surgical exploration and resection ± external irradiation/chemotherapy. Both IORT methods have evolved with similar philosophies as an attempt to achieve higher effective doses of irradiation while dose limiting structures are surgically displaced. The rationale for each is supported by excellent local control ± survival results achieved with brachytherapy alone or as a boost to external irradiation in organ preservation efforts in traditional sites (head and neck, breast, gynecologic) wherein a boost dose could be delivered to smaller volumes than could usually be accomplished with external irradiation alone. IOERT has been a tool in modern radiotherapy in Japan since the 1960's and in the U.S. since the mid 1970's. Results from randomized and nonrandomized trials will be presented in the refresher course with major emphasis on GI sites (gastric, pancreas, colorectal) since the data is more mature. While the largest clinical experience with IOERT (± external irradiation/chemotherapy, maximal resection) has been with gastrointestinal cancers in adults, moderate experience has also been obtained with locally advanced retroperitoneal sarcomas and recurrent genitourinary and gynecologic cancers. With primary colorectal cancers that are unresectable for cure or for locally recurrent colorectal cancers, both local control and long-term survival appear to be improved with the aggressive combinations including IOERT when compared to results achieved with conventional treatment. When residual disease exists after resection of gastric cancers, IOERT ± external radiation has achieved optimistic survival results in trials in Japan, the U.S., Spain and China. With locally unresectable pancreatic cancer, an

  7. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

  8. Effect of Hematocrit and Erythrocyte Density on Intraoperative Blood Loss in Hemophilia A Patients During Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhina, E S; Polyanskaya, T Yu; Zorenko, V Yu; Azimova, M Kh; Nesterenko, V M; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2016-05-01

    Intraoperative blood loss during total knee arthroplasty in patients with hemophilia varies over a wide range (from 300 to 3000 ml). The reasons have not been clarified yet. We studied the dependence of intraoperative blood loss during total knee arthroplasty in patients with hemophilia A on hematocrit and mean erythrocyte density. Intraoperational blood loss ≥1000 ml was observed in patients with hematocrit hematocrit >38.5% this parameter depended on the mean erythrocyte density: in patients with increased erythrocyte density, the risk of intraoperational blood loss ≥1000 ml was higher. The increase in erythrocyte density can serve as an indicator of pathological processes, including the processes modulating hemostasis. It can also be assumed that erythrocytes with higher density change blood flow, which affects platelet adhesion to the damaged endothelium. Hematocrit below the threshold level and mean density of erythrocytes above the normal level can be regarded as risk factor for increased intraoperational blood loss.

  9. Proportion of neural tube defects attributable to known risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Tinker, Sarah C; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Recognized risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs) poorly predict population-level NTD risk. However, the proportion of NTDs that can be attributed to these risk factors is uncertain. To determine the proportion of NTD cases that is attributable to known or suspected risk factors (i.e., female infant sex, family history of NTDs, and maternal Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, low dietary folate intake, lack of folic acid supplementation, anticonvulsant use, and hot tub or sauna use), we estimated the adjusted population attributable fraction (aAF) for each factor, using the method of Eide and Geffler and data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Our analyses of these data indicate that the proportion of cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that can be attributed to known risk factors is 28% and 44%, respectively. For spina bifida, the factor with the greatest attributable fraction was maternal obesity (aAF, 10%), whereas for anencephaly it was Hispanic ethnicity (aAF, 15%). Our analyses indicate that known risk factors account for <50% of NTD cases. Hence, the majority of NTD cases are attributable to, as yet, unidentified factors. These findings highlight the need for continued research to identify genetic and additional nongenetic risk factors for NTDs. Further, these findings suggest that strategies that aim to reduce the risk of NTDs associated with maternal Hispanic ethnicity and obesity may have the greatest impact on the population prevalence of these conditions.

  10. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sandra Cristina Dias dos; Barbosa, Laura Elisabete Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an i...

  11. Organization of accounting for factoring companies: risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.

  12. Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the factors associated ...

  13. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  14. Risk factor profiles of South Asians with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itrat, Ahmad; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Maria; Muhammad, Murtaza; Thaver, Danyal; Khowaja, Zubair; Ali, Shehzad; Bawa, Zeeshan; Rahat, Muhammad; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran

    2011-08-01

    There is a paucity of population based data about the coexistent proportions of risk factors for stroke in South Asians. In this cross sectional survey performed in an urban slum, individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation through a simple random sample drawn from baseline census data. For each participant a systematic history and examination was performed to confirm the following risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, obesity, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, family history of coronary artery disease and/or stroke. Cerebrovascular events (stroke and TIA) were verified by a vascular neurologist. We report the association of risk factor groups and the presence of contemporaneous cerebrovascular event. Five hundred and forty-five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen (21.8%) individuals had a cerebrovascular event (stroke and /or TIA). Obesity was found to be the predominant risk factor, occurring in 310 individuals (56.9%), followed by total hypertension (284; 52.1%) and tobacco use respectively (213; 39%). Cerebrovascular event increased in percentage with quantitative increase in risk factors. Cerebrovascular event prevalence was 14.3% with one risk factor, 22% with two, 27% with three, 33% with four, and 86% with five risk factors respectively. The combination of 4 risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking) conferred the highest odds of having cerebrovascular event at 4.9 (P 0.03). South Asians in an urban slum often have multiple modifiable risk factors for cerebrovascular event, increasing numbers of risk factors increase the risk of stroke and TIA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  16. Dietary factors and risk of trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C; Mangili, G; Caminiti, C; Negri, E; Cecchetti, G; Fasoli, M

    1988-01-01

    The risk of gestational trophoblastic disease in relation to frequency of consumption of selected dietary items was evaluated with data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 148 women with histologically confirmed gestational trophoblastic disease and two control groups, one consisting of 372 obstetric control subjects and one consisting of 406 patients in the hospital for acute, nonobstetric, nongynecologic conditions. Patients with gestational trophoblastic disease tended to consume several foods less frequently, including the major sources of vitamin A and animal protein in the Italian diet. Relative risk estimates were significantly below unity in both control groups for green vegetable, carrot, liver, and cheese consumption and in the obstetric control group only for milk, meat, eggs, fresh fruit, and fish. Inverse relationships emerged between the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease and beta-carotene or retinol intake index. The trend of decreasing risk with increasing intake was significant for beta-carotene consumption. The present findings confirm that various aspects of diet may influence the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease. However, the limitation of available evidence still introduces serious uncertainties in the interpretation of these findings and suggests the potential importance of further epidemiologic and biochemical research to obtain more precise definition of specific dietary correlates of gestational trophoblastic disease.

  17. Prevalence of some risk factors associated with hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...

  18. Comparison of modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...

  19. Stroke Risk Factors among Participants of a World Stroke Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...

  20. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  1. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...

  2. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  3. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  4. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...

  5. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  6. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  7. Obstetric Risk Factors and Subsequent Mental Health Problems in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...

  8. Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In. Pregnant Women In Lusaka, Zambia. Shinondo1 ... women, and as such geophagy was an unlikely risk factor for geohelminth infections. Other explanations for the ... markets to pregnant women are richer in iron and copper than the dietary supplement pills made by ...

  9. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  10. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  11. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  12. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its origin is in childhood, but information on its prevalence and associated risk factors in children are scarce. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ondo town. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 965 respondents selected ...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...

  14. Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in Mozambique using population-based survey data. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Findings from our study provide a unique and integrated perspective on risk factors for being HIV-positive among Mozambican women and could support the implementation of ...

  15. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...

  16. Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. .... density at mammography, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity are also ... therefore, there is a need for determining the pattern of breast cancer risk factors among ...

  17. risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity .... 30 patients, training was given to data collectors and supervisors on the data ...

  18. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  19. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Factors Among Refugee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less than 20% knew that cervical cancer could be detected early and 6.8% had had Pap smears done. Knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms was low, although there was a statistically significant relationship between the educational level of the women and risk factors for cervical cancer. The paper discusses the ...

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practices towards risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam. M Linda. Abstract. Objective: To assess the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni Municipality. Study design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings: ...

  1. Childhood Risk Factors in Dually Diagnosed Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Laura E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined prevalence of five childhood risk factors (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental mental illness, substance abuse, out-of-home placement) among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults (n=156) in rehabilitation programs. Findings suggest that childhood risk factors, whether single or multiple, are very…

  2. Risk factors for a first and recurrent venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, Linda Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify new risk factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis of both the upper and lower extremity, and assess the incidence of recurrence and mortality after a first venous thrombosis. An overview was provided of the current literature on risk factors and

  3. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  4. Awareness of risk factors for loneliness among third agers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, T.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems

  5. Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-12

    Jul 12, 2011 ... Background: Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. National and ... Objective: To evaluate the status of control to goals of cardiometabolic risk factors among the diabetic patients attending .... Males were older and taller while females had higher mean.

  6. Pattern of some risk factors for cardiovascular disease in untreated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Coronary heart disease risk factors tend to cluster in patients with hypertension. In works done in Nigeria, the hypertensive subjects studied were those receiving treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern of these risk factors in untreated hypertensive patients. Study design: Fifty untreated hypertensives and ...

  7. status, risk factors disease Socio-economic and coronary heart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... status, risk factors disease. Socio-economic and coronary heart. The CORIS baseline study. J. E. ROSSOUW, P. L. JOOSTE, H. J. STEENKAMP, M. L. THOMPSON, ... and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease .... definition, was decided upon after exploration of their strength of association ...

  8. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors | Essel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia were studied in 348 pregnancies resulting in the delivery of an infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a mother in her 3rd decade of life, multiparity, maternal weight of 70 kg or more at the end of pregnancy, prolonged or ...

  9. Is There a Risk Factor More Responsible for Disaster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Carasca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are generally the same as those responsible for the ischemic heart disease and in both cases are overlapping risk factors involved in the etiology of atherosclerosis, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.

  10. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  11. Prioritisation of Risk Factors Impacting on Construction Contractors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consideration for risk factors impacting on cash flow forecasts has been identified as a key issue affecting contractors‟ cash flow management. This research was conducted in order to prioritise risk factors influencing cash out prediction by contractors in Nigeria. The research data was collected through an industry-wide ...

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in obese individual in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High blood pressure is the most predominant risk factor among the obese assessed (37.6%). The mean value of all the variables (risk factor) except HDL were higher in obese subjects than non obese. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the means of FBG, HDL and GGT (P>0.05) whereas there were ...

  13. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is a major health concern in developed and developing countries. Its prevalence is high in Nigeria and accounts for a great percentage of hospital visits and admissions. Hypertension is a chief risk factor for cardiovascular events. Independent risks factors, some of which are implicated in the ...

  14. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  15. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  16. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  17. Risk factors and antibiogram of organisms causing puerperal sepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Puerperal sepsis is a common pregnancy related complication and is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Sub Saharan Africa. There is paucity of regional data on the antibiogram and risk factors associated with this condition, Aim: To determine the risk factors, aetiological organisms ...

  18. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  19. Superficial fungal infection: prevalence and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the factors which were significantly associated with the risk of acquisition of dermatophytic infections include age of the child, past history of similar lesion, over-crowding in the home, normal sweat pattern and badly smelling socks among others. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that several risk factors are ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...