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Sample records for intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma

  1. Intranodal Palisaded Myofibroblastoma in a Submandibular Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bouhajja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma (IPM, also known as “intranodal hemorrhagic spindle cell tumor with amianthoid fibers,” is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, often with the presence of amianthoid fibers. Usually IPM affects inguinal lymph nodes, but three cases have been described in the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. We report a new case of a 44-year-old women with submandibular mass. Cervical ultrasound showed a suspect right submandibular adenomegaly. The patient underwent an excision of the submandibular mass. Histological features of the tumor include an encapsulated fusocellular proliferation, with nuclear palisading, amianthoid fibers, hemosiderin pigment, and extravasated erythrocytes. In the light of these results, we made the diagnosis of IPM. No recurrence was found 5 years after surgery.

  2. Myofibroblastoma of the breast in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Faisal M.; Samarasinghe, Dushyanti S.; Pillai, Rajsekhran G.

    2002-01-01

    A case of myofibroblastoma of the breast was recently diagnosed in an adolescent Omani boy. In this report, the clinical, histopathological and the radiological features of this rare disease are being discussed. We conclude that, myofibroblastoma of the breast, which was earlier described, predominantly, in elderlies, can occur in people from any age group. (author)

  3. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of popliteal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, C.; Camnasio, F.; Fontana, F.; Fraschini, G.; Rizzo, N.; De Cobelli, F.; Peretti, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is a very rare, benign, spindle cell lesion, arising mainly in the inguinal region. This clinical entity strictly duplicates the features of its breast counterpart. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this particular lesion occurring in the popliteal fossa. We discuss the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this case, emphasizing the role of incisional biopsy in such an unusual neoplasia. (orig.)

  4. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Arsenovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a painless, subcutaneous lump on the right buttock. Clinical examination showed an approximately 6 cm large subcutaneous mass covered by apparently normal-looking skin. No inguinal lymphadenopathy was found. The mass was excised with the clinical diagnosis of fibroma. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. After surgical excision she was free of recurrence over a period of 8 months. This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines.

  5. Intranode data communications in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-01-07

    Intranode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes configured to execute processes, where the data communications include: allocating, upon initialization of a first process of a computer node, a region of shared memory; establishing, by the first process, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; sending, to a second process on the same compute node, a data communications message without determining whether the second process has been initialized, including storing the data communications message in the message buffer of the second process; and upon initialization of the second process: retrieving, by the second process, a pointer to the second process's message buffer; and retrieving, by the second process from the second process's message buffer in dependence upon the pointer, the data communications message sent by the first process.

  6. Intranode data communications in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-07-23

    Intranode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes configured to execute processes, where the data communications include: allocating, upon initialization of a first process of a compute node, a region of shared memory; establishing, by the first process, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; sending, to a second process on the same compute node, a data communications message without determining whether the second process has been initialized, including storing the data communications message in the message buffer of the second process; and upon initialization of the second process: retrieving, by the second process, a pointer to the second process's message buffer; and retrieving, by the second process from the second process's message buffer in dependence upon the pointer, the data communications message sent by the first process.

  7. Recurred Myofibroblastoma of Breast After Excision: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Yang, Keun Ho

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor that is known to occur in middle-aged and elderly men, yet there are some recent reports showing no certain difference for the gender distribution of this malady. Localized mass excision can usually provide a complete cure. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of metastasis or recurrence of this tumor. Here we describe the sonographic findings of a case of recurrent myofibroblastoma after surgical excision for suspected fibroadenomas in both breasts of a 25-year-old woman

  8. Radiologic presentation of a myofibroblastoma of the adult male breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Rochlis, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 50-year-old male with bilateral gynecomastia who was incidentally found to have 0.8-cm subareolar mass on computed tomography. Mammographic and sonographic characteristics of the lesion are described as well as a brief historical review of myofibroblastoma, a rare mesenchymal tumor.

  9. US and mammographic findings of myofibroblastoma in the female breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seog Wan; Jeon, Soo Bin; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Dong Sug

    2005-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the breast. It presents as a well circumscribed, solitary nodular mass, and it has been reported to mainly occur in male patients. To our knowledge, few reports have described the radiologic appearance of myofibroblastoma in the female breast and there has been no report from Korea. We describe the mammographic, sonographic and histologic findings of a case of myofibroblastoma that presented as a well defined mass mimicking fibroadenoma in a 44-year-old woman

  10. US and mammographic findings of myofibroblastoma in the female breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan; Jeon, Soo Bin [Chonbuk University Medical College, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Shin [Chonnam University Medicine College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Sug [Yeungnam University Medicine College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the breast. It presents as a well circumscribed, solitary nodular mass, and it has been reported to mainly occur in male patients. To our knowledge, few reports have described the radiologic appearance of myofibroblastoma in the female breast and there has been no report from Korea. We describe the mammographic, sonographic and histologic findings of a case of myofibroblastoma that presented as a well defined mass mimicking fibroadenoma in a 44-year-old woman.

  11. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  12. Pleural inflammatory myofibroblastoma: a locally aggressive intra-thoracic tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosney John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 41-year old non-smoking woman presented with persistent pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was hemorrhagic and fluid cytology was negative for malignant cells. A working diagnosis of chronic haemothorax was made and standard right thoracotomy was performed to identify the source of bleeding. A 10 × 10 cms poorly circumscribed mass containing blood clots, altered blood, fibrous tissue, and gelatinous debris was found and demonstrated features of inflammatory myofibroblastoma on immunohistochemistry. Thirteen months later, the patient developed a local recurrence, which was treated surgically. Semi-solid physical appearance of this tumour has not been reported previously. This case report further adds to the diagnostic dilemma related with this tumour.

  13. Myofibroblastoma: An Unusual Rapidly Growing Benign Tumour in a Male Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Arshad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is an unusual benign tumour of the breast predominantly seen in men in their sixth to seventh decade. The gross appearance is that of a well circumscribed nodule, characteristically small, seldom exceeding 3 cm. We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour. A 40 years old male, known case of tetralogy of Fallot, was operated in infancy in abroad, presented with a rapid enlargement of right breast over 5 - 6 weeks. Examination revealed a firm 10 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with normal overlying skin. Since core biopsy was inconclusive, a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed 500 gms. Histopathology and immunocytochemistry revealed a mixed classical and collagenised type of myofibroblastoma. The patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  14. Mammary type myofibroblastoma of the buttock: A case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Yi, Jae Hyuck [Dept.of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is a very rare, benign mesenchymal tumor consisting of spindle-shaped cells along with thick hyalinized collagen bundles and an intralesional fat component; its histopathological features are identical to those of myofibroblastomas of the breast. It usually occurs along the embryonic milk-line; however, unusual cases occurring outside of the embryonic milk-line have also been reported. Although this tumor always shows clinically benign behavior, its variable histological composition can easily be confused with many other fibrous and lipomatous neoplasms. Unfortunately, its radiological findings are extremely rarely described in the literature. Here, we present a rare case of mammary-type myofibroblastoma in a 38-year-old woman who presented with a well-circumscribed solitary mass in the buttock, and discuss various radiologic imaging findings, such as plain radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging results.

  15. A Mammary Type Myofibroblastoma in the Pelvic Cavity: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Il Gi; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm that's composed of spindleshaped cells with features of myofibroblasts, and these cells are embedded in a stroma with hyalinization. The most common location of the tumor is the inguinal area and to the best of our our knowledge, there has been no such case that this type of tumor has presented as a pelvic space mass. We report here on a very rare form of mammary-type myofibroblastoma and we include the ultrasound and CT images

  16. Epithelioid Myofibroblastoma in an Old-Male Breast: A Case Report with MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroblastoma of the breast (MFB is a very rare benign stromal tumor. In recent years, increase in mammographic screenings has resulted in increased diagnosis of MFB. Most cases are old males and postmenopausal women. MFB may be confused as malignant, clinically, morphologically, or by imaging. Immunohistochemistry is essential for final diagnosis in these cases. We report a case of a pathologically diagnosed MFB in an 80-year-old male patient who had coexisting prostate cancer and describe its imaging characteristics, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this paper, histopathological and MRI findings of the MFB were discussed.

  17. Cellular angiofibroma: analysis of 25 cases emphasizing its relationship to spindle cell lipoma and mammary-type myofibroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Krieken, J.H. van; Mentzel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma represents a rare benign mesenchymal tumor, occurring mainly in the superficial soft tissue of the genital region. The involvement of 13q14 in some cases confirmed the morphological suggested link with spindle cell lipoma and mammary-type myofibroblastoma. We analyzed the

  18. Gaining control room habitability margin at the Palisades Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harden, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bounding design-basis accident for control room habitability is the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). At Palisades, very little margin existed between the calculated control room operator thyroid dose and the 0.3-Sv (30-rem) limit of Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.4. Also, a low rate of unfiltered air leakage into the control room during the emergency mode of operation, 5.5 x 10 -3 m 3 /s (11.6 ft 3 /min), was accounted for in the control room habitability analysis. The control room heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system at Palisades has louvered isolation dampers for the normal air intake that are exposed to a negative pressure. Considering the small margin to the thyroid dose limits and the leakage characteristics of louvered dampers, a low allowable rate of unfiltered air in-leakage raised some concern. A significant effort has been initiated to alleviate control room habitability concerns at Palisades. The first step in this effort was to evaluate the calculational models for control room habitability and gain margin through updated analytical methods. To accomplish this, a new radiological consequence analysis for the LOCA was completed

  19. Endolymphatic Ethiodized Oil Intranodal Lymphangiography and Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization for the Treatment of Postoperative Lymphatic Leak After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Pelvic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hannah; Srinivasa, Ravi N; Gemmete, Joseph J; Hage, Anthony; Bundy, Jacob; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To report the approach, technical success, clinical outcomes, complications, and follow-up of ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with cyanoacrylate glue embolization for the treatment of lymphatic leak after robot-assisted laparoscopic pelvic resection. Materials and Methods: Four men with mean age 68.7 ± 14.3 years were treated with ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with cyanoacrylate embolization for postoperative lymphatic leak. Patients underwent either (1) cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit and bilateral extensive pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and presented with postoperative lymphatic ascites ( n  = 2) or (2) prostatectomy with bilateral standard pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate carcinoma and presented with postoperative pelvic lymphoceles ( n  = 2). Intranodal lymphangiography and embolization procedural details, technical success, clinical outcomes, and follow-up were recorded. Results: In four patients, a total of six ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiograms were performed, two procedures being repeated interventions. Inguinal lymph node catheterization and ethiodized oil lymphangiography was technically effective in all procedures. A mean of 5.2 ± 2.0 mL of ethiodized oil was used for lymphatic opacification. Cyanoacrylate was diluted to 24.2% with ethiodized oil and 0.44 mL of cyanoacrylate was instilled during first time interventions. On repeat procedures, cyanoacrylate was diluted to 51.7%, and 0.52 mL was instilled. The primary clinical success rate was 50% ( n  = 2/4). Clinical success was achieved in all patients after two interventions ( n  = 4; 100%). No complications were reported at mean follow-up of 134.7 ± 79.2 days (range: 59-248 days). Conclusion: Ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with direct cyanoacrylate glue embolization is a minimally invasive treatment option for lymphatic leak after pelvic resection.

  20. Review of operating history at the Palisades Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Harrington, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    the Systematic Evaluation Program Branch (SEPB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting the Systematic Evaluation Program whose purpose is to determine the safety margins of the design and operation of the eleven oldest operating commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. A portion of the SEP includes the compilation and interpretation of operational occurrences at these plants. This summary describes the methodology and results of the operational experience review of Palisades Nuclear Plant. The review includes a detailed examination of the operating experience in two segments - plant shutdowns and power reductions, and reportable events

  1. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  2. Palisades technical specification conversion from custom to new industry standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.J.; Young, B.

    1990-01-01

    Consumers Power Company's (CPCo) Palisades plant is in the process of converting from custom technical specifications to the new industry standard, Restructured Standard Technical Specifications (RSTS). Custom technical specifications were the precursor to standard technical specifications, being issued to plants built prior to 1972. In May 1989, each of the four light water reactor owners' groups completed topical reports presenting their version of Restructured Standard Technical Specifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After approval of the owners' groups versions of the RSTs by the NRC, individual operating reactors will begin to make the conversion to the RSTS. Each owners' group has designated a lead plant, which will be the first of that vendor type to convert. All of the lead plants currently operate under standard technical specifications. The content of the RSTS was determined by comparing the standard technical specifications with selection criteria specified in the Commissions Interim Policy Statement

  3. Palisaded Encapsulated (Solitary Circumscribed) Neuroma of the Buccal Mucosa: a Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarbashi-Moghadam, Saede; Lotfi, Ali; Salehi Zalani, Saman; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2017-12-01

    The rarity of oral soft tissue spindle cell tumors combined with overlapping microscopic patterns can make challenges in their diagnosis and treatment. Oral cavity palisaded encapsulated neuroma is an uncommon lesion which occurs often on the hard palate. It is essential for oral pathologists to be familiar with its histopathology of this lesion is essential since many lesions are probably diagnosed microscopically as neurofibroma or schwannoma. Here, we report a case of oral palisaded encapsulated (solitary circumscribed) neuroma in an unusual site.

  4. Wildlife Impact Assessment Palisades Project, Idaho, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather-Blair, Signe

    1985-02-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Palisades Project in eastern Idaho. Eight evaluation species were selected with losses expressed in the number of Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated that a loss of 2454 HU's of mule deer habitat, 2276 HU's of mink habitat, 2622 HU's of mallard habitat, 805 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2331 HU's of ruffed grouse habitat, 5941 and 18,565 HU's for breeding and wintering bald eagles, and 1336 and 704 HU's for forested and scrub-shrub wetland nongame species occurred as a result of the project. The study area currently has 29 active osprey nests located around the reservoir and the mudflats probably provide more feeding habitat for migratory shore birds and waterfowl than was previously available along the river. A comparison of flow conditions on the South Fork of the Snake River below the dam between pre- and post-construction periods also could not substantiate claims that water releases from the dam were causing more Canada goose nest losses than flow in the river prior to construction. 41 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  6. Annealing the reactor vessel at the Palisades Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the way of background, Palisades was licensed in 1967 and went commercial in 1971. Jumping to two years ago, we faced at that time three issues that challenged our ability to operate to end-of-license, which would be 2007 without any extensions. The three items were regulatory performance, economic performance, and reactor vessel embrittlement. We had not been operating the plant with the kind of conservative decisions and with the kind of safety margins that one is expected to operate a plant in the United States at this time. Our economic performance was not satisfactory in that our capacity factor was low and our costs high. In the area of reactor vessel embrittlement, our analysis showed that we would reach the NRC screening criteria for embrittlement in the year 2004. Over the last two years, we have made significant improvements in the first two areas. Our decision-making has changed. Our performance, especially over the last year and a half, has been excellent. In addition, we have gotten our capacity factors up and our costs under control. Clearly, sustained performance is what is going to carry the day but from what we can see and from where we are, we are in more of a maintenance-of-performance than in a turn-around situation. On the other hand, in the area of reactor vessel embrittlement, about a year and a half ago we had a bit of a setback. We had taken material from retired steam generators that had welds identical to the welds in our reactor vessel. When we analyzed the welds from our steam generators, we were given some surprises about the chemistry makeup. When we applied the new information to our analysis, we changed the date on which we would reach our screening criteria from 2004 to late 1999

  7. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  8. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a open-quotes best estimateclose quotes of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards

  9. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.

  10. A Palisade Fit for a King: Ideal architecture in King Harald Bluetooth's Jelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Mads Dengsø; Holst, Mads Kähler; Lindblom, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    family named on the rune stones in Jelling and in particular to the reign of King Harald Bluetooth. In addition to the structure and date of the palisade, the article will present the tentative results from a series of analyses regarding the construction, composition, function and demolition...

  11. The palisade cartilage tympanoplasty technique: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Caroline C; Shillington, Cameron; Andrews, Colin; Ho, Allan

    2017-06-17

    Tympanoplasty is a common procedure performed by Otolaryngologists. Many types of autologous grafts have been used with variations of techniques with varying results. This is the first systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of one of the techniques which is gaining popularity, the palisade cartilage tympanoplasty. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for "palisade", "cartilage", "tympanoplasty", "perforation" and their synonyms. In total, 199 articles reporting results of palisade cartilage tympanoplasty were identified. Five articles satisfied the following inclusion criteria: adult patients, minimum 6 months follow-up, hearing and surgical outcomes reported. Studies with patients undergoing combined mastoidectomy, ossicular chain reconstruction, and/or other middle ear surgery were excluded. Perforation closure, rate of complications, and post-operative pure-tone average change were extracted for pooled analysis. Study failure and complication proportions that were used to generate odds ratios were pooled. Fixed effects and random effects weightings were generated. The resulting pooled odds ratios are reported. Palisade cartilage tympanoplasty has an overall take rate of 96% at beyond 6 months and has similar odds of complications compared to temporalis fascia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.62, 1.30). The air-bone gap closure is statistically similar to reported results from temporalis fascia tympanoplasty. Cartilage palisade tympanoplasty offers excellent graft take rates and good postoperative hearing outcomes for perforations of various sizes and for both primary and revision cases. This technique has predictable, long-term results with low complication rates, similar to temporalis fascia tympanoplasty.

  12. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program, Palisades Plant (Docket No. 50-255)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the review completed under the SEP for those issues that required refined engineering evaluations or the continuation of ongoing evaluations after the Final IPSAR for the Palisades Plant was issued. The review has provided for (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when the supplement to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The Final IPSAR and its supplement will form part of the bases for considering the conversion of the provisional operating license to a full-term operating license

  13. Marandu palisade grass intercropped with densely spaced teak in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate two systems of production: integration between teak and forage (silvopastoral system and forage only (monoculture. The forage species used was Marandu palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. In January 2009, part of the pasture was desiccated and the teak (Tectona grandis was implemented in a 3 × 4 m spacing arrangement, and at every five rows, a space between rows of 6 m was established, providing a population of 750 trees per hectare. Alongside the development of the trees, the Marandu palisade grass pasture was reestablished. In February 2015, the animals were removed from the experimental area and, in March, the pasture degradation, the density and the mass of tillers was assessed. The following variables were evaluated: sward height; forage mass, percentage of leaf blade, stem+sheath and senescent material; leaf blade:stem+sheath ratio; and live:dead material ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 12 replicates. Treatments consisted of two systems (silvopastoral and monoculture. The total forage accumulation was higher in the monoculture system. The sward height and the percentage of stem+sheath were higher in the integrated system, while the percentage of leaf blade and the leaf blade:stem+sheath ratio were higher in the system exclusively with forage. In conclusion, Marandu palisade grass tolerates shading in a high density spacing silvopastoral system, but the degradation process is more intense compared to grass in monoculture, and the use of Marandu palisade grass in silvopastoral systems changes the forage mass and the structure of the produced forage.

  14. Usefulness of hemodynamically distribution of intranodal vessels in differentiating metastatic neck lymph nodes-value of color doppler and spectral wave sonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic assessment of enlarged lymph nodes, based on its perfusion pattern by taking tissue diagnosis as gold standard. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Radiology and Pathology, PIMS Hospital, Islamabad, from February to May 2016. Methodology: Color sonography of patients with clinically, palpable cervical lymph nodes were carried by senior trainee under the supervision of senior radiologist. Ultrasound guided tissue diagnosis was obtained in all suspected malignant cases. Histopathology was taken as the gold standard for determining accuracy. Results: Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of color Doppler ultrasound in detecting malignant cervical lymphadenopathy was found to be 88.46%, 86.05%, 79.31% and 92.50%, respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 86.95%, when intranodal vascular pattern on color Doppler imaging was analyzed. Using spectral wave indexes, the same values were 92.31%, 90.70%, 85.71%, 95.12%, respectively with overall diagnostic accuracy of 91.30%. Conclusion: Color Doppler sonography is much sensitive borderline than grey scale findings alone. Furthermore, lymph nodes appearing in the detection of malignant nodes on grey scale images can be reliably diagnosed on Doppler scan. (author)

  15. 3. Rethinking Borders in Empire and Nation at the Foot of the Willow Palisade

    OpenAIRE

    E.Bulag, Uradyn

    2015-01-01

    Prologue: stony wars at the foot of the willow palisade Every year, on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, i.e. the traditional Duanwu Festival (also known as Dragon Boat Festival or Double Fifth Festival), people in Wangsiyingzi and the neighbouring village Sifangtai, just about one and half kilometres to the south, would climb atop a small mountain that lies between the two villages. Instead of racing dragon-headed boats as is the practice in south China, where the tradition first start...

  16. Geochemical reversals within the lower 100 m of the Palisades sill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorring, Matthew L.; Naslund, H. R.

    1995-03-01

    Transects through the lower part of the Palisades sill were made at Fort Lee and Alpine, New Jersey in order to characterize the petrologic signature of previously proposed “reversals” in the normal, tholeiitic differentiation trend. Petrographic and geochemical data include: (1) modal and grain size analyses, (2) bulk rock major and trace element concentrations by DCP-AES, and (3) augite, orthopyroxene, magnetite, and olivine compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Anomalous horizons, defined by increased bulk rock Mg?, Cr, Ni, and Co concentrations and abrupt modal and grain-size changes, occur at 10 m (the well known olivine zone), 27 m, 45 m, and 95 m above the basal contact. Thermal models coupled with estimates of the emplacement rate and total magma volume indicate that the olivine zone (OZ) is an early-stage feature, related to the emplacement of initial magma into the Palisades chamber. Stoke’s Law calculations indicate that the settling velocity of average-sized olivine crystals in a high-titanium, quartz-normative (HTQ) magma is too slow for significant gravity settling to have occurred prior to the solidification of the basal 20 m of the sill. It is suggested that the OZ resulted from the emplacement of a heterogeneous initial magma from a compositionally stratified, sub-Palisades storage chamber located within the upper crust; however, heterogeneity may have been derived directly from the mantle or during rapid ascent. Geochemical models indicate that the OZ contains accumulated olivine that is not in cotectic (or constant) proportions with the other cumulus phases, suggesting a mechanical sorting process. Magma chamber recharge is proposed to have occurred at the 27 m and 45 m levels, when a slightly more-primitive HTQ magma was injected into the Palisades sill cha- mber. Zones of elevated Mg? and Cr, 6 to 10 m thick, at these two horizons may indicate the thickness of the hybrid magma formed by the mixing of these two compositions

  17. The DCL gene of tomato is required for chloroplast development and palisade cell morphogenesis in leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Keddie, J S; Carroll, B; Jones, J D; Gruissem, W

    1996-01-01

    The defective chloroplasts and leaves-mutable (dcl-m) mutation of tomato was identified in a Ds mutagenesis screen. This unstable mutation affects both chloroplast development and palisade cell morphogenesis in leaves. Mutant plants are clonally variegated as a result of somatic excision of Ds and have albino leaves with green sectors. Leaf midribs and stems are light green with sectors of dark green tissue but fruit and petals are wild-type in appearance. Within dark green sectors of dcl-m l...

  18. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplasttargeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Holm, A.; Jenkins, T.

    2004-01-01

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3...... that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development....

  19. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  20. The Palisades of Vogt in Congenital Corneal Opacification (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischal, Ken K; Lathrop, Kira L

    2016-08-01

    The purposes of this study are first, to determine if the palisades of Vogt (POV) are present or absent in cases of congenital corneal opacification (CCO) by using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and second, in those cases already undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), to see whether the absence or presence of POV corresponds to re-epithelialization following transplant. This was a retrospective case review of 20 eyes (10 normal, 10 with CCO) evaluated with SD-OCT. The operator was masked to the clinician's assessment of the ocular surface. In those cases where the decision to perform PKP had already been made, the correlation between POV presence or absence and posttransplant graft epithelialization was determined. All cases were imaged without adverse event. Nine eyes showed some evidence of POV and corresponding vasculature. Eight of 10 affected eyes underwent PKP, and subsequently 7 eyes epithelialized and 2 showed some peripheral neovascularization. The one eye that showed no signs of POV was the one that failed to epithelialize. All control subjects had consistent and regular POV. Congenital corneal opacification is rare, and this study shows that at least some POV are present in the majority of cases of CCO. However, the palisades may not be entirely normal compared to age-matched controls. When there was absence of POV in a case of CCO, there was immediate and complete failure of epithelialization.

  1. Ventilation systems as air cleaning devices in nuclear power plants: experience at Palisades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Murri, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Experience at Palisades has demonstrated the importance of designing, constructing, testing and operating the ventilation system from the viewpoint of airborne radioactivity control during both normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. An item of particular concern was the difficulty in maintaining correct non-ducted airflow patterns. Inadequate preoperational testing and system balancing led to marginal ventilation system performance. This condition was further aggravated by extensive plant maintenance and construction activities and, in some cases, by a lack of administrative control. Following completion of construction of the radwaste addition, it was possible, with minor basic design changes, to adjust and rebalance the entire ventilation system, thus assuring control of airborne radioactivity. (U.S.)

  2. A novel in situ electrochemical NMR cell with a palisade gold film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zu-Rong; Cui, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Shuo-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    In situ electrochemical nuclear magnetic resonance (EC-NMR) has attracted considerable attention because of its ability to directly observe real-time electrochemical processes. Therefore, minimizing the incompatibility between the electrochemical device and NMR detection has become an important challenge. A circular thin metal film deposited on the outer surface of a glass tube with a thickness considerably less than the metal skin depth is considered to be the ideal working electrode. In this study, we demonstrate that such a thin film electrode still has a great influence on the radio frequency field homogeneity in the detective zone of the NMR spectrometer probe and provide theoretical and experimental confirmation of its electromagnetic shielding. Furthermore, we propose a novel palisade gold film device to act as the working electrode. The NMR nutation behavior of protons shows that the uniformity of the radio frequency field is greatly improved, increasing the sensitivity in NMR detection. Another advantage of the proposed device is that an external reference standard adapted to the reaction compound can be inserted as a probe to determine the fluctuation of the physico-chemical environment and achieve high-accuracy quantitative NMR analysis. A three-chamber electrochemical device based on the palisade gold film design was successfully fabricated and the in situ electrochemical NMR performance was validated in a standard 5 mm NMR probe by acquiring voltammograms and high-resolution NMR spectra to characterize the electrochemically generated species. The evolution of in situ EC-NMR spectrum monitoring of the redox transformation between p-benzoquinone and hydroquinone demonstrates the ability of the EC-NMR device to simultaneously quantitatively determine the reactants and elucidate the reaction mechanism at the molecular level.

  3. A novel in situ electrochemical NMR cell with a palisade gold film electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Rong Ni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In situ electrochemical nuclear magnetic resonance (EC-NMR has attracted considerable attention because of its ability to directly observe real-time electrochemical processes. Therefore, minimizing the incompatibility between the electrochemical device and NMR detection has become an important challenge. A circular thin metal film deposited on the outer surface of a glass tube with a thickness considerably less than the metal skin depth is considered to be the ideal working electrode. In this study, we demonstrate that such a thin film electrode still has a great influence on the radio frequency field homogeneity in the detective zone of the NMR spectrometer probe and provide theoretical and experimental confirmation of its electromagnetic shielding. Furthermore, we propose a novel palisade gold film device to act as the working electrode. The NMR nutation behavior of protons shows that the uniformity of the radio frequency field is greatly improved, increasing the sensitivity in NMR detection. Another advantage of the proposed device is that an external reference standard adapted to the reaction compound can be inserted as a probe to determine the fluctuation of the physico-chemical environment and achieve high-accuracy quantitative NMR analysis. A three-chamber electrochemical device based on the palisade gold film design was successfully fabricated and the in situ electrochemical NMR performance was validated in a standard 5 mm NMR probe by acquiring voltammograms and high-resolution NMR spectra to characterize the electrochemically generated species. The evolution of in situ EC-NMR spectrum monitoring of the redox transformation between p-benzoquinone and hydroquinone demonstrates the ability of the EC-NMR device to simultaneously quantitatively determine the reactants and elucidate the reaction mechanism at the molecular level.

  4. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  5. Intergrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program. Palisades plant, Consumers Power Company, Docket No. 50-255. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published its Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0820), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Consumers Power Company's Palisades Plant located in Covert, Van Buren County, Michigan. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for the Palisades Plant. The review has provided for (1) as assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when all supplements to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in April 1982

  6. Structural review of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads for the Systematic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.Y.; Debeling, A.; Tsai, N.C.

    1981-12-01

    A structural reassessment of the containment structure of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program. Conclusions about the ability of the containment structure to withstand the Abnormal/Extreme Environment are presented. The reassessment focused mainly on the overall structural integrity of the containment building for the Abnormal/Extreme Environment. In this case, the Abnormal Environmental condition is caused by the worst case of either a Loss-of-Coolant Accident or a main steam line break. The Extreme Environmental condition is the Safe Shutdown Earthquake

  7. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3...... that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development....

  8. Carbonate-silicate ratio for soil correction and influence on nutrition, biomass production and quality of palisade grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicates can be used as soil correctives, with the advantage of being a source of silicon, a beneficial element to the grasses. However, high concentrations of silicon in the plant would affect the digestibility of the forage. To evaluate the influence of the substitution of the calcium carbonate by calcium silicate on the nutrition, biomass production and the feed quality of the palisade grass [Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich. R. Webster], three greenhouse experiments were conducted in completely randomized designs with four replications. Experimental units (pots contained a clayey dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox, a sandy clay loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox and a sandy loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox. Each soil received substitution proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the carbonate by calcium silicate. The increase in the proportion of calcium silicate elevated the concentrations and accumulations of Si, Ca, Mg, and B, reduced Zn and did not alter P in the shoot of plants. The effects of the treatments on the other nutrients were influenced by the soil type. Inclusion of calcium silicate also increased the relative nutritional value and the digestibility and ingestion of the forage, while the concentration and accumulation of crude protein and the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibers decreased. Biomass production and feed quality of the palisade grass were generally higher with the 50 % calcium silicate treatment.

  9. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  10. Ten-year results of cartilage palisades versus fascia in eardrum reconstruction after surgery for sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Andersen, Janne; Uzun, Cem

    2009-01-01

    threshold, and pure tone air-bone gap). RESULTS: All but two patients in both groups attended the 10-year follow-up examination (94% attendance). The mean overall follow-up period was 119 months (115 months in the palisade and 125 months in the fascia group). Total number of retractions during follow....... METHODS: A total of 64 children underwent surgery for either sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma during the period 1995 to 2000 (mean age 9 years, range 5-15). The eardrum was reconstructed using cartilage palisades in 32 children (32 ears) and fascia or perichondrium in 32 children (33 ears......). The patients were followed for at least one year postoperatively and re-evaluated 4 years after surgery, and again recently at a mean of 10 years. The main outcome measures were postoperative drum retraction and perforation, cholesteatoma recurrence, and hearing acuity (pure tone average, speech reception...

  11. Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis/Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis Overlap: A Striking Clinical and Histologic Presentation With "Burning Rope Sign" and Subsequent Mirror-Image Contralateral Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Malan; Shiver, Mallory B; Addis, Kristen M; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-09-01

    Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis are uncommon granulomatous dermatoses that often arise in association with rheumatoid arthritis. These 2 entities have overlapping features and may exist on a spectrum. We report an intriguing case of a 53-year-old man with advanced rheumatoid arthritis who presented with a large indurated painful truncal plaque with a palpable cord in addition to a papulonodular eruption on his dorsal hands. Furthermore, our patient had a recurrence in a near-identical mirror-image pattern on the contralateral trunk. The constellation of clinical and histopathological findings in our patient further suggests that palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis exist as overlapping disease entities on a continuum. In addition, we propose that recurrence of skin findings may be indicative of the severity of the underlying systemic disease process.

  12. Climate change and future scenarios for palisade grass production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Santana Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze future scenarios for palisade grass yield subjected to climate change for the state of São Paulo, Brazil. An empirical crop model was used to estimate yields, according to growing degree-days adjusted by one drought attenuation factor. Climate data from 1963 to 2009 of 23 meteorological stations were used for current climate conditions. Downscaled outputs of two general circulation models were used to project future climate for the 2013-2040 and 2043-2070 periods, considering two contrasting scenarios of temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (high and low. Annual dry matter yield should be from 14 to 42% higher than the current one, depending on the evaluated scenario. Yield variation between seasons (seasonality and years is expected to increase. The increase of dry matter accumulation will be higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, and this result is more evident for soils with low-water storage capacity. The results varied significantly between regions (60%. Despite their higher climate potential, warmer regions will probably have a lower increase in future forage production.

  13. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category I systems for Palisades nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-10-01

    The technical evaluation is presented of Consumers Power Company's Palisades nuclear power plant to determine whether the failure of any non-Category I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Consumers Power Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  15. In vivo imaging of palisades of Vogt in dry eye versus normal subjects using en-face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdene Ghouali

    Full Text Available To evaluate a possible clinical application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT using en-face module for the imaging of the corneoscleral limbus in normal subjects and dry eye patients.Seventy-six subjects were included in this study. Seventy eyes of 35 consecutive patients with dry eye disease and 82 eyes of 41 healthy control subjects were investigated. All subjects were examined with the Avanti RTVue® anterior segment OCT. En-face OCT images of the corneoscleral limbus were acquired in four quadrants (inferior, superior, nasal and temporal and then were analyzed semi-quantitatively according to whether or not palisades of Vogt (POV were visible. En-face OCT images were then compared to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM in eleven eyes of 7 healthy and dry eye patients.En-face SD-OCT showed POV as a radially oriented network, located in superficial corneoscleral limbus, with a good correlation with IVCM features. It provided an easy and reproducible identification of POV without any special preparation or any direct contact, with a grading scale from 0 (no visualization to 3 (high visualization. The POV were found predominantly in superior (P<0.001 and inferior (P<0.001 quadrants when compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants for all subjects examined. The visibility score decreased with age (P<0.001 and was lower in dry eye patients (P<0.01. In addition, the score decreased in accordance with the severity of dry eye disease (P<0.001.En-face SD-OCT is a non-contact imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the POV, thus providing valuable information about differences in the limbal anatomy of dry eye patients as compared to healthy patients.

  16. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  17. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The first half of this period was a continuation of Outage 74-4. Retubing of the main condenser was completed and additional Eddy Current Testing in the steam generators was accomplished. On April 2, 1975 the unit returned to service to conduct the Steam Generator Flushing Program. From April 2 through June 20, 1975 the plant operated at power levels up to 90 percent, with two brief outage interruptions. On April 6, the turbine was tripped because of a leak in the flow instrument tap in the drain line from a feedwater heater to the moisture separator drain tank and on April 22, the turbine tripped due to low oil pressure in the electrohydraulic control system caused by a cracked fitting in the piping to a governor valve. In both instances, the plant was returned to service in a matter of a few hours. The plant was removed from service from June 20 until June 30, 1975 for control rod drive seal repair. The plant resumed operation on June 30, 1975. After a few hours' operation, an erratic feedwater control system tripped the unit from service; however, the unit returned to service the same day. An all volatile treatment program for secondary water has achieved reasonable water chemistry stability and continuous blowdown has removed small quantities of phosphate from the steam generators. Operation continued with two low pressure feedwater heaters and drain cooler bypassed in each train, pending retubing of the feedwater heaters. Two rows of blading of a low pressure turbine were replaced. (U.S.)

  18. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,847,033 MWH with the reactor on line 4,850.4 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, corrective maintenance, eddy current steam generator testing, inservice inspection, containment leak testing, fuel sipping, power generation, shutdowns, and occupational radiation exposures

  19. Palisades Nuclear Plant. First annual report of operations, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, shutdowns, personnel exposures, failed fuel, refueling, and radioactive effluent releases. The radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are summarized. Changes, tests and experiments will be submitted by August 31, 1976

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade do feno de capim-braquiária em bovinos de corte sob suplementação com mistura contendo sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia Intake and digestibility of palisade grass hay by beef cattle supplemented with a mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Gomes da Silva de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 de baixa qualidade e de diferentes níveis protéicos. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (somente feno e feno com adição crescente, via infusão ruminal, da mistura sulfato de amônio, caseína e uréia (0,5:1,0:4,5 de modo a elevar em +2, +4, +6 e +8% o nível de PB das dietas. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento quadrado latino, com cinco níveis de suplementação, cinco animais e cinco períodos. A adição de quantidades crescentes de nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP à dieta teve efeito quadrático sobre os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo (EE. O maior consumo de MS foi observado com o nível de 10,5% PB. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de PB sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO, FDN e EE. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da PB, que apresentou valores de 57,4; 66,9; 73,6; 77,3 e 81,7% nos níveis de PB de 6,3; 8,5; 10,5; 12,63 e 14,8%, respectivamente. O nível de 10,5% de PB foi o ponto crítico para a obtenção de resposta máxima para os consumos de MS (7,7 kg/dia e MO (7,2 kg/dia. A suplementação com compostos nitrogenados em quantidades que permitam elevar o nível protéico da dieta a 10,5% otimiza o uso de forragens de baixa qualidade.The intake and digestibilility of the nutrients of diets containing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG4 hay of low quality and different protein levels were evaluated. The evaluated treatments were control (only hay and hay with crescent addition, by rumen infusion, of the mixture containing ammonium sulphate, casein end urea (0.5:1.0:4.5 in way to elevate in +2, +4, +6 and +8% the CP level in the diets. A Latin square experimental design with five levels supplementation, five animals and five periods was used. The

  1. The exponential function expansion of the intra-nodal cross sections for the spectral history gradient correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Noh, J. M.; Cheong, H. K.; Choo, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to simplify the previous spectral history effect correction based on the polynomial expansion nodal method, a new spectral history effect correction is proposed. The new spectral history correction eliminates four microscopic depletion points out of total 13 depletion points in the previous correction by approximating the group cross sections with exponential function. The neutron flux to homogenize the group cross sections for the correction of the spectral history effect is calculated by the analytic function expansion nodal method in stead of the conventional polynomial expansion nodal method. This spectral history correction model is verified against the three MOX benchmark cores: a checkerboard type, a small core with 25 fuel assemblies, and a large core with 177 fuel assemblies. The benchmark results prove that this new spectral history correction model is superior to the previous one even with the reduced number of the local microscopic depletion points

  2. Níveis de energia em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de novilhos em pastagem de capim-braquiária no período de transição águas-seca Energy levels in multiple supplements for finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass pasture during the rainy to dry transition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2008-04-01

    finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, during the rainy to dry transition season. For the performance evaluation, 24 crossbred bulls, 18 month old and 330 kg of initial body weight (BW, were distributed to a completely randomized design, in four paddocks of 1.5 ha each. Four treatments were evaluated: mineral mix (MM and corn and whole soybean grain based supplements offered in three levels: 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 kg/d, allowing TDN intake of, respectively, 0.832; 1.163 and 1.496 kg/d. There was a positive linear effect of the energy levels on the average daily gain and on the final body weight. The nutritional parameters were assessed in four crossbred bulls , with average initial 300 kg BW, fitted with esophageal, ruminal and abomasal cannula, and fed similar diets of those animals used in the performance. There was no ffect of supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, although it was observed a linear reduction in forage intake. The intakes organic matter from pasture, of the NDF from the total diet and of the pasture was negative linearly affected by the energy levels. There were not observed effects of supplementation levels on the total apparent digestibility of the nutrients, except for CP, which showed a quadratic effect by the level of supplementation. Additional weight gain, ranging from 20 to 30%, can be obtained in beef cattle supplemented with increasing amounts of energy during the finishing phase; however, those gains depend of the substitution of forage intake by the supplement.

  3. Níveis de uréia em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de novilhos em pastagem de capim-braquiária durante o período de transição águas-seca Urea levels in multiple supplements for finishing beef cattle on palisade grass pasture during the rainy to dry transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de uréia sobre o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros nutricionais de bovinos em fase de terminação mantidos em pastagem diferida de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu no período de transição águas-seca. A disponibilidade estimada de matéria seca das pastagens variou de 16.360 a 9.358 kg/ha. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo, utilizaram-se 20 novilhos mestiços não-castrados, com 20 meses de idade e 376 kg de peso vivo. Os animais foram agrupados em lotes com pesos semelhantes, segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em quatro piquetes de 1,5 ha, onde receberam 1,5 kg/dia de suplemento isoprotéico (20% de PB, constituído de grãos de milho e soja moídos, mistura mineral e uréia nos níveis 0,0; 1,6; 3,2 ou 4,8% na matéria natural. O ganho médio diário - valor médio foi de 0,570 kg/dia - não foi influenciado pelos níveis de uréia do suplemento. Os parâmetros nutricionais foram avaliados utilizando-se quatro animais mestiços Holandês × Zebu, não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 320 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso. Os animais receberam as mesmas quantidades de suplemento fornecidas aos animais do experimento de desempenho. Os níveis de uréia não afetaram significativamente o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal. Para obtenção de ganhos de 0,5 a 0,6 kg/dia, pode-se utilizar apenas milho, uréia e mistura mineral em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de bovinos em pasto diferido.The effects of multiple supplements with different urea levels on the productive performance and nutritional characteristics, for finishing beef cattle kept in deferred pasture of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in the transition period of rainy to dry season were evaluated. The estimated dry matter availability of the pasture ranged from 16,360 to 9,358 kg/ha. In the performance trial, 20

  4. Produção de massa seca, relação folha/colmo e alguns índices de crescimento do Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés cultivado com a combinação de doses de nitrogênio e potássio Dry matter production, leaf/stem ratio and growth indexes of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés, cultivated with different rate combinations of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de massa seca das folhas, a relação folha/colmo e alguns índices de crescimento do capim-xaraés submetido a doses de nitrogênio (N e potássio (K. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no período de novembro/2004 a fevereiro/2005. Adotou-se esquema fatorial 4 ´ 3, perfazendo 12 combinações, as quais foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, perfazendo um total 48 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas quatro doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 225 mg dm-3 e três doses de K (0, 50 e 100 mg dm-3. Verificou-se efeito das doses de N na produção de massa seca das folhas e na produção de massa seca total, em todos os cortes, com maior produção nas doses mais elevadas de N, ao passo que o K influenciou essas variáveis apenas no segundo corte. A relação folha/colmo, a RAF, a AFE e a RPF somente foram significativas no terceiro corte da planta. Os efeitos das doses de foram decrescentes sobre essas variáveis, enquanto as doses de K agiram de modo antagônico às doses de N sobre a RAF e AFE.This work aimed to evaluate dry matter production, leaf/stem ratio and growth indexes of palisade grass cv. Xaraés grown under increasing nitrogen and potassium rates. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from November, 2004 until February, 2005. The experimental treatments consisted of a 4 ´ 3 factorial arrangement between nitrogen and potassium rates respectively. Nitrogen rates were 0, 75, 150, and 225 mg dm-3, whereas potassium rates were 0; 50 and 100 mg dm-3. The experiment design was completely randomized with four replications. It was verified a positive N fertilization effect both on leaf dry matter yield and total dry matter yield. Potassium influenced these same response variables only at the second harvest. The leaf/stem ratio, leaf area ratio (LAR, specific leaf area (SLA and, leaf weight ratio (LWR were affected by treatments

  5. 75 FR 70708 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... made a proposed determination that the amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration...

  6. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  7. 75 FR 19428 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... safety-analyses assume full-length control rod insertion, except the most reactive rod, upon reactor trip... submitted in writing or in electronic form will be posted on the NRC Web site and on the Federal rulemaking Web site Regulations.gov . Because your comments will not be edited to remove any identifying or...

  8. 75 FR 14473 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of radiological impacts are... historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes...

  9. 77 FR 6598 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Entergy met in an ADR session mediated by a professional mediator, arranged through Cornell University's... digitally sign documents and access the E-Submittal server for any proceeding in which it is participating... the E-Submittal server are detailed in NRC's ``Guidance for Electronic Submission,'' which is [[Page...

  10. Nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of Marandu palisade grass at different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different babassu palm densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xerxes M. Tosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of grass collected from different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different densities of trees. The silvopastoral system consisted of Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and the babassu palm, Orbignya sp. (now: Attaleia speciosa. We used a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for nutritional value (3 differently shaded locations and 3 palm tree densities and a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for dry matter (DM disappearance (3 locations, 3 palm densities and 3 incubation times. There was no effect of location within the pasture nor of palm tree density on the concentrations of NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. However, location influenced the concentrations of crude protein (CP and DM, with highest CP in material grown in full sunlight. At all densities, DM disappearance at 96 h for pasture grown in full sunlight exceeded that for pasture grown in full shade. These factors need to be compounded with the possible depressant effect of trees on DM production of pasture when considering the benefits of silvopastoral systems.Keywords: Digestibility, fiber, Northeast Brazil, protein, tree-grass associations, Urochloa  brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3187-193

  11. Positive Communications: The Keystone of Counterinsurgency Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Centro Internacionale de Agricultura Tropical, Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates (Palisades... Agricultura Tropical. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates. Palisades, NY: NASA

  12. Evidence for an association between increased oxidative stress and derangement of FOXO1 signaling in tumorigenesis of a cellular angiofibroma with monoallelic 13q14: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Kazunari; Chinen, Katsuya; Kamiya, Masuzo; Tanabe, Yasuka; Tawata, Natsumi; Ikehara, Fukino; Uehara, Karina; Shimabukuro, Hiroichi; Kinjo, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma (CAF) is a rare soft tissue tumor characterized by random arrangement of spindle tumor cells in the stroma with short collagen bundles and thick- and hyalinized small vessels. CAFs share histological characteristics with spindle cell lipomas and mammary type myofibroblastomas. Because these tumors harbor monoallelic 13q14, common genetic and molecular mechanism for tumorigenesis is presumed. In this study, we reported a case of CAF in a 69-year-old man with monoallelic 13q14. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that FOXO1, which is located in chromosome 13q14, was not expressed in the tumor. We also detected oxidative stress markers and found p38 MAPK activation, which is often induced by cellular stressors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because FOXO1 induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes that generate antioxidants, oxidative stress induced by loss of FOXO1 expression may be common among CAFs, spindle cell lipomas, and mammary type myofibroblastomas.

  13. Incunabular Immunological Events in Prion Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Brady; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Johnson, Theodore; Ferguson, Adam; Wyckoff, Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Bender, Heather; Avery, Anne; Telling, Glenn; Dow, Steven; Zabel, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    While prions probably interact with the innate immune system immediately following infection, little is known about this initial confrontation. Here we investigated incunabular events in lymphotropic and intranodal prion trafficking by following highly enriched, fluorescent prions from infection sites to draining lymph nodes. We detected biphasic lymphotropic transport of prions from the initial entry site upon peripheral prion inoculation. Prions arrived in draining lymph nodes cell autonomously within two hours of intraperitoneal administration. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) required Complement for optimal prion delivery to lymph nodes hours later in a second wave of prion trafficking. B cells constituted the majority of prion-bearing cells in the mediastinal lymph node by six hours, indicating intranodal prion reception from resident DCs or subcapsulary sinus macrophages or directly from follicular conduits. These data reveal novel, cell autonomous prion lymphotropism, and a prominent role for B cells in intranodal prion movement. PMID:22679554

  14. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    numerical (palisade ratio, stomata number, stomata index, vein–islet number and veinlet termination number ... 2,000 species distributed all over the world. Some of them are ... Chemomicroscopic examination ... Quantitative leaf microscopy to determine palisade ... experiment. .... the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and.

  15. Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference Method Generalized for Heterogeneous Multidimensional Two-Group Diffusion Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Cabellos, Oscar; Aragones, Jose M.; Ahnert, Carol

    2003-01-01

    In order to take into account in a more effective and accurate way the intranodal heterogeneities in coarse-mesh finite-difference (CMFD) methods, a new equivalent parameter generation methodology has been developed and tested. This methodology accounts for the dependence of the nodal homogeneized two-group cross sections and nodal coupling factors, with interface flux discontinuity (IFD) factors that account for heterogeneities on the flux-spectrum and burnup intranodal distributions as well as on neighbor effects.The methodology has been implemented in an analytic CMFD method, rigorously obtained for homogeneous nodes with transverse leakage and generalized now for heterogeneous nodes by including IFD heterogeneity factors. When intranodal mesh node heterogeneity vanishes, the heterogeneous solution tends to the analytic homogeneous nodal solution. On the other hand, when intranodal heterogeneity increases, a high accuracy is maintained since the linear and nonlinear feedbacks on equivalent parameters have been shown to be as a very effective way of accounting for heterogeneity effects in two-group multidimensional coarse-mesh diffusion calculations

  16. Does ultrasound contrast agent improve the diagnostic value of colour and power Doppler sonography in superficial lymph node enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot; Demharter, Johannes; Linne, Renate; Droste, Dirk W.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Buecklein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to analyse whether ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) improves the diagnostic accuracy to differentiate between benign and malignant superficial lymph node enlargement by using colour-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) and power Doppler (PD). Methods: 32 patients with suspected malignant superficial lymph node enlargement prospectively underwent standardised ultrasound examinations using B-mode sonography and native and contrast-enhanced CCDS and PD immediately before biopsy. Solbiati-Index (longitudinal-transverse diameter ratio) and intranodal flow patterns by using different vascularisation types were assessed. Histological and sonographical findings were correlated. Results: 27 malignant and 5 benign lymph nodes were found. Solbiati-Index was lower in malignant lymph nodes than in benign nodes (mean 1.5 vs. 2.4, P<0.045). More intranodal flow patterns could be detected after UCA (53 vs. 43) but the number of correctly identified malignant nodes decreased after UCA (26 vs. 24) and the number of correctly identified benign nodes remained constant compared with native CCDS and PD. In 31% of the colour-mode studies, PD was considered to visualise more clearly intranodal vascular flow patterns than CCDS. Conclusion: despite depicting more intranodal vascular patterns, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent seems not to improve the diagnostic value of CCDS and PD compared with native colour-mode studies in superficial lymph node enlargement

  17. Uncommon breast lesions. Radiologic and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, M.; Santamaria, G.; Pages, M.; Fernandez, P.; Farrus, B.

    1998-01-01

    To illustrate the radiologic findings in several uncommon breast and infrequent diseases that present with unusual mammographic images. We reviewed the mammograms performed in our department between 1998 and 1995, selecting 16 patients (12 women and 4 men). Nine patients had benign breast lesions (adenomyoepithelioma, epidermal cyst, adenoid cystic carcinoma, myofibroblastoma, multiple hamartomas, intra cystic papillomas, lipoma, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis and fat necrosis) and 7 patients presented malignant breast diseases (malignant fibrous histiocytoma, intra cystic carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the breast, liposarcoma and metastasis). We present a review of the radiologic and pathologic findings in several uncommon breast diseases. (Author) 14 refs

  18. Сhlorenchyma in stem of succulent plants from the genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.О. Kalashnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of photosynthesis execution by stems causes the structural and functional changes in plants. The stems of majority of succulent plants of the genus Euphorbia L. are covered only with the epidermis for a long time. In plants of some species the palisade parenchyma can appear which can be considered as a secondary or consequential tool to perform photosynthesis function by their stems. The anatomical structure of green annual stems of 23 Euphorbia species was examined. For 12 of them the palisade parenchyma has been established. The palisade parenchyma in the stem differs from such in the leaf by cells form and size as well as cells arrangement. The presence or absence of palisade parenchyma in the primary cortex indicates the level of specialization of stem tissues to perform the assimilation function. As the degree of development of palisade parenchyma depends on the amount of solar radiation, the presence and number of palisade parenchyma does not directly confirm the adaptation to the growth in conditions of a certain degree of aridity. Its appearance is could be caused also by growth under high insolation. Undoubtedly, appearance of palisade parenchyma in the stems of stem-succulent plants is correlated with reduction of leaves and probably is consequence of this.

  19. Plány Vyšehradu v Národní knihovně v Paříži

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nechvátal, Bořivoj

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 229-242 ISSN 0231-5823 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : defence system * palisades * bastion * ravelin * Vyšehrad Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. MICROSCOPIC, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    carbohydrates, vitamins and organic acid) have been incinerated at ... cleaned using forceps and carmel hair brush. .... D) Diacytic stomata (s) and palisade cells on adaxial surface E) unicellular ... photosynthesis and water loss (opening and.

  1. Parallel-aware, dedicated job co-scheduling within/across symmetric multiprocessing nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry R.; Watson, Pythagoras C.; Tuel, William; Brenner, Larry; ,Caffrey, Patrick; Fier, Jeffrey

    2010-10-05

    In a parallel computing environment comprising a network of SMP nodes each having at least one processor, a parallel-aware co-scheduling method and system for improving the performance and scalability of a dedicated parallel job having synchronizing collective operations. The method and system uses a global co-scheduler and an operating system kernel dispatcher adapted to coordinate interfering system and daemon activities on a node and across nodes to promote intra-node and inter-node overlap of said interfering system and daemon activities as well as intra-node and inter-node overlap of said synchronizing collective operations. In this manner, the impact of random short-lived interruptions, such as timer-decrement processing and periodic daemon activity, on synchronizing collective operations is minimized on large processor-count SPMD bulk-synchronous programming styles.

  2. SIRIUS - A one-dimensional multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, P. [Westinghouse Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    In order to evaluate relative merits of some proposed intranodal cross sections models, a computer code called Sirius has been developed. Sirius is a one-dimensional, multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code with microscopic depletion capability. Sirius provides the possibility of performing a spatial homogenization and energy collapsing of cross sections. In addition a so called pin power reconstruction method is available for the purpose of reconstructing 'heterogeneous' pin qualities. consequently, Sirius has the capability of performing all the calculations (incl. depletion calculations) which are an integral part of the nodal calculation procedure. In this way, an unambiguous numerical analysis of intranodal cross section models is made possible. In this report, the theory of the nodal models implemented in sirius as well as the verification of the most important features of these models are addressed.

  3. Cellular Angiofibroma of the Prostate: A Rare Tumor in an Unusual Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the unusual occurrence of a cellular angiofibroma in prostatic tissue. In this case, a 84-year-old man presented in the emergency room with urinary retention. Ultrasound revealed an enlarged prostate, which was suggestive for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The patient was treated with a Millin retropubic prostatectomy. Macroscopically the prostate contained multiple circumscribed nodules. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed the appearance of cellular angiofibroma, consisting of bland spindle cells and prominent, hyalinized vessels. The diagnosis was supported by FISH, which revealed monoallelic loss of RB1/13q14 region, as seen in spindle cell lipoma, (extra- mammary myofibroblastoma, and cellular angiofibroma. Cellular angiofibromas are rare, benign soft tissue tumours and were never reported in the prostatic gland.

  4. Japanese fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Malko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, there is an inclination towards obscuring the demarcation between the private and the public space. The high palisades surrounding “skya” style constructions enclose the gardens where the low fences line the vegetation.In the religious domain, the palisades that separate the sacred space from the secular space, called “tama-gaki”, are found neighbouring “koran” style fences.Stone can sometimes be used as part or only component of the barrier.The barriers and palisades in Japan are utilized to hide the buildings and gardens from the public space, but they stay entirely as art works in which the carpenters of the archipelago put sense of aesthetic and tradition, preserving the privacy, harmony of the landscape and calm.

  5. Tuberculous adenitis: comparison of CT and MRI findings with histopathological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, A.I. de; Mortele, K.J.; Heuvel, E. van den; Vanschoubroeck, I.J.; Kockx, M.M.; Vyvere, M. van de

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the various histopathological features and the CT and MRI findings in routinely submitted histopathological specimens for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenopathy. Twelve formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from ten patients who were clinically suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenopathy were evaluated. We assessed the presence of histopathological features including granuloma formation, caseous necrosis, and presence of Langhans-type giant cells, calcifications, fibrosis or normal lymphoid tissue. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for mycobacterial DNA and Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Findings were compared with those of CT and MRI, including signal intensities on unenhanced MR images, lymph node homogeneity, attenuation values on contrast-enhanced CT and enhancement patterns on MRI. Based on CT and MRI findings, four lymph node types could be defined: (1) homogeneous nodes, visible on both pre- and post-contrast images and corresponding histopathologically to granulation tissue without or with minimal caseation necrosis (n = 2); (2) heterogeneous nodes, showing heterogeneous enhancement patterns with central non-enhancing areas and corresponding to minor or moderate intranodal caseation/liquefaction necrosis (n = 3); (3) nodes showing peripheral rim enhancement and corresponding to moderate or extensive intranodal caseation/liquefaction necrosis (n = 5); (4) heterogeneous nodes showing intranodal hyperdensities on CT and hypointense areas on T1- and T2-weighted images and corresponding to fibrosis and calcifications (n = 2). On CT and MRI, the findings reflect different stages of the tuberculous process. Imaging findings depend on the presence and the degree of granuloma formation, caseation/liquefaction necrosis, fibrosis and calcifications. (orig.)

  6. Solvation dynamics in triton-X-100 and triton-X-165 micelles: Effect of micellar size and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-09-01

    Dynamic Stokes' shift measurements using coumarin 153 as the fluorescence probe have been carried out to study solvation dynamics in two nonionic micelles, viz., triton-X-100 (TX-100) and triton-X-165 (TX-165). In both the micelles, the solvent relaxation dynamics is biexponential in nature. While the fast solvation time τs1 is seen to be almost similar for both the micelles, the slow solvation time τs2 is found to be appreciably smaller in TX-165 than in TX-100 micelle. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that the TX-165 micelles are substantially smaller in size than that of TX-100. Assuming similar core size for both the micelles, as expected from the similar chemical structures of the nonpolar ends for both the surfactants, the Palisade layer is also indicated to be substantially thinner for TX-165 micelles than that of TX-100. The aggregation number of TX-165 micelles is also found to be substantially smaller than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence spectral studies of C153 dye in the two micelles indicate that the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is more polar than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate that the microviscosity in the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is also lower than that of TX-100 micelles. Based on these results it is inferred that the structure of the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is quite loose and have higher degree hydration in comparison to that of TX-100 micelles. Due to these structural differences in the Palisade layers of TX-165 and TX-100 micelles the solvation dynamics is faster in the former micelles than in the latter. It has been further inferred that in the present systems the collective response of the water molecules at somewhat away from the probes is responsible for the faster component of the solvation time, which does not reflect much of the structural changes of the micellar Palisade layer. On the contrary, the slower solvation time component, which is mainly due to

  7. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  8. Simulate-HEX - The multi-group diffusion equation in hexagonal-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S. O.

    2013-01-01

    The multigroup diffusion equation is solved for the hexagonal-z geometry by dividing each hexagon into 6 triangles. In each triangle, the Fourier solution of the wave equation is approximated by 8 plane waves to describe the intra-nodal flux accurately. In the end an efficient Finite Difference like equation is obtained. The coefficients of this equation depend on the flux solution itself and they are updated once per power/void iteration. A numerical example demonstrates the high accuracy of the method. (authors)

  9. Evolution of Ca-Al-rich bodies in the earliest solar system: growth by incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wark, D.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Many Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite contain two types of spinel structures, 'framboids' and 'palisades'. Framboids are clumps of spinel grains generally < 100 μm across. Experimental studies show that they probably formed in situ by solid state growth processes. Palisades are texturally different and consist of ovoid shells of spinel grains that appear in thin sections as long arcs or rings with diameters ranging from approx. 50 μm up to 2 cm. No in situ formation process seems able to explain the variety of sizes and morphologies of palisades nor the different compositions and textures of the enclosed and enclosing materials. We therefore suggest that palisades are the spinel rims of smaller, earlier-formed Type B CAI's that were incorporated into other CAI material in various ways - by capture into liquid drops, by solid condensate overgrowths and by the partial melting or welding of agglomerates containing the bodies. As some Type B bodies have been found inside Type A host material it appears that in at least some regions, and probably generally, Type A CAI's formed after Type B. Proposals are made concerning the origin of the CAI material. (author)

  10. Microscopic, physicochemical and chromatographic fingerprints of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygonal epidermal cells and numerous uniseriate, unicellular trichomes were also present. Quantitative leaf analysis revealed the following: stomata number on abaxial surface 445, stomata index 30.7, palisade ratio 17.1, vein- islet number 17.3 and vein- termination number 14.2. Chemomicroscopic characters present ...

  11. Microstructure of Desmanthus illinoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure and histochemistry of mature seeds of Desmanthus illinoensis (Illinois bundle flower) show that the seed has typical legume structure. The seed can be separated into two major fractions including the seed coat/endosperm and the embryo. The seed coat consists of a cuticle, palisade sclereid...

  12. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is rationalized on the basis of the site of solubilization of the solute molecules which is the palisade layer of the micelles in both phases and unaffected by gelation. A similar result has been obtained in case of photoisomerization studies carried out with a carbocyanine derivative in the sol and gel phases of the block ...

  14. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  15. A Hybrid Template-Based Composite Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Levenshtein distance algorithm has been used in such applications as spell checking, speech recognition, DNA analysis and plagiarism detection. 23 The...The Statistical Analysis of Simulation Results. Academic Press, Palisades, NY, first edition. 71. Williams, R., Gross, D., Palomino, A., Westerkamp

  16. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 1. Excavations in the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    impressed, and cord marked pottery. Whereas the preceding Wheeler and Alexander series had Southern origins from the Gulf of Mexico , the new fabric...within the topographic depresion in Unit 446N/-234E may also have been constructed on slightly higner ground relative to Palisade I, so that the base

  17. Leaf anatomical and photosynthetic acclimation to cool temperature and high light in two winter versus two summer annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Adams, William W; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Acclimation of foliar features to cool temperature and high light was characterized in winter (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Giant Nobel; Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold Col-0 and ecotypes from Sweden and Italy) versus summer (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Soraya; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Italian Zucchini Romanesco) annuals. Significant relationships existed among leaf dry mass per area, photosynthesis, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness. While the acclimatory response of the summer annuals to cool temperature and/or high light levels was limited, the winter annuals increased the number of palisade cell layers, ranging from two layers under moderate light and warm temperature to between four and five layers under cool temperature and high light. A significant relationship was also found between palisade tissue thickness and either cross-sectional area or number of phloem cells (each normalized by vein density) in minor veins among all four species and growth regimes. The two winter annuals, but not the summer annuals, thus exhibited acclimatory adjustments of minor vein phloem to cool temperature and/or high light, with more numerous and larger phloem cells and a higher maximal photosynthesis rate. The upregulation of photosynthesis in winter annuals in response to low growth temperature may thus depend on not only (1) a greater volume of photosynthesizing palisade tissue but also (2) leaf veins containing additional phloem cells and presumably capable of exporting a greater volume of sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Systematic evaluation program, status summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Status reports are presented on the systematic evaluation program for the Big Rock Point reactor, Dresden-1 reactor, Dresden-2 reactor, Ginna-1 reactor, Connecticut Yankee reactor, LACBWR reactor, Millstone-1 reactor, Oyster Creek-1 reactor, Palisades-1 reactor, San Onofre-1 reactor, and Rowe Yankee reactor

  19. Verification of the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 pin power accuracy by comparison with operating boiling water reactor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uegata, T.; Saji, E.; Tanaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Intranodal pin power distributions calculated by the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 code have been compared with pin gamma scan measurements. These data were obtained from the depleted core of an operating boiling water reactor (BWR), which is more complicated than a pressurized water reactor to calculate because of the existence of coolant void distributions and cruciform control blades. Furthermore, measured bundles include mixed-oxide (MOX) bundles in which steep thermal flux gradients occur. Both UO 2 and MOX bundles have been calculated in the same manner based on the standard CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methods. The total pin power root-mean-square (rms) error is 2.7%, which includes measurement error, from an 896-point comparison. There is no obvious dependency on axial elevations (void fractions) and no significant difference between fuel types (UO 2 or MOX), although the errors in a peripheral bundle, which is less important from the standpoint of core design, are somewhat larger than those in the internal bundles. If the peripheral bundle is excluded, the total rms error is reduced to 2.2%. From these results, it is concluded that excellent agreement has been obtained between the calculations and measurements and that the calculational capability of CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 for the intranodal pin power distribution is quite satisfactory and useful for BWR core design

  20. An improved one-and-a-half group BWR core simulator for a new-generation core management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Munenari

    2000-01-01

    An improved one-and-a-half group core simulator method for a next-generation BWR core management system is presented. In the improved method, intranodal spectral index (thermal to fast flux ratio) is expanded with analytic solutions to the diffusion equation, and the nodal power density and the interface net current are calculated, taking the intranodal flux shape into consideration. A unique method was developed for assembly heterogeneity correction. Thus eliminating the insufficiencies of the conventional one-and-a-half group method, we can have accurate power distributions as well as local peaking factors for cores having large spectral mismatch between fuel assemblies. The historical effects of spectral mismatch are also considered in both nodal power and local peaking calculations. Although reflectors are not solved explicitly, there is essentially no need for core dependent adjustable parameters, since boundary conditions are derived in the same manner as in the interior nodes. Calculation time for nodal solutions is comparable to that for the conventional method, and is less than 1/10 of a few-group nodal simulator. Verifications of the present method were made by comparing the results with those obtained by heterogeneous fine-mesh multi-group core depletion calculations, and the accuracy was shown to be fairly good. (author)

  1. [Tumor and tumor-like benign mesenchymal lesions of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisceglia, M; Nirchio, V; Carosi, I; Cappucci, U; Decata, A; Paragone, T; Di Mattia, A L

    1995-02-01

    All the spectrum is encompassed of those miscellaneous pathologic entities occurring in the mammary stroma which are on record up to date other than "mixed fibroepithelial" tumors (fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors) and tumors both "pure" and "mixed" originating from myoepithelium (adenomyoepitheliomas and pleomorphic adenomas). Also they were excluded those dysreactive-autoimmune diseases (sarcoidosis, sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis, lobular granulomatous mastitis) and those inflammatory-infectious conditions (tuberculosis, actinomycosis, foreign body reactions, Mondor's disease) which can mimick breast tumors clinically or on image analysis, but on the contrary not evoking the idea of a tumor on histology. Specifically, inflammatory pseudotumor, myofibroblastoma, leiomyoma, neurinoma/neurofibroma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma, fibromatosis, nodular fascitis, variants of lipoma, mesenchymoma, amartoma and its variants, hemangiomas, pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of stroma, amyloid tumor, granular cell tumor, are consecutively described and discussed, with a large list of references enclosed to each rubric. Most of the pictures are taken from personally observed lesions of the breast. Only few pictures referred to are from their analogue lesions which occurred in soft parts of other locations, with specific mention of that when it was the case. Of note after reviewing the literature the fact that no glomus tumor, nor Kaposi's sarcoma either sporadic or in the context of any immunodeficiency, nor myelolipoma has been recorded yet.

  2. A Performance-Prediction Model for PIC Applications on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors: Validation with Hierarchical HPF+OpenMP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Briguglio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance-prediction model is presented, which describes different hierarchical workload decomposition strategies for particle in cell (PIC codes on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors. The devised workload decomposition is hierarchically structured: a higher-level decomposition among the computational nodes, and a lower-level one among the processors of each computational node. Several decomposition strategies are evaluated by means of the prediction model, with respect to the memory occupancy, the parallelization efficiency and the required programming effort. Such strategies have been implemented by integrating the high-level languages High Performance Fortran (at the inter-node stage and OpenMP (at the intra-node one. The details of these implementations are presented, and the experimental values of parallelization efficiency are compared with the predicted results.

  3. Development of a computer code for neutronic calculations of a hexagonal lattice of nuclear reactor using the flux expansion nodal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadnia Meysam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flux expansion nodal method is a suitable method for considering nodalization effects in node corners. In this paper we used this method to solve the intra-nodal flux analytically. Then, a computer code, named MA.CODE, was developed using the C# programming language. The code is capable of reactor core calculations for hexagonal geometries in two energy groups and three dimensions. The MA.CODE imports two group constants from the WIMS code and calculates the effective multiplication factor, thermal and fast neutron flux in three dimensions, power density, reactivity, and the power peaking factor of each fuel assembly. Some of the code's merits are low calculation time and a user friendly interface. MA.CODE results showed good agreement with IAEA benchmarks, i. e. AER-FCM-101 and AER-FCM-001.

  4. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Ahmad [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-21

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together through a data communications network. Each compute node has a plurality of processors for use in collective parallel operations on the parallel computer. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer according to embodiments of the present invention includes: transmitting, by each processor on each compute node, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on that compute node using intra-node communications; and transmitting on a designated network link, by each processor on each compute node according to a serial processor transmission sequence, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on the other compute nodes using inter-node communications.

  6. [Elective lymph node dissection in malignant melanoma--status of color Doppler findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, G; Dill-Müller, D; Gross, G; Kautz, G; Schüder, G; Zaun, H; Feifel, G

    1996-01-01

    Since there is still a controversial discussion about the ELND in melanoma patients, the purpose of this prospective study was to optimize the indication concerning ELND by ultrasound examinations. 144 patients with primary melanomas were checked every 3 months after excision. Echomorphologic pattern and intranodal vascularisation in the color-flow Doppler modus provide essential information for differential diagnosis. We found 47 patients (32.6%) with suspicious ultrasound lesions. 50% of these patients had no pathological clinical findings, the histological findings of excised lymph nodes were positive in all cases. It must be emphasized, however, that the group with lymph node metastases included 12 patients with low-risk-melanomas (2 x Tis, 10 x T1 historical control group (141 patients), where ELND was performed routinely in high-risk-patients ( > T2), the incidence of ELND in our hospital decreased more than 50%; at the same time the percentage of detected lymph node metastases increased (twice).

  7. Vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of normal cervical lymph nodes: variations with nodal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Michael; Ahuja, Anil; Brook, Fiona; Metreweli, Constantine

    2001-01-01

    AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate variations in the vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of cervical lymph nodes with their size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High resolution grey-scale sonography and power Doppler sonography were performed in 1133 cervical nodes in 109 volunteers who had a sonographic examination of the neck. Standardized parameters were used in power Doppler sonography. RESULTS: About 90% of lymph nodes with a maximum transverse diameter greater than 5 mm showed vascularity and an echogenic hilus. Smaller nodes were less likely to show vascularity and an echogenic hilus. As the size of the lymph nodes increased, the intranodal blood flow velocity increased significantly (P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a baseline for grey-scale and power Doppler sonography of normal cervical lymph nodes. Sonologists will find varying vascularity and grey-scale appearances when encountering nodes of different sizes. Ying, M. et al. (2001)

  8. LDRD final report : a lightweight operating system for multi-core capability class supercomputers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Hudson, Trammell B. (OS Research); Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2010-09-01

    The two primary objectives of this LDRD project were to create a lightweight kernel (LWK) operating system(OS) designed to take maximum advantage of multi-core processors, and to leverage the virtualization capabilities in modern multi-core processors to create a more flexible and adaptable LWK environment. The most significant technical accomplishments of this project were the development of the Kitten lightweight kernel, the co-development of the SMARTMAP intra-node memory mapping technique, and the development and demonstration of a scalable virtualization environment for HPC. Each of these topics is presented in this report by the inclusion of a published or submitted research paper. The results of this project are being leveraged by several ongoing and new research projects.

  9. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  10. Development of an object oriented nodal code using the refined AFEN derived from the method of component decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J. M.; Yoo, J. W.; Joo, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we invented a method of component decomposition to derive the systematic inter-nodal coupled equations of the refined AFEN method and developed an object oriented nodal code to solve the derived coupled equations. The method of component decomposition decomposes the intra-nodal flux expansion of a nodal method into even and odd components in three dimensions to reduce the large coupled linear system equation into several small single equations. This method requires no additional technique to accelerate the iteration process to solve the inter-nodal coupled equations, since the derived equations can automatically act as the coarse mesh re-balance equations. By utilizing the object oriented programming concepts such as abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism, dynamic memory allocation, and operator overloading, we developed an object oriented nodal code that can facilitate the input/output and the dynamic control of the memories, and can make the maintenance easy. (authors)

  11. A Processor-Sharing Scheduling Strategy for NFV Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Faraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the two paradigms SDN and NFV to “softwarize” the current Internet is making management and resource allocation two key challenges in the evolution towards the Future Internet. In this context, this paper proposes Network-Aware Round Robin (NARR, a processor-sharing strategy, to reduce delays in traversing SDN/NFV nodes. The application of NARR alleviates the job of the Orchestrator by automatically working at the intranode level, dynamically assigning the processor slices to the virtual network functions (VNFs according to the state of the queues associated with the output links of the network interface cards (NICs. An extensive simulation set is presented to show the improvements achieved with respect to two more processor-sharing strategies chosen as reference.

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January 1997. Volume 45, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This book contains issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Director's Decision for January 1997. The issuances concern Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and General Atomics Gore, Oklahoma Site decontamination and decommissioning funding; Louisiana Energy Services, Claiborne Enrichment Center denies appeal to review emergency planning; General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating station, challenges to technical specifications concerning spent fuel pool; and Consumers Power Company, Palisades Nuclear Plant dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel

  13. Fornyet tradition på tærsklen til en ny tid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Jelling differs from centres like Lejre, Tissø, Borre, or Gamla Uppsala, and a royal estate with economic functions, workshops, evidence of trade, etc., has not yet been identified. Despite the large investment, the palisade was short-lived and the memory of it was lost. In the late twelfth centu...... was created which could be revitalized and reinterpreted time and time again in a new framework....

  14. Implementing plant design changes economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamans, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Consumers Power Company, as is the case with most utilities, is challenged by the necessity to control non-modification design changes. At the Consumers' Palisades Nuclear Plant, the challenge was met by the establishment of a project team that developed an innovative comprehensive design control process called Functional Equivalent Substitution (FES). This paper describes: (1) the project team composition; (2) the process development methodology; and (3) the implementation results

  15. Investigations on gamma ray induced chlorophyll variegated mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Banerji, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Considering economic importance of chlorophyll variegation in floriculture trade an attempt was made for cytological, anatomical and biochemical analysis of four Bougainvillea and Lantana depressa chlorophyll variegated mutants for better and clear understanding of origin of chlorophyll variegation. No cytological evidence could be detected for their origin. Anatomical and biochemical examinations revealed that chlorophyll variegation in these mutants were due to changes in biosynthesis pathways and time of chlorophyll synthesis in palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Anatomical indications of fume resistance in certain woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninova, D.

    1970-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe studies on seven species of fruit and forest trees close to or far from a Bulgarian factory emitting fumes containing S. The most resistant species (Quercus borealis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Morus alba) had the smallest stomata and the greatest number of stomata per unit leaf area. Changes observed in leaf anatomy as a result of exposure to the fumes were: decreased leaf aeration, elongated palisade cells, thicker cuticles, and more stomata.

  17. Anatomia, ultra-estrutura e secreção do nectário extrafloral de Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Joecildo Francisco; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the extrafloral nectary (EFN) of Hibiscus pernambucensis, a native shrub species occurring in mangrove and restinga along Brazil's coastline. EFNs occur as furrows with a protuberant border on the abaxial surface veins of the leaf blade. Each nectary consists of numerous secretory multicellular trichomes, epidermal cells in palisade-like arrangements and non-vascularized parenchyma tissue. Nectar secretion is prolonged, since secretion starts in very young leaves and rem...

  18. High-resolution imaging of basal cell carcinoma: a comparison between multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Marco; Arginelli, Federica; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul; Talbot, Clifford; König, Karsten; Pellacani, Giovanni; Ponti, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare morphological aspects of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as assessed by two different imaging methods: in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging implementation (MPT-FLIM). The study comprised 16 BCCs for which a complete set of RCM and MPT-FLIM images were available. The presence of seven MPT-FLIM descriptors was evaluated. The presence of seven RCM equivalent parameters was scored in accordance to their extension. Chi-squared test with Fisher's exact test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were determined between MPT-FLIM scores and adjusted-RCM scores. MPT-FLIM and RCM descriptors of BCC were coupled to match the descriptors that define the same pathological structures. The comparison included: Streaming and Aligned elongated cells, Streaming with multiple directions and Double alignment, Palisading (RCM) and Palisading (MPT-FLIM), Typical tumor islands, and Cell islands surrounded by fibers, Dark silhouettes and Phantom islands, Plump bright cells and Melanophages, Vessels (RCM), and Vessels (MPT-FLIM). The parameters that were significantly correlated were Melanophages/Plump Bright Cells, Aligned elongated cells/Streaming, Double alignment/Streaming with multiple directions, and Palisading (MPT-FLIM)/Palisading (RCM). According to our data, both methods are suitable to image BCC's features. The concordance between MPT-FLIM and RCM is high, with some limitations due to the technical differences between the two devices. The hardest difficulty when comparing the images generated by the two imaging modalities is represented by their different field of view. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Group-decoupled multi-group pin power reconstruction utilizing nodal solution 1D flux profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lulin; Lu, Dong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct fitting multi-group pin power reconstruction method is developed. • The 1D nodal solution flux profiles are used as the condition. • The least square fit problem is analytically solved. • A slowing down source improvement method is applied. • The method shows good accuracy for even challenging problems. - Abstract: A group-decoupled direct fitting method is developed for multi-group pin power reconstruction, which avoids both the complication of obtaining 2D analytic multi-group flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. A unique feature of the method is that in addition to nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes, transversely-integrated 1D nodal solution flux profiles are also used as the condition to determine the 2D intra-nodal flux distribution. For each energy group, a two-dimensional expansion with a nine-term polynomial and eight hyperbolic functions is used to perform a constrained least square fit to the 1D intra-nodal flux solution profiles. The constraints are on the conservation of nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes. Instead of solving the constrained least square fit problem numerically, we solve it analytically by fully utilizing the symmetry property of the expansion functions. Each of the 17 unknown expansion coefficients is expressed in terms of nodal volume and surface average fluxes, corner fluxes and transversely-integrated flux values. To determine the unknown corner fluxes, a set of linear algebraic equations involving corner fluxes is established via using the current conservation condition on all corners. Moreover, an optional slowing down source improvement method is also developed to further enhance the accuracy of the reconstructed flux distribution if needed. Two test examples are shown with very good results. One is a four-group BWR mini-core problem with all control blades inserted and the other is the seven-group OECD NEA MOX benchmark, C5G7

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Yun, Bo La [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the ultrasonographic (USG) findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. Between April 2007 and September 2016, 84 children (42 male and 42 female; mean±standard deviation age, 12.9±3.2 years; range, 5 to 18 years) confirmed with Kikuchi disease were enrolled. Clinical findings and USG findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy were retrospectively reviewed. Localized symptoms, systemic symptoms, and laboratory findings including the white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. An analysis of the USG findings included evaluation of the location, size, and presence of intranodal abscess; intranodal calcification; perinodal fat swelling; localized fluid collection; and loss of nodal echogenic hilum. Among the patients, 49 (58%) showed localized tenderness at the cervical lymphadenopathy. Fever was present in 55 (66%), while 27 (32%) had prolonged fever. Of 74 with lab results, 54 (73%) had leukopenia but none had leukocytosis. Among the same 74, there was a high ESR (>50 mm/hr) in 10 (14%) and a high CRP level (>5 mg/dL) in seven (9%). The USG findings of most of the patients (n=72, 86%) showed unilateral neck involvement, especially in the left side neck (45 of 72, 63%). The most common site of Kikuchi lymphadenopathy involvement was the area at cervical lymph node level V, at the posterior triangle (n=77, 92%). Conglomerated nodal distribution (n=57, 68%), preserved central nodal echogenic hilum (n=84, 98%), and perinodal fat swelling (n=55, 65%) were common USG findings in the children with Kikuchi. In addition, multiple cervical lymph nodes showed a relatively even size distribution (n=73, 87%). The common USG findings of Kikuchi disease in the pediatric population of our study were multiple conglomerated unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy showing perinodal fat swelling and even size distribution.

  1. Evaluation of lymph node perfusion using continuous mode harmonic ultrasonography with a second-generation contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaltelli, Leopoldo; Khadivi, Yeganeh; Tregnaghi, Alberto; Stramare, Roberto; Ferro, Federica; Borsato, Simonetta; Fiocco, Ugo; Adami, Fausto; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the contribution of continuous mode contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography (CE-HUS) with a second-generation contrast agent to the characterization of superficial lymphadenopathies with respect to conventional ultrasonographic techniques (B-mode and power Doppler). Fifty-six lymph nodes from 45 patients were studied both by conventional techniques and by CE-HUS. The dimensions, intranodal architecture, margins, and location of vessels were evaluated. Subsequently, all the lymph nodes were examined by CE-HUS, and enhancement of echogenicity was evaluated. The diagnoses obtained by means of fine-needle aspiration cytologic examination, surgical biopsy, or both were compared with those obtained by ultrasonography. Of the lymph nodes examined, 30 were benign and 26 were malignant (18 metastases and 8 non-Hodgkin lymphomas). The study using CE-HUS showed intense homogeneous enhancement in 28 of 30 reactive lymph nodes; perfusion defects in 17, of which 15 were neoplastic and 2 were inflammatory; intense but inhomogeneous speckled enhancement in the early arterial phase in 5 cases of lymphoma; and, last, scarce or absent intranodal enhancement in 4 metastases. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of conventional techniques in differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes were 76%, 80%, and 78% versus 93%, 92%, and 92.8% for CE-HUS. The increase in correct diagnoses was significant (P = .05) when conventional ultrasonography was tested against CE-HUS. Superficial lymph nodes can be characterized as being neoplastic or benign with a high degree of diagnostic accuracy on the basis of the perfusion characteristics evaluated by CE-HUS. This technique has been shown to afford a higher degree of accuracy than currently obtainable by any other ultrasonographic technique.

  2. Wind tunnel testing to predict control room atmospheric dispersion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmquist, L.J.; Harden, P.A.; Muraida, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent concerns at Palisades about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing the control room has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode. The current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 1.2 x 10 -2 m 3 /s (25 ft 3 /min) unfiltered in-leakage into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered as a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. A second approach to this problem was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (x/Q's) through a wind tunnel test using a scale model of Palisades. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic x/Q's for control room habitability than previously employed methods. Palisades selected the wind tunnel study option based on its ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the study could increase the allowable unfiltered in-leakage

  3. Systematic evaluation program. Status report and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The MHB Ongoing Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) Assessment Study was initiated by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) in 1980. This MHB report is a status report and initial evaluation of SEP. The methodology and results of SEP are disscused with particular emphasis on the first two SEP plant reviews - the Palisades and R.E. Ginna nuclear power plants. The comments of cognizant persons in the NRC and the ACRS, as well as private consultants, are included herein. MHBs major findings are as follows: The SEP plant review methodology was acceptable to the NRC Commissioners, the ACRS, and the NRC Staffs consultants who evaluated the first two SEP plant reviews. A concern raised by all who commented on SEP was the absence of Three Mile Island Action Plan Items and Unresolved Safety Issues from current SEP reviews. The SEP reviews of the Palisades and R.E. Ginna plants concluded that the two plant designs were adequate with respect to a majority of safety topics. Several topics remain unresolved in both the Palisades and R.E. Ginna SEP reviews. In the case of the Ginna plant, several related topics have been grouped together in a major structural reevaluation study. In general, due to the number of unresolved and excluded topics, SEP has not at this time produced a plant safety evaluation which can be considered complete and integrated. (author)

  4. Response of Eustoma Leaf Phenotype and Photosynthetic Performance to LED Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zohurul Kadir Roni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a controlled environment, light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs has been associated with affecting the leaf characteristics of Eustoma. LEDs help plant growth and development, yet little is known about photosynthetic performance and related anatomical features in the early growth stage of Eustoma leaves. In this study, we examined the effects of blue (B, red (R, and white (W LEDs on the photosynthetic performance of Eustoma leaves, as well as leaf morphology and anatomy including epidermal layer thickness, palisade cells, and stomatal characteristics. Leaves grown under B LEDs were thicker and had a higher chlorophyll content than those grown under the R and W LEDs. Leaves under B LEDs had greater net photosynthetic rates (A, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rates (E, especially at a higher photon flux density (PPFD, that resulted in a decrease in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, than leaves under the W and R LEDs. B LEDs resulted in greater abaxial epidermal layer thickness and palisade cell length and width than the R and W LED treatments. The palisade cells also developed a more cylindrical shape in response to the B LEDs. B LED leaves also showed greater guard cell length, breadth, and area, and stomatal density, than W or R LEDs, which may contribute to increased A, gs and E at higher PPFDs.

  5. Intercropping Urochloa brizantha and sorghum inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense for silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Hisashi Nakao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock performance in the Brazilian Cerrado has been limited by the low availability of good quality fodder, especially during periods of low rainfall. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and dry matter production in two cultivars of sorghum, inoculated or not with diazotrophic bacteria, and as a monocrop or intercropped with palisade grass under a system of crop-livestock integration. The experiments were carried out in the field in the Cerrado region during the autumn-winter period of 2015 and 2016, on the experimental farm of the Faculty of Engineering at Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Selvíria, in the State of Mato Groso do Sul, Brazil (MS. A randomised complete block experimental design was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments corresponded to two agricultural years (2015 and 2016; the cultivation of dual-purpose grain sorghum, alone or intercropped with palisade grass; with or without inoculation of the sorghum seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. The dry matter production of the plant components and plant growth were evaluated for the preparation of silage. Inoculation of sorghum seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense increases the production of plant dry matter for silage, irrespective of the cultivar or intercrop. Dual-purpose grain sorghum intercropped with palisade grass is a viable agronomic system for producing plant matter for silage during the autumn season.

  6. Histology-Based Expression Profiling Yields Novel Prognostic Markers in Human Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shumin; Nutt, Catherine L.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Denko, Nicholas C.; Ligon, Keith L.; Rowitch, David H.; Louis, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Although the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is poor, survival is variable, with some patients surviving longer than others. For this reason, there has been longstanding interest in the identi-fication of prognostic markers for glioblastoma. We hypothesized that specific histologic features known to correlate with malignancy most likely express molecules that are directly related to the aggressive behavior of these tumors. We further hypothesized that such molecules could be used as biomarkers to predict behavior in a manner that might add prognostic power to sole histologic observation of the feature. We reasoned that perinecrotic tumor cell palisading, which denotes the most aggressive forms of malignant gliomas, would be a striking histologic feature on which to test this hypothesis. We therefore used laser capture microdissection and oligonucleotide arrays to detect molecules differentially expressed in perinecrotic palisades. A set of RNAs (including POFUT2, PTDSR, PLOD2, ATF5, and HK2) that were differentially expressed in 3 initially studied, micro-dissected glioblastomas also provided prognostic information in an independent set of 28 glioblastomas that did not all have perinecrotic palisades. On validation in a second, larger independent series, this approach could be applied to other human glioma types to derive tissue biomarkers that could offer ancillary prognostic and predictive information alongside standard histopathologic examination. PMID:16254489

  7. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El All Howayda S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs, although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4, suspicious (n = 2 and malignant (n = 3, based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5 and malignant (n = 3. In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma. For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma. In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes.

  8. Anatomical, biochemical, and photosynthetic responses to recent allopolyploidy in Glycine dolichocarpa (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Jeremy E; Luciano, Amelia K; Seralathan, Vasu; Minchew, Kevin J; Owens, Tom G; Doyle, Jeff J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyploidy has pronounced effects on photosynthesis. Most of these studies have focused on synthetic or recently formed autopolyploids, and comparatively little is known about the integrated effects of natural allopolyploidy, which involves hybridity and genome doubling and often incorporates multiple genotypes through recurrent origins and lineage recombination. Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) is a natural allotetraploid with multiple origins. We quantified 21 anatomical, biochemical, and physiological phenotypes relating to photosynthesis in T2 and its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). To assess how direction of cross affects these phenotypes, we included three T2 accessions having D3-like plastids (T2(D3)) and two accessions having D4-like plastids (T2(D4)). T2 accessions were transgressive (more extreme than any diploid accession) for 17 of 21 phenotypes, and species means differed significantly in T2 vs. both progenitors for four of 21 phenotypes (higher for guard cell length, electron transport capacity [J(max)] per palisade cell, and J(max) per mesophyll cell; lower for palisade cells per unit leaf area). Within T2, four of 21 parameters differed significantly between T2(D3) and T2(D4) (palisade cell volume; chloroplast number and volume per unit leaf area; and J(max) per unit leaf area). T2 is characterized by transgressive photosynthesis-related phenotypes (including an ca. 2-fold increase in J(max) per cell), as well as by significant intraspecies variation correlating with plastid type. These data indicate prominent roles for both nucleotypic effects and cytoplasmic factors in photosynthetic responses to allopolyploidy.

  9. ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN IN THE DENSIMETRIC FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO RIBEIRO VILELA PRADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of land use and management by the measurement of soil organic matter and its fractions has gained attention since it helps in the understanding of the dynamics of their contribution to soil productivity, especially in tropical environments. This study was conducted in the municipality of Colorado do Oeste, state of Rondônia, Brazil and its aim was to determinethe quantity of organic carbon and total nitrogen in the light and heavy fractions of organic matter in the surface layers of a typic hapludalf under different land use systems: Native Forest: open evergreen forest, reference environment; Agroforestry System 1: teak (Tectona grandis LF and kudzu (Pueraria montana; Agroforestry System 2: coffee (Coffea canephora, marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, “pinho cuiabano” (Parkia multijuga, teak and kudzu.; Agroforestry System 3: teak and cocoa (Theobroma cacao; Silvopasture System: teak, cocoa and marandu palisade grass; and Extensive Grazing System: marandu palisade grass. The experimental design was a randomized block in split-split plots (use systems versus soil layers of 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m with three replications. The results showed that relative to Native Forest, the Agroforestry System 2 had equal- and greater amounts of organic carbon and total nitrogen respectively (light and heavy fractions in the soil organic matter, with the light fraction being responsible for storage of approximately 45% and 70% of the organic carbon and total nitrogen, respectively. Therefore, the light densimetric fraction proved to be useful in the early identification of the general decline of the soil organic matter in the land use systems evaluated.

  10. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  12. A new species of the sponge Raspailia (Raspaxilla) (Porifera: Demospongiae: Axinellida: Raspailiidae) from deep seamounts of the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Merrick; Debitus, CÉcile; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Hooper, John N A

    2018-04-17

    A new species of Raspailia (Raspaxilla) frondosa sp. nov. is described from the deep seamounts of the Norfolk and New Caledonia Ridges. The morphology of the species resembles that of a frond or a fern, and its unique highly compressed axial skeleton of interlaced spongin fibres without spicules in combination with a radial extra axial skeleton of a perpendicular palisade of spicules, differentiate it from all other species of the subgenus. This species is compared morphologically to all 18 other valid species described in Raspailia (Raspaxilla).

  13. Thermal embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Stoller, R.E.; Wang, J.A.; Odette, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of observations of possible thermal embrittlement from recent studies with welds removed from retired steam generators of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), an assessment was made of thermal aging of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nominal reactor operating conditions. Discussions are presented on (1) data from the literature regarding relatively low-temperature thermal embrittlement of RPV steels; (2)relevant data from the US power reactor-embrittlement data base (PR-EDB); and (3)potential mechanisms of thermal embrittlement in low-alloy steels

  14. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  15. Learning from eponyms: Jose Verocay and Verocay bodies, Antoni A and B areas, Nils Antoni and Schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms composed almost entirely of Schwann cells and are diagnosed histopathologically by the presence of singular architectural patterns called Antoni A and Antoni B areas. These were described first in 1920 by the Swedish neurologist Nils Antoni. The Antoni A tissue is highly cellular and made up of palisades of Schwann cell nuclei, a pattern first described in 1910 by the Uruguayan neuro-pathologist Jose Verocay and are known as Verocay bodies. This article describes the structure and appearance of Verocay bodies and Antoni A and B areas with a brief biographical introduction of the men who described these patterns.

  16. Postoperative Granulomas at Liposuction Incision Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Frederick G; White, Peter F; Barrero Castedo, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Since most liposuction incisions heal uneventfully, difficult healing in such incisions must be investigated. In the cases of two gynecomastia liposuction patients in which a water-based lubricating gel was used on the liposuction incisions, the incisions failed to heal. For both patients, workup uncovered palisading granulomas at the lateral inframammary fold incision sites several months after otherwise successful surgeries. These two cases are presented and the previous literature is reviewed, with consideration given to the etiology and prevention of such granulomas. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Churg-Strauss syndrome: A rare cause of pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh Rajawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare, small-vessel vasculitis associated with a prominent allergic component, asthma, and blood or tissue eosinophilia. Granulomas, eosinophils, and palisading histiocytes in extravascular tissues are hallmarks of this disorder. The presence of asthma or allergy as well as more than 10% of eosinophils in blood is 95% sensitive and 99% specific, respectively, in distinguishing CSS among a subgroup of patients with well-documented systemic vasculitis. We present a case of pleural effusion which was finally diagnosed as CSS. Considering its rarity, this case is reported.

  18. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  19. Partial hammock valve: surgical repair in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Voces, Roberto; Pérez, Pedro; Rodrigo, David

    2006-09-01

    We describe a forme frustrée of hammock valve involving only the posterior mitral leaflet. Three adult patients were referred to surgery with the diagnosis of severe mitral regurgitation due to fibrosis of the posterior mitral leaflet. The final diagnosis was done intraoperatively. In all of them the posterior leaflet was attached to some accessory papillary muscles arranged en palisade, with three to four fused muscle heads producing restrictive leaflet motion in systole. Repair consisted in division of the papillary muscles, patch augmentation, and ring annuloplasty. This previously unreported lesion is congenital but manifests itself in adulthood.

  20. Intervention in independent spent fuel storage facility license application proceedings for storage on the power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the intervention in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for currently operating Independent Spent fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) projects at Carolina Power and Light's Company's H.B. Robinson, Duke Power Company's Oconee, and Virginia Power Company's Surry. In addition, intervention at dry storage facilities that are currently under development are also described. The utilities and reactors include Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs, Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain plant, Northern States Power Company's Prairie Island, Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Point Beach, and Consumers Power Company's Palisades

  1. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...... cuticle thickness, while Pegarinhos adds a thicker epidermis and palisade parenchyma to increase protection to water loss. These data is one of the first comparative approaches to the leaf characterization of these cultivars, and should now be combined with physiological and biochemical studies...

  2. Evaluation of the integrity of SEP reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoge, K.G.

    1979-12-01

    A documented review is presented of the integrity of the 11 reactor pressure vessels covered in the Systematic Evaluation Program. This review deals primarily with the design specifications and quality assurance programs used in the vessel construction and the status of material surveillance programs, pressure-temperature operating limits, and inservice inspection programs of the applicable plants. Several generic items such as PWR overpressurization protection and BWR nozzle and safe-end cracking also are evaluated. The 11 vessels evaluated include Dresden Units 1 and 2, Big Rock Point, Haddam Neck, Yankee Rowe, Oyster Creek, San Onofre 1, LaCrosse, Ginna, Millstone 1, and Palisades

  3. Trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the parasites and the insect gut wall surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, D H; Selkirk, M; Lavin, D

    1978-12-01

    A description of the different stages of Trypanosoma (M.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) as observed by the SEM is presented. The extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. The method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. The micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the regions of the gut to which parasites attach are described. The use of the technique for the study of other similar systems is discussed.

  4. Non-linear triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal method for hexagonal core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Gyu; Zee, Sung Qunn; Park, Sang Yong

    2000-09-01

    This report is for the implementation of triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal (TPEN) method to MASTER code in conjunction with the coarse mesh finite difference(CMFD) framework for hexagonal core design and analysis. The TPEN method is a variation of the higher order polynomial expansion nodal (HOPEN) method that solves the multi-group neutron diffusion equation in the hexagonal-z geometry. In contrast with the HOPEN method, only two-dimensional intranodal expansion is considered in the TPEN method for a triangular domain. The axial dependence of the intranodal flux is incorporated separately here and it is determined by the nodal expansion method (NEM) for a hexagonal node. For the consistency of node geometry of the MASTER code which is based on hexagon, TPEN solver is coded to solve one hexagonal node which is composed of 6 triangular nodes directly with Gauss elimination scheme. To solve the CMFD linear system efficiently, stabilized bi-conjugate gradient(BiCG) algorithm and Wielandt eigenvalue shift method are adopted. And for the construction of the efficient preconditioner of BiCG algorithm, the incomplete LU(ILU) factorization scheme which has been widely used in two-dimensional problems is used. To apply the ILU factorization scheme to three-dimensional problem, a symmetric Gauss-Seidel Factorization scheme is used. In order to examine the accuracy of the TPEN solution, several eigenvalue benchmark problems and two transient problems, i.e., a realistic VVER1000 and VVER440 rod ejection benchmark problems, were solved and compared with respective references. The results of eigenvalue benchmark problems indicate that non-linear TPEN method is very accurate showing less than 15 pcm of eigenvalue errors and 1% of maximum power errors, and fast enough to solve the three-dimensional VVER-440 problem within 5 seconds on 733MHz PENTIUM-III. In the case of the transient problems, the non-linear TPEN method also shows good results within a few minute of

  5. Intraductal papilloma in an axillary lymph node of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottom, Hannah; Rengabashyam, Bhavani; Turton, Philip E; Shaaban, Abeer M

    2014-05-23

    Inclusions of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes are reported very infrequently and typically are only identified microscopically as an incidental finding. Furthermore the development of a benign proliferative lesion in the form of an intraductal papilloma from intranodal ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon with only three previous cases reported. This report describes an unusual and rare case of an intraductal papilloma arising in an axillary lymph node of a patient known to have the human immunodeficiency virus. A 40-year-old Black African woman underwent excision of an enlarged palpable axillary lymph node. In the preceding 7 years she had received at least six separate surgical excisions to her ipsilateral breast for papillomatosis. The last surgical intervention was performed 1 year prior to presentation with an enlarged axillary lymph node. Histological examination of her axillary lymph node revealed a papillomatous proliferative epithelial lesion within an apparent encompassing duct, resembling a mammary intraductal papilloma. In the surrounding lymphoid tissue small groups of duct-like structures were additionally noted. Immunostaining with a panel of myoepithelial markers in conjunction with oestrogen receptor produced a mixed heterogeneous staining pattern in both the papillomatous lesion and the peripheral duct-like structures. This confirmed the diagnosis of a benign intraductal papilloma within an axillary lymph node, considered to have arisen from ectopic breast tissue. This case demonstrates that intranodal ectopic breast tissue has the potential to undergo benign proliferative change albeit extremely rarely. Therefore this possibility must be considered to ensure the correct diagnosis is made. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which has described recurrent intraductal papillomas and the subsequent development of an intraductal papilloma within an ipsilateral axillary lymph node, in

  6. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas Martínez, L; Orduña Valls, J; Paramés Mosquera, E; Lamelas Rodríguez, L; Rojas Gil, S; Domínguez García, M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the analgesic effects between the blockade and bipolar thermal radiofrequency in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. Prospective, randomised and experimental study conducted on 60 patients selected in the two hospitals over a period of nine months, who had intense sacroiliac joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]>6) that lasted more than 3 months. Patients were randomised into three groups (n=20): Group A (two intra-articular sacroiliac injections of local anaesthetic/corticosteroid guided by ultrasound in 7 days). Group B: conventional bipolar radiofrequency "palisade". Target points were the lateral branch nerves of S1, S2, and S3, distance needles 1cm. Group C: modified bipolar radiofrequency "palisade" (needle distance >1cm). Patients were evaluated at one month, three months, and one year. Demographic data, VAS reduction, and side effects of the techniques were assessed. One month after the treatment, pain reduction was >50% in the three groups PDolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical changes on coffee leaves infected by Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae

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    Lucas Mateus Rivero Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough poorly studied, the bacterial halo blight is an important disease in the major coffee-producing states of Brazil. External damage and anatomical changes on leaves were measured in seedlings of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae, by using histological sections obtained at 10 and 20 days after inoculation (DAI. The changes on the epidermis were smaller than the lesions measured in the mesophyll, irrespective of the evaluated colonization period, showing that the internal damage caused by the bacterium represent twice the damage observed externally. From the inoculation site, lysis occurred on the epidermal cells and on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, with strong staining of their cellular contents, as well as abnormal intercellular spaces in the palisade parenchyma, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mesophyll cells and partial destruction of chloroplasts. Additionally, this study revealed the presence of inclusion bodies in epidermal and mesophyll cells. Bacterial masses were found in the apoplast between and within mesophyll cells. Bacteria were also observed in the bundle sheath and vascular bundles and were more pronounced at 20 DAI, not only near the inoculation site but also in distant areas, suggesting displacement through the vascular system. These results can be useful to understand this plant-pathogen interaction.

  8. FINE STRUCTURE OF THE NEUROHYPOPHYSIS OF THE OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M.; Luse, Sarah A.

    1964-01-01

    The neurohypophysis of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied by electron microscopy in order to amplify Bodian's classic light microscopic observations in which he demonstrated a definite lobular pattern. The lobule of the opossum neurohypophysis is divided into three regions: a hilar, a palisade, and a septal zone. The hilar portion contains bundles of nerve fibers, the extensions of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract containing neurofilaments but few neurosecretory granules. In the opossum, pituicytes have a densely fibrillar cytoplasm. Herring bodies are prominent in the hilar region. They are large bodies packed with neurosecretory granules that have been described as end bulb formations of axons. From the hilar region, axons fan out into a palisade zone where the nerve terminals packed with neurosecretory granules, mitochondria, and microvesicles abut upon basement membranes. The neurosecretory granules are similar to those present in the neurohypophysis of other mammals, except for an occasional huge granule of distinctive type. Material morphologically and histochemically resembling glycogen occurs as scattered particles and as aggregates within nerve fibers. The septal zone, containing collagen, fibroblasts, and numerous small capillaries, is separated from the adjacent glandular tissue by a basement membrane. PMID:14128048

  9. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

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    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  10. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

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    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  11. Priming and stress under high humidity and temperature on the physiological quality of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5 seeds

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    Thiago Barbosa Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisade grass is a forage plant that is widely used in pasture cropping in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG–5 seeds subjected to priming and stress at high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial arrangement. Seeds were exposed to stress under high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning and five priming treatments [Water (Control, potassium nitrate (KNO3 at 0.2%, calcium nitrate Ca(NO32 at 0.2%, gibberellin (GA3 at 0.2% and glucose at 10%] with four replications. Two experiments were performed: Experiment I - seed with chemical scarification using H2SO4 and Experiment II - without scarification. The stress on the seed was applied using artificial aging at 41°C for 96 hours. Seed priming was accomplished by immersion at 25°C for 2 hours. Thereafter, the seeds were oven-dried at 35°C until they regained hygroscopic equilibrium. Seed germination and vigor were evaluated. Priming using KNO3 and Ca(NO32 produced seeds with high tolerance to stress under high temperature, and this process is efficient to overcome dormancy.

  12. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-05

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C. Cheng. 2. Höfler diagrams below the volume of zero turgor and the theoretical implication for pressure-volume curves of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Junhui; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, P t , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative P t in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative P t does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, P B , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the P B domain because of negative P t . PV curve analysis of Robinia leaves revealed a shift in the x-intercept (x-axis is relative water loss) of PV curves, caused by negative P t of palisade cells. The low x-intercept of the PV curve was explained by the non-collapse of palisade cells in Robinia in the P B domain. Non-collapse means that P t smoothly falls from positive to negative values with decreasing cell volume without a dramatic change in slope. The magnitude of negative turgor in non-collapsing living cells was as low as -1.3 MPa and the relative volume of the non-collapsing cell equaled 58% of the total leaf cell volume. This study adds to the growing evidence for negative P t . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tracing Biosignature Preservation of Geothermally Silicified Microbial Textures into the Geological Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kathleen A; Lynne, Bridget Y; Handley, Kim M; Jordan, Sacha; Farmer, Jack D; Guido, Diego M; Foucher, Frédéric; Turner, Susan; Perry, Randall S

    2015-10-01

    New Zealand and Argentine (Late Jurassic-Recent) siliceous hot-spring deposits (sinter) reveal preservation pathways of environmentally controlled, microbe-dominated sedimentary facies over geological time scales. Texturally distinctive, laminated to thinly layered, dense and vertically oriented, microtubular "palisade" fabric is common in low-temperature (geological events. A systematic approach was used to characterize palisade fabric in sinters of different ages to refine tools for recognizing biosignatures in extreme environments and to track their long-term preservation pathways into the geological record. Molecular techniques, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction, petrography, and lipid biomarker analyses were applied. Results indicate that microbial communities vary at the micron scale and that early and rapid silicification is paramount to long-term preservation, especially where minimal postdepositional disturbance follows fossilization. Overall, it appears that the most robust biomarkers of fossil microbial activity in hot-spring deposits are their characteristic macro- and microtextures and laser micro-Raman identified carbon. Studies of Phanerozoic geothermal deposits with mineralized microbial components are relevant analogs for Precambrian geobiology because early life is commonly preserved as microbial microfossils and biofilms in silica, some of it hydrothermal in origin. Yet the diagenetic "movie" has already been run. Hence, studying younger sinters of a range of ages provides an opportunity to "play it again" and follow the varied influences on biosignatures into the deep-time geological record.

  15. Tiller density and tillering on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

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    B.C. Pedreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to verify the population density and the dynamics of tillering in the Marandu palisade grass sward subjected to nitrogen (N fertilization strategies, characterized by the N supply via urea or bacterial inoculant (Azospirillum brasilense. The treatments comprised of four nitrogen fertilization strategies: (A Without fertilization, (B 80 kg N/ha, (C inoculant (A. brasilense, and (D 80 kg N/ha + inoculant, distributed in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The nitrogen supply strategies were evaluated during six periods: October, November, and December (2012 as well as January, March, and April (2013. The nitrogen dose or inoculant had no effect on the tiller appearance rate (TAR, tiller mortality rate (TMR, tiller survival rate (TSR, or tiller population density (TPD. However, these variables were influenced by the season. The TAR and TSR were higher at the beginning of the experimental period (October and lower towards the end of the period (March-April, whereas, TMR and TPD exhibited the opposite behavior, with lower values in October and higher from January onward. Neither the nitrogen nor the inoculant influenced the population dynamics of the tillers in Marandu palisade grass.

  16. A comparative study on Ca content and distribution in two Gesneriaceae species reveals distinctive mechanisms to cope with high rhizospheric soluble calcium

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    Wenlong eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive Ca is toxic to plants thus significantly affects plant growth and species distribution in Ca-rich karst areas. To understand how plants survive high Ca soil, laboratory experiments were established to compare the physiological responses and internal Ca distribution in organ, tissue, cell and intracellular levels under different Ca levels for Lysionotus pauciflorus and Boea hygrometrica, two karst habitant Gesneriaceae species in Southwest China. In the controlled condition, L. pauciflorus could survive as high as 200 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, attributed to a series of physiological responses and preferential storage that limited Ca accumulation in chloroplasts of palisade cells. In contrast, B. hygrometrica could survive only 20 mM rhizospheric soluble Ca, but accumulated a high level of internal Ca in both palisade and spongy cells without disturbance on photosynthetic activity. By phenotype screening of transgenic plants expressing high Ca-inducible genes from B. hygrometrica, the expression of BhDNAJC2 in A. thaliana was found to enhance plant growth and photosynthesis under high soluble Ca stress. BhDNAJC2 encodes a recently reported heat shock protein (HSP 40 family DnaJ-domain protein. The Ca-resistant phenotype of BhDNAJC2 highlights the important role of chaperone-mediated protein quality control in Ca tolerance in B. hygrometrica. Taken together, our results revealed that distinctive mechanisms were employed in the two Gesneriaceae karst habitants to cope with a high Ca environment.

  17. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  18. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

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    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  19. Leaf structural adaptations of two Limonium miller (Plumbaginales, Plumbaginaceae taxa

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    Zorić Lana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonium gmelinii (Willd. O. Kuntze 1891 subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó is Pannonian endemic subspecies that inhabits continental halobiomes, while Limonium anfractum (Salmon Salmon 1924 is one of the indicators of halophyte vegetation of marine rocks and its distribution is restricted to the southern parts of Mediterranean Sea coast. In this work, micromorphological and anatomical characters of leaves of these two Limonium taxa were analyzed, in order to examine their adaptations to specific environmental conditions on saline habitats. The results showed that both taxa exhibited strong xeromorphic adaptations that reflected in flat cell walls of epidermal cells, thick cuticle, high palisade/spongy tissue ratio, high index of palisade cells, the presence of sclereid idioblasts in leaf mesophyll and mechanical tissue by phloem and xylem. Both taxa are crynohalophytes and have salt glands on adaxial and abaxial epidermis for excretion of surplus salt. Relatively high dimensions of mesophyll cells, absence of non-glandular hairs and unprotected stomata slightly increased above the level of epidermal cells, are also adaptations to increased salinity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  20. Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-10-01

    Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.

  1. Characterization of Mangifera indica cultivars in Thailand based on macroscopic, microscopic, and genetic characters

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    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai mango cultivars are classified into six groups plus one miscellaneous group according to germplasm database for mango. Characterization is important for conservation and the development of Thai mango cultivars. This study investigated macroscopic, microscopic leaf characteristics, and genetic relationship among 17 cultivars selected from six groups of mango in Thailand. Selected mango samples were obtained from three different locations in Thailand (n = 57. They were observed for their leaf and fruit macroscopic characteristics. Leaf measurement for the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio was evaluated under a microscope attached with digital camera. DNA fingerprint was performed using CTAB extraction of DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR amplification. Forty-five primers were screened; then, seven primers that amplified the reproducible band patterns were selected to amplified and generate dendrogram by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Average. These selected 17 Thai mango cultivars had individually macroscopic characteristics based on fruits and leaves. For microscopic characteristics, the stomatal number, veinlet termination number, and palisade ratio were slightly differentiable. For genetic identification, 78 bands of 190-2660 bps were amplified, of which 82.05% were polymorphic. The genetic relationship among these cultivars was demonstrated and categorized into two main clusters. It was shown that ISSR markers could be useful for Thai mango cultivar identification.

  2. Preliminary studies of monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.; Eary, J.F.; Jones, R.F.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.; Beaumier, P.L.; Krohn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy was performed at 3 and 20 hr following subcutaneous injection of 131 I anti-melanoma antibody (Fab) in 11 patients who had surgical resection of lymph nodes (neck, axilla, groin) at 24 hr for suspected metastatic melanoma. Comparable amounts of 125 I nonspecific control antibody (Fab) were co-administered. Six patients had nodal metastases and three showed positive images at both time periods. Five patients had no metastases though one was image positive. Four other nondiseased inguinal node groups were image negative. A total of 28 tumored nodes and 110 normal nodes were removed, counted and histologically examined. All metastatic tumors expressed antigen against which the specific Fab was directed. The concentrations of both specific and nonspecific Fab were similar in tumored nodes and both were significantly greater than in normal nodes showed essentially identical intranodal spatial distribution of the specific and control Fab in areas containing tumor. These preliminary results suggest the increased concentration of murine immunoglobulin (Fab) retained in diseased nodes was a nonspecific phenomenon

  3. An analysis of CT findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Im, Jung Gi; Hong, Ju Hee; Han, Man Chung

    1988-01-01

    CT plays an important role in evaluating mediastinal lymphadenopathy, especially in the staging of lung cancer. However, its role has been confined to the detectability of pathologic lymph nodes by using the size criteria. Still seldom effort has been made on morphologic analysis of the diseased lymph nodes. We analyzed post-enhance CT scans of 64 pathologically proven patients who had mediastinal lymphadenopathy, with special reference to nodal architecture. 24 of the 41 patients with lung cancer and 15 of the 17 patients with tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis showed intranodal necrotic low density. Not only tuberculous lymph nodes showed higher incidence but also showed higher conspicuity of the necrotic low density than that of the metastatic nodes from lung cancer. Conspicuity of internal low density in tuberculous nodes was due to significantly higher density of enhanced rim (121.7±18.7 HU) than that of metastatic nodes (91.2±23.4 HU) (P<0.01). As the node size increases incidences of necrotic low density increased both in tuberculous and metastatic nodes, but the latter steeper. Analysis of the location of the diseased node did not show any significant difference between tuberculous and metastatic nodes. If there is coexistence of primary lung mass, the possibility of lung cancer was markedly elevated than that of tuberculosis and the internal low density in lung mass shows some tendency of coexistence of central low density within metastatic lymph nodes.

  4. A new diffusion nodal method based on analytic basis function expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Cho, N.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The transverse integration procedure commonly used in most advanced nodal methods results in some limitations. The first is that the transverse leakage term that appears in the transverse integration procedure must be appropriately approximated. In most advanced nodal methods, this term is expanded in a quadratic polynomial. The second arises when reconstructing the pinwise flux distribution within a node. The available one-dimensional flux shapes from nodal calculation in each spatial direction cannot be used directly in the flux reconstruction. Finally, the transverse leakage defined for a hexagonal node becomes so complicated as not to be easily handled and contains nonphysical singular terms. In this paper, a new nodal method called the analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is described for both the rectangular geometry and the hexagonal geometry in order to overcome these limitations. This method does not solve the transverse-integrated one-dimensional diffusion equations but instead solves directly the original multidimensional diffusion equation within a node. This is a accomplished by expanding the solution (or the intranodal homogeneous flux distribution) in terms of nonseparable analytic basis functions satisfying the diffusion equation at any point in the node

  5. Regulation of T cell motility in vitro and in vivo by LPA and LPA2.

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    Sara A Knowlden

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX have been implicated in lymphocyte trafficking and the regulation of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. High local concentrations of LPA are thought to be present in lymph node high endothelial venules, suggesting a direct influence of LPA on cell migration. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of LPA, and more work is needed to define the expression and function of the six known G protein-coupled receptors (LPA 1-6 in T cells. We studied the effects of 18∶1 and 16∶0 LPA on naïve CD4+ T cell migration and show that LPA induces CD4+ T cell chemorepulsion in a Transwell system, and also improves the quality of non-directed migration on ICAM-1 and CCL21 coated plates. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, lpa2-/- CD4+ T cells display a striking defect in early migratory behavior at HEVs and in lymph nodes. However, later homeostatic recirculation and LPA-directed migration in vitro were unaffected by loss of lpa2. Taken together, these data highlight a previously unsuspected and non-redundant role for LPA2 in intranodal T cell motility, and suggest that specific functions of LPA may be manipulated by targeting T cell LPA receptors.

  6. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia and its Association With Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly

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    Victoria María Díaz Marugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymph is a fluid originating in the interstitial spaces of the body that contains cells, proteins, particles, chylomicrons, and sometimes bacteria. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL results from a disruption of lymphatic circulation, thus corresponding to a secondary rather than a primary event in the context of generalized lymphatic anomaly. Materials and Methods: In this case series and record review, an analysis of intestinal lymphatic involvement was performed on patients diagnosed with PIL between 1965 and 2013. Of the 21 patients included in the study, 10 had been diagnosed before 5 years of age (1 prenatal, 8 between 5 and 18 years of age, and 3 while older than 18 years of age. The follow-up period varied between 1 and 34 years. Clinical data, blood and fecal parameters, imaging studies, endoscopy results, biopsy analyses, treatment details, and outcome information were collected from medical records. Endoscopy, histological studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and lymphoscintigraphy were performed on all patients. Dynamic intranodal lymphangiography was performed on 8 patients. Results: Central lymphatic channel obstruction was identified in 12 patients (57%. Associated lymphatic malformation (LM was present in 16, diarrhea in 10, chylothorax in 11, chylous ascites in 10, pericardial effusion in 6, coagulopathy in 3, and osteolysis in 7. Conclusions: We consider intestinal lymphangiectasia not as an entity in itself, but as a consequence of lymphatic flow impairment in the thoracic duct, producing chylous reflux into the intestinal lymphatics.

  7. Coordinated Energy Management in Heterogeneous Processors

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    Indrani Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines energy management in a heterogeneous processor consisting of an integrated CPU–GPU for high-performance computing (HPC applications. Energy management for HPC applications is challenged by their uncompromising performance requirements and complicated by the need for coordinating energy management across distinct core types – a new and less understood problem. We examine the intra-node CPU–GPU frequency sensitivity of HPC applications on tightly coupled CPU–GPU architectures as the first step in understanding power and performance optimization for a heterogeneous multi-node HPC system. The insights from this analysis form the basis of a coordinated energy management scheme, called DynaCo, for integrated CPU–GPU architectures. We implement DynaCo on a modern heterogeneous processor and compare its performance to a state-of-the-art power- and performance-management algorithm. DynaCo improves measured average energy-delay squared (ED2 product by up to 30% with less than 2% average performance loss across several exascale and other HPC workloads.

  8. Development of 3D multi-group neutron diffusion code for hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Wang Kan; Ni Dongyang; Li Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of new flux expansion nodal method to solve the neutron diffusion equations, the intra-nodal fluence rate distribution was expanded in a series of analytic basic functions for each group. In order to improve the accuracy of calculation result, continuities of neutron fluence rate and current were utilized across the nodal surfaces. According to the boundary conditions, the iteration method was adopted to solve the diffusion equation, where inner iteration speedup method is Gauss-Seidel method and outer is Lyusternik-Wagner. A new speedup method (one-outer-iteration and multi-inner-iteration method) was proposed according to the characteristic that the convergence speed of multiplication factor is faster than that of neutron fluence rate and the update of inner iteration matrix is slow. Based on the proposed model, the code HANDF-D was developed and tested by 3D two-group vver440 benchmark, experiment 2 of HFETR, 3D four-group thermal reactor benchmark, and 3D seven-group fast reactor benchmark. The numerical results show that HANDF-D can predict accurately the multiplication factor and nodal powers. (authors)

  9. Tumor implantation model for rapid testing of lymphatic dye uptake from paw to node in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue - used in the sentinel lymph node procedure - in normal and tumor-bearing animals, and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  10. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  11. Direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen Nautrup, C.; Berens von Rautenfeld, D.

    1991-01-01

    Some aspects of direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine are shown by teratological investigations of the fetal rat skeleton and by indirect lymphadenography in rabbits. A combination of microfocal radiography and high-resolution non-screen films or digital image processing allows the evaluation of structures with a minimum size of 5 μm. Pseudo-3D images correlate directly with scanning electron micrographs of equivalent casts. Therefore radiography with direct magnification can make difficult preparations and time-consuming staining processes unnecessary. Besides saving time, the main advantage of this method is the amount of new information it yields. For the first time, for example, the filling mechanism becomes visible even in minute vessels, such as the intranodal sinuses, which measure about 10 μm. Hitherto, we have only been able to infer this mechanism from histological specimens. A further benefit of direct radiological magnification over the conventional microscopical method is the smaller number of experimental animals needed. (orig.) [de

  12. Efficiency of B-mode Ultrasound and Strain Elastography in Differentiating Between Benign and Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Eser; Celenk, Cetin; Tanrivermis Sayit, Asli; Bekci, Tumay; Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Aslan, Kerim

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of ultrasonography (US), especially when combined with strain elastography (SE), in differentiating between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Forty-one LNs were examined by B-mode US, power Doppler US, and SE. The following imaging features were analyzed: shape, echogenicity, echogenic hilum, calcification, intranodal vascular pattern, elasticity scores (5 categories), and strain ratio. The average strain ratio was calculated as the mean strain of the adjacent sternocleidomastoid muscle divided by the mean strain of the target LN. The results of the US and SE features were compared with the histopathologic findings. The imaging features that were significantly associated with malignant LNs were an increased short-to-long axis diameter ratio, abnormal or absence of hilum, microcalcification, type 2-3-4 vascularity, 3-4-5 elasticity scores, and a high level of strain ratio (P benign and malignant LNs. Strain elastography is useful in differentiating between benign and malignant cervical LNs, thereby informing decisions to perform a biopsy and/or surgery, and facilitating follow-up.

  13. An FMM based on dual tree traversal for many-core architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Yokota, Rio

    2013-09-01

    The present work attempts to integrate the independent efforts in the fast N-body community to create the fastest N-body library for many-core and heterogenous architectures. Focus is placed on low accuracy optimizations, in response to the recent interest to use FMM as a preconditioner for sparse linear solvers. A direct comparison with other state-of-the-art fast N-body codes demonstrates that orders of magnitude increase in performance can be achieved by careful selection of the optimal algorithm and low-level optimization of the code. The current N-body solver uses a fast multipole method with an efficient strategy for finding the list of cell-cell interactions by a dual tree traversal. A task-based threading model is used to maximize thread-level parallelism and intra-node load-balancing. In order to extract the full potential of the SIMD units on the latest CPUs, the inner kernels are optimized using AVX instructions.

  14. Analytic function expansion nodal method for nuclear reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hae Man

    1995-02-01

    deriving the nodal coupling equations, it does not suffer from the limitations caused by the transverse integration, such as the need of transverse leakage approximation and the singularity arising in non-rectangular node geometries. And because of the use of analytic basis functions, the method accurately models large localized flux gradients in the vicinity of nodal corner points as well as nodal interfaces. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability to realistic problems, the AFEN method was tested to several benchmark problems in both the rectangular and the hexagonal geometry, including MOX fuel problems, and the initial core of Ulchin Unit 1. The results show that the AFEN method significantly improves the accuracy in the nodal flux distribution and the core multiplication factor compared to the nodal methods which use the transverse integration. The method also facilitates pinwise flux reconstruction since the homogeneous flux distributions obtained from the nodal calculation are very accurate and can be used directly in the reconstruction. Encouraged by the success of the AFEN method, we also developed two other nodal methods in this study, which can be classified as variations of the AFEN method. The first one is the Polynomial Expansion Nodal (PEN) method. This method retains all the features of the AFEN method except expanding the intranodal flux distribution into a nonseparable high-order polynomial instead of the analytic function. The results of benchmark problems indicate mixed performance of the method. For the conventional light water reactor cores loaded with the conventional UO 2 fuel assembly, the performance of the method is similar to that of the AFEN method, but for the reactor cores loaded with the MOX fuel assemblies, the PEN method is poorer than the AFEN method. The poor performance of the PEN method for the MOX fuel loaded cores is due to the fact that the polynomial is less accurate for the representation of the intranodal flux distribution

  15. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  16. GASNet-EX Performance Improvements Due to Specialization for the Cray Aries Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, Paul H.; Bonachea, Dan

    2018-03-27

    This document is a deliverable for milestone STPM17-6 of the Exascale Computing Project, delivered by WBS 2.3.1.14. It reports on the improvements in performance observed on Cray XC-series systems due to enhancements made to the GASNet-EX software. These enhancements, known as “specializations”, primarily consist of replacing network-independent implementations of several recently added features with implementations tailored to the Cray Aries network. Performance gains from specialization include (1) Negotiated-Payload Active Messages improve bandwidth of a ping-pong test by up to 14%, (2) Immediate Operations reduce running time of a synthetic benchmark by up to 93%, (3) non-bulk RMA Put bandwidth is increased by up to 32%, (4) Remote Atomic performance is 70% faster than the reference on a point-to-point test and allows a hot-spot test to scale robustly, and (5) non-contiguous RMA interfaces see up to 8.6x speedups for an intra-node benchmark and 26% for inter-node. These improvements are available in the GASNet-EX 2018.3.0 release.

  17. Nodal methods with non linear feedback for the three dimensional resolution of the diffusion's multigroup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Nodal methods applied in order to calculate the power distribution in a nuclear reactor core are presented. These methods have received special attention, because they yield accurate results in short computing times. Present nodal schemes contain several unknowns per node and per group. In the methods presented here, non linear feedback of the coupling coefficients has been applied to reduce this number to only one unknown per node and per group. The resulting algorithm is a 7- points formula, and the iterative process has proved stable in the response matrix scheme. The intranodal flux shape is determined by partial integration of the diffusion equations over two of the coordinates, leading to a set of three coupled one-dimensional equations. These can be solved by using a polynomial approximation or by integration (analytic solution). The tranverse net leakage is responsible for the coupling between the spatial directions, and two alternative methods are presented to evaluate its shape: direct parabolic approximation and local model expansion. Numerical results, which include the IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem illustrate the efficiency of the developed methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Studying effects of non-equilibrium radiative transfer via HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    This report presents slides on Ph.D. Research Goals; Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) Implications; Calculating an Opacity; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Opacity: Pictographic Representation; Collisional Radiative Modeling; Radiative and Collisional Excitation; Photo and Electron Impact Ionization; Autoionization; The Rate Matrix; Example: Total Photoionization rate; The Rate Coefficients; inlinlte version 1.1; inlinlte: Verification; New capabilities: Rate Matrix – Flexibility; Memory Option Comparison; Improvements over previous DCA solver; Inter- and intra-node load balancing; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Full Picture; Load Balance – Internode; Load Balance – Scaling; Description; Performance; xRAGE Simulation; Post-process @ 2hr; Post-process @ 4hr; Post-process @ 8hr; Takeaways; Performance for 1 realization; Motivation for QOI; Multigroup Er; Transport and NLTE large effects (1mm, 1keV); Transport large effect, NLTE lesser (1mm, 750eV); Blastwave Diagnostici – Description & Performance; Temperature Comparison; NLTE has effect on dynamics at wall; NLTE has lesser effect in the foam; Global Takeaways; The end.

  19. Parallel Performance Optimizations on Unstructured Mesh-based Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches. We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.

  20. A coarse-mesh nodal method-diffusive-mesh finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, H.; Nichols, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Modern nodal methods have been successfully used for conventional light water reactor core analyses where the homogenized, node average cross sections (XSs) and the flux discontinuity factors (DFs) based on equivalence theory can reliably predict core behavior. For other types of cores and other geometries characterized by tightly-coupled, heterogeneous core configurations, the intranodal flux shapes obtained from a homogenized nodal problem may not accurately portray steep flux gradients near fuel assembly interfaces or various reactivity control elements. This may require extreme values of DFs (either very large, very small, or even negative) to achieve a desired solution accuracy. Extreme values of DFs, however, can disrupt the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node average fluxes, and can lead to a difficulty in interpolating adjacent DF values. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made, but nothing has been satisfactory. A new coarse-mesh nodal scheme called the Diffusive-Mesh Finite Difference (DMFD) technique, as contrasted with the coarse-mesh finite difference (CMFD) technique, has been developed to resolve this problem. This new technique and the development of a few-group, multidimensional kinetics computer program are described in this paper

  1. Partnership For Edge Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARASHAR, MANISH

    2018-04-02

    In this effort, we will extend our prior work as part of CPES (i.e., DART and DataSpaces) to support in-situ tight coupling between application codes that exploits data locality and core-level parallelism to maximize on-chip data exchange and reuse. This will be accomplished by mapping coupled simulations so that the data exchanges are more localized within the nodes. Coupled simulation workflows can more effectively utilize the resources available on emerging HEC platforms if they can be mapped and executed to exploit data locality as well as the communication patterns between application components. Scheduling and running such workflows requires an extended framework that should (1) provide a unified hybrid abstraction to enable coordination and data sharing across computation tasks that run on the heterogeneous multi-core-based systems, and (2) develop a data-locality based dynamic tasks scheduling approach to increase on-chip or intra-node data exchanges and in-situ execution. This effort will extend our prior work as part of CPES (i.e., DART and DataSpaces), which provided a simple virtual shared-space abstraction hosted at the staging nodes, to support application coordination, data sharing and active data processing services. Moreover, it will transparently manage the low-level operations associated with the inter-application data exchange, such as data redistributions, and will enable running coupled simulation workflow on multi-cores computing platforms.

  2. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly

  3. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  4. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  5. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  6. Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll. We also test whether differences in leaf anatomy are consistent with observed differential drought-induced mortality responses among taxa, and look for relationships between leaf anatomy, and leaf water relations and gas exchange parameters. Our data show that trees do not produce leaves that are more xeromorphic in response to 12 years of soil moisture deficit. However, the drought treatment did result in increases in the thickness of the adaxial epidermis (TFE: 20.5 ± 1.5 µm, control: 16.7 ± 1.0 µm) and the internal cavity volume (TFE: 2.43 ± 0.50 mm 3 cm -2 , control: 1.77 ± 0.30 mm 3 cm -2 ). No consistent differences were detected between drought-resistant and drought-sensitive taxa, although interactions occurred between drought-sensitivity status and drought treatment for the palisade mesophyll thickness (P = 0.034) and the cavity volume of the leaves (P = 0.025). The limited response to water deficit probably reflects a tight co-ordination between leaf morphology, water relations and photosynthetic properties. This suggests that there is little plasticity in these aspects of plant anatomy in these taxa, and that phenotypic plasticity in leaf traits may not facilitate the acclimation of Amazonian trees to the predicted future reductions in dry

  7. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  8. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.

  9. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  10. Histochemical, phytochemical and biological screening of Plinia cauliflora (DC. Kausel, Myrtaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Souza-Moreira

    Full Text Available In this work, chemical and biological activities of crude extracts obtained with 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol, acetone:water (7:3; v/v and chloroform of Plinia cauliflora (DC. Kausel, Myrtaceae, leaves, a native tree from several regions of Brazil, was investigated. Histochemical and phytochemical screenings were done according to characterization reactions and thin layer chromatography. To assist in extracts standardization, total phenol and flavonoids content spectrophotometric was performed. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by percentage of radical scavenging using DPPH solution. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and species of Candida using agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determination methods according to standard methods. The leaves presented lipids at secretory cavity and phenols, mainly tannins, in nervures and palisade parenchyma. Polar extracts showed flavonoids, tannins and high content of phenols and flavonoids. The extracts showed great antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity was better against Candida species than against bacteria.

  11. Eosinophilic myositis resulted from Sarcocystis infection in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Kimura

    Full Text Available Partial changes of color (greenish to brownish were found in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle. The disseminated lesions of the skeletal muscles were histopathologically examined in relation to Sarcocystis infection. The lesions in the muscles showed granulomas with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sarcocysts had a distinct wall, which was radically striated by palisading villar protrusions. The sarcocyst wall was surrounded by degenerative eosinophils and necrotic muscle fibers. In conclusion, eosinophilic myositis in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle resulted from Sarcocystis spp. infection. The muscular lesions were characterized by the presence of granulomas and capsulated sarcocysts surrounded by numerous eosinophils. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 500-502

  12. Leaf micromorphology of Kalanchoë laciniata (Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Brzezicka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to characterize morphology and anatomy of succulent leaves. Morphological and anatomical studies conducted on succulent leaves of Kalanchoë laciniata. The anatomy of leaves where studied with the use of light microscopy. This species belongs to the family Crassulaceae and it demonstrates the presence of adaptive traits which are necessary to survive and allow them inhabit in dry environment. Family Crassulaceae occur on arid and semiarid areas, among the rocks, on the sandy areas and in the mountains. Anatomical studies show that leaves of K. laciniata possess a water storage tissue and mesophyll does not consist of palisade and spongy parenchyma. K. laciniata like the other species belonging to family Crassulaceae present physiological and morphological adaptations.

  13. Cytological and Ultrastructural Responses of Platanus acerifolia (Ait. Willd. Leaves to Cerato-Platanin, a Protein from Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bennici

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerato-platanin (CP is a purified protein isolated from the culture filtrate of the ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani (Cfp, the causal agent of canker stain disease of plane. The responses of cells/tissues of plane leaves to CP was studied by light microscopy (LM and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM using two experimental procedures. The most significant responses occurred already at 24 h after treatments, and were also visible at 48 h. The main effects of CP were to cause a great increase in primary starch and a certain degree of intercellular and intracellular disorganization of the spongy parenchyma cells and plasmolysis processes. In addition, an increase of intracellular phenolic compounds was observed in the palisade cells. The effects of Cfp were similar but less evident than those of CP.

  14. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  15. A case report of neurofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Wou Ghon; Lee, Sang Rae; Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-11-15

    The authors have observed a rare case of neurofibroma in 13 year old male who came to the Infirmary of Dental College of Seoul National University because of painless severe swelling of approximately 11 years' duration in the left maxillofacial region and blindness of the left eye about 3 years' duration. As a result of interpretating the serial roentgenograms including tomograms and microscopic findings, we have obtained the following conclusions; 1. Neurofibroma of the patient occurred about 2 years of age. 2. The familial tendency of the disease has been noted. 3. The growth pattern of the disease was slow, and roentgenographic images revealed severe destruction of bone with irregular borders. 4. The neurofibroma was encapsulated but Verocay body and palisading effect of cells were not seen in the microscopic picture.

  16. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  17. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  18. Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Paradental Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Enrico Borgonovo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this paper is to present an uncommon clinical and radiographic aspect of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC mimicking paradental cyst. Methods. A 32-year-old female patient showed a well-delimited radiolucent lesion connected with the root of the left third molar with close anatomical relationship with the mandibular canal. The clinical, radiographic, and anamnestic features lead us to diagnose a paradental cyst that was treated by enucleation after extraction of the partially impacted tooth. Results. Histological analysis showed typical histological features of PKC such as the presence of a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with a well-defined basal layer of palisading columnar of cuboidal cells. Conclusion. Initial X-ray analysis and the position of the lesion related to the third mandibular tooth caused us to mistakenly diagnose a paradental cyst. We were only able to identify the cyst as an PKC rather than a paradental cyst after histological analysis.

  19. Use of reinforced soil wall to support steam generator transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davie, J.R.; Wang, J.T.; Gladstone, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers Power Company had the two steam generators at its Palisades Nuclear Plant in Michigan replaced in November 1990. This replacement was accomplished through a 26-foot wide by 28-foot high opening cut into the wall of the containment building, about 45 feet above the original ground surface. Because this ground surface was at an approximately 3-H:1-V slope, leveling was required before replacement in order to provide access for the steam generators and adequate support for the heavy-duty gantry crane system used to transfer the generators. A 25-foot high reinforced soil wall was constructed to achieve the level surface. This paper describes the design and construction of the heavily loaded reinforced soil wall, including ground improvement measures required to obtain adequate wall stability. The performance of the wall under test loading will also be presented and discussed

  20. Ewing Symposium in Honor of Taro Takahashi: The controversial aspects of the contemporary [carbon] cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, Wallace Smith

    2001-12-31

    This Ewing Symposium in honor of Taro Takahashi's work on the carbon cycle was held at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, on October 26-27, 2000. A program and set of abstracts are appended to this report. A summary of the meeting (included in this report) will be published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The theme of the symposium was the magnitude and cause of excess carbon storage on the north temperate continents. Disagreement exists on the relative roles of forest regrowth and fertilization by excess fixed nitrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as the distribution of this storage. Phenomena playing important roles include pre-anthropogenic gradients in carbon dioxide, the so-called rectification effect, uptake and release of carbon dioxide by the ocean, soil nitrogen dynamics, atmospheric carbon-13 gradients, and the role of fire.

  1. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  2. Macroscopy and Microscopy Study of Scopraia dulcis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Santosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A morphological diversity analysis of Scoparia dulcis by macroscopy and microscopy has been conducted. The aim of this research is to determine the morphological and anatomical character of S. dulcis which grow in Opak watershed, Special Region of Yogyakarta. Samples were taken from Sleman (Cangkringan, Ngemplak Kalasan, and Prambanan and Bantul (Imogiri and Pundong region. Selection of sampling location is based on altitude difference. The samples are the third leaf order from the tip of the stem. They were measured in length and width. Microscopy analysis was performed by observing the number of glandular trichomes, palisade cells in the epidermis and stomata in the upper and lower epidermis. The data obtained were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA. The results show that based on morphological and anatomical assessment, there were found 3 clusters of S. dulcis, i.e. Cangkringan-Ngemplak-Prambanan, Kalasan, and Imogiri-Pundong cluster.

  3. Solitary eyelid schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu M Magdum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves that form the neural sheath. While there have been reports of such tumors in the orbit, solitary schwannomas arising from the eyelids are very rare. There are reports of schwannomas being erroneously diagnosed as chalazion, inclusion cysts or even eyelid malignancy. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a painless, non-tender, slow-growing mass in the upper eyelid of the right eye. The external appearance of the mass was suggestive of an implantation cyst of the eyelid and it could be completely excised as it had a well-defined capsule. Histopathological examination showed characteristic hypercellular and hypocellular areas with fusiform nuclei that tended to form palisades. The purpose of reporting this case of schwannoma in a young female is to recommend the inclusion of this entity as a differential diagnosis of well-defined lid tumors.

  4. Exxon nuclear neutronics design methods for pressurized water reactors. Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, F.B.; Stout, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications to the Exxon Nuclear PWR neutronic design calculational methods are presented as well as the results obtained when these improved methods are compared to reactor measurements. The basic PWR design tools remain unchanged; i.e., the XPOSE code is used for generating the basic nuclear parameters, the PDQ-7 code is used for calculating reactivity and x-y power distributions, and the XTG code is used for three-dimensional analysis. The recent start-up experiences at D. C. Cook Unit 1 and H. B. Robinson Unit 2 have provided a significant increase in the data base supporting the current ENC PWR neutronic methods. The verification comparisons contained in the supplement include reactor measurements from D. C. Cook Unit 1, Cycle 2; H. B. Robinson Unit 2, Cycles 4 and 5; Palisades Cycle 2, and R. E. Ginna, Cycle 7

  5. Cubosome formulations stabilized by a dansyl-conjugated block copolymer for possible nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Sergio; Falchi, Angela Maria; Meli, Valeria; Schillén, Karin; Lippolis, Vito; Monduzzi, Maura; Rosa, Antonella; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Caltagirone, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    We present here an innovative, fluorescent, monoolein-based cubosome dispersion. Rather than embedded within the monoolein palisade, the fluorescent imaging agent, namely dansyl, was conjugated to the terminal ethylene oxide moieties of the block copolymer Pluronic F108. We discuss the physicochemical and photophysical properties of this fluorescent Pluronic and of a cubosome formulation stabilized by a mixture of dansyl-conjugated and non-conjugated Pluronic, also including an anticancer drug (quercetin). Furthermore, we performed biocompatibility tests against HeLa cells to assess internalization and cytotoxicity features of this nanoparticles aqueous dispersion. Cryo-TEM, SAXS, and DLS analysis, proved the bicontinuous cubic inner nanostructure and the morphology of this fluorescent cubosome dispersion, while photophysical measurements and biocompatibility results basically validate their potential use for theranostic nanomedicine applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  7. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  8. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  9. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Souza Tolentino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl presented to our department to have a second opinion regarding a lesion involving her left mandible. She had previously undergone several radiographic exams including panoramic, helical, and cone-beam computed tomography. Radiographic examinations revealed a well-defined radiolucent region, which contained an irregular radiopaque mass of 3 cm in diameter, localized to the left angle of the mandible. Our presumptive diagnosis was complex odontoma. Excisional biopsy was performed, and microscopic features showed strands and islands of odontogenic epithelium showing peripheral palisading and loosely arranged central cells, identical to stellate reticulum, embedded in a myxoid cell-rich stroma resembling the dental papilla. Dentin and enamel were also presented. The diagnosis was ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, which is a rare mixed odontogenic tumor, derived from epithelial and ectomesenchymal elements that form the dental tissues.

  10. Investigation of the site-specific accumulation of catechins in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) via vanillin-HCl staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao; Zhao, Lei

    2009-11-11

    Histochemical staining using vanillin-HCl is a potential tool to identify the site-specific accumulation of catechins in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Using this technique revealed that catechins existed ubiquitously in all inspected tissues in young tea leaf, but the distribution was concentrated in the vascular bundle and palisade tissue, whereas the large parenchyma cells of the main vein contained lower amounts of catechins. At the subcellular level, catechins were located mainly in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells and in the vessel wall. In young stems, catechins could be detected in most cells except the parenchyma cells of the pith and the cortex, whereas, in roots, catechins could be detected only in those cells surrounding the pericycle. Moreover, differing distributions of catechins were found in calluses cultivated in darkness and light. On the basis of HPLC analyses, six main types of catechins were present in tea leaves, stems, calluses, and chloroplasts; however, roots contained only epicatechin.

  11. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The microstructures of several high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels and to establish whether any additional phases were present after neutron irradiation. The nickel levels in these steels were at least twice that typically found in Western pressure vessel steels. Two different types of pressure vessel steels with low and high copper contents were selected for this study. The first set of alloys was low copper (∼0.05% Cu) base (15Ch2NMFAA) and weld (12Ch2N2MAA) materials used in a VVER-1000 reactor. The composition of the lower nickel VVER-1000 base material was Fe- 0.17 wt% C, 0.30% Si, 0.46% Mn, 2.2% Cr, 1.26% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.01% S, 0.008% P, 0.10% V and 0.50% Mo. The composition of the higher nickel VVER-1000 weld material was Fe- 0.06 wt % C, 0.33% Si, 0.80% Mn, 1.8% Cr, 1.78% Ni, 0.07% Cu, 0.009% S, 0.005% P, and 0.63% Mo. The VVER-1000 steels were irradiated in the HSSI Program's irradiation facilities at the University of Michigan, Ford Nuclear Reactor at a temperature of 288 o C for 2,137 h at an average flux of 7.08 x 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a fluence of 5.45 x 10 18 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV) and for 5,340 h at an average flux of 4.33 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 for a fluence of 8.32 x 10 1 28 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). Therefore, the total fluence was 1.38 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). The second type of pressure vessel steel was a high copper (0.20% Cu) weld from the Palisades reactor. The average composition of the Palisades weld was Fe- 0.11 wt% C, 0.18% Si, 1.27% Mn, 0.04% Cr, 1.20% Ni, 0.20% Cu, 0.017% S, 0.014% P, 0.003% V and 0.55% Mn. The Palisades weld, designated weldment 'B' from weld heat 34B009, was irradiated at a temperature of 288 o C and a flux of ∼7 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 to a fast fluence of 1.4 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). These three

  12. Acute renal failure after rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A patient with miliary tuberculosis and a chronic urogenital focus is described, who had a borderline renal function at diagnosis and developed overt renal failure upon daily treatment with rifampin (RMP, isoniazid (INH and ethambutol (EMB. This is the first Brazilian report of BMP induced renal damage. A renal biopsy taken on the third day of oliguria showed recent tubular necrosis with acute interstitial inflammation and granuloma formation. The aspect of the granulomatous lesion hightly suggested drug etiology because of the lack of palisading, high incidence of neutrophils and absence of facid-fast bacilli. This is the first presentation of an acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis probably due to RMP. Furthermore the pathogenesis of the renal damage caused by tuberculosis and RMP are discussed.

  13. Gross Containment Leakage Monitoring System (GCLM) applied to accidental impairment of containment integrity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, Camelia; Talpalariu, A.; Constantinescu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (NUREG-0933 of October 2006), section 1 task II.E.4 item II.E.4.3 recommends that a method of periodic or continuous testing has to be available, in order to detect unknown gross openings in the nuclear power plants containment structure. The Palisades incident and three other incidents are exemplified, when the reactor was operated for about 1.5 years, while the containment isolation valves in a purge system bypass line were unknowingly locked in the open position. It was estimated that the presence of a GCLM system could identify an unknown breach and reduce the expected unavailability of containment due to containment integrity breach events, to a 1.6x10 -3 /year demand. (authors)

  14. The rope sign: a case of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Francesco; Stinchi, Caterina; Gaddoni, Giuseppe; Patrizi, Annalisa; Odorici, Giulia; Tengattini, Vera; Cataleta, Pierluigi; Zago, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), also known as Ackerman's syndrome, is a rare cutaneous disease classically characterized by the triad of cutaneous cords, a typical histologic infiltrate mainly constituted by histiocytes and arthritis/connective tissue disease. Here we report the case of IGDA with the typical clinical and histological features in a patient affected by lupus erythematosus. In this article we underline that IGDA may have a variety of different clinical and histological features. The rope sign is typical but infrequent, while histology is usually characteristic and shows a dermal inflammatory infiltrate, with a predominance of histiocytes, localized interstitially and in a palisaded array between collagen fibres, that show signs of degeneration. Clinical and histological differential diagnoses are discussed.

  15. How Did Climate and Humans Respond to Past Volcanic Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Matthew; Ludlow, Francis; Legrande, Allegra N.

    2016-01-01

    To predict and prepare for future climate change, scientists are striving to understand how global-scale climatic change manifests itself on regional scales and also how societies adapt or don't to sometimes subtle and complex climatic changes. In this regard, the strongest volcanic eruptions of the past are powerful test cases, showcasing how the broad climate system responds to sudden changes in radiative forcing and how societies have responded to the resulting climatic shocks. These issues were at the heart of the inaugural workshop of the Volcanic Impacts on Climate and Society (VICS) Working Group, convened in June 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in Palisades, N.Y. The 3-day meeting gathered approximately 50 researchers, who presented work intertwining the history of volcanic eruptions and the physical processes that connect eruptions with human and natural systems on a global scale.

  16. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  17. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  18. New technologies for control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Muraida, J.E.; Perchiazzi, W.T.; Harden, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Older nuclear power plants typically considered only a nominal amount of unfiltered inleakage (typically 10 cfm) impacting their postaccident control room habitability. However, recent measurements of unfiltered inleakage show values in excess of the nominal 10 cfm. A reassessment for two of these ''older'' stations has been completed recently to show that the measured inleakage did not jeopardize the safety of the control room occupants. Recent concerns at the Zion Station and the Palisades Station about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing each of the control rooms has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through many locations. For example, at the Palisades Station, the current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 25 cfm unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. An alternate approach was to review the analysis and reassess the most important parameters. The key effort was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (χ/Qs) through wind tunnel tests using scale models of the stations. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic χ/Qs for control room habitability than previously employed methods. The wind tunnel study options were selected based on their ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the studies would allow more realistic values of unfiltered inleakage

  19. Adaptive changes in photosynthetic performance and secondary metabolites during white dead nettle micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchina-Toteva, V; Dimitrova, M A; Stefanova, M; Koleva, D; Kostov, K; Yordanova, Zh P; Stefanov, D; Zhiponova, M K

    2014-09-15

    The white dead nettle, Lamium album L., is an herb that has been successfully cultivated under in vitro conditions. The L. album micropropagation system offers a combination of factors (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) level, humidity) that are limiting for plant growth and bioactive capacity. To get a better understanding of the mechanism of plant acclimation towards environmental changes, we performed a comparative investigation on primary and secondary metabolism in fully expanded L. album leaves during the consecutive growth in in situ, in vitro, and ex vitro conditions. Although the genetic identity was not affected, structural and physiological deviations were observed, and the level of bioactive compounds was modified. During in vitro cultivation, the L. album leaves became thinner with unaffected overall leaf organization, but with a reduced number of palisade mesophyll layers. Structural deviation of the thylakoid membrane system was detected. In addition, the photosystem 2 (PS2) electron transport was retarded, and the plants were more vulnerable to light damage as indicated by the decreased photoprotection ability estimated by fluorescence parameters. The related CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates were subsequently reduced, as were the content of essential oils and phenolics. Transfer of the plants ex vitro did not increase the number of palisade numbers, but the chloroplast structure and PS2 functionality were recovered. Strikingly, the rates of CO2 assimilation and transpiration were increased compared to in situ control plants. While the phenolics content reached normal levels during ex vitro growth, the essential oils remained low. Overall, our study broadens the understanding about the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaf, stem bark and fruit anatomy of zanthoxylum armatum dc. (rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkatullah, A.; Ibrar, M.; Jelani, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The present study deals with anatomical exploration of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of this plant. Leaf of Z. armatum is bifacial, compound and punctate with glabrous surfaces having a single layer of epidermis and palisade mesophyll. The leaf has a Palisade ratio ranged from 6.00 to 9.00 (8.2 +- 0.32). Vein islets and vein termination number were 14-21 (16.8 +- 0.64) and 17-21 (19.1 +- 0.43) per mm2 respectively. The vein-islets were quite distinct with squaresh, elongated, polygonal or irregular in shape bounding many forked and unforked vascular branches. Adaxial surface of Z. armatum leaf midrib was planoconvex while the abaxial surface was semicircular in appearance. The diagnostic feature of the leaf was the complete absence of any kind of trichomes or any other appendages. The leaf showed prominent oil cavities. Nine types of stomata with different frequencies and other dimensions were observed. Brachparatetracytic stomata was the most frequent stoma (80%) followed by actinostephanocytic (40%) and then straucytic and brachyparacytic (30%) each. Hemiparacytic and stomatal cluster were the rarely occurring stomata (10% each) present on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Stomatal cluster, which is considered to be a special leaf epidermal feature and reported only in few genera of vascular plants, was also recorded in this plant. Bark and fruit anatomy of Z. armatum showed different tissue arrangement. The seed was non endospermic and contains an elongated embryo. The present study will be helpful in the phylogeny and taxonomic description of this important medicinal plant. (author)

  1. Reaction kinetics of dolomite rim growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Abart, R.; Morales, L. F. G.; Rhede, D.; Jeřábek, P.; Dresen, G.

    2014-04-01

    Reaction rims of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) were produced by solid-state reactions at the contacts of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals at 400 MPa pressure, 750-850 °C temperature, and 3-146 h annealing time to determine the reaction kinetics. The dolomite reaction rims show two different microstructural domains. Elongated palisades of dolomite grew perpendicular into the MgCO3 interface with length ranging from about 6 to 41 µm. At the same time, a 5-71 µm wide rim of equiaxed granular dolomite grew at the contact with CaCO3. Platinum markers showed that the original interface is located at the boundary between the granular and palisade-forming dolomite. In addition to dolomite, a 12-80 µm thick magnesio-calcite layer formed between the dolomite reaction rims and the calcite single crystals. All reaction products show at least an axiotactic crystallographic relationship with respect to calcite reactant, while full topotaxy to calcite prevails within the granular dolomite and magnesio-calcite. Dolomite grains frequently exhibit growth twins characterized by a rotation of 180° around one of the equivalent axis. From mass balance considerations, it is inferred that the reaction rim of dolomite grew by counter diffusion of MgO and CaO. Assuming an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence, activation energies for diffusion of CaO and MgO are E a (CaO) = 192 ± 54 kJ/mol and E a (MgO) = 198 ± 44 kJ/mol, respectively.

  2. Compaction of an Oxisol and chemical composition of palisadegrass

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    Eurico Lucas de Sousa Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Compaction is an important problem in soils under pastoral land use, and can make livestock systems unsustainable. The objective of this research was to study the impact of soil compaction on yield and quality of palisade (UROCHLOA BRIZANTHA cv. Marandu. The experiment was conducted on an Oxisol in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Treatments consisted of four levels of soil compaction: no compaction (NC, slight compaction (SC, medium compaction (MC and high compaction (HC. The following soil properties were evaluated (layers 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m: aggregate size distribution, bulk density (BD, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity (TP, relative compaction (RC, and the characteristics of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and dry matter yield (DMY of the forage. Highly compacted soil had high BD and RC, and low TP (0-0.05 m. Both DMY and CP were affected by HC, and both were strongly related to BD. Higher DMY (6.96 Mg ha-1 and CP (7.8 % were observed in the MC treatment (BD 1.57 Mg m-3 and RC 0.91 Mg m-3, in 0-0.05 m. A high BD of 1.57 Mg m-3 (0-0.05 m did not inhibit plant growth. The N concentration in the palisade biomass differed significantly among compaction treatments, and was 8.72, 11.20, 12.48 and 10.98 g kg-1 in NC, SC, MC and HC treatments, respectively. Increase in DMY and CP at the MC level may be attributed to more absorption of N in this coarse-textured soil.

  3. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Endo-1,4-β-Glucanase Gene Controls Seed Coat Permeability in Soybean.

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    Seong-Jin Jang

    Full Text Available Physical dormancy, a structural feature of the seed coat known as hard seededness, is an important characteristic for adaptation of plants against unstable and unpredictable environments. To dissect the molecular basis of qHS1, a quantitative trait locus for hard seededness in soybean (Glycine max (L Merr., we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL of a permeable (soft-seeded cultivar, Tachinagaha, containing a hard-seed allele from wild soybean (G. soja introduced by successive backcrossings. The hard-seed allele made the seed coat of Tachinagaha more rigid by increasing the amount of β-1,4-glucans in the outer layer of palisade cells of the seed coat on the dorsal side of seeds, known to be a point of entrance of water. Fine-mapping and subsequent expression and sequencing analyses revealed that qHS1 encodes an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP introduced an amino acid substitution in a substrate-binding cleft of the enzyme, possibly reducing or eliminating its affinity for substrates in permeable cultivars. Introduction of the genomic region of qHS1 from the impermeable (hard-seeded NIL into the permeable cultivar Kariyutaka resulted in accumulation of β-1,4-glucan in the outer layer of palisade cells and production of hard seeds. The SNP allele found in the NIL was further associated with the occurrence of hard seeds in soybean cultivars of various origins. The findings of this and previous studies may indicate that qHS1 is involved in the accumulation of β-1,4-glucan derivatives such as xyloglucan and/or β-(1,3(1,4-glucan that reinforce the impermeability of seed coats in soybean.

  4. Onset and Multiple Fluctuations of Holocene Glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, N. D.; Clark, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple sediment cores from two paternoster tarns (First and Second lakes) in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the range; they indicate that the glacier was absent during the early Holocene, reformed in the late Holocene, and experienced several expansions and contractions, culminating with the Matthes maximum during the last ˜200 years. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest ( ˜1.3 km2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the Sierra Nevada, and capture essentially all of the rock flour produced by the glacier. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. Thus, the lakes have received continuous sedimentation since the retreat of the Tioga glacier ( ˜15,000 yr B.P.), and therefore capture rock flour related to all subsequent advances. First and Second lakes occupy relatively deep bedrock basins at 3036 m and 3066 m asl., respectively. Third Lake, a shallow (rock flour (outwash) from the upstream Palisade Glacier, most likely related to formation and expansions of the glacier in the late Holocene. The maximum peak at the top of the cores confirms the moraine record, which indicates that the maximum Holocene advance of Sierran glaciers occurred during the late Little Ice Age (last ˜200 yr) At least one tephra layer, possibly related to the Mono/Inyo dome complexes, occurs in the middle depths of the First Lake cores. Other narrow peaks in MS may also be associated with tephra deposits. Ongoing detailed analyses of the sediments, including AMS radiocarbon dating, visual and x-ray imaging, particle size analysis, organic content, tephrochronology, diatom assemblages, and palynology will constrain the timing and character of the environmental fluctuations related to the rock-flour flux. We will present results of these analyses at the meeting.

  5. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  6. Genetic and Developmental Basis for Increased Leaf Thickness in the Arabidopsis Cvi Ecotype

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    Viktoriya Coneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf thickness is a quantitative trait that is associated with the ability of plants to occupy dry, high irradiance environments. Despite its importance, leaf thickness has been difficult to measure reproducibly, which has impeded progress in understanding its genetic basis, and the associated anatomical mechanisms that pattern it. Here, we used a custom-built dual confocal profilometer device to measure leaf thickness in the Arabidopsis Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line population and found statistical support for four quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with this trait. We used publically available data for a suite of traits relating to flowering time and growth responses to light quality and show that three of the four leaf thickness QTL coincide with QTL for at least one of these traits. Using time course photography, we quantified the relative growth rate and the pace of rosette leaf initiation in the Ler and Cvi ecotypes. We found that Cvi rosettes grow slower than Ler, both in terms of the rate of leaf initiation and the overall rate of biomass accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that leaf thickness is tightly linked with physiological status and may present a tradeoff between the ability to withstand stress and rapid vegetative growth. To understand the anatomical basis of leaf thickness, we compared cross-sections of Cvi and Ler leaves and show that Cvi palisade mesophyll cells elongate anisotropically contributing to leaf thickness. Flow cytometry of whole leaves show that endopolyploidy accompanies thicker leaves in Cvi. Overall, our data suggest that mechanistically, an altered schedule of cellular events affecting endopolyploidy and increasing palisade mesophyll cell length contribute to increase of leaf thickness in Cvi. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis and developmental trajectory leaf thickness will inform the mechanisms by which natural selection acts to produce variation in this adaptive trait.

  7. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  8. Species and cultivar influences on survival and parasitism of fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Hanna, W W; Engelke, M C

    2004-12-01

    Interactions between host plant resistance and biological control may benefit or hinder pest management efforts. Turfgrass cultivars have rarely been tested for extrinsic resistance characteristics such as occurrence and performance of beneficial arthropods on plant genotypes with resistance to known turf pests. Parasitism of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), among six turfgrass genotypes was evaluated. The six grasses tested [Sea Isle-1 and 561-79 seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum Swartz; TifSport and TifEagle hybrid Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) x C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy); and Cavalier and Palisades zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica von Steudel and Z. matrella (L.) Merrill, respectively] represented a range in resistance to S. frugiperda. Differential recovery of larvae released as first instars reflected this gradient in resistance of Cavalier > or = Palisades > or = TifSport = TifEagle > or = 561- = Sea Isle-1 Larval recovery (percentage of initial number released) was greatest in May, less in July and August, and least in October, probably reflecting the increase in activity of on-site predators and disease pressure. Parasitism of the fall armyworm by the braconid Aleiodes laphygmae Viereck varied among turfgrass genotypes. Parasitism was greatest during July. In total, 20,400 first instars were placed in the field; 2,368 were recovered; 468 parasitoids were subsequently reared; 92.2% were A. laphygmae. In the field, the greatest percentage of reduction in S. frugiperda larvae by A. laphygmae occurred on the armyworm-susceptible seashore paspalums (51.9% on Sea Isle-1 in July). Cotesia marginiventris Cresson and Meteorus sp. also were reared from collected larvae. No parasitoids were reared from larvae collected from resistant Cavalier zoysiagrass. A. laphygmae and C. marginiventris were reared from larvae collected from the other five grass cultivars. No parasitoids of older larvae or pupae were observed.

  9. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Manifested as Unusual Edemas and Effusions: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Jin, Hong; Wu, Weilu

    2016-03-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse or localized dilation and eventual rupture of the enteric lymphatic vessels in mucosa, submucosa, and/or subserosa. Lymph, rich in all kinds of proteins and lymphocytes, leaks into the gastrointestinal tract via the affected lymphatic vessels causing hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. The main symptom is variable degrees of pitting edemas of bilateral lower limbs. But edemas of any other parts of body, and mild serous effusions may also occur sometimes. PIL occurs in conjunction with a right hemifacial edema, a right upper limb lymphedema, asymmetric bilateral calves edemas, and a unilateral massive pleural effusion seems never to be reported before. In addition, increased enteric protein loss that may cause severe hypoproteinemia usually get overlooked, and the lymphatic system disorders always put the diagnoses in a dilemma.We described a case of a 17-year-old Chinese girl with a history of gradually progressive swellings of right-sided face, right upper limb, and bilateral calves since 3 to 4 months of age. A right-sided massive pleural effusion, a moderate pericardial effusion, and a mild ascites have been proved unchanged by a series of computerized tomography (CT) scans since 5 years ago. The diagnosis of PIL was finally confirmed by severe hypoproteinemia, endoscopic changes, and histology of jejunum biopsy. Further lymphoscintigraphy and lymphangiography also identified lymph leakage in her bowel and several abnormal lymphatic vessels. A high-protein, low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) showed some benefit.This case suggested that PIL was a rare but important etiology of hypoproteinemia, effusions, and edemas. PIL, effusions, and lymphedema can be the features of multisegmental generalized lymphatic dysplasia. In addition, both lymphoscintigraphy and intranodal lymphangiography could be considered when lymphatic system

  10. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Manifested as Unusual Edemas and Effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Jin, Hong; Wu, Weilu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse or localized dilation and eventual rupture of the enteric lymphatic vessels in mucosa, submucosa, and/or subserosa. Lymph, rich in all kinds of proteins and lymphocytes, leaks into the gastrointestinal tract via the affected lymphatic vessels causing hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. The main symptom is variable degrees of pitting edemas of bilateral lower limbs. But edemas of any other parts of body, and mild serous effusions may also occur sometimes. PIL occurs in conjunction with a right hemifacial edema, a right upper limb lymphedema, asymmetric bilateral calves edemas, and a unilateral massive pleural effusion seems never to be reported before. In addition, increased enteric protein loss that may cause severe hypoproteinemia usually get overlooked, and the lymphatic system disorders always put the diagnoses in a dilemma. We described a case of a 17-year-old Chinese girl with a history of gradually progressive swellings of right-sided face, right upper limb, and bilateral calves since 3 to 4 months of age. A right-sided massive pleural effusion, a moderate pericardial effusion, and a mild ascites have been proved unchanged by a series of computerized tomography (CT) scans since 5 years ago. The diagnosis of PIL was finally confirmed by severe hypoproteinemia, endoscopic changes, and histology of jejunum biopsy. Further lymphoscintigraphy and lymphangiography also identified lymph leakage in her bowel and several abnormal lymphatic vessels. A high-protein, low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) showed some benefit. This case suggested that PIL was a rare but important etiology of hypoproteinemia, effusions, and edemas. PIL, effusions, and lymphedema can be the features of multisegmental generalized lymphatic dysplasia. In addition, both lymphoscintigraphy and intranodal lymphangiography could be considered when lymphatic

  11. Determining the correlation of Epstein-Barr virus with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by chromogenic in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosari F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of lymphoma. There are various types of DLBCL including immunoblastic and centroblastic. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a member of Herpes virus family found in all human populations inducing different lymphoproliferative disorders. The role of EBV in the development of DLBCL is known. Multiple laboratory methods are available for detecting EBV. This study was conducted to determine the correlation of EBV with DLBCL in samples referred to pathology ward in Shariati and Sina Hospitals by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH method.Methods: In this case/control study, pathological specimens of 50 patients with DLBCL as well as 50 reactive lymph nodes and tonsils (control group were collected from archives of Shariati and Sina Hospitals and were evaluated for EBV encoded RNA (EBER expression based on CISH method. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA EBV probe (Dakocytomatin was used while all the processes were done in RNAase-free conditions using RNAase-free water, sterile gloves and samplers. Results: Out of fifty specimens in the case group, eight were positive for EBER in comparison with two in the control group (P=0.046. No statistically significant difference was observed between intranodal or extranodal samples (P=0.736 or between males and females (P=0.0746.Conclusion: Our study showed that EBV positivity for EBER in patient with DLBCL could be determined more effectively by CISH method than immunohistochemistry (IHC. Comparative analysis between CISH, PCR and IHC methods is recommended.

  12. Parallel definition of tear film maps on distributed-memory clusters for the support of dry eye diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Remeseiro, Beatriz; Martín, María J

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of the interference patterns on the tear film lipid layer is a useful clinical test to diagnose dry eye syndrome. This task can be automated with a high degree of accuracy by means of the use of tear film maps. However, the time required by the existing applications to generate them prevents a wider acceptance of this method by medical experts. Multithreading has been previously successfully employed by the authors to accelerate the tear film map definition on multicore single-node machines. In this work, we propose a hybrid message-passing and multithreading parallel approach that further accelerates the generation of tear film maps by exploiting the computational capabilities of distributed-memory systems such as multicore clusters and supercomputers. The algorithm for drawing tear film maps is parallelized using Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter-node communications and the multithreading support available in the C++11 standard for intra-node parallelization. The original algorithm is modified to reduce the communications and increase the scalability. The hybrid method has been tested on 32 nodes of an Intel cluster (with two 12-core Haswell 2680v3 processors per node) using 50 representative images. Results show that maximum runtime is reduced from almost two minutes using the previous only-multithreaded approach to less than ten seconds using the hybrid method. The hybrid MPI/multithreaded implementation can be used by medical experts to obtain tear film maps in only a few seconds, which will significantly accelerate and facilitate the diagnosis of the dry eye syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Espinosa Sebastian; Pineda Ordonez, Diego; Garcia, Sandra; Costilla, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

  14. Vaccines with dendritic cells in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that autologous D Cs pulsed with peptides specific for prostate specific Ag (PSA) or prostate-specific membrane Ag are capable of stimulating potent CT L in vitro. However there is evidence to believe that multiple tumour derived antigens would be more potent to elicit anti-tumour responses. Based on these observations a Phase I/II clinical trial in has been initiated. Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC s) were transfected with mRNA from three prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP and P C-3) and used for vaccination. Twenty patients have been enrolled and 19 have finished vaccination. Each patient received at least four weekly injections. Of them, 10 patients were vaccinated intranodally under ultrasonic guidance and 9 others received the vaccine intradermally. Safety and feasibility were evaluated. No evidence of toxicity and adverse events was observed. Immune response was measured as DTH and by vitro immunoassays including ELISPOT, T cell proliferation test and cytotoxicity test in pre- and post-vaccination peripheral blood samples. Twelve patients developed a specific immune response to tumour cells. Ten patients showed a significant decrease in log slope PSA. Patients with lower PSA tend to give a better response. The early clinical outcome was significantly related to immune responses (p<0.05). We conclude that the strategy of vaccinating with mRNA transfected D Cs functions to elicit cellular immune responses specific for antigens associated with prostate cancer cells and such responses may result in a clinical benefit for the patients

  15. Prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwa, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Jae Seung

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN. In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18 F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18 F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18 F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18 F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUV max ) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p 2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p 2 = 0.37 and p 2 = 0.48, respectively). 18 F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUV max .

  16. Influence of deformation on dolomite rim growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, Vanessa; Rybacki, Erik; Grafulha Morales, Luiz Fernando; Dresen, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Using a gas-deformation apparatus stacks of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals were deformed at T = 750° C and P = 400 MPa to examine the influence of stress and strain on magnesio-calcite and dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) growth kinetics. Triaxial compression and torsion tests performed at constant stresses between 7 and 38 MPa and test durations between 4 and 171 hours resulted in bulk strains of 0.03-0.2 and maximum shear strains of 0.8-5.6, respectively. The reaction rims consist of fine-grained (2-7 μm) dolomite with palisade-shaped grains growing into magnesite reactants and equiaxed granular dolomite grains next to calcite. In between dolomite and pure calcite, magnesio-calcite grains evolved with an average grain size of 20-40 μm. Grain boundaries tend to be straighter at high bulk strains and equilibrium angles at grain triple junctions are common within the magnesio-calcite layer. Transmission electron microscopy shows almost dislocation free palisades and increasing dislocation density within granular dolomite towards the magnesio-calcite boundary. Within magnesio-calcite grains, dislocations are concentrated at grain boundaries. Variation of time at fixed stress (˜17 MPa) yields a parabolic time dependence of dolomite rim width, indicating diffusion-controlled growth, similar to isostatic rim growth behavior. In contrast, the magnesio-calcite layer growth is enhanced compared to isostatic conditions. Triaxial compression at given time shows no significant change of dolomite rim thickness (11±2 μm) and width of magnesio-calcite layers (33±5 μm) with increasing stress. In torsion experiments, reaction layer thickness and grain size decrease from the center (low stress/strain) to the edge (high strain/stress) of samples. Chemical analysis shows nearly stoichiometric composition of dolomite palisades, but enhanced Ca content within granular grains, indicating local disequilibrium with magnesio-calcite, in particular for twisted

  17. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness

  18. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas, tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água, foram utilizadas para classificar os agrotóxicos em inócuo (99%. Foram inócuos os acaricidas Envidor (espirodiclofeno, Kendo 50 SC (fenpiroximato e Ortus 50 SC (fenpiroximato, os fungicidas Antracol 700 PM (propinebe, Midas BR (famoxadona + mancozebe, Palisade (fluquinconazol, Persist SC (mancozebe e Systhane PM (miclobutanil e o inseticida Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozida; o herbicida Polaris (glifosato foi levemente nocivo; os herbicidas Finale (glufosinato sal de amônio e Roundup Original (glifosato foram moderadamente nocivos a T. pretiosum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of 12 pesticides used in the integrated production of apple, in laboratory (25±1ºC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14 hours photophase, exposing adults of Trichogramma pretiosum to fresh dry pesticide film, in the maximum dosage recommended for field use, with subsequent assessement of the number of eggs parasitized per female. The reduction in the parasitism, compared with the control (water, was used to classify the pesticides as harmless (99%. The acaricides Envidor (spirodiclofen, Kendo 50 SC (fenpyroximate and Ortus 50 SC (fenpyroximate, the fungicides Antracol 700 PM (propineb, Midas BR (famoxadone + mancozeb, Palisade (fluquinconazole, Persist SC (mancozeb and Systhane PM (myclobutanil and the insecticide Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozide were harmless; the herbicide Polaris (glyphosate was slightly harmful; the herbicides Finale (gluphosinate-ammonium and Roundup

  19. Tumour compartment transcriptomics demonstrates the activation of inflammatory and odontogenic programmes in human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and identifies the MAPK/ERK pathway as a novel therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, John R; Carreno, Gabriela; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Haston, Scott; Guiho, Romain; Cooper, Julie E; Manshaei, Saba; Jani, Nital; Hölsken, Annett; Pettorini, Benedetta; Beynon, Robert J; Simpson, Deborah M; Fraser, Helen C; Hong, Ying; Hallang, Shirleen; Stone, Thomas J; Virasami, Alex; Donson, Andrew M; Jones, David; Aquilina, Kristian; Spoudeas, Helen; Joshi, Abhijit R; Grundy, Richard; Storer, Lisa C D; Korbonits, Márta; Hilton, David A; Tossell, Kyoko; Thavaraj, Selvam; Ungless, Mark A; Gil, Jesus; Buslei, Rolf; Hankinson, Todd; Hargrave, Darren; Goding, Colin; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Brogan, Paul; Jacques, Thomas S; Williams, Hywel J; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2018-05-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with immune cells. Here, we have carried out RNA sequencing on 18 ACP samples and integrated these data with an existing ACP transcriptomic dataset. No studies so far have examined the patterns of gene expression within the different cellular compartments of the tumour. To achieve this goal, we have combined laser capture microdissection with computational analyses to reveal groups of genes that are associated with either epithelial tumour cells (clusters and palisading epithelium), glial tissue or immune infiltrate. We use these human ACP molecular signatures and RNA-Seq data from two ACP mouse models to reveal that cell clusters are molecularly analogous to the enamel knot, a critical signalling centre controlling normal tooth morphogenesis. Supporting this finding, we show that human cluster cells express high levels of several members of the FGF, TGFB and BMP families of secreted factors, which signal to neighbouring cells as evidenced by immunostaining against the phosphorylated proteins pERK1/2, pSMAD3 and pSMAD1/5/9 in both human and mouse ACP. We reveal that inhibiting the MAPK/ERK pathway with trametinib, a clinically approved MEK inhibitor, results in reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in explant cultures of human and mouse ACP. Finally, we analyse a prominent molecular signature in the glial reactive tissue to characterise the inflammatory microenvironment and uncover the activation of inflammasomes in human ACP. We validate these results by immunostaining against immune cell markers, cytokine ELISA and proteome analysis in both solid tumour and cystic fluid from ACP

  20. Development of a supplemental surveillance program for reactor pressure vessel thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The technical decision to thermally anneal a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) depends upon the level of embrittlement in the RPV steels, the amount of recovery of fracture toughness properties expected from the anneal, and the rate of re-embrittlement after the vessel is placed back into service. The recovery of Charpy impact toughness properties after annealing can be estimated initially by using a recovery model developed using experimental measurements of recovery (such as that developed by Eason et al. for U.S. vessel materials). However, actual validation measurements on plant-specific archived vessel materials (hopefully in the existing surveillance program) are needed; otherwise, irradiated surrogate materials, essentially the same as the RPV steels or bounding in expected behavior, must be utilized. The efficient use of any of these materials requires a supplemental surveillance program focused at both recovery and reirradiation embrittlement. Reconstituted Charpy specimens and new surveillance capsules will most likely be needed as part of this supplemental surveillance program. A new version of ASTM E 509 has recently been approved which provides guidance on thermal annealing in general and specifically for the development of an annealing supplemental surveillance program. The post-anneal re-embrittlement properties are crucial for continued plant operation, and the use of a re-embrittlement model, such as the lateral shift approach, may be overly conservative. This paper illustrates the new ASTM E 509 Standard Guide methodology for an annealing supplemental surveillance program. As an example, the proposed program for the Palisades RPV beltline steels is presented which covers the time from annealing to the end of operating license and beyond, if license renewal is pursued. The Palisades nuclear power plant RPV was planned to be annealed in 1998, but that plant is currently being re-evaluated. The proposed anneal was planned to be conducted at a

  1. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  2. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  3. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  4. Cell wall matrix polysaccharide distribution and cortical microtubule organization: two factors controlling mesophyll cell morphogenesis in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, P; Giannoutsou, E; Panteris, E; Apostolakos, P; Galatis, B

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the involvement of local differentiation of cell wall matrix polysaccharides and the role of microtubules in the morphogenesis of mesophyll cells (MCs) of three types (lobed, branched and palisade) in the dicotyledon Vigna sinensis and the fern Asplenium nidus. Homogalacturonan (HGA) epitopes recognized by the 2F4, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies and callose were immunolocalized in hand-made leaf sections. Callose was also stained with aniline blue. We studied microtubule organization by tubulin immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In both plants, the matrix cell wall polysaccharide distribution underwent definite changes during MC differentiation. Callose constantly defined the sites of MC contacts. The 2F4 HGA epitope in V. sinensis first appeared in MC contacts but gradually moved towards the cell wall regions facing the intercellular spaces, while in A. nidus it was initially localized at the cell walls delimiting the intercellular spaces, but finally shifted to MC contacts. In V. sinensis, the JIM5 and JIM7 HGA epitopes initially marked the cell walls delimiting the intercellular spaces and gradually shifted in MC contacts, while in A. nidus they constantly enriched MC contacts. In all MC types examined, the cortical microtubules played a crucial role in their morphogenesis. In particular, in palisade MCs, cortical microtubule helices, by controlling cellulose microfibril orientation, forced these MCs to acquire a truncated cone-like shape. Unexpectedly in V. sinensis, the differentiation of colchicine-affected MCs deviated completely, since they developed a cell wall ingrowth labyrinth, becoming transfer-like cells. The results of this work and previous studies on Zea mays (Giannoutsou et al., Annals of Botany 2013; 112: : 1067-1081) revealed highly controlled local cell wall matrix differentiation in MCs of species belonging to different plant groups. This, in coordination with microtubule-dependent cellulose microfibril

  5. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  6. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing

  7. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  8. Prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwa, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN. In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by {sup 18}F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R{sup 2} = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R{sup 2} = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R{sup 2} = 0.48, respectively). {sup 18}F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUV{sub max}.

  9. Site-specific accumulation and dynamic change of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cui-Hua; Xu, Hu; Liu, Xun-Hong; Zou, Li-Si; Wang, Mei; Liu, Zi-Xiu; Fu, Xing-Sheng; Zhao, Hui; Yan, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium was determined by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and the localization of catechins also was observed via vanillin-HCl staining under the conventional optical microscope. The contents of five flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium from different harvest times and growth parts were measured using HPLC method. LSCM observation showed that flavonoids are accumulated in cuticle of epidermal cells and vessel walls, especially in protoplasts and nucleolus of the collenchyma cells and the epidermal cells. Catechins are localized in the palisade parenchyma cells and vessel walls, particularly in the laticifers found in the phloem. On the basis of the difference of the maximal emission wavelength between quercetin and kaempferol derivatives which have fluorescence behavior by appropriate treatment, kaempferol and its derivatives are localized exclusively in the cuticle. Results showed that the content of astragalin in Apocyni Veneti Folium from different parts revealed the decreasing trend, while hyperin and isoquercitrin were higher in June and July analyzed by HPLC. In summary, the site-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium can be determined by LSCM and vanillin-HCl staining. The contents of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium are correlated with harvest times and growth parts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC, periapical granuloma (PG, and periapical abscess (PA, are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. Materials and Methods The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC (n = 122, PG (n = 158, and PA (n = 39 obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF were used as positive controls. Results Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. Conclusions In this study all PCs (n = 122 were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium (n = 20. Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.

  11. Ozone injury to celery. [Apium graveolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, S.

    1966-10-01

    Ozone is the principal air pollutant damaging crops in Connecticut. Ozone injury in Connecticut has been found on a number of crops including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, spinach, alfalfa, and cereals. This is the first report of ozone damage to celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in Connecticut, and perhaps in the United States. On July 7, 1966, celery plants with badly damaged older leaves were found in a commercial garden near Shelton, Connecticut. The injured leaves showed chlorotic and necrotic interveinal areas on their upper surfaces. These areas were slightly depressed. Cross sections of the lesions revealed that the palisade cells were most severely injured. Spinach and carrots growing near the celery showed typical symptoms of ozone damage. To substantiate the diagnosis, young celery plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm of ozone in a well-lighted plastic chamber for 1 to 3 hours. Five days later, these plants developed symptoms indentical to those found on celery in the field. Ozone damage appeared on many crops in southern Connecticut early in July. This injury probably occurred on June 27, when a high concentration of ozone (0.1 ppm) was present in the New Haven area.

  12. CT findings at lupus mesenteric vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.F.; Lee, T.Y.; Cheng, T.T.; Ng, S.H.; Lai, H.M.; Cheng, Y.F.; Tsai, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of early CT findings of lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV) and to assess the utility of CT in the management of this uncommon entity. Methods: Abdominal CT was performed within 1-4 days (average 2.2 days) of the onset of severe abdominal pain and tenderness in 15 women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Prompt high-dose i.v. corticosteroid in 11 patients after the CT diagnosis of LMV was made. CT was performed after abdominal symptoms subsided. Results: Eleven cases revealed CT features suggestive of LMV including conspicuous prominence of mesentric vessels with palisade pattern or comb-like appearance (CT comb sign) supplying focal or diffuse dilated bowel loops (n=11), ascites with slightly increased peritoneal enhancement (n=11), small bowel wall thickening (n=10) with double halo or target sign (n=8). Follow-up CT before high-dose steroid therapy revealed complete or marked resolution of the abnormal CT findings. Conclusion: CT is helpful for confirming the diagnosis of LMV, especially the comb sign which may be an early sign. Bowel ischemia due to LMV is less ominous than previously expected, and the abnormal CT findings were reversible when early diagnosis and prompt i.v. steroid therapy could be achieved. (orig.)

  13. Alteration of Leaf Anatomy of Handeuleum (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff due to Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrin Rosmala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of the plant handeuleum (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff have long been used for traditional medicine in several regions in Indonesia. This study was aimed to determine the effect of gamma irradiation rate on the anatomy and phytochemical content of the leaf. The rates of gamma rays used were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 Gy. Our results showed that gamma ray irradiation rate of 30 Gy produced leaves that contain anthocyanins and carotenoids, with the highest number of stomata and stomatal density compared with control plants. Stomatal index was found highest in the leaves with 45 Gy of gamma irradiation. High-rate gamma ray irradiation produced rigid, thick, and frangible leaves. A high rate of gamma irradiation, i.e. 75, 90, and 105 Gy, produces bigger palisade, sponges, and upper epidermis than the control plants, respectively. Our results showed an association between increasing rate of irradiation with alterations in the structure of leaf anatomy and phytochemical content of handeuleum.

  14. CT findings at lupus mesenteric vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S.F. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Lee, T.Y. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Cheng, T.T. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Ng, S.H. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Lai, H.M. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Cheng, Y.F. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Tsai, C.C. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of early CT findings of lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV) and to assess the utility of CT in the management of this uncommon entity. Methods: Abdominal CT was performed within 1-4 days (average 2.2 days) of the onset of severe abdominal pain and tenderness in 15 women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Prompt high-dose i.v. corticosteroid in 11 patients after the CT diagnosis of LMV was made. CT was performed after abdominal symptoms subsided. Results: Eleven cases revealed CT features suggestive of LMV including conspicuous prominence of mesentric vessels with palisade pattern or comb-like appearance (CT comb sign) supplying focal or diffuse dilated bowel loops (n=11), ascites with slightly increased peritoneal enhancement (n=11), small bowel wall thickening (n=10) with double halo or target sign (n=8). Follow-up CT before high-dose steroid therapy revealed complete or marked resolution of the abnormal CT findings. Conclusion: CT is helpful for confirming the diagnosis of LMV, especially the comb sign which may be an early sign. Bowel ischemia due to LMV is less ominous than previously expected, and the abnormal CT findings were reversible when early diagnosis and prompt i.v. steroid therapy could be achieved. (orig.).

  15. Identification of binding sites for an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in the median eminence of the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannon, N.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Porte, D. Jr.; Baskin, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The microanatomical location of IGF-I binding in the rat brain was determined by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen brain. Sections incubated in 0.1 nM [ 125 I]-iodo-IGF-I produced a dense grain concentration in regions of the autoradiographic image corresponding to the external palisade zone of the median eminence; other hypothalamic regions were not so heavily labeled. This reaction was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 nM IGF-I. Measurement of binding by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images showed that specific binding for IGF-I in the median eminence was 41.3 +/- 8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2 (mean +/- SEM); nonspecific binding was 11.9 +/- 1.8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In contrast, specific binding to other hypothalamic regions was uniformly lower. In a separate experiment, 1000 nM unlabeled insulin was added. Without insulin, specific binding was 23 +/- 0.9 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2; nonspecific binding was 8 +/- 0.5 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In the presence of 1000 nM unlabeled insulin, specific binding for [ 125 I]-iodo-IGF-I was 23 +/- 1 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. The results suggest that a high concentration of receptors for an IGF-I-like molecule is present in the median eminence

  16. A Morphological, anatomical and caryological study on endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia taxa (Bornm. & Zahn Sell & West (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sepet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant samples of Endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn Sell&West (1975 the taxa were collected in 2013 from the Spil Mountain in Manisa, one of the natural spreading areas. A thick cover was observed on the leaves of the taxon rosette on the base. In the anatomical investigations, the radial transmission in the stem takes up a great deal of space in the bundles compared to the floem elements of the xylem elements. The body covers the epidermis cells of a thick capillary layer with dense fur, and the transmission bundles are generally arranged in a large, small bundle. The leaves are in the bifacial leaf type and accordingly the separation of palisade parenchyma and sponge parenchyma is clearly observed. The abaxial percentage is longer and more intense, and there are stoma cells that are arranged at regular intervals with cover and secretion feathers on both sides. Abdominal abdominal stomata is the upper case. The number of chromosomes was determined as 2x = 2n = 18 in karyological studies performed by Takson and chromosome measurements were made.

  17. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  19. Colleters in Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae ontogenesis, ultrastructure and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. S. Paiva

    Full Text Available Colleters are widely distributed and have been reported in several taxa. However, the only report of colleters in the Caryocaraceae family is in Caryocar brasiliense. This study purports to describe the distribution, structure and ultrastructure of colleters in C. brasiliense. Vegetative shoot apices with stipules in different stages of development were collected, fixed, and processed by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Colleters occur on the stipule adaxial face and are differentiated on younger stipules, remaining functional until senescence. Stipules are deciduous, falling before the beginning of leaf expansion. Colleter secretion is abundant, filling all the space delimited by the stipule. Colleter origin is mixed, involving the protoderm and ground meristem. In this species, colleters are finger-shaped, consisting of a column of non-secretory central cells and a secretory epithelium whose cells are arranged in palisades. Secretory epithelium cells show dense cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER segments, free ribosomes, mitochondria, and abundant well developed dictyosomes. The colleters central cell shows a flocculated cytoplasm and developed vacuole. These cells have a small lobated nucleus with an inconspicuous nucleolus. Mitochondria and RER stand out in the organelles. There is evidence of granulocrine secretion and colleter involvement with protection of the apical meristem and leaves in the initial stages of development.

  20. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  1. In vivo detection of basal cell carcinoma: comparison of a reflectance confocal microscope and a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martina; Klemp, Marisa; Darvin, Maxim E.; König, Karsten; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C.

    2013-06-01

    The standard diagnostic procedure for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is invasive tissue biopsy with time-consuming histological examination. To reduce the number of biopsies, noninvasive optical methods have been developed providing high-resolution skin examination. We present direct comparison of a reflectance confocal microscope (RLSM) and a multiphoton tomograph (MPT) for BCC diagnosis. Both systems are applied to nine patients prior to surgery, and the results are analyzed, including histological results. Both systems prove suitable for detecting typical characteristics of BCC in various stages. The RLSM allows large horizontal overview images to be obtained, enabling the investigator to find the regions of interest quickly, e.g., BCC nests. Elongated cells and palisading structures are easily recognized using both methods. Due to the higher resolution, changes in nucleus diameter or cytoplasm could be visualized with the MPT. Therefore, the nucleus diameter, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and cell density are estimated for normal and BCC cells using the MPT. The nucleus of elongated BCC cells is significantly longer than other measured normal skin cells, whereas the cell density and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of BCC cannot be significantly distinguished from granular cells.

  2. Application of Digital (Motic and Scanning electron microscope in histological study of leaf of Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Bignoniaceae

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    Kedar Kalyani Abhimanyu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Bignoniaceae is a shrub or a small tree found in various regions of Maharashtra. The objective of the study was to develop various standardization parameters for the evaluation of leaves of this plant. Microscopy, powder characteristics and scanning electron microscopy (SEM of leaves were observed and results were recorded. Histological study of leaves shows underlined palisade cells on the upper epidermal surface, anomocytic stomata on the lower epidermis with covering (2–3 cells and glandular trichomes etc. The specific observed characteristics such as types of stomata and trichomes were predominantly observed on the lower epidermal surface of the leaf. Physicochemical analysis such as extractive value includes petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous soluble extractive values of 3.08, 10.50, 8.5, and 13.4% w/w respectively; extracts were analysed by chemical test and showed presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenoids etc. Fluorescence analysis is one of the parameters that help in the analysis of chemical constituents. So these parameters are useful in the authentication of T. gaudichaudi DC and can play a vital role in authentication and standardization of botanicals.

  3. Quantitative risk assessment of E. coli in street-vended cassava-based delicacies in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, I. C. P.

    2018-01-01

    In the Philippines, rootcrop-based food products are gaining popularity in street food trade. However, a number of street-vended food products in the country are reported to be contaminated with E. coli posing possible risk among consumers. In this study, information on quantitative risk assessment of E. coli in street-vended cassava-based delicacies was generated. The assessment started with the prevalence and concentration of E. coli at post production in packages of the cassava-based delicacies. Combase growth predictor was used to trace the microbial population of E. coli in each step of the food chain. The @Risk software package, version 6 (Palisade USA) was used to run the simulations. Scenarios in the post-production to consumption pathway were simulated. The effect was then assessed in relation to exposure to the defined infective dose. In the worst case scenario, a minimum and most likely concentration of 6.3 and 7.8 log CFU of E. coli per serving respectively were observed. The simulation revealed that lowering the temperature in the chain considerably decreased the E. coli concentration prior to consumption and subsequently decreased the percentage of exposure to the infective dose. Exposure to infective dose however was increased with longer lag time from postproduction to consumption.

  4. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  5. KERAGAMAN DAN ANALISIS KEKERABATAN Hoya spp. BERTIPE DAUN NON SUKULEN BERDASARKAN KARAKTER ANATOMI DAUN

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    Aldi Rahman Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoya spp. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae has differences in leaf type, there are succulent and non succulent leaf types.  Anatomical structure of Hoya spp. leaf has not been widely studied, especially for the non succulent type. The aims of this research were to explore the diversity and relationship of non succulent Hoya, based on leaf anatomical characters represented by eight species i.e. H. bandaensis, H. campanulata, H. chlorantha, H. cilliata, H. coriacea, H. coronaria, H. densifolia and H. multiflora. Hoya leaf anatomical characters were observed on the paradermal and transversal section and analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 19 sotfware for cluster analysis. According to the paradermal observation, stomata were present at lower surface (hypostomatic for all species, and amphistomatic (both surface for H. densifolia.  The type of stomata is cyclocytic for all species. Clustered stomata were found in H. coriacea.  Observation on transversal section showed that all of species has the normal structure i.e cuticula, upper and lower epidermis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma with the variation in the layer thickness.  The cluster analysis resulted four groups at distance scale 19. Each group has specific characters. The first group has trichomes on both sides of the leaf surface. The second group has amphistomatic stomatal. The third group has thin leaves. The fourth group has the widest stomata.

  6. Anatomic and physiological modifications in seedlings of Coffea arabica cultivar Siriema under drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Ferreira Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weather changes prognostic for the coming years, the understanding of water deficit and physiological responses of plants to drought becomes an important requirement in order to develop technologies such as mechanisms to assist plants to cope with longer drought periods, which will be essential to maintenance of Brazilian and worldwide production. This study aimed to evaluate ecophysiological and anatomical aspects as well as the nitrate reductase activity in Siriema coffee seedlings subjected to four treatments: Daily irrigated, non-irrigated, re-irrigated 24 hours and re-irrigated 48 hours after different stress periods. Non-irrigation promoted a reduction in leaf water potential being accented from the ninth day of evaluation onwards. Re-irrigation promoted a partial recovery of the plant water potential. Non-irrigated plants showed an increase in stomatal resistance and reduction of transpiration and nitrate reductase activity. In the roots, there was a decrease in nitrate reductase activity under water stress. Leaf anatomical modifications were significant only for the adaxial surface epidermis and palisade parenchyma thickness, this latter characteristic being higher in control plants. Stomatal density and polar and equatorial diameter ratios showed the highest values in plants under water stress. In the roots, differences only in the cortex thickness being bigger in the non-irrigated treatment could be observed. Therefore, Siriema coffee plants under water stress show physiological, biochemical and anatomical modifications that contribute to the tolerance of this genotype to these conditions.

  7. Comparative ecomorphology of the cyathial nectaries in eight European Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Csete, S; Farkas, Agnes

    2013-03-01

    The morphology and histology of the cyathial nectary were studied in 8 European leafy spurge (Euphorbia) species, revealing that certain histological traits of the glands are in close correlation to each species' habitat, underlining the importance of morphological evidences in determining relevant ecological tolerance spectra of plants.The structure of the cyathial glands was studied in longitudinal sections with light microscopy, and histological parameters were measured and statistically analyzed by appropriate softwares.The nectaries consist of a cuticle-covered epidermis, formed by palisade cells, under which the glandular tissue and parenchyma are composed of isodiametric and anisodiametric cells in all species. Thickness of cuticle, position of nectary stomata and number of rows comprising the glandular tissue vary to a great extent in plants living in xeric, humid or mesic habitats.Although all the studied anatomical features of the nectaries were expected to be in correspondence with the characteristics of habitat types, we have only found the number of glandular cell rows to be in strong correlation with the Ellenberg's ecological indicator values on soil moisture, which varied with species. The recorded anatomical differences among the studied Euphorbia taxa emphasize the ecological significance of glandular tissue in plant adaptation, which can also be relevant for systematic purposes.

  8. Changes in photosynthesis and leaf characteristics with tree height in five dipterocarp species in a tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Ichie, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Yoko; Yoneda, Reiji; Ninomiya, Ikuo; Koike, Takayoshi

    2006-07-01

    Variations in leaf photosynthetic, morphological and biochemical properties with increasing plant height from seedlings to emergent trees were investigated in five dipterocarp species in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. Canopy openness increased significantly with tree height. Photosynthetic properties, such as photosynthetic capacity at light saturation, light compensation point, maximum rate of carboxylation and maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, all increased significantly with tree height. Leaf morphological and biochemical traits, such as leaf mass per area, palisade layer thickness, nitrogen concentration per unit area, chlorophyll concentration per unit dry mass and chlorophyll to nitrogen ratio, also changed significantly with tree height. Leaf properties had simple and significant relationships with tree height, with few intra- and interspecies differences. Our results therefore suggest that the photosynthetic capacity of dipterocarp trees depends on tree height, and that the trees adapt to the light environment by adjusting their leaf morphological and biochemical properties. These results should aid in developing models that can accurately estimate carbon dioxide flux and biomass production in tropical rain forests.

  9. Leaf anatomy and subgeneric affiliations of C3 and C4 species of Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.D.; Schenk, H.J.; Thorsch, J.A.; Ferren, W.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The halophytic genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) includes species with the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. North American species of this genus were investigated to determine whether C3 and C4 leaf anatomy are consistent within the two sections of Suaeda, Chenopodina and Limbogermen, present on this continent. All species from section Chenopodina were found to possess C3 anatomy, whereas all species from section Limbogermen were found to be C4 species. Characteristics of leaf anatomy and chloroplast ultrastructure are similar to those reported from C3 and C4 species, respectively, from the Eastern Hemisphere. All species from section Limbogermen have the suaedoid type of leaf anatomy, characterized by differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade parenchyma and a chlorenchymatous sheath surrounding central water-storage tissue, as well as leaf carbon isotope ratios of above -20. All species from section Chenopodina have austrobassioid leaf anatomy without a chlorenchymatous sheath and leaf carbon isotope ratio values of below -20. According to our literature review, the photosynthetic pathway has now been reported for about half (44) of the Suaeda species worldwide. The C3 and C4 photosynthetic syndromes are with few exceptions distributed along sectional or subsectional lines. These findings throw new light on the infrageneric taxonomy of this genus

  10. William L. Donn 1918-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    William L. Donn, Professor Emeritus of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, City College of New York, and Special Research Scientist at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO) of Columbia University (Palisades, N.Y.), died at his home on June 30, 1987, at the age of 69. Bill demonstrated expertise in a wide range of fields, with a highly productive and creative research and writing career that included geology, oceanography, climatology, atmospheric physics, and meteorology.Donn was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., on March 2, 1918. At the tender age of 10 years, he demonstrated his love and talent for science by building a telescope with his brother, Bertram. During his undergraduate years at Brooklyn College, he switched his major from astronomy to geology. He was largely selftrained in both meteorology and oceanography, serving as head of the Meteorology Section, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy during World War II . One by-product of these years was the textbook Meteorology—With Marine Applications, first published in 1946. This widely adopted text became a standard for a generation of mariners and college students.

  11. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Global climate change model natural climate variation: Paleoclimate data base, probabilities and astronomic predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University at Palisades, New York, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory it is a part of a larger project of global climate studies which supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and forms part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work under the PASS Program is currently focusing on the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and is under the overall direction of the Yucca Mountain Project Office US Department of Energy, Las Vegas, Nevada. The final results of the PNL project will provide input to global atmospheric models designed to test specific climate scenarios which will be used in the site specific modeling work of others. The primary purpose of the data bases compiled and of the astronomic predictive models is to aid in the estimation of the probabilities of future climate states. The results will be used by two other teams working on the global climate study under contract to PNL. They are located at and the University of Maine in Orono, Maine, and the Applied Research Corporation in College Station, Texas. This report presents the results of the third year`s work on the global climate change models and the data bases describing past climates.

  13. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the lower epidermis whereas Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides showed the presence of mucilage gland in the upper epidermis. Epidermal cell of Chromolaena odorata are very large with undulating cell walls. The species studied had various adaptive anatomical features. The stomatal frequency of Azadirachta indica was very high. With the exception of Chromolaena odorata the stomatal frequencies of the species were relatively high. The stomatal dimensions showed that most of the species maintained constant stomatal length during the study period except Griffonia simplicifolia that increased the stomatal width during the afternoon. Unlike Morinda lucida, Griffonia simplicifolia and Chromolaena odorata, that showed reduction in the breadth of stomata, the other species maintained constant stomatal width.

  15. The Importance of the KR-Rich Region of the Coat Protein of Ourmia melon virus for Host Specificity, Tissue Tropism, and Interference With Antiviral Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marika; Vallino, Marta; Abbà, Simona; Ciuffo, Marina; Balestrini, Raffaella; Genre, Andrea; Turina, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the Ourmia melon virus (OuMV) coat protein (CP) contains a short lysine/arginine-rich (KR) region. By alanine scanning mutagenesis, we showed that the KR region influences pathogenicity and virulence of OuMV without altering viral particle assembly. A mutant, called OuMV6710, with three basic residue substitutions in the KR region, was impaired in the ability to maintain the initial systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and to infect both cucumber and melon plants systemically. The integrity of this protein region was also crucial for encapsidation of viral genomic RNA; in fact, certain mutations within the KR region partially compromised the RNA encapsidation efficiency of the CP. In Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, OuMV6710 was impaired in particle accumulation; however, this phenotype was abolished in dcl2/dcl4 and dcl2/dcl3/dcl4 Arabidopsis mutants defective for antiviral silencing. Moreover, in contrast to CPwt, in situ immunolocalization experiments indicated that CP6710 accumulates efficiently in the spongy mesophyll tissue of infected N. benthamiana and A. thaliana leaves but only occasionally infects palisade tissues. These results provided strong evidence of a crucial role for OuMV CP during viral infection and highlighted the relevance of the KR region in determining tissue tropism, host range, pathogenicity, and RNA affinity, which may be all correlated with a possible CP silencing-suppression activity.

  16. Tlx and Pax6 co-operate genetically to establish the pallio-subpallial boundary in the embryonic mouse telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Jan; Yu, Ruth T; Evans, Ronald M; Campbell, Kenneth

    2003-03-01

    We have examined the role of Tlx, an orphan nuclear receptor, in dorsal-ventral patterning of the mouse telencephalon. Tlx is expressed broadly in the ventricular zone, with the exception of the dorsomedial and ventromedial regions. The expression spans the pallio-subpallial boundary, which separates the dorsal (i.e. pallium) and ventral (i.e. subpallium) telencephalon. Despite being expressed on both sides of the pallio-subpallial boundary, Tlx homozygous mutants display alterations in the development of this boundary. These alterations include a dorsal shift in the expression limits of certain genes that abut at the pallio-subpallial boundary as well as the abnormal formation of the radial glial palisade that normally marks this boundary. The Tlx mutant phenotype is similar to, but less severe than, that seen in Small eye (i.e. Pax6) mutants. Interestingly, removal of one allele of Pax6 on the homozygous Tlx mutant background significantly worsens the phenotype. Thus Tlx and Pax6 cooperate genetically to regulate the establishment of the pallio-subpallial boundary. The patterning defects in the Tlx mutant telencephalon result in a loss of region-specific gene expression in the ventral-most pallial region. This correlates well with the malformation of the lateral and basolateral amygdala in Tlx mutants, both of which have been suggested to derive from ventral portions of the pallium.

  17. Practical PRA applications at Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Consumers Power Company has completed two probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), one each at its Big Rock Point and Midland plants and is in the process of performing a third study at its Palisades Plant. Each PRA is summarized briefly in this paper. Each PRA has been used to evaluate specific plant design features and make operating and design recommendations to plant and Company management as well as to the regulator. This paper is a sumary of those issues on which Consumers Power Company has applied PRAs to date. The technique used in applying PRA to these issues has varied as more was learned about the plants from the PRA and about PRA itself. Some issue resolutions involved deriving technical arguments from small parts of the PRA only, such as the logic models or consequence analysis. Still others required use of the entire PRA including sequence quantification, plant and containment response, consequence analysis and eventually cost-benefit evaluation of proposed resolutions. The benefits derived from these analyses have also varied and include not only a perceived reduction in the risks associated with plant operation but also economic benefit to the Company in that cost-effective alternatives to resolving safety issues have been permitted

  18. Leaf-morphology-assisted selection for resistance to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variations in DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4, and methylated histone H3 during Pinus radiata needle maturation in relation to the loss of in vitro organogenic capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Meijón, Mónica; Hasbún, Rodrigo; Jesús Cañal, Maria; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2010-03-15

    Needle differentiation is a very complex process associated with the formation of a mature photosynthetic organ. From meristem differentiation to leaf maturation, gene control must play an important role switching required genes on and off to define tissue functions, with the epigenetic code being one of the main regulation mechanisms. In this work, we examined the connections between the variation in the levels of some epigenetic players (DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4 and histone H3 methylation at Lys 4 and Lys 9) at work during needle maturation. Our results indicate that needle maturation, which is associated with a decrease in organogenic capability, is related to an increase in heterochromatin-related epigenetic markers (high DNA methylation and low acetylated histone H4 levels, and the presence of histone H3 methylated at lys 9). Immunohistochemical analyses also showed that the DNA methylation of palisade parenchyma cell layers during the transition from immature to mature scions is associated with the loss of the capacity to induce adventitious organs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Daniel J. [Geostock Sandia, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Newark Basin is a Triassic-aged rift basin underlying densely populated, industrialized sections of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Basin is an elongate half-graben encompassing an area of more than 7,510 square-kilometers (2,900 square-miles), and could represent a key storage component for commercial scale management of carbon dioxide emissions via geologic sequestration. The project team first acquired published reports, surface and subsurface maps, and seismic data, which formed the basis for a three-dimensional model framework for the northern end of the Basin incorporating stratigraphic, hydrologic, and water quality data. Field investigations included drilling, coring, and logging of two stratigraphic test borings in Clarkstown, NY (Exit 14 Tandem Lot Well No. 1), drilled to a depth of 2,099 meters (6,885 feet); and Palisades, NY (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well No. 4) drilled to a depth of 549 meters (1,802 feet). Two two-dimensional seismic reflection data lines arrayed perpendicularly were acquired by Schlumberger/WesternGeco to help characterize the structure and stratigraphy and as part of pre-drilling field screening activities for the deep stratigraphic borehole. A total of 47 meters (155 feet) of continuous whole core was recovered from the Tandem Lot boring from depths of 1,393 meters (4,570 feet) to 1,486 meters (4,877 feet). Twenty-five horizontal rotary cores were collected in mudstones and sandstones in the surface casing hole and fifty-two cores were taken in various lithologies in the deep borehole. Rotary core plugs were analyzed by Weatherford Laboratories for routine and advanced testing. Rotary core plug trim end thin sections were evaluated by the New York State Museum for mineralogical analysis and porosity estimation. Using core samples, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory designed and completed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling analyses to characterize the dissolution and reaction of carbon

  2. Iron Age Settlement at Blackstone, Worcestershire: Excavations 1972, 1973, and 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hurst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photography in 1957 resulted in the discovery of a rectangular double-ditched enclosure overlooking the Severn floodplain near Bewdley, Worcestershire (UK. Excavation in the 1970s, in advance of gravel extraction, provided limited evidence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age activity prior to occupation in the later Iron Age, when the enclosure was established. This comprised a ditch and bank, and later a palisade and ditch, with single and double portal gateways respectively, and with buildings internally. Pottery and briquetage indicate trading links with the wider region, respectively with west and north Worcestershire, and with Droitwich. The main Iron Age occupation is dated from the 2nd century into the 1st century BC. By the 3rd-4th centuries AD the site was apparently cultivated, as small quantities of Romano-British pottery were scattered across it, probably as a result of manuring arable fields associated with a nearby, but as yet unlocated, settlement. Similarly, in the medieval and post-medieval periods a thin scatter of finds in the overlying soils indicated further agricultural activity. Unusually, the 1979 Iron Age site structural analysis has been largely retained in the current report without full revision but accompanied by a separate modern commentary, allied with the updated finds and environmental reporting, and overall discussion.

  3. Comparative Anatomy of Myosoton Aquaticum and Stellaria Media and its Systematic Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Bai, L.; Zhou, X.; Wu, L.; Liao, H.

    2016-01-01

    To provide evidence insight into the phylogenetic position of the Myosoton Monch., the anatomy of Myosoton aquaticum and Stellaria media were comparatively observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anatomy of M. aquaticum and St. media is that (1) Root is composed of uniseriate epidermis, parenchyma cortex, endodermis, pericycle and central cylinder, and primary xylem of root is tetrarch. (2) Stem epidermis is arranged in closeness and parallel, and has distinct shuttle-shape tuber. (3) Leaf is dorsiventral mesophyll with palisade layer and spongy parenchyma. (4) Anomocytic type of stomatas are found in the epidermis of the leaf, stem and sepal. (5) Pollen is single and spheroidal. A number of germ pores are completely sunken, papillate and polypantoporate. (6) Crassuliod type of seeds have simple papillae and no strophiole is observed. Seed coat is rounded shape minute secondary sculpturing with an outer surface formed by foveolate epidermal walls. (7) From the globular floral primordium develop to complete bisexual flower, the process of floral initiation is nearly the same. The result supports that: the higher similarity in organ anatomy and floral ontogeny of M. aquaticum and St. media, justifies it is appropriate that Myosoton aquaticum belongs to Stellaria. (author)

  4. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Biswajit, E-mail: bdeychem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-04-15

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  5. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Biswajit; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  6. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Rare pneumoconiosis induced by long-term amorphous silica exposure: the histological characteristics and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 as an antifibrogenic mediator in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Toshio; Akaike, Yasushi; Nakamura, Osamu; Yamazaki, Kazuma; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Takemura, Tamiko

    2011-11-01

    Pneumoconiosis induced by non-crystalline silica is considered rare, although silicosis resulting from contact with crystalline silica is a well-known hazard associated with progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Here we describe a patient with pneumoconiosis induced by diatomaceous earth composed of amorphous silica detected by two-dimensional imaging of chemical elements. The histology revealed that the disease was characterized by a granulomatous reaction in the lung. A large number of macrophages laden with yellow and black pigments accumulated in alveolar spaces and were incorporated into the interstitial sites. Bronchiolar walls were destroyed by palisade macrophages, suggesting airflow obstruction. Packed macrophages adhering to and covering the denuded interstitium indicated that macrophages might be incorporated into pulmonary interstitium in this fashion. Immunohistochemistry showed that cyclooxygenase-2, an antifibrogenic mediator, was intensely expressed in the macrophages compared with macrophages in control lungs. No birefringent material was found in the tissues. When two-dimensional analysis of chemical elements was performed using an electron probe microanalyzer with a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer, the resultant fine mapping of silicon and oxygen on the tissue indicated that the pigments phagocytosed by macrophages corresponded to amorphous silica. In conclusion, two-dimensional analysis of elements is very useful for pathologists in correlating the presence of chemical elements with histological changes. © 2011 The Authors. Pathology International © 2011 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Morpho-anatomy of the leaf of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemes Veiga Pacheco-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Myrciaria glomerata O. Berg., Myrtaceae, popularly known as "cabeludinha", has high content of ascorbic acid and anti-inflammatory property and is used in folk medicine. The objectives of this study were the morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaves. Leaf studies were made with optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The collection of botanical material was held at the Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Histochemical tests aimed the identification of lipids, starch grains, phenolic compounds and crystals. The leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate, pinnate, hairy, with involute margins, hypostomatic and dorsiventral. The stomata are anomocytic. The epidermis presents simple trichomes. Epidermal cells show uneven thickening of their periclinal outer walls, mainly on the adaxial side of the leaf. Secretory cavities of essential oils are subepidermal and exceed, in height, the palisade parenchyma, formed by one cell layer. Four to five cellular layers, rich in phenolic compounds and lipids form the spongy parenchyma. The bundles are collateral and there are many crystals of calcium oxalate spread throughout the mesophyll. In the midrib and petiole the bundles are bicollateral. Analysis by scanning electron revealed epicuticular wax rod-shaped and as grains. In confocal microscopy, the adaxial epidermis, the fibers and the secretory epithelium of the cavities show autofluorescence. The data obtained are important in quality control exams of samples of this species.

  10. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  11. CE/Bechtel design containment response to severe accident phenomenology: A comparison among several combustion engineering plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Schneider, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: (1) discuss the types of severe accident phenomena that drive containment failure modes in CE plants and (2) contribute to the current state of knowledge of CE/Bechtel-design containment response to severe accident phenomenology. The second objective is addressed by providing a comparative study of containment response to severe accidents among several CE plants including Millstone Unit 2 (MP2), Palisades (Consumers Power), Calvert Cliffs (Baltimore Gas and Electric Company), Palo Verde (Arizona Public Service), and SONGS Units 2 and 3 (Southern California Edison). The motivation for addressing the second objective is based on the current lack of comprehensive literature on CE/Bechtel design containment failure modes and mechanisms for accidents that progress beyond the design basis limits. The first part of this paper addresses severe accident phenomena-related failure mechanisms in CE/Bechtel-designed containments. The second part of this work provides a comparative study of containment response among several CE plants

  12. Selection during crop diversification involves correlated evolution of the circadian clock and ecophysiological traits in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkhunova, Yulia; Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; Baker, Robert L; Aston, Timothy Llewellyn; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Crop selection often leads to dramatic morphological diversification, in which allocation to the harvestable component increases. Shifts in allocation are predicted to impact (as well as rely on) physiological traits; yet, little is known about the evolution of gas exchange and related anatomical features during crop diversification. In Brassica rapa, we tested for physiological differentiation among three crop morphotypes (leaf, turnip, and oilseed) and for correlated evolution of circadian, gas exchange, and phenological traits. We also examined internal and surficial leaf anatomical features and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Crop types differed in gas exchange; oilseed varieties had higher net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance relative to vegetable types. Phylogenetically independent contrasts indicated correlated evolution between circadian traits and both gas exchange and biomass accumulation; shifts to shorter circadian period (closer to 24 h) between phylogenetic nodes are associated with higher stomatal conductance, lower photosynthetic rate (when CO2 supply is factored out), and lower biomass accumulation. Crop type differences in gas exchange are also associated with stomatal density, epidermal thickness, numbers of palisade layers, and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Brassica crop diversification involves correlated evolution of circadian and physiological traits, which is potentially relevant to understanding mechanistic targets for crop improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Remote sensing of changes in morphology and physiology of trees under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.; Rohde, W. G.; Ward, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Results of continuing studies of forest trees subjected to varying types of stress are reported. Both greenhouse and field studies are included. Greenhouse work with tree seedlings exposed to varying levels of NaCl and CaCl2 in the soil indicated that, in the initial stages, palisade cells shrink and the amount of air space in the leaf increases. As the severity of damage increases, the cells of the spongy mesophyll shrink and flatten, and the amount of air space in the leaf decreases. Statistical analysis of foliar reflectance and associated moisture content data led to a series of regression equations for predicting foliar moisture content from reflectance data. Equations were calculated for three species, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) having multiple correlation coefficients of 0.98, 0.94 and 0.93 respectively. Interpretation of multispectral imagery of the Ann Arbor Forestry Test Site (NASA Site 190) provided evidence that infections of Fomes annosus can be detected in the early stages. Infections of two needle cast diseases were also detected in conifer plantations in the test site. A study of automatic interpretation of multispectral scanner imagery for tree species recognition provided encouraging results.

  15. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BENIGN FLECK RETINA USING MULTIMODAL IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriyanuri, Srividya; Rao, Chetan; Raman, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    To report structural and functional features in a case series of benign fleck retina using multimodal imaging. Four cases with benign fleck retina underwent complete ophthalmic examination that included detailed history, visual acuity, and refractive error testing, FM-100 hue test, dilated fundus evaluation, full field electroretinogram, fundus photography with autofluorescence, fundus fluorescein angiography, and swept-source optical coherence tomography. Age group of the cases ranged from 19 years to 35 years (3 males and 1 female). Parental consanguinity was reported in two cases. All of them were visually asymptomatic with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 (moderate astigmatism) in both the eyes. Low color discrimination was seen in two cases. Fundus photography showed pisciform flecks which were compactly placed on posterior pole and were discrete, diverging towards periphery. Lesions were seen as smaller dots within 1500 microns from fovea and were hyperfluorescent on autofluorescence. Palisading retinal pigment epithelium defects were seen in posterior pole on fundus fluorescein angiography imaging; irregular hyper fluorescence was also noted. One case had reduced cone responses on full field electroretinogram; the other three cases had normal electroretinogram. On optical coherence tomography, level of lesions varied from retinal pigment epithelium, inner segment to outer segment extending till external limiting membrane. Functional and structural deficits in benign fleck retina were picked up using multimodal imaging.

  16. Economic and Market Challenges Facing the U.S. Nuclear Commercial Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, Phil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kee, Edward [Nuclear Economics Consulting Group, Washington, DC (United States); Davis, Edward [Nuclear Economics Consulting Group, Washington, DC (United States); Grecheck, Eugene [Grecheck Consulting LLC, Midlothian, VA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report identifies underlying economic and electricity market factors that have led to early retirements of U.S. operating nuclear power plants, assesses the Gap between operating revenues and operating costs for selected nuclear power plants, and discusses a range of actions that might be taken to stop early retirement of operating nuclear power plants. The Kewaunee and Vermont Yankee nuclear power plants were retired early for economic and financial reasons. Early retirement has been announced or proposed for Clinton and Quad Cities in Illinois, Fitzpatrick and Ginna in New York, Fort Calhoun in Nebraska. Other nuclear power plants, including Palisades, Davis-Besse, Prairie Island, and Three Mile Island Unit 1, have been identified as facing financial stress that might lead to early retirement. The early retirement of operating nuclear power plants will mean the loss of a large amount of zero-emission electricity, inconsistent with the goal of reducing carbon emissions in the electricity sector. This report provides a high-level view of the major factors driving early retirement: • The U.S. market and private ownership approach to the electricity sector; • Low electricity market prices resulting from low natural gas prices, low demand growth, increased penetration of renewable generation, and negative electricity market prices; and • No compensation to nuclear power plants for public benefits including zero-emission electricity.

  17. Morphology and Anatomy Characteristic of Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Sunandar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the origin and center of diversity of banana. One of an edible banana in Indonesia is Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak . In West Kalimantan, the ripe Pisang Awak has been processed into sale (dried banana. The aims of this research were to describe the morphological and anatomical character of Pisang Awak in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this study, Pisang Awak were collected from Padang Tikar I village, Batu Ampar Sub-district, Kubu Raya district, West Kalimantan. Morphological characterizations were conducted by following the instruction on Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp. from IPGRI. The root, leaf blade, and petiole were fixed in FAA solution. Root, leaf, and petiole anatomy preparats were made by paraffin method. The lamina of Pisang Awak consisted of adaxial epidermis, two hypodermis layers, two palisade layers, spongy layer, bundle sheath cell, abaxial epidermis, laticifer. The petiole of Pisang Awak composed of three tissue systems, i.e., epidermis layer, parenchyma tissue and vascular tissue. The root of Pisang Awak consists of two epidermis layers, parenchyma and vascular cylinder. In the future, morphological and anatomical character in Pisang Awak could be applied as the basis of information for breeding programs of banana cultivars and classification.

  18. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  19. Foliar spray of sodium antagonistic essential mineral elements- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plants growing under saline environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Jabeen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Plants growing at saline substrate practice deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements, which are necessary for growth. Potassium being essential mineral element is much effected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria (var. Loki) being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plant growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray materials containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Growth of plants in terms of leaf area is being monitored at present. Some preliminary experiments show betterment in production of fruits in plants undergoing foliar spray. This hypothesis has opened a new chapter demanding series of experiments dealing with recipe of spray materials, mechanism of minerals uptake through stomata, participation of absorbed minerals in metabolic activities around palisade tissue probably by activating potassium dependent enzyme system which otherwise is blocked by replaced sodium, translocation of these minerals from leaves through petiole in rest of plants and overall effect of such spray on vegetative as well as reproductive growth in plants under saline environment. Some of this work is in progress. (author)

  20. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents.

  1. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  2. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-09-01

    Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (ε(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ¹⁰⁰(π)) (and at zero turgor (Ψ⁰(π)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  4. Plexiform (multinodular) schwannoma of soft palate. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Petousis, Aristotelis; Fiska, Aliki; Stavrianaki, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the neural sheath characterized by a multinodular plexiform growth pattern. Only 5% of schwannomas have a plexiform or multinodular growth pattern. Schwannoma apparently derives from the Schwann cells. Extracranially, 25% of all schwannomas are located in the head and neck region, but only 1% show an intraoral origin. The intraoral lesions show a predilection for the tongue, followed by the palate, buccal mucosa, lip and gingival. Microscopic examination is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Characteristic histological signs are the palisading of the spindle-shaped Schwann cells around the central acellular area, so called Verocay bodies. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with a smooth mass of the soft palate that was gradually increasing. Surgical excision of the mass was done and the histopathology and immunohistochemistry study of the excised lesion revealed a multinodular plexiform schwannoma of the soft palate. The patient is under regular clinical control, with no signs of recurrence after 17 months. Plexiform schwannomas of the soft palate are mentioned very rarely in the English literature. This rare benign tumor is worthy of recognition because it can be misdiagnosed as plexiform neurofibroma.

  5. Economic and Market Challenges Facing the U.S. Nuclear Commercial Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, Ronaldo; Sharpe, Phil; Kee, Edward; Davis, Edward; Grecheck, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This report identifies underlying economic and electricity market factors that have led to early retirements of U.S. operating nuclear power plants, assesses the Gap between operating revenues and operating costs for selected nuclear power plants, and discusses a range of actions that might be taken to stop early retirement of operating nuclear power plants. The Kewaunee and Vermont Yankee nuclear power plants were retired early for economic and financial reasons. Early retirement has been announced or proposed for Clinton and Quad Cities in Illinois, Fitzpatrick and Ginna in New York, Fort Calhoun in Nebraska. Other nuclear power plants, including Palisades, Davis-Besse, Prairie Island, and Three Mile Island Unit 1, have been identified as facing financial stress that might lead to early retirement. The early retirement of operating nuclear power plants will mean the loss of a large amount of zero-emission electricity, inconsistent with the goal of reducing carbon emissions in the electricity sector. This report provides a high-level view of the major factors driving early retirement: • The U.S. market and private ownership approach to the electricity sector; • Low electricity market prices resulting from low natural gas prices, low demand growth, increased penetration of renewable generation, and negative electricity market prices; and • No compensation to nuclear power plants for public benefits including zero-emission electricity.

  6. Temporary corneal stem cell dysfunction after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi, Fujishima; Kazuo, Tsubota

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy can cause corneal and conjuctival abnormalities that sometimes require surgical treatment. Corneal stem cell dysfunction is described, which recovered after the cessation of radiation. Methods - A 44-year-old man developed a corneal epithelial abnormality associated with conjuctival and corneal inflammation following radiation therapy for maxillary cancer. Examination of brush cytology samples showed goblet cells in the upper and lower parts of the cornea, which showed increased fluorescein permeability, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Impression cytology showed goblet cells in the same part of the cornea. Specular microscopy revealed spindle type epithelial cells. Patient follow up included artificial tears and an antibiotic ophthalmic ointment. The corneal abnormalities resolved after 4 months with improved visual acuity without any surgical intervention, but the disappearance of the palisades of Vogt did not recover at 1 year after radiation. Radiation therapy in this patient caused temporary stem cell dysfunction which resulted in conjunctivalisation in a part of the cornea. Although limbal stem cell function did not fully recover, this rare case suggested that medical options should be considered before surgery. (Author)

  7. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  8. Research into microscopic structure and essential oils of endemic medicinal plant species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejman Redžić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we looked into the cells and histological organization of leaves (Saturejae folium as well as a phyto-chemical composition of overground parts (Saturejae herba of endemic species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae collected during year 2003 on south slopes of mountain Velez in Herzegovina. Microscopic organization was analyzed in wet slides using light microscope. Estimation of stomata index was done according to Ph. Yug. IV. Chemical composition of overground material extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC using thymol as a reference. In our research we found the following: Leaf structure of the analyzed species Satureja subspicata points at numerous specificities in anatomical and histological sense. In histological sense, leaf is of ventral type, with differentiated upper and lower epidermis and palisade and spongy tissue in between. Stoma index assigned according to Ph. Yug. IV leads to a conclusion that it is the case of diastitic stomata, which is common feature of most species from Lamiaceae family. Comparative qualitative analysis of essential oils in species Satureja subspicata showed similarities with other species from Lamiaceae family such as Thymus L. (thymol. In fact, we found more common substances that are part of the species Satureja montana L. extract, but in different concentrations.

  9. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  10. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2014-11-21

    The monospecific scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879 was originally described from Al-Qusayr (Egypt) in the Red Sea based on a series of solitary specimens. Thenceforth, it has been considered a junior synonym of Symphyllia and Cynarina based on corallum macromorphology. In this study, several specimens of Sclerophyllia margariticola were collected on the coasts of Saudi Arabia in the northern and central Red Sea. Four molecular markers were sequenced, COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and l-rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and Histone H3 and ribosomal ITS2 from nuclear DNA. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype network analyses show that S. margariticola belongs to the family Lobophylliidae and that it is closely related to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters, such as the presence of free septa, high elliptical septal teeth perpendicular to the septal margin, irregular lobate tips, very wide tooth spacing, a very strong granulation with granules scattered all along the septal sides, and a palisade interarea structure, and their micromorphology differs substantially from that of Acanthastrea echinata, the type species of Acanthastrea. Therefore, we formally resurrect Sclerophyllia, provide a revised diagnosis for the genus, and move A. maxima into Sclerophyllia.

  11. Small anthropomorphic figurines in clay at Ģipka Neolithic settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Biruta Loze

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Miniature Neolithic figurines in clay are a special topic of research. This especially concerns areas where their representation has so far been poor. While carrying out archaeological excavations in Northern Kurzeme, the north-west coastal dune zone of Rīga Bay, a ritual-like complex was recovered at Ģipka A site belonging to the local Culture of Pit Ceramics. It consists of several large and smaller fireplaces and pits, with the finds of fragmentary clay figurines recovered under the palisade that surrounded the settlement. The head and body of the miniature anthropomorphic figurines in clay have original modelling. It is possible to single out two types of figurine: with rather broad cheekbones, and oval modelling of face. The large amount of ochre found in the settlement and the purposeful breaking of figurines are evidence of their role during a rite. Clay figurines have a symbolic meaning, and the signs depicted on them, incised walking stick-shape and other motifs, are the symbols of early farmers.

  12. Minute-made and low carbon fingerprint microwave synthesis of high quality templated mesoporous silica

    KAUST Repository

    Chaignon, J.; Bouizi, Y.; Davin, L.; Calin, N.; Albela, B.; Bonneviot, L.

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Hexagonal mesostructured templated silicas were produced in less than 10 minutes using an ultra-fast microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Typically, 10 g can be prepared at once in a commercial microwave device usually devoted to analytical digestion. Undesired alcohol side-products were avoided using inexpensive water colloidal silica instead of silicon alkoxides as the silicon source. In comparison with classical heating activation, the absence of pore expansion and pore wall thickening even for synthesis temperatures as high as 190 °C evidenced that heat transfer and diffusion of matter had no time to take place. Comparison between the chemically extracted and calcined samples shows that the structure was better stabilized for autoclaving above 150 °C. However, a fast temperature ramping and final temperatures above 180 °C were required to sear structures of the highest quality comparable to that of the best conventional methods. This is rationalized by assuming a sequential flake-by-flake assembly of the pore-wall at the micelle palisade. Notably, tosylate counterions yielded better structural characteristics than bromide counterions and allowed better opportunities for surfactant recycling.

  13. Keragaman suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus di wilayah eks karesidenan Surakarta berdasarkan karakter morfologi, anatomi dan pola pita isozim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONARITA PERMATASARI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Permatasari, Pitoyo A, Suratman. 2014. Keragaman suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus di wilayah eks karesidenan Surakarta berdasarkan karakter morfologi, anatomi dan pola pita isozim. Bioteknologi 11: 11-18. The aims of this research were to find out the diversity and relationship among elephant yam in Surakarta region based on variation of morphological, anatomical and isozyme banding patterns characters. Total 20 samples were taken using random purposive sampling technique in different altitude of 7 districts. Morphological, anatomical and isozyme banding pattern data were analyzed descriptively. The steady data of quantitative characteristic from morphological, anatomical and isozyme banding pattern of binary data was analyzed using an Index of Similarity (IS and computed by the program Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System (NTSYS version 2.10. The result showed that the elephant yam in Surakarta region were diverse based on morphological, anatomical and isozyme banding pattern, especially in ratio and color of petiolus; tuber ratio; index of stomatal; thick epidermis; thick mesophyll; term and ratio of palisade; term rafida; 4 peroxidase and 5 esterase isozyme banding pattern. Analysis of relationship of elephant yam based on morphological, anatomical and isozyme band pattern characters showed the similarity coefficient of 64,85% contained two major group. The first group consist of Boyolali 1, Boyolali 3, Boyolali 4, Wonogiri 4, Wonogiri 2, Karanganyar 1, Karanganyar 2, Karanganyar 3, Sragen 2, while the other samples were separated from this group.

  14. Symphyotrichum ciliatum an Invasive Species in the Romanian Flora – Contributions to the Knowledge of the Vegetative Organs Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sârbu Anca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Ledeb. G.L. Nesom is an adventive plant first reported in Romania in 1967, which has spread rapidly over the last few decades in Moldova, Muntenia and, more recently, in Transylvania. Although the species has been known for a while in Europe and Romania, there is no information about the anatomy of the vegetative organs of this invasive taxon. This paper presents a series of structural aspects of the vegetative body, of Symphyotrichum ciliatum collected from a sandy and salty substrate (Sacalin Island - Danube Delta. These demonstrate the ability of this plant to adapt to the environment and its capacity to achieve a wide spread. As such, although this plant is an annual species, the root and stem achieve secondary growth in their width, which offers robustness to the corm; the palisade tissue has an ecvifacial disposition which enhances efficiency in capturing light, especially on sandy soil that reflects light; there are aeriferous and aquiferous formations that ensure efficiency in adapting to a wet and relatively salty environment. These results are documented by original photographs of optical microscopy and a distribution map of the taxon in Romania as at 2011.

  15. Churg-Strauss Syndrome Following Vaccination Against 2010 Influenza A (H1N1): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mu-Hui; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Lan, Jui; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Lee, Lian-Hui; Huang, Chih-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by asthma, transient pulmonary infiltration, hyper-eosinophilia, and systemic vasculitis. Reported triggering factors include infections, drugs, allergic desensitization, and vaccinations, although cases involving the latter two are extremely rare. Herein, we describe a patient who developed CSS after receiving an H1N1 vaccination. A 55-year-old woman presented with fever, skin eruptions, and sensory impairment of her feet within one week after an H1N1 vaccine injection. A chest X-ray showed pulmonary infiltrations in both lower lung fields. Eosinophilia was noted in a hematological test, and an electrophysiological study revealed a pattern of mononeuritis multiplex. A skin biopsy was performed which revealed palisading necrotizing granuloma around a degenerated dermis and eosinophilic infiltration of the blood vessel walls. These findings combined with the hematological and electrophysiological findings met the criteria of CSS according to the American College of Rheumatology. The patient recovered well after steroid treatment. This case highlights the possibility that the H1N1 vaccination can trigger CSS. Due to the rarity of reported autoimmune events after vaccine administration and the obscure causal association between autoimmunity and a vaccine, further post-marketing surveillance and research are necessary to clarify the relationship and identify risk factors.

  16. Florid Granuloma Annulare-Like Reaction in Regional Lymph Nodes After "Regression" of Red Pigment in Tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael D; Trites, Jonathan; McNeil, Shelly A; Walsh, Noreen N M; Bullock, Martin J

    2018-05-01

    A healthy 50-year-old woman had a tattoo performed on the posterior aspect of her neck and another on the dorsum of her left foot. Several weeks later, she noted redness, tenderness, and intense pruritis at both tattoo sites. Treatment with cephalexin and hydrocortisone cream was instituted, without success. Within a few months, the red, but not black, pigment had disappeared from both tattoos and was replaced by pale areas of scarring. Persistently enlarged left supraclavicular and suboccipital lymph nodes were excised 7 and 10 months after receipt of the tattoos, respectively. The nodes were pigmented on gross examination, and on microscopy, a granuloma annulare-like reaction was observed. Normal lymphoid tissue was seen to be replaced by large palisading granulomas with central degenerative change, abundant stromal mucin, and scattered deposits of tattoo pigment. Histochemical stains, tissue culture, and serological studies revealed no evidence of infection. There are rare reports of granuloma annulare-like reactions in tattoos, and these are believed to represent delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Our case is unique in the observation of this reaction pattern in regional lymph nodes, and it expands the spectrum of complications known to be associated with tattoos.

  17. Using employee involvement in upgrading radiological work practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.

    1987-01-01

    Following the shutdown of the Midland Plant in 1984, Consumers Power Company found itself with a need to reorganize its nuclear operations department (NOD). The NOD support staff no longer needed to be located in the company headquarters and was integrated into the Palisades Plant organization. In an attempt to understand the problems confronting the plant, the new organization set up a group of meetings for each department to identify barriers to becoming a high-performance organization. In addition to the barrier meetings, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) assisted in identifying additional problem areas during their normal inspection. Support was also provided by INPO during an assist visit in early 1985. That assist visit provided new ideas as well as impetus and credibility to many of the planned corrective actions determined from the barrier meetings. Corrective actions were collected, placed on a punch list, and worked off over an 18-month period. The results of these actions have been encouraging. The number and significance of NRC violations and NPO findings have been reduced. Radwaste generation and auxiliary building contamination have decreased significantly. Costs have been reduced due to reductions in staff, contract services, and radioactive waste. The most significant improvements have been in worker morale and increased cooperation from other plant departments

  18. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  20. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  2. IDH1-associated primary glioblastoma in young adults displays differential patterns of tumour and vascular morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Popov

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive tumour with marked heterogeneity at the morphological level in both the tumour cells and the associated highly prominent vasculature. As we begin to develop an increased biological insight into the underlying processes driving the disease, fewer attempts have thus far been made to understand these phenotypic differences. We sought to address this by carefully assessing the morphological characteristics of both the tumour cells and the associated vasculature, relating these observations to the IDH1/MGMT status, with a particular focus on the early onset population of young adults who develop primary glioblastoma. 276 primary glioblastoma specimens were classified into their predominant cell morphological type (fibrillary, gemistocytic, giant cell, small cell, oligodendroglial, sarcomatous, and assessed for specific tumour (cellularity, necrosis, palisades and vascular features (glomeruloid structures, arcades, pericyte proliferation. IDH1 positive glioblastomas were associated with a younger age at diagnosis, better clinical outcome, prominent oligodendroglial and small cell tumour cell morphology, pallisading necrosis and glomeruloid vascular proliferation in the absence of arcade-like structures. These features widen the phenotype of IDH1 mutation-positive primary glioblastoma in young adults and provide correlative evidence for a functional role of mutant IDH1 in the differential nature of neo-angiogenesis in different subtypes of glioblastoma.

  3. Effects of the harmful gases SO/sub 2/ and HF on plant leaf structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H; Wu, Z; Wang, J; Qian, D; Li, Z

    1980-09-01

    The injury induced by SO/sub 2/ appeared progressively; cells contracted and became deformed, the protoplasm and the chloroplasts turned yellow-brown or collapsed while no effects were seen in the vascular bundles. However, the injury induced by HF were different; the cells were not deformed immediately, the protoplasm became red-brown, the mesophyll cells adjacent to stomata or vascular bundles became red-brown too, and there were no effects on chloroplasts, which did not collapse until the tissue necrosis appeared. The cells of xylem and phloem turned red-brown. The process of injury to leaf structure induced by SO/sub 2/ is discussed. It is observed that destruction of chlorophyll and the interruption of photosynthesis by SO/sub 2/ took place first in the palisade tissue, whereas the contraction and disintegration of the cells happened first in the spongy tissue. The effect of HF (the contractive collapse of chlorophyll and mesophyll) occurred after the influence on protoplasm appeared.

  4. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  5. Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress: II. Acclimation of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Mark; Murchie, Erik H; Gray, Julie E; Villegas, Daniel; Pastenes, Claudio; Pinto, Manuel; Horton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been determined. These varieties, Arroz and Orfeo, differ in their productivity under stress conditions, resistance to drought stress, and have distinctly different stomatal behaviour. When grown under conditions of high irradiance and high temperature, both varieties displayed evidence of photosynthetic acclimation at the chloroplast level-there was an increase in chlorophyll a/b ratio, a decreased content of Lhcb proteins, and an increased xanthophyll cycle pool size. Both varieties also showed reduced chlorophyll content on a leaf area basis and a decrease in leaf area. Both varieties showed an increase in leaf thickness but only Arroz showed the characteristic elongated palisade cells in the high light-grown plants; Orfeo instead had a larger number of smaller, rounded cells. Differences were found in stomatal development: whereas Arroz showed very little change in stomatal density, Orfeo exhibited a large increase, particularly on the upper leaf surface. It is suggested that these differences in leaf cell structure and stomatal density give rise to altered rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Whereas, Arroz had the same photosynthetic rate in plants grown at both low and high irradiance, Orfeo showed a higher photosynthetic capacity at high irradiance. It is suggested that the higher yield of Orfeo compared with Arroz under stress conditions can be explained, in part, by these cellular differences.

  6. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila

    2017-12-01

    The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. RETRAN analysis of inter-system LOCA within the primary coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, A.; Pratt, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    One example of an inter-system loss of coolant accident is the failure of the tubing within the primary coolant pump (PCP) thermal barrier heat exchanger. Such a failure would result in the entry of primary coolant into the component cooling water (CCW) system. The primary coolant flowrate through the break would rapidly pressurize the CCW system when the relief valves are too small. The piping in the CCW system at Palisades has a low pressure rating. Failures in this system outside the containment boundary could lead to primary coolant release to the atmosphere. RETRAN-02 was used to perform a simulation of the break in the PCP integral heat exchanger. The model included a detailed nodalization of the Byron-Jackson primary coolant pump internals leading up to the CCW system relief valves. Preliminary studies show the need for increased relief capacity in the CCW system. A case was run using a larger relief valve. Critical flow in the system upstream of the relief valves maintains the pressures in those volumes above the CCW design pressure. The pressures downstream from the relief valves and outside containment will be at or below the design pressure. This paper presents the results of the transient analysis

  8. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyo Jin; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC ( n = 122), PG ( n = 158), and PA ( n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. In this study all PCs ( n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium ( n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.

  9. The variability of leaf anatomical characteristics of Solanum nigrum L. (Solana-les, Solanaceae from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe on the whole as well as in Yugoslavia, the most widespread weed species from the genus Solanum is Solanum nigrum L. Since this species inhabits different habitats, it developed several ways of adaptation to environmental conditions. The influence of ecological factors on plant organism and resulting plant adaptations are most evident in leaf morphology and anatomy. Therefore, the anatomical structure of leaves and leaf epidermal tissue of S. nigrum was analyzed and compared among plants that originated from different habitats, in order to determine leaf structural adaptations. S. nigrum lamina has the mesomorphic structure with some xero-heliomorphic adaptations. The differences in stomata number, number of hairs, thickness of lamina, palisade and spongy tissue, as well as the size of mesophyll cells have been noticed. The highest values for most of the parameters have been recorded for the plants from cultivated soil. Largest variations of the examined characters were found for the leaves from ruderal habitats, where environmental conditions are most variable.

  10. Fast evaluation of 69 basal cell carcinomas with ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: criteria description, histopathological correlation, and interobserver agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennàssar, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Vilalta, Antoni; Malvehy, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) represents a first step toward a rapid "bedside pathology" in the Mohs surgery setting and in other fields of general pathology. To describe and validate FCM criteria for the main basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes and to demonstrate the overall agreement with classic pathologic analysis of hematoxylin-eosin-stained samples. DESIGN A total of 69 BCCs from 66 patients were prospectively imaged using ex vivo FCM. Confocal mosaics were evaluated in real time and compared with classic pathologic analysis. Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, between November 2010 and July 2011. Patients with BCC attending the Mohs Surgery Unit. Presence or absence of BCC and histological subtype (superficial, nodular, and infiltrating) in the confocal mosaics. Eight criteria for BCC were described, evaluated, and validated. Although there were minor differences among BCC subtypes, the most BCC-defining criteria were peripheral palisading, clefting, nuclear pleomorphism, and presence of stroma. These criteria were validated with independent observers (κ values >0.7 [corrected] for most criteria). We herein propose, describe, and validate FCM criteria for BCC diagnosis. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is an attractive alternative to histopathologic analysis of frozen sections during Mohs surgery because large areas of freshly excised tissue can be assessed in real time without the need for tissue processing while minimizing labor and costs.

  11. Evaluating ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy images of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excised tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, C; Rajadhyaksha, M; Ragazzi, M; Nehal, K; Gardini, S; Moscarella, E; Lallas, A; Zalaudek, I; Piana, S; Argenziano, G; Pellacani, G

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging technology for rapid imaging of excised tissue, without the need for frozen- or fixed-section processing. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be detected in Mohs excisions although few studies have described the major BCC findings as seen on FCM. To describe the major BCC findings of excised tissue during Mohs surgery and to correlate them with histopathology. Freshly excised tumours and frozen-thawed discarded tissue of BCC during Mohs surgery were analysed by means of FCM. A side-by-side correlation between FCM images and histological sections was performed. The FCM features of overlying skin and adnexal structures were also described. Sixty-four BCC cases were analysed. Distinct BCC types appeared unique in terms of shape and size of tumour islands [bigger in nodular (18/25), smaller and rounded in micronodular (7/7) and tiny cords for infiltrative ones (24/30)] and for the presence of clefting, palisading and increased nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. An excellent correlation was found between FCM and histological findings (Cohen's κ statistics = 0·9). In six cases, the presence of sebaceous glands and intense stroma reaction represented possible confounders. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is a fast and new imaging technique that allows an excellent visualization of skin structures and BCC findings during Mohs surgery. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Leaf ontogeny of Schinus molle L. plants under cadmium contamination: the meristematic origin of leaf structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcio Paulo; Corrêa, Felipe Fogaroli; de Castro, Evaristo Mauro; de Oliveira, Jean Paulo Vitor; Pereira, Fabricio José

    2017-11-01

    Previous works show the development of thicker leaves on tolerant plants growing under cadmium (Cd 2+ ) contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cd 2+ effects on the leaf meristems of the tolerant species Schinus molle. Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 10, and 50 μM of Cd 2+ . Anatomical analysis was performed on leaf primordia sampled at regular time intervals. Under the lowest Cd 2+ level (10 μM), increased ground meristem thickness, diameter of the cells, cell elongation rate, and leaf dry mass were found. However, 50 μM of Cd 2+ reduced all these variables. In addition, the ground meristem cells became larger when exposed to any Cd 2+ level. The epidermis, palisade parenchyma, and vascular tissues developed earlier in Cd 2+ -exposed leaves. The modifications found on the ground meristem may be related to the development of thicker leaves on S. molle plants exposed to low Cd 2+ levels. Furthermore, older leaves showed higher Cd 2+ content when compared to the younger ones, preventing the Cd 2+ toxicity to these leaves. Thus, low Cd 2+ concentrations change the ground meristem structure and function reflecting on the development of thicker and enhanced leaves.

  13. Development of a microfabricated artificial limbus with micropockets for cell delivery to the cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Ílida; Deshpande, Pallavi; Gill, Andrew A; MacNeil, Sheila; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a synthetic alternative to the human corneal limbus for use initially as an ex vivo model in which to study corneal stem cell function within a niche environment and ultimately to develop an implantable limbus for future clinical use. Microstereolithography was used for the fabrication of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) based rings on a macroscopic (1.2 cm) scale containing unique microfeatures (pockets) which were then modified with fibronectin to promote cell adhesion. These rings were designed to mimic the limbal area of the eye containing structures of the approximate size and shape of the stem cell microenvironments found in the palisades of Vogt. The attachment of rabbit limbal fibroblasts and rabbit limbal epithelial cells to the PEGDA rings was increased by pretreating the microfabricated structures with biotinylated fibronectin. Cell outgrowth from fibronectin coated microfabricated structures was 50% greater than from rings without structures or fibronectin coating. The cell loaded rings were then placed on an ex vivo wounded cornea model and the outgrowth of cells to form a multilayered epithelium was observed. We suggest this is a new approach to investigating limbal stem cells niches and the first steps towards a new approach for corneal regeneration. (paper)

  14. A high-performance model for shallow-water simulations in distributed and heterogeneous architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    One of the most common challenges in hydrodynamic modelling is the trade off one must make between highly resolved simulations and the time required for their computation. In the particular case of urban floods, modelers are often forced to simplify the complex geometries of the problem, or to implicitly include some of its hydrodynamic effects, due to the typically very large spatial scales involved and limited computational resources. At CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - the STAV-2D shallow-water model, particularly suited for strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries, has been under development for the past recent years (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2013). The model is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV-2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the first aiming at describing the transport of fine natural sediments and the latter aimed at large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). This work presents our most recent effort in STAV-2D: the re-design of the code in a modern Object-Oriented parallel framework for heterogeneous computations in CPUs and GPUs. The programming language of choice for this re-design was C++, due to its wide support of established and emerging parallel programming interfaces. The current implementation of STAV-2D provides two different levels of parallel granularity: inter-node and intra-node. Inter-node parallelism is achieved by distributing a simulation across a set of worker nodes, with communication between nodes being explicitly managed through MPI. At this level, the main difficulty is associated with the

  15. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  16. Ecoanatomía foliar deárboles y arbustos delos distritos chaqueños occidental y serrano (Argentina Leaf ecoanatomy of trees and shrubs from Chacoan Occidental and Serrano Districts (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Arambarri

    2011-12-01

    and distribution were analyzed. These characters are affected by intraspecific and environmental factors. The main xeromorphic traits were: presence of epicuticular waxes, striate cuticle, sunken stomata with peristomatal ridges, epidermis bi or pluristratified and/or hypodermis, whole palisade or bilateral mesophyll with palisade tissue direct toward both epidermis, and presence of sclerenchyma. Some species like: Celtis ehrenbergiana, C. iguanaea, Jodina rhombifolia, Lycium cestroides, and Parkinsonia aculeata, exhibit from xeromorphic (e.g. amphistomatic and equifacial leaves to mesomorphic characters (e.g. hypostomatic and bifacial leaves with some hydromorphic features such as absence of sclerenchyma.

  17. Staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: Usefulness of multiple b value SE-EPI diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3.0 T MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallini, Valentina; Ortori, Simona; Boraschi, Piero; Manassero, Francesca; Gabelloni, Michela; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Selli, Cesare; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a multiple b value SE-EPI sequence on a 3.0 T MR scanner for staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer candidate to radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Institutional review board approval was obtained and written informed consent was taken from all enrolled subjects. A series of 26 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer (high or intermediate risk according to D'Amico risk groups) scheduled for radical prostatectomy and PLND underwent 3 T MRI before surgery. DWI was performed using an axial respiratory-triggered spin-echo echo-planar sequence with multiple b values (500, 800, 1000, 1500 s/mm(2)) in all diffusion directions. ADC values were calculated by means of dedicated software fitting the curve obtained from the corresponding ADC for each b value. Fitted ADC measurements were performed at the level of proximal and distal external iliac, internal iliac, and obturator nodal stations bilaterally. Lymph node appearance was also assessed in terms of short axis, long-to-short axis ratio, node contour and intranodal heterogeneity of signal intensity. A total of 173 lymph nodes and 104 nodal stations were evaluated on DWI and pathologically analysed. Mean fitted ADC values were 0.79 ± 0.14 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for metastatic lymph nodes and 1.13 ± 0.29 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s in non-metastatic ones (P < 0.0001). The cut-off for fitted ADC obtained by ROC curve analysis was 0.91 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. A two-point-level score was assigned for each qualitative parameter, and the mean grading score was 6.09 ± 0.61 for metastastic lymph nodes and 5.42 ± 0.79 for non-metastatic ones, respectively (P = 0.001). Using a score threshold of 4 for morphological, structural, and dimensional MRI analysis and a cut--off value of 0.91 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for fitted ADC measurements of pelvic lymph nodes, per--station sensitivity

  18. Evaluation of Sidestream Darkfield Microscopy for Real-Time Imaging Acellular Dermal Matrix Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Brent R; Olenczak, J Bryce; Cottler, Patrick S; Drake, David B; Lin, Kant Y; Morgan, Raymond F; Campbell, Christopher A

    2016-06-01

    Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) serve as a regenerative framework for host cell integration and collagen deposition to augment the soft tissue envelope in ADM-assisted breast reconstruction-a process dependent on vascular ingrowth. To date noninvasive intra-operative imaging techniques have been inadequate to evaluate the revascularization of ADM. We investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of sidestream darkfield (SDF) microscopy to assess the status of ADM microvascular architecture in 8 patients at the time of tissue expander to permanent implant exchange during 2-stage ADM-assisted breast reconstruction. The SDF microscopy is a handheld device, which can be used intraoperatively for the real-time assessment of ADM blood flow, vessel density, vessel size, and branching pattern. The SDF microscopy was used to assess the microvascular architecture in the center and border zone of the ADM and to compare the native, non-ADM-associated capsule in each patient as a within-subject control. No incidences of periprosthetic infection, explantation, or adverse events were reported after SDF image acquisition. Native capsules demonstrate a complex, layered architecture with an average vessel area density of 14.9 mm/mm and total vessel length density of 12.3 mm/mm. In contrast to native periprosthetic capsules, ADM-associated capsules are not uniformly vascularized structures and demonstrate 2 zones of microvascular architecture. The ADM and native capsule border zone demonstrates palisading peripheral vascular arcades with continuous antegrade flow. The central zone of the ADM demonstrates punctate perforating vascular plexi with intermittent, sluggish flow, and intervening 2- to 3-cm watershed zones. Sidestream darkfield microscopy allows for real-time intraoperative assessment of ADM revascularization and serves as a potential methodology to compare revascularization parameters among commercially available ADMs. Thr SDF microscopy demonstrates that the

  19. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Overspreading of toponyms in dependence on economic development in the example of Mountain Zlatibor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms are proper geographic names of longer historic-geographic continuation. Local population inherits them by generation, remember them and inform both descendants and population of their spatial encirclement. In science toponyms denoting concrete geographic objects are recorded and written on maps with certain spatial borders representing thus a very stable element in studying geographic area. Changes of toponyms occur in longer time, i.e. civilization epochs, and very rarely in shorter time periods, these are usually the cases of sudden change of population or changes of political-historical circumstances of a territory. However, as linked to human conscience, toponyms often get different internal spatial meanings as well as different territorial belonging, where, in dependence on causes, they get narrower or overspread as in the case of Zlatibor toponyms. Total economic development of Zlatibor in the last more than a hundred years has caused this toponym spatially spread and got new forms. It appeared as oronym (name of relief object and it has kept the same meaning up today, although in one period it was recorded as horonym (regional name on maps. In the last decade it also appeared as oikonym (name of settlement-Zlatibor, the name for ex settlement of Kraljeva Voda, later Partizanske Vode, joined with Palisad, but also as the name for wider spatial-administrative region-Zlatibor Region. At the same time, by spreading Zlatibor toponym, the toponyms of Cigota, Tornik and Murtenica are narrowed territorially, while with similar continuation of economic development it may be expected that Zlatibor toponym will overspread on the territory of Tara and Zlatar Mountains in the future, while these ones will reduce on names of their parts-peaks.

  1. Reactor pressure vessel thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    proposed Palisades anneal are also described. (author)

  2. The influence of micropropagation on growth and coppicing ability of Eucalyptus polybractea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-02-01

    A micropropagation protocol was recently developed for Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker, a commercially important eucalypt grown in short-rotation coppice cultivation and harvested for its foliar 1,8-cineole oil. Micropropagation of elite E. polybractea trees has resulted in selection gains for foliar oil traits, but decreased above-ground biomass accumulation has been observed in clones compared to related half-sibling families. This study aims to use a greenhouse study to investigate if micropropagation induces somaclonal variation that can account for the reduction in above-ground biomass in E. polybractea clones. Secondly, the study aims to compare the coppicing ability of micropropagated clones with related half-sibling seedlings using de-topped plantation-grown saplings. The results of the greenhouse study suggest that micropropagation of E. polybractea induces somaclonal variation that manifests in more mature leaf morphologies such as increased foliar oil concentrations and lower specific leaf area (SLA), attributable to an isobilateral arrangement of increased palisade mesophyll layers. Lower SLA, rather than differences in root allocation, is likely to be a key contributor to the lower relative growth rates observed in early sapling growth of micropropagated clones. In the field study, all micropropagated and seedling-derived E. polybractea saplings coppiced vigorously in the 12 months after de-topping. The coppice growth was so vigorous in the 12 months after de-topping that total above-ground biomass equalled that of the 27-month-old saplings, irrespective of propagation source. The morphological distinction between leaves of micropropagated and seed-derived plants was no longer evident in the coppice regrowth. The results presented here suggest that the micropropagated leaf morphology and the resultant growth reduction is transient and micropropagated plants coppice just as vigorously as seed-derived plants. Therefore, micropropagation is unlikely to

  3. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  4. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  5. Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic

  6. Complex layering of the Orange Mountain Basalt: New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, John H.; Block, Karin A.; Steiner, Jeffrey C.; Laskowich, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The Orange Mountain Basalt of New Jersey is a Mesozoic formation consisting of three units: a single lower inflated sheet lobe about 70 m thick (OMB1), a middle pillow basalt about 10 to 20 m thick (OMB2), and an upper compound pahoehoe flow about 20 to 40 m thick (OMB3). The Orange Mountain Basalt is part of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Quarry and road-cut exposures of OMB1 near Paterson, New Jersey, display some unusual layering that is the focus of this study. OMB1 exposures displays the typical upper crust, core, and basal crust layers of sheet lobes but throughout the Patterson area also display distinct light gray layers of microvesicular basalt mineralized with albite directly over the basal crust and under the upper crust. The lower microvesicular layer is associated with mega-vesicular diapirs. We propose that the upper and lower microvesicular layers were composed of viscous crust that was suddenly quenched before it could devolatilize immediately before the solidification of the core. During initial cooling, the bottom of the basal layer was mineralized with high concentrations of calcite and albite during a high-temperature hydrothermal event. Subsequent albitization, as well as zeolite, prehnite, and calcite precipitation events, occurred during burial and circulation of basin brine heated by recurring Palisades magmatism below the Orange Mountain Basalt. Some of the events experienced by the Orange Mountain Basalt are unusual and place constraints on the fluid dynamics of thick flood basalt flows in general. The late penetration of vesicular diapirs through the entire thickness of the flow interior constrains its viscosity and solidification history.

  7. Influence of elevated CO2 on canopy development and red:far-red ratios in two-storied stands of Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnone, J.A.; Körner, C.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical structure of plant stands and canopies may change under conditions of elevated CO2 due to differential responses of overstory and understory plants or plant parts. In the long term, seedling recruitment, competition, and thus population or community structure may be affected. Aside from the possible differential direct effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and growth, both the quantity and quality of the light below the overstory canopy could be indirectly affected by CO2-induced changes in overstory leaf area index (LAI) and/or changes in overstory leaf quality. In order to explore such possible interactions, we compared canopy leaf area development, canopy light extinction and the quality of light beneath overstory leaves of two-storied monospecific stands of Ricinus communis exposed to ambient (340 micro litre per litre) and elevated (610 micro litre per litre) CO2. Plants in each stand were grown in a common soil as closed ''artificial ecosystems'' with a ground area of 6.7 square metre. LAI of overstory plants in all ecosystems more than doubled during the experiment but was not different between CO2 treatments at the end. As a consequence, extinction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also not altered. However, under elevated CO2 the red to far-red ratio (R:FR) measured beneath overstory leaves was 10% lower than in ecosystems treated with ambient CO2. This reduction was associated with increased thickness of palisade layers of overstory leaves and appears to be a plausible explanation for the specific enhancement of stem elongation of understory plants (without a corresponding biomass response) under elevated CO2

  8. Extensive cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis in young children by preserving cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Bao; Bo, Yang; Yun-Hai, Song; Cheng, Chen; Xiong-Zheng, Mu

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate extensive cranioplasty involving the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal bones without removing the floating bone flaps in the treatment of sagittal synostosis. Sixty-three children with sagittal synostosis, aged 5 months to 3 years, were included in the study. The frontal bone flap was removed using an air drill. The occipital and bilateral temporal bone flaps were cut open but not detached from the dura mater or fixed to produce floating bone flaps. The skull bone was cut into palisade-like structures. Brain compression from both sides and the base of the skull was released and the brain expanded bilaterally through the enlarged space. Only a long strip-shaped bone bridge remained in the central parietal bone. Subsequently, the frontal bone flaps and occipital bone flap were pushed towards the midline and fixed with the parietal bone bridge to shorten the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity and allow the brain to expand bilaterally to correct scaphocephaly. Patients were followed up 1-5 years. Skull growth was excellent in all patients, the anteroposterior diameter was shortened, the transverse diameter was increased, the prominent forehead was corrected, and scaphocephaly improved significantly. There were no complications such as death and skull necrosis. Surgery without removing bone flaps is less traumatic and results in no massive bleeding. It can effectively relieve brain compression and promotes transversal expansion of the brain during surgery and subsequent normal brain development. The skull of young children is relatively thin and early surgery can easily achieve satisfactory bone reshaping. Our surgical technique is not only safe and effective but also can avoid subsequent psychological disorders caused by skull deformity.

  9. Salinity-Induced Callus Browning and Re-Differentiation, Root Formation by Plantlets and Anatomical Structures of Plantlet Leaves in Two Malus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zheng, P.; Zheng, P.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Akram, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica L.) is widely grown in northern China. However, soil salinization has become one of the most severe factors limiting apple productivity in some regions including the Loess Plateau. In our study, the regeneration system of both rootstock Rehd (Malus robusta Rehd) and scion Fuji (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) was established In vitro. The two Malus species were cultured on the MS medium containing 0 or 150 mM NaCl to examine salt-induced effects on callus browning and re-differentiation, root formation of plantlets and anatomical structures of plantlet leaves at 15 days old callus and plantlet stages. Salt stress caused a marked increase in callus browning rate, while a decrease in re-differentiation rate, rooting rate, root number and length in both species. Additionally, anatomical structures of plantlet leave showed salt-induced damage such as reduced palisade tissue and intracellular chloroplast, incomplete development of xylem and severe damage of the phloem tissue. Salt stress also caused a few adaptive structural features in leaves including increased thickness of upper and lower epidermis, elevated proportion of spongy tissue and formation of lignified vessels. The responses of the two Malus species did not differ significantly at the differentiation stage. However, they were more sensitive to salinity at the callus stage than those at the plantlet stage in each species. Therefore, callus stage has been found to be more suitable for evaluating responses of the two apple species to salt stress. The Fuji and Rehd could be treated as a good scion/rootstock combination of apple to adapt to soil salinity based on their similar degree of salt stress-tolerance. (author)

  10. Alterações anatômicas em plantas de algodoeiro com sintomas de murchamento avermelhado Anatomical alterations in cotton plants with reddish withering symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações anatômicas em plantas de algodoeiro com sintomas de murchamento avermelhado em dezembro de 1993-fevereiro de 94. Analisaram-se amostras de raiz, caule e folha de Gossypium hirsutum L. 'IAC 20' provenientes de áreas de ocorrência do sintoma. Estimou-se o número de glândulas secretoras das folhas dos cultivares IAC 20 e CNPA ITA 90 (que se tem mostrado resistente. Observou-se que as células parenquimáticas apresentavam, no interior, substâncias insolúveis em água, cuja concentração aumentava à medida do grau do sintoma. As folhas apresentaram uma concentração maior dessas substâncias em relação ao restante do corpo vegetal. Os núcleos das células do parênquima paliçádico encontravam-se aumentados e os cloroplastos do mesofilo, parcialmente destruídos. As plantas com alto grau de sintoma apresentavam também um número maior de glândulas secretoras nas folhas.Anatomical alterations in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. with reddish withering symptons observated between December/93 to February/94 were studied. Samples of root, stem and leaf of Gossypium hirsutum L. 'IAC 20' collected in several sites with symptoms occurrence were analised. The number of secretory glands in the leaves of cultivar IAC 20, and for the resistent cultivar CNPA ITA 90 was estimated. The parenchyma cells included insoluble substances, and these concentrations increased with the crescent symptoms. The leaves presented higher concentration of these substances than the remaining plant body. The nucleus of palisade parenchyma cells was increased and the chloroplasts partially destroyed. The leave secretory glands number increases proportionally to the advance of the symptoms.

  11. DNA and Flavonoids Leach out from Active Nuclei of Taxus and Tsuga after Extreme Climate Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Feucht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe over-stresses of climate caused dramatic changes in the intracellular distribution of the flavonoids. This was studied in needles from the current year’s growth of the following species and varieties: Tsuga canadensis, Taxus baccata, T. aurea, T. repens, T. nana, and T. compacta. The mode of steady changes in flavonoids was evaluated by microscopic techniques. Most of the flavonoids stain visibly yellow by themselves. The colorless flavanol subgroup can be stained blue by the DMACA reagent. In mid-summer 2013, outstanding high temperatures and intense photo-oxidative irradiation caused in a free-standing tree of Taxus baccata dramatic heat damage in a limited number of cells of the palisade layers. In these cells, the cytoplasm was burned brown. However, the nucleus maintained its healthy “blue” colored appearance which apparently was a result of antioxidant barrier effects by these flavanols. In late May 2014, excessive rainfall greatly affected all study trees. Collectively, in all study trees, a limited number of the mesophyll nuclei from the needless grown in 2013 and 2014 became overly turgid, enlarged in size and the flavanols leached outward through the damaged nuclear membranes. This diffusive stress event was followed one to three days later by a similar efflux of DNA. Such a complete dissolution of the nuclei in young tissues was the most spectacular phenomenon of the present study. As a common feature, leaching of both flavanols and DNA was markedly enhanced with increasing size and age of the cells. There is evidence that signalling flavonoids are sensitized to provide in nuclei and cytoplasm multiple mutual protective mechanisms. However, this well-orchestrated flavonoid system is broken down by extreme climate events.

  12. Valhall and Helgafell: syncretistic traits of the Old Norse religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Nordland

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The religion of the Viking age, the pre-Christian faith, presents itself as a syncretism, It is quite peculiarly evident from the tradition surrounding the origin of the gods in Åsgard. The gods behind the palisade of this mythological dwelling place were of two kinds, the result of an exchange of hostages after war between the æsir and the vanir. From the flock of vanir came the two fertility-gods: Njgrbr and Freyr to dwell in Åsgard and be accepted there on equal terms with the other gods around the "allfather", Othin. This quite remarkable information, concerning the syncretism of the eddic religion, is generally interpreted as a historic reminiscence of a contrast between a fertility religion, and a more aristocratic and warlike religion attached to the cult of Othin. The fertility religion then is often conceived of as old traits belonging to the indigenous population of Scandinavia, while the Othin-cult as something which was introduced by the same innovations that brought the Indo-European boat-axe people to our part of the world. We know the result of the process that created the heathen religion which reigned in our countries at the time Christianity was introduced here, but we are highly bewildered when faced with the task of describing the syncretistic process itself, and the religions that were a part of it. This is true despite our abundant material of mythological poetry, legends and 13th century information. This too, despite our extremely favorable situation of being in possession of the exiting amount of theoforic place-names.

  13. Staphylococcal phenotypes induced by naturally occurring and synthetic membrane-interactive polyphenolic β-lactam resistance modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Palacios

    Full Text Available Galloyl catechins, in particular (--epicatechin gallate (ECg, have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (--epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation.

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available - Umar Junus, Claire Holt, Culture and politics in Indonesia, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca and London, 1972. xi, 348 pp., maps, indexes., Benedict R. O’G. Anderson, James Siegel (eds. - S. Avé, Robert Stiller, Antologia Literatury Malajskiej. Biblioteka Narodowa, Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, Wroclaw etc. 1971. 528 p. - H.J. Heering, J. van Baal, De boodschap der drie illusies. Van Gorcum & Co. Assen 1972. 135 blz. - The Siauw Giap, Goh Cheng Teik, The Malay Thirteenth incident and democracy in Malaysia. Oxford in Asia Current Affairs. Oxford University Press, Kula Lumpur & Singapore, 1971. 76 p. - W.F. Wertheim, Harry J. Benda, Continuity and change in Southeast Asia: Collected journal articles, Southeast Asia studies, Yale University, New Haven 1972, 307 p. - J.J. Ras, James Danandjaja, An annotated bibliography of Javanese folklore, Occasional paper no.9, Center for South and Southeast Asia studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1972, 162 pp. - I. Schöffer, Rob Nieuwenhuys, Oost Indische spiegel. Wat Nederlandse schrijvers en dichters over Indonesië hebben geschreven, vanaf de eerste jaren der Compagnie tot heden. Em. Querido, Amsterdam 1972. 645 blz. (Inleiding 11-18, Aantekeningen 555-621, Verantwoording 622-25, Namen en adressen 626, Woordenlijst 627-30, Register 631-45. - E. Postel-Coster, James L. Peacock, Indonesia; an anthropological perspective. Goodyear regional anthropological series, Edword Norbeck (ed.. Goodyear publishing company, Inc., Pacific Palisades, California, 1973. 168 pp. - C. Baks, O.H.K. Spate, India, Pakistan and Ceylon, the regions. Methuen and Co. Ltd., University Paperback 420, London 1972. 407-862 p., A.T.A. Learmouth, B.H. Farmer (eds. - ,

  15. Ontogeny and Structure of the Pericarp of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Carmello-Guerreiro

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a globose red drupe with friable exocarp when ripe and composed of two lignified layers: the epidermis and hypodermis. The mesocarp is parenchymatous with large secretory ducts associated with vascular bundles. In the mesocarp two regions are observed: an outer region composed of only parenchymatous cells and an inner region, bounded by one or more layers of druse-like crystals of calcium oxalate, composed of parenchymatous cells, secretory ducts and vascular bundles. The mesocarp detaches itself from the exocarp due to degeneration of the cellular layers in contact with the hypodermis. The lignified endocarp is composed of four layers: the outermost layer of polyhedral cells with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, and the three innermost layers of sclereids in palisade.O fruto de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi é uma drupa vermelha, globosa, com exocarpo friável quando maduro e composto de duas camadas lignificadas: a epiderme e a hipoderme. O mesocarpo é parenquimático com grandes canais secretores associados aos feixes vasculares. No mesocarpo distinguem-se duas regiões uma externa composta apenas de células parenquimáticas e uma interna, delimitada por uma ou mais camadas de células contendo cristais de oxalato de cálcio do tipo drusa, composta de células parenquimáticas, canais secretores e feixes vasculares. O mesocarpo desprende-se do exocarpo devido à degeneração das camadas celulares em contato com a hipoderme. O endocarpo é lignificado e composto de quatro camadas: uma mais externa de células poliédricas com cristais prismáticos de oxalato de cálcio e três mais internas de esclereides em paliçada.

  16. Tuning the probe location on zwitterionic micellar system with variation of pH and addition of surfactants with different alkyl chains: solvent and rotational relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2012-09-13

    In this manuscript, we have modulated the location of an anionic probe, Coumarin-343 (C-343) in a zwitterionic (N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB-16)) micellar system by three different approaches. The effect of addition of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate (EmimOs) and N,N-dimethylethanol hexanoate (DAH), to the micellar solution has been studied. The effect of pH variation has been studied as well using solvent and rotational measurements. Migration of the anionic probe, C-343, from the palisade layer of SB-16 micelle to the bulk water has been observed to varying extents with the addition of SDS and EmimOs. The effect is much more pronounced in the presence of SDS and can be ascribed to the presence of the long alkyl (dodecyl) chain on SDS which can easily orient itself and fuse inside the SB-16 micelle and facilitate the observed migration of the probe molecule. This phenomenon is confirmed by faster solvation and rotational relaxation of the investigated probe molecule. The analogous fusion process is difficult in case of EmimOs and DAH because of their comparatively smaller alkyl (octyl and hexanoate) chain. However, the direction of C-343 migration is reversed with the decrease of pH of the SB-16 micellar medium. An increase in the average solvation and rotational relaxation time of the probe in acidic medium has been observed. Since experimental conditions are maintained such that the probe molecules and the zwitterionic SB-16 micelles remain oppositely charged, the observed results can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction (attractive) between them. Temperature dependent study also supports this finding.

  17. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  18. Cutaneous non-tuberculous Mycobacterial infections: a clinical and histopathological study of 17 cases from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, O; Marrouch, N; Kattar, M M; Zeynoun, S; Kibbi, A G; Rached, R A; Araj, G F; Ghosn, S

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies characterized cutaneous non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections in this region of the world. Objective  The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and histological findings of cutaneous NTM infections in Lebanon. Retrospective study of 17 patients (19 histological specimens) diagnosed with cutaneous NTM infections and confirmed by culture-based partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2005 and 2008. Of 17 cases, 14 were caused by Mycobacterium marinum. All patients were immunocompetent except for one. Clinically, the most common presentation was multiple sporotrichoid lesions over an extremity (8/17). Many patients had peculiar presentations including bruise-like patches, herpetiform lesions, annular ulcerated plaques, symmetrical nodules over the buttocks and locally disseminated lesions with surrounding pale halo. Almost all patients cleared their infection on either minocycline or clarithromycin monotherapies. Histologically, a dermal small vessel proliferation with mixed inflammation (granulation tissue-like changes) was identified in 58% of specimens. The most common type of granulomatous inflammation was the suppurative (47%) followed by the tuberculoid (30%), sarcoidal (11%), and palisading (5%) types. Lichenoid granulomatous dermatitis was noted in 42% of cases. Special staining highlighted mycobacteria in only two specimens. The incidence of cutaneous NTM infections is high in our area. Many patients had peculiar clinical presentations. Our study is the second to report the common presence of granulation tissue-like changes as a good histological indicator of cutaneous NTM infections. Minocycline and clarithromycin remain the drugs of choice in our area. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO2 reactivity in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assayag, N.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO 2 injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of δ 13 C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO 2 contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO 2 in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO 2 ) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO 2 -water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO 2 degassing. (author)

  20. Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting as scar reactivation: histopathologic features and an illustration of 'locus minoris resistentiae'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sarah N; Harris, Anna C; Zimarowski, Mary Jane

    2013-05-01

    We report a 33-year-old female with cutaneous involvement by Churg-Strauss syndrome confined to surgical scars that were obtained 13 years before. She presented to the emergency department with 2-day history of fever, night sweats, right-sided weakness, hoarseness and worsening asthma symptoms. She was found to have an eosinophilia and two sub-5-mm pulmonary nodules. The patient also reported that the scars on her right thumb, inner wrist and back had been swollen, red and painful for 2 days. Examination revealed tender, erythematous, well-healed edematous scars studded with small skin colored papules. She had no clinical findings that were classic for cutaneous vasculitis. A skin biopsy of a scar revealed perivascular and palisading granulomatous inflammation consisting of histiocytes and neutrophils with leukocytoclasia. Focal vascular injury was identified. Scattered tissue eosinophils were seen. Special stains were negative for infection. Thereafter, she was started on intravenous steroids, at which point the fever, pulmonary and cutaneous symptoms subsided. Although scar sarcoidosis is a well-described phenomenon, granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis seen in Churg-Strauss syndrome exclusively manifesting in well-healed surgical scars highlights the unique features seen in this case and draws attention to the concept of locus minoris resistentiae. This case also highlights how a skin biopsy in the setting of suspected systemic vasculitis can confirm the presence of vasculitis and/or granulomatous inflammation and obviate the need for more invasive, higher risk procedures such as lung biopsy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the nectaries and osmophores of water forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Myosotis scorpioides L. (Boraginaceae are pollinated by different insects, among others by the honey bee. They produce both secondary attractants (colour, odour and primary attractants which include nectar and pollen. The nectary glands occurring in the flowers form a ring surrounding the base of a superior ovary. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical characteristics and ultrastructure of the nectary and odour-producing tissues located on the petals. The study was carried out using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nectary forms a uniform ring surrounding a 4-loculed superior ovary. Nectar is secreted through stomata. The presence of large cell nuclei, numerous plastids and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER was found in the ultrastructure of the nectary cells. In the parenchyma cells of the nectary, ER was fused to large cisterns (vesicles situated in the marginal parts of the cytoplasm. This study shows that essential oils are emitted through papillae located in the adaxial epidermis of the petals and through large palisade epidermal cells occurring in the yellow region of the corolla, which form the osmophore tissue. The epidermal cells of the osmophore were characterized by the presence of thin cell walls, large nuclei and numerous chromoplasts. Lipid plastoglobules were observed in the chromoplasts; their presence can be associated with the production of essential oils. It was found that the tissues forming the yellow ring at the mouth to the corolla tube (osmophore released a more intense scent than the surface region of the petal on which the papillae occur.

  2. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  3. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO{sub 2} reactivity in geological reservoirs; Tracage isotopique des sources, puits et de la reactivite du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assayag, N

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO{sub 2} injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of {delta} {sup 13}C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO{sub 2} contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO{sub 2} in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO{sub 2}) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO{sub 2}-water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO{sub 2} degassing. (author)

  4. Ultrastructure of the protonephridia of larval Rugiloricus cf. cauliculus, male Armorloricus elegans, and female Nanaloricus mysticus (Loricifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2007-04-01

    The protonephridial system of several Loricifera was studied by transmission electron microscopy. A larval specimen of Rugiloricus cf. cauliculus possesses two protonephridia, which are "capped" frontally by a compact mass of still undifferentiated gonadal cells. Each protonephridium consists of four monociliary terminal cells and four canal cells with a diplosome but no cilia. Because of incomplete series of sections and unsatisfactory fixation, the outleading cell(s) could not be detected. In a male specimen of Armorloricus elegans, each gonad contains two protonephridia that open into the gonadal lumen. Each protonephridium consists of two monociliary terminal cells, each forming a filter, two nonciliated canal cells, and two nephroporus cells. The protonephridial lumina of the latter cells fuse to one common lumen, which unites with the gonadal lumen. Preliminary observations on the protonephridia of a female Nanaloricus mysticus reveal a more complicated arrangement of interdigitating terminal and canal cells. One or two terminal cells form their own individual filter or four cells form a common compound filter. The cilium of the terminal cells of all species investigated are surrounded by a palisade of nine microvilli that support the filter barrier made of an extracellular matrix. An additional filter diaphragm could be traced between the pores in the cell wall of each terminal cell of A. elegans. The urogenital system of the Loricifera differs from that of the Priapulida in that the protonephridia of the former are completely integrated into the gonad, whereas the excretory organs of the latter open into the urogenital duct caudally of the gonads. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Faults Associated with the 2001 Avoca Induced(?) Seismicity Sequence of Western New York State Using Potential Field Wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, F. G.; Ebinger, C.; Jordan, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Cooperative Seismic Network, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY.

  7. Epidermal transmittance and phenolic composition in leaves of atrazine-tolerant and atrazine-sensitive cultivars of Brassica napus grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.C.; Veit, M.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the atrazine-tolerant mutant Stallion and the atrazine-sensitive cv. Paroll of Brassica napus L., which were grown under either visible light or with the addition of UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) for 15 days. The mutant has been shown to be sensitive to high levels of visible light as compared to the atrazine-sensitive cultivar and therefore we wished to determine plant response to UV-B radiation with respect to potential pigment changes, certain anatomical features, radiation penetration and partial photosynthesis. With regard to pigment changes, we were particularly interested in whether the compositional shift in flavonol pigments under enhanced UV-B radiation, previously suggested to favour increased antioxidant activity, is confined to the adaxial epidermis, which generally receives most UV-B radiation or whether the pigment shift is also inducible in the abaxial epidermis.As was to be expected, the penetration of UV-B radiation (310 nm) was lower in the UV-B-exposed plants, which was correlated with an increased amount of UV-screening pigments in the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers. The main flavonoid glycosides showed the largest shift from kaempferol to quercetin as aglycone moiety in the adaxial epidermal layer. However, in the abaxial epidermal layer the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives and kaempferol glycosides were predominant. Penetration of 430 nm light was higher after UV-B exposure, and probably contributed to the fact that photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II was unchanged or higher after UV-B exposure. UV-B radiation decreased leaf area in the atrazine-tolerant mutant only. Both cultivars showed an increased leaf thickness after UV-B exposure due to cell elongation mainly of the palisade tissue. This was especially evident in the mutant

  8. Biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: electron microscopic and EDX evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Polymetallic/ferromanganese nodules (Mn-nodules) have been assigned a huge economic potential since they contain considerable concentrations of manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt. It has been assumed that they are formed by, besides hydrogenous, nonbiogenic processes, biogenic processes based on metabolic processes driven by microorganisms. In the present study, we applied the techniques of digital optical microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to search for microorganisms in Mn-nodules. They were collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and are composed of Mn (23.9%), Cu (0.69%), Ni (1.02%), Fe (10.9%), and Co (0.29%). These Mn-nodules, between 2.3 and 4.8 cm, show a distinct lamination; they are composed of small-sized micronodules, 100 to 450 microm in size, which are bound together by an interstitial whitish material. In the micronodules, a dense accumulation of microorganisms/bacteria could be visualized. Only two morphotypes exist: (1) round-shaped cocci and (2) elongated rods. The cocci (diameter: approximately 3.5 microm) are arranged in bead-like chains, while the rods (approximately 2 x 0.4 microm) are arranged either as palisades or in a linear row. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses showed that the areas rich in microorganisms/bacteria are also rich in Mn, while in regions where no microorganisms are found, the element Si is dominant. We suggest that growth of the Mn-nodules starts with the formation of "micronodules." The formation of micronodules is assumed to be mediated by microorganisms. After accretion of biogenic and additional nonbiogenic minerals, the micronodules assemble to large nodules on the sea floor through additional inclusion of nonbiogenic material.

  9. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  10. A quantitative risk assessment of multiple factors influencing HIV/AIDS transmission through unprotected sex among HIV-seropositive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Tameru, Berhanu; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment of multiple factors influencing HIV/AIDS transmission through unprotected sexual practices among HIV-seropositive men. A knowledgebase was developed by reviewing different published sources. The data were collected from different sources including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, selected journals, and reports. The risk pathway scenario tree was developed based on a comprehensive review of published literature. The variables are organized into nine major parameter categories. Monte Carlo simulations for the quantitative risk assessment of HIV/AIDS transmission was executed with the software @Risk 4.0 (Palisade Corporation). Results show that the value for the likelihood of unprotected sex due to having less knowledge about HIV/AIDS and negative attitude toward condom use and safer sex ranged from 1.24 × 10(-5) to 8.47 × 10(-4) with the mean and standard deviation of 1.83 × 10(-4) and 8.63 × 10(-5), respectively. The likelihood of unprotected sex due to having greater anger-hostility, anxiety, less satisfied with aspects of life, and greater depressive symptoms ranged from 2.76 × 10(-9) to 5.34 × 10(-7) with the mean and standard deviation of 5.23 × 10(-8) and 3.58 × 10(-8), respectively. The findings suggest that HIV/AIDS research and intervention programs must be focused on behavior, and the broader setting within which individual risky behaviors occur.

  11. Influence of heat stress on leaf morphology and nitrogen–carbohydrate metabolisms in two wucai (Brassica campestris L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and yield worldwide. The present study was carried out to explore the physiological mechanism of heat tolerant to provide the theoretical basis for heat-tolerant breeding. The changes of leaf morphology, anatomy, nitrogen assimilation, and carbohydrate metabolism in two wucai genotypes (WS-1, heat tolerant; WS-6, heat sensitive grown under heat stress (40°C/30°C for 7 days were investigated. Our results showed that heat stress hampered the plant growth and biomass accumulation in certain extent in WS-1 and WS-6. However, the inhibition extent of WS-1 was significantly smaller than WS-6. Thickness of leaf lamina, upper epidermis, and palisade mesophyll were increased by heat in WS-1, which might be contributed to the higher assimilation of photosynthates. During nitrogen assimilation, WS-1 possessed the higher nitrogen-related metabolic enzyme activities, including nitrate reductase (NR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, which were reflected by higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE with respect to WS-6. The total amino acids level had no influence in WS-1, whereas it was reduced in WS-6 by heat. And the proline contents of both wucai genotypes were all increased to respond the heat stress. Additionally, among all treatments, the total soluble sugar content of WS-1 by heat got the highest level, including higher contents of sucrose, fructose, and starch than those of WS-6. Moreover, the metabolism efficiency of sucrose to starch in WS-1 was greater than WS-6 under heat stress, proved by higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, sucrose synthase (SuSy, acid invertase (AI, and amylase. These results demonstrated that leaf anatomical alterations resulted in higher nitrogen and carbon assimilation in heat-tolerant genotype WS-1, which exhibited a greater performance to resist heat stress.

  12. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  13. ESTRATEGIAS VERTICALES, DEMARCACIONES HORIZONTALES / Vertical strategies, horizontal demarcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo García Odiaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La pertenencia al lugar, la necesidad de significarse como colectividad, han sido una constante de la arquitectura a lo largo de la historia. La demarcación de un recinto, la definición de un interior en contraposición a un exterior, ha seguido estrategias diversas. De las necesidades defensivas se derivan empalizadas, vallados y murallas. Del anhelo simbólico y conmemorativo, los elementos verticales, menhires, obeliscos y torres. Estas metodologías han evolucionado para adaptarse a la escala de la metrópolis contemporánea. La nueva dimensión urbana impide la construcción de un objeto material continuo, que pasa a ser evocado por una sucesión de fragmentos referenciales. Por otra parte, la explosión de la movilidad conlleva el difuminado de los límites del área urbana, encontrando en sus redes de transporte el nuevo aglutinante del colectivo. SUMMARY The relevance to the place, the need to signify itself as a whole, has been anarchitectural constant throughout history. The demarcation of an enclosure, the definition of an interior in contrast to an exterior, has followed diverse strategies. Palisades, stockades and walls were derived from defensive needs; the vertical elements, menhirs, obelisks and towers, from the desire for symbolism and commemoration. These methodologies have evolved to adapt to the scale of the contemporary metropolis. The new urban dimension impedes the construction of a continuous material object, which happens to be evoked by a succession of referential fragments. On the other hand, the explosion of urban mobility entails the blurring of the limits of the urban area, with the new cohesiveness of the group being provided by its transport networks.

  14. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  15. Hillforts of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igori Prohnenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, 13 hillforts of Transcarpathia are referred to the Hallstatt period, of which only five are credible: Shelestovo, Ardanovo, Irshava, Bila Tserkva, and Seredne Vodyane. With the exception of Seredne Vodyane, which is of particular interest in terms of studying the early stage of the settlement of the mountain zone of the region, they are all located on the hills in the foothill zone. By the area, the fortified points are divided into sites of medium size (2-10 hectares: Shelestovo, Ardanovo, and Irshava and small ones (up to 2 hectares: Bila Tserkva and Seredne Vodyane. Fortifications are represented by ramparts and ditches. The ramparts reach a height of 2-3 m with a base width of 6-10 m, and ditches reach a depth of 1.5-2 m and a width of 5 m and more. In some cases, there is no rampart in the hard-to-reach places (Bila Tserkva, and additional lines of fortifications were erected in easily accessible places (Irshava. According to the structure of the embankment, the ramparts are divided into earthen and stone-earth. Sometimes for the strengthening of ramparts, stacked structures of logs (Irshava or stone walls of dry masonry (Shelestovo were used. Among the structures on the crest of a rampart, we note the palisades detected by the pits in Ardanovo. In the course of the small-scale excavations of the hillforts, the presence of a very weak cultural layer and the almost complete absence of economic structures were observed that, before carrying out large-scale works and obtaining materials that disprove these data, allows classifying these sites as shelters. It should be noted that, in Shelestovo, Ardanovo and Irshava, a relatively large amount of ceramic material was found directly in the embankments of the shafts, which indicates that the fortifications were created already after the settlements began functioning on the mountain tops.

  16. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  17. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  18. Aspectos anatômicos da variegação na folha do cafeeiro Anatomical features of leaf variegation in coffee plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dedecca

    1957-01-01

    , ao mesmo tempo que foi impedida a formação de um verdadeiro parênquima paliçádico. A grande atividade da gema apical dos cafeeiros que exibem êste tipo de variegação, tal como pode ser observada pelas freqüentes modificações na sua morfologia, conduziu essas plantas a um intenso desenvolvimento vegetativo, servindo de evidência em favor da hipótese de que distúrbios vários devem ter ocorrido durante o desenvolvimento daquelas fôlhas.Two different types of leaf variegation in coffee plants are studied on the anatomical viewpoint, and their histological differences are described, when compared with normal, green leaves. In the first case, variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, and show different variegation patterns, being histologically identical with green leaves of normal plants. The variegation seems to be due to disturbances in the chlorophyll-producing mechanism, resulting in the formation of large, green and normal chloroplasts, aad small, yellowish and abnormal chloroplasts. The distribution at random of cells having one of these two kinds of chloroplasts can be accounted for the different variegation patterns observed. In the second example, the variegation pattern is uniform throughout the entire plant, and is a more complex phenomenon, since besides being variegated the leaves present several malformations. The anatomical study has revealed that, in this case, the chloroplasts are always normal, the variegation being rather due to the presence of an 1-3-layered hialine hypodermis, which occurs right beneath the upper epidermis. The malformations, represented by abnormalities in the shape and texture of the leaf blade, are mainly due to the lackness of a true palisade parenchyma. This tissue shows all grades of disorganization in the various portions of the leaf, being sometimes present as small patches or palisade cells or lacking completely in other instances. It is suggested that disturbances of any kind should have occurred

  19. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Arena, Carmen; De Micco, Veronica; Giordano, Maria; Aronne, Giovanna; De Pascale, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. 'Pr91m10' in closed nutrient film technique (NFT). Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control) plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm 2 ), thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm), and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%), compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP) was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO 2 m -2 s -1 at the beginning of flowering). These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control); conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area) and seed yield (+36.9%) compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  20. Latencia en semillas de Stylosanthes hamata (Leguminosae y su relación con la morfología de la cubierta seminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Castillo

    2001-03-01

    hardseededness in this species was associated with a completely sealed microphile and hilum. This feature was also associated to: a an epidermis consisting of a palisade-like layer of macrosclereids, b a like-line at the outermost region of these cells and c a high concentration of hydrophobic compounds located all across the seed-coat.

  1. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  2. Puente-túnel de la Bahía de Chesapeake, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdrup, Leif J.

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available The total project involves 20 km of road over shallow waters two tunnels, each 1,500 m long, two bridges, four artificial islands, 2,000 m of road over dykes, and approximately 9 km of approach roads. The total length of the work is 26 km, and the width of the pavement is 8.50 m. The supports for the elevated road, over the bay water, consist of palisades of three cylindrical, reinforced concrete, piles, connected with a cross member. The two underwater tunnels were prefabricated in sections, at the workshop, and were then transported in pontoons, and placed at the bottom of a trench, which had been previously dredged out. Finally the joints were sealed, and the diaphragms which initially closed the ends of each section were opened, when the structure was in its final position. The project is undoubtedly interesting because of its variety, size and length, and also on account of the difficulties of undertaking the sea works in relatively deep waters.El conjunto se compone de 20 km de paso superior, dos túneles de 1.500 m, dos puentes propiamente dichos, cuatro islas artificiales, 2.000 m de carretera sobre diques y aproximadamente 9 km de caminos de acceso. La obra tiene una longitud total de 26 km y la anchura de la calzada es de 8,50 m. Los soportes del paso superior están constituidos por palizadas de tres pilotes, cilíndricos, de hormigón armado, arriostrados con un cabezal. Los dos túneles se prefabricaron por trozos, en taller, los cuales fueron transportados por medio de pontones, colocados en el fondo de una trinchera previamente dragada y, finalmente, selladas las juntas y abiertos los diafragmas que originalmente cerraban los extremos de cada trozo, antes del hundimiento en su posición definitiva. La obra es de indudable interés por su variedad, volumen y longitud y por las dificultades que entraña el realizar trabajos marítimos en aguas relativamente profundas.

  3. [Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P; Pulido, Karen L; Vanegas, Leidy J

    2013-03-01

    Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an

  4. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae seeds

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    Carolina Maria Luzia Delgado

    2015-03-01

    coats of the subfamily Faboideae. Lignin and callose were found around all palisade layers and the water impermeability and ecological role of these substances are discussed in the work.

  5. Probabilistic risk model to assess the potential for resistance selection following the use of anti-microbial medicated feed in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, Maria Eleni; Chantziaras, Ilias; Devreese, Mathias; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-05-30

    The cross-contamination of non-medicated feed with residues of anti-microbials (AM) causes a public and animal health concern associated with the potential for selection and dissemination of resistance. To analyse the associated risks, a probabilistic model was built using @Risk® (Palisade Corporation®) to show the potential extent of the effect of cross-contaminated pig feed on resistance selection. The results of the model include estimations of the proportion of pigs per production stage with residues of doxycycline, chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in their intestinal contents, as a result of exposure to cross-contaminated feed with different carry-over levels, in Belgium. By using a semi-quantitative approach, these estimations were combined with experimental data on AM concentrations associated with potential for resistance-selection pressure. Based on this model, it is estimated that 7.76% (min = 1.67; max = 36.94) of sows, 4.23% (min = 1.01%; max = 18.78%) of piglets and 2.8% (min = 0.51%; max = 14.9%) of fatteners in Belgium have residues of doxycycline in their intestinal tract due to consumption of feed with at least 1% carry-over. These values were estimated to be almost triple for sulfadiazine, but substantially lower for chlortetracycline and trimethoprim. Doxycycline concentrations as low as 1 mg/L (corresponding to consumed feed with at least 1% carry-over) can select for resistant porcine commensal Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions on this risk could not be drawn for other AM at this stage, due to the lack of data on concentrations associated with resistance development. However, since the possibility of resistance mechanisms (e.g. co-selection) occurring cannot be excluded, the results of this model highlight that the use of AM medicated feed should be minimised where possible. In case of medicated feed production, good practice should be followed thoroughly at all levels of production, distribution

  6. Tensit - a novel probabilistic simulation tool for safety assessments. Tests and verifications using biosphere models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jakob; Vahlund, Fredrik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the verification of a new simulation tool for dose assessment put together in a package under the name Tensit (Technical Nuclide Simulation Tool). The tool is developed to solve differential equation systems describing transport and decay of radionuclides. It is capable of handling both deterministic and probabilistic simulations. The verifications undertaken shows good results. Exceptions exist only where the reference results are unclear. Tensit utilise and connects two separate commercial softwares. The equation solving capability is derived from the Matlab/Simulink software environment to which Tensit adds a library of interconnectable building blocks. Probabilistic simulations are provided through a statistical software named at{sub R}isk that communicates with Matlab/Simulink. More information about these softwares can be found at www.palisade.com and www.mathworks.com. The underlying intention of developing this new tool has been to make available a cost efficient and easy to use means for advanced dose assessment simulations. The mentioned benefits are gained both through the graphical user interface provided by Simulink and at{sub R}isk, and the use of numerical equation solving routines in Matlab. To verify Tensit's numerical correctness, an implementation was done of the biosphere modules for dose assessments used in the earlier safety assessment project SR 97. Acquired probabilistic results for deterministic as well as probabilistic simulations have been compared with documented values. Additional verification has been made both with another simulation tool named AMBER and also against the international test case from PSACOIN named Level 1B. This report documents the models used for verification with equations and parameter values so that the results can be recreated. For a background and a more detailed description of the underlying processes in the models, the reader is referred to the original references. Finally, in the

  7. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paradiso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs. However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. ‘Pr91m10’ in closed nutrient film technique (NFT. Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm2, thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm, and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%, compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at the beginning of flowering. These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control; conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area and seed yield (+36.9% compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  8. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  9. Interaction between morin and AOT reversed micelles--studies with UV-vis at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, H

    2014-01-30

    The precise measurements of morin absorbance in presence of surfactant/solvent/water systems at 25 °C by UV-vis technique are reported. The surfactant used in presented study was sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate called Aerosol-OT or AOT. The solvents selected were: ethanol, ethylene glycol, and n-decanol. The concentrations of AOT were varied between 0.001 and 0.4 mol/kg. Morin concentration in quvette during UV-vis registration was not equals in all solvent because of its different solubility and absorption intensity depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=[H2O]/[AOT] and was equal 0, 30 and 40 in ethanol; 0, 10, 20 and 30 in ethylene glycol and 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 in n-decanol. In presented work a Nernstian distribution of morin between the organic and micellar phases was assumed. The intensity of morin absorbance as a function of AOT concentration was analyzed. Using Non-linear Regression Procedure (NLREG) morin binding constant (K' [mol/kg]), and morin distribution constant (K) between organic phase and AOT micellar phase have been calculated. The experimental results have shown a significant influence of solvent, surfactant and water presence on morin UV-vis spectrum. Calculated data pointed out on different transfer of morin molecules from the organic to micellar phase depending on the solvent. Moreover, results of calculations indicate on competition between morin and water molecules interacting with AOT polar heads. Morin molecules privileged location in AOT reversed micelles strongly depends on the solvent. In case of systems with ethylene glycol as solvent is possible morin molecules location in polar cores of AOT reversed micelles as results of strong interaction between AOT polar heads and morin hydroxyl groups, whereas in case of ethanol and n-decanol morin molecules are located in palisade layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intermolecular electron transfer between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions: Evidence for Marcus inverted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-02-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines has been investigated in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions and the results have been compared with those observed earlier in homogeneous medium. Significant static quenching of the coumarin fluorescence due to the presence of high concentration of amines around the coumarin fluorophore in the micelles has been observed in steady-state fluorescence studies. Time-resolved studies with nanosecond resolutions mostly show the dynamic part of the quenching for the excited coumarin dyes by the amine quenchers. A correlation of the quenching rate constants, estimated from the time-resolved measurements, with the free energy changes (ΔG0) of the ET reactions shows the typical bell shaped curve as predicted by Marcus outer-sphere ET theory. The inversion in the ET rates for the present systems occurs at an exergonicity (-ΔG0) of ~0.7-0.8 eV, which is unusually low considering the polarity of the Palisade layer of the micelles where the reactants reside. Present results have been rationalized on the basis of the two dimensional ET model assuming that the solvent relaxation in micellar media is much slower than the rate of the ET process. Detailed analysis of the experimental data shows that the diffusional model of the bimolecular quenching kinetics is not applicable for the ET reactions in the micellar solutions. In the present systems, the reactions can be better visualized as equivalent to intramolecular electron transfer processes, with statistical distribution of the donors and acceptors in the micelles. A low electron coupling (Vel) parameter is estimated from the correlation of the experimentally observed and the theoretically calculated ET rates, which indicates that the average donor-acceptor separation in the micellar ET reactions is substantially larger than for the donor-acceptor contact distance. Comparison of the Vel values in the micellar solution and in the donor-acceptor close

  11. [Extensive cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis in young children by preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater: experience with 63 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao Nan; Chu Jun; Wang Xue; Yang, Bo; Song, Yunhai; Cai, Jinjing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effort of applying frontal and occipital bones in extensive cranioplasty and preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater in the treatment of sagittal synostosis. From April 2008 to June 2013, sixty-three children with sagittal synostosis, aged 5 months to 3 years, were included in the study. The frontal bone flap was removed using an air drill. The occipital and bilateral temporal bone flaps were cut open but not detached from the dura mater or fixed to produce floating bone flaps. The skull bone was cut into palisade-like structures. Brain compression from both sides and the base of the skull was released and the brain expanded bilaterally through the enlarged space. Only a long strip-shaped bone bridge remained in the central parietal bone. Subsequently, the frontal bone flaps and occipital bone flap were pushed towards the midline and fixed with the parietal bone bridge to shorten the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity and allow the brain to expand bilaterally to correct scaphocephaly. The CT images showed that both sides of the parietal bone of artificial sagittal groove gradually merged postoperative 1 year, and skull almost completely normal healing after operation 2 or 3 years, without deformity recurrence within 5 years. Among them all, 61 children's intelligence is normal and 2 children's lagged behind normal level, no further improvement. Patients were followed up 1 - 5 years (an average of 43 months). Skull growth was excellent in all patients, the anteroposterior diameter was shortened by 14.6 mm averagely, the transverse diameter was increased by 12.3 mm averagely, the prominent forehead was corrected, and scaphocephaly improved significantly. There were no complications such as death and skull necrosis. The application of frontal and occipital bones in extensive cranioplasty and preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater can be used in the treatment of sagittal

  12. Anatomía de la agalla en Ficus benjamina (Moraceae asociada a "thrips" (Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2009-11-01

    problems in the differentiation of palisade and spongy mesophylls, and only parenchymatous tissue was observed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 179-186. Epub 2009 November 30.

  13. Carretera elevada, en Hannóver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoht, Hans

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available In the new planning of Hannover, a new elevated roadway has been provided, to connect the Königsworther place with the Westtangente motor road. This elevated road is built on a prestressed concrete palisade which is 360 m long and forms 17 spans, whose mean length is 22 m. The road runs on a curve, and there are two dilation joints, separating the structure into three sections. The deck is prestressed, and rests on portal frames, with inclined columns, whose top cross members, also prestressed, cantilever 1.24 ms on each side of the columns. The longitudinal prestressing cables have been given a load of 116 tons per cable, and the transversal ones, spaced every 0.75 m, carry a load of 57 tons per cable. This project was finished very rapidly, thanks to the magnificent auxiliary facilities. The concrete was transported from the mixing plant to the site, about 200 m away, by pneumatic pumps. A special feature of this project is that the lower ends of the columns rest on the foundations by means of sets of roller bearings, which are carefully greased.En la nueva ordenación urbana de la ciudad de Hannover (Alemania, se ha incluido un acceso elevado, especie de puente, que unirá la plaza de Königsworther con la autopista Westtangente. Este acceso es de hormigón pretensado y tiene una longitud total de 360 m, subdividida en 17 tramos de unos 22 m de luz media. Como el trazado tiene un eje en curva, se han previsto dos juntas que dividen el acceso en tres trozos. El tablero es de hormigón pretensado y se apoya sobre una serie de pórticos, con montantes inclinados, cuyos cabezales, también pretensados, tienen 1,24 m de canto y se prolongan en voladizo por ambos lados. Los cables del pretensado longitudinal se han tesado a razón de 116 t cada uno y los del pretensado transversal, especiados a 0,75 m, a 57 t por cable. Esta obra se terminó con gran celeridad, gracias a las magníficas instalaciones auxiliares dispuestas. El hormigón se

  14. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  15. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.

    2018-01-01

    final stage of the microcrater formation is the cooling of the melt layer that results in its partial crystallization and the formation of olivine crystals with a palisade-like texture.

  16. Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis dehn and histological study of organogenesis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberson Dibax

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at regenerating plants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the cotyledonary explants and describing the anatomy of the tissues during callogenesis and organogenesis processes, in order to determine the origin of the buds. The cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS, WPM and JADS media supplemented with 2.7 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BAP. The best results for bud regeneration were obtained on MS and WPM media (57.5 and 55% of calluses formed buds, respectively. Shoot elongation and rooting (80% were obtained on MS/2 medium (with half-strength salt concentration with 0.2% activated charcoal. Acclimatization was performed in the growth chamber for 48 h and then the plants were transferred to a soil:vermiculite mixture and cultured in a greenhouse. Histological studies revealed that the callogenesis initiated in palisade parenchyma cells and that the adventitious buds were formed from the calluses, indicating indirect organogenesis.Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir de folhas cotiledonares e o estudo da anatomia dos tecidos durante a calogênese e organogênese para determinar a origem das gemas. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meios de cultura MS, WPM e JADS suplementados com 2,7 µM de ANA e 4,44 µM de BAP. Os melhores resultados para a regeneração de gemas foram obtidos com os meios MS e WPM. Para o alongamento e enraizamento, o meio de cultura MS/2 contendo 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se eficiente para ambas as etapas. A aclimatização foi realizada mediante a abertura dos frascos na sala de crescimento por 48 horas, seguido da transferência para casa-de-vegetação com nebulização intermitente. Estudos histológicos foram conduzidos e revelaram que a calogênese teve início nas células do parênquima paliçádico e que as gemas adventícias formaram-se a partir dos calos, indicando a organogênese indireta.

  17. Bioorganic/inorganic hybrid composition of sponge spicules: matrix of the giant spicules and of the comitalia of the deep sea hexactinellid Monorhaphis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Kropf, Klaus; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Geurtsen, Werner; Eckert, Carsten; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Boreiko, Alexandra; Schlossmacher, Ute; Li, Jinhe; Schröder, Heinz C

    2008-02-01

    The giant basal spicules of the siliceous sponges Monorhaphis chuni and Monorhaphis intermedia (Hexactinellida) represent the largest biosilica structures on earth (up to 3m long). Here we describe the construction (lamellar organization) of these spicules and of the comitalia and highlight their organic matrix in order to understand their mechanical properties. The spicules display three distinct regions built of biosilica: (i) the outer lamellar zone (radius: >300 microm), (ii) the bulky axial cylinder (radius: <75 microm), and (iii) the central axial canal (diameter: <2 microm) with its organic axial filament. The spicules are loosely covered with a collagen net which is regularly perforated by 7-10 microm large holes; the net can be silicified. The silica layers forming the lamellar zone are approximately 5 microm thick; the central axial cylinder appears to be composed of almost solid silica which becomes porous after etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Dissolution of a complete spicule discloses its complex structure with distinct lamellae in the outer zone (lamellar coating) and a more resistant central part (axial barrel). Rapidly after the release of the organic coating from the lamellar zone the protein layers disintegrate to form irregular clumps/aggregates. In contrast, the proteinaceous axial barrel, hidden in the siliceous axial cylinder, is set up by rope-like filaments. Biochemical analysis revealed that the (dominant) molecule of the lamellar coating is a 27-kDa protein which displays catalytic, proteolytic activity. High resolution electron microscopic analysis showed that this protein is arranged within the lamellae and stabilizes these surfaces by palisade-like pillars. The mechanical behavior of the spicules was analyzed by a 3-point bending assay, coupled with scanning electron microscopy. The load-extension curve of the spicule shows a biphasic breakage/cracking pattern. The outer lamellar zone cracks in several distinct steps showing high

  18. Ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica to a teenager with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, Virgil; Giurcă, Claudia; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Many skin lesions are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2, due to the use of antidiabetics or to metabolic and endocrine disorders caused by this disease. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) occurs more frequently in patients with DM. Painful ulcerations may occur on NL areas in about 20-25% of the cases and usually they are related to trauma. We present the case of a teenager, male, 17-year-old, having NL with multiple plaques, some of them spontaneously ulcerated after about 33 months of onset. He is known with type 1 DM from 2.5 years and the NL preceding the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with about six months, presented erythematous-infiltrative skin plaques, some ulcerated for about three months, interesting both shins. Based on clinical, histopathological and paraclinical examinations, we established the following diagnoses: ulcerated NL, type 1 DM, moderate mixed dyslipidemia, class I obesity; commissural candidiasis, juvenile acne. Under treatment with Pentoxifyllinum, Sulodexidum, Ketotifenum and topical therapy with 0.2% Hyaluronic acid two months later, we have managed to heal two of the three ulcerated plaques and of the third has become superficial. We applied 0.5% Fluocortolonum on non-ulcerated plaques recording an improvement after two weeks of treatment. NL is a skin disease with a predilection for the shins, more frequent in patients with diabetes and is a part of palisading granulomatous dermatitis, which leads to skin atrophy. NL is found in the 0.3-1.2% of diabetic patients and is rare in children with diabetes (0.006%). It is more common in the patients with type 1 DM. The onset is in the third decade in diabetic patients and in the fourth decade in non-diabetics. There is no consensus concerning the treatment of NL, and the results are often modest. Antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids (local and general), immunomodulatory drugs, cyclins, wide synthetic antipaludics, heparin, Thalidomide are used. NL treatment is very difficult

  19. Study of the interaction of flavonoids with 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots mediated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucelio, Ricardo Q.; Carvalho, Juliana M.; Real, Juliana T.; Maqueira-Espinosa, Luis; Pérez-Gramatges, Aurora; da Silva, Andrea R.

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenols that help the maintenance of health, aiding the prevention of diseases. In this work, CdTe QDs coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA), with an average size of 2.7 nm, were used as photoluminescence probe for flavonoids in different conditions. The interaction between 14 flavonoids and QDs was evaluated in aqueous dispersions in the absence and in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). To establish a relationship between photoluminescence quenching and the concentration of flavonoids, the Stern-Volmer model was used. In the absence of CTAB, the linear ranges for quercetin, morin and rutin were from 5.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 and from 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 to 6.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1 for kaempferol. The sensibility of the Stern-Volmer curves (Ks) indicated that quercetin interacts more strongly with the probe: Ks quercetin > Ks kaempferol > Ks rutin > Ks morin. The conjugation extension in the 3 rings, and the acidic hydroxyl groups (positions 3ʹand 4ʹ) in the B-ring enhanced the interaction with 3MPA-CdTe QDs. The other flavonoids do not interact with the probe at 10- 5 mol L- 1 level. In CTAB organized dispersions, Ks 3-hydroxyflavone > Ks 7-hydroxyflavone > Ks flavona > Ks rutin in the range from 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.2 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for flavones and of 1.0 × 10- 6 mol L- 1 to 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 for rutin. Dynamic light scattering, conductometric measurements and microenvironment polarity studies were employed to elucidate the QDs-flavonoids interaction in systems containing CTAB. The quenching can be attributed to the preferential solubility of hydrophobic flavonoid in the palisade layer of the CTAB aggregates adsorbed on the surface of the 3MPA CdTe QDs.

  20. Cyanobacterial diversity and related sedimentary facies as a function of water flow conditions: Example from the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrendero, Esther; Arenas, Concha; Mateo, Pilar; Jones, Brian

    2016-05-01

    The River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) is a modern tufa-depositing river that encompasses various depositional environments that are inhabited by different cyanobacterial populations. Molecular (16S rDNA) and morphological analyses of the cyanobacteria from different facies showed that Phormidium incrustatum dominates in the fast-flowing water areas where the mean depositional rate is 1.6 cm/year. Stromatolites in these areas are formed of palisades of hollow calcite tubes (inner diameter of 6.0-7.5 μm, walls 2-12 μm thick) that formed through calcite encrustation around the filaments followed by decay of the trichomes. In contrast, in slow-flowing water areas with lower depositional rates (mean depositional rate of 0.3 cm/year), Phormidium aerugineo-caeruleum is the dominant species. In these areas, randomly oriented calcite tubes (inner diameter of 5-6 μm, walls 3-8 μm thick) formed by calcite encrustation, are found in thin and uneven laminae and as scattered tubes in the loose lime mud and sand-sized carbonate sediment. Although this species did not build laminated deposits, it gave cohesiveness to the loose sediment. In the stepped and low waterfalls, with intermediate deposition rates (mean depositional rate of 0.9 cm/year), both species of Phormidium are found in association with spongy moss and algal boundstones, which is consistent with the variable flow conditions in this setting. The calcite encrustations on the cyanobacteria from different environments exhibit irregular patterns that may be linked to changes in the calcite saturation index. The physicochemical conditions associated with extracellular polymeric substances may be more significant to CaCO3 precipitation in microbial mats in slow-flowing water conditions than in fast-flowing water conditions. These results show that flow conditions may influence the distribution of different cyanobacteria that, in turn, leads to the development of different sedimentary

  1. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  2. Aspectos histoquímicos e imunoistoquímicos nos neoplasmas do sistema nervoso periférico Histochemical and immunohistochemical features of peripheral nerve neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Viott

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Doze casos de tumores do sistema nervoso periférico, sete schwannomas e cinco neurofibromas foram diagnosticados entre 1964 e 2004, em caninos e bovinos. Histologicamente, as células predominantes nos schwannomas eram fusiformes organizavam-se em paliçada ou em feixes aleatórios. Nos neurofibromas as células neoplásicas eram fusiformes e se originavam da periferia dos nervos formando ninhos e feixes. O tecido conjuntivo era mais abundante nos neurofibromas e os colágenos dos tipos I e III eram os principais constituintes desses neoplasmas. Os neurofibromas foram caracterizados por uma concentração alta e difusa de mastócitos, provavelmente devido à origem das células neoplásicas do perineuro e epineuro. A coloração de AgNOR não se mostrou eficiente como indicador de prognóstico nos neoplasmas analisados. Imunoistoquímicamente houve forte marcação para vimentina (100% e S100 (100% em ambos os tipos de tumor. A maioria dos schwannomas (75% foi positiva para a proteína ácida fibrilar glial; os neurofibromas só apresentaram marcação nas células de Schwann dos fascículos nervosos.A retrospective study of peripheral nerve tumors was made from 1964 to 2004. The tumors summed up 12, being seven schwannomas and five neurofibromas. Schwannomas were composed of spindle-shaped cells either in a palisading pattern or random bundles loosely textured and neurofibromas by spindle cells. The connective tissue components were more prevalent in neurofibromas with a characteristic deployment of collagens type I and III. In AgNOR techniques, both benign and malignant schwannomas and neurofibromas did not show differences. Mast cells stained by toluidine blue were more prevalent in neurofibromas which are rich in reactive endoneurium. Schwannomas (100% and neurofibromas (100% were positive for vimentin and S100 protein, so they prove to be reliable for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors. GFAP marked cells were found in three

  3. Engineering high Zn in tomato shoots through expression of AtHMA4 involves tissue-specific modification of endogenous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorek, Maria; Klimecka, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Borg, Sören; Rudzka, Justyna; Szczęsny, Paweł; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2016-08-12

    To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma). Zn-supply-dependent modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in AtHMA4-tomato (increase at 5 μM Zn, no change at 0.5 μM Zn) involved tissue-specific, distinct from that in the wild type, expression of tomato endogenous genes. First, it is suggested that an ethylene-dependent pathway underlies the detected changes in Zn root/shoot partitioning, as it was induced in transgenic plants in a distinct way depending on Zn exposure. Upon exposure to 5 or 0.5 μM Zn, in the epidermis + cortex of the transgenics' roots the expression of the Strategy I Fe-uptake system (ethylene-dependent LeIRT1 and LeFER) was respectively lower or higher than in the wild type and was accompanied by respectively lower or higher expression of the identified ethylene genes (LeNR, LeACO4, LeACO5) and of LeChln. Second, the contribution of LeNRAMP2 expression in the stele is shown to be distinct for wild-type and transgenic plants at both Zn exposures. Ethylene was also suggested as an important factor in a pathway induced in the leaves of transgenic plants by high Zn in the apoplast, which results in the initiation of loading of the excess Zn into the

  4. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  5. Anatomia e histoquímica das folhas de Senna alata Anatomy and histochemistry of Senna alata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    environments. Also, the leaves are rich in calcium oxalate crystals along their veins, a characteristic of Caesalpiniodeae subfamily. Phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and anthraquinones, were found in epidermal and basal trichome cells, and scattered cells from palisade parenchyma, especially near the midvein. This study confirms the presence of known allelochemical classes in different types of cells in Senna alata mesophyll.

  6. The cyclic nucleotide gated cation channel AtCNGC10 traffics from the ER via Golgi vesicles to the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root and leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Marilou A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs maintain cation homeostasis essential for a wide range of physiological processes in plant cells. However, the precise subcellular locations and trafficking of these membrane proteins are poorly understood. This is further complicated by a general deficiency of information about targeting pathways of membrane proteins in plants. To investigate CNGC trafficking and localization, we have measured Atcngc5 and Atcngc10 expression in roots and leaves, analyzed AtCNGC10-GFP fusions transiently expressed in protoplasts, and conducted immunofluorescence labeling of protoplasts and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of high pressure frozen leaves and roots. Results AtCNGC10 mRNA and protein levels were 2.5-fold higher in roots than leaves, while AtCNGC5 mRNA and protein levels were nearly equal in these tissues. The AtCNGC10-EGFP fusion was targeted to the plasma membrane in leaf protoplasts, and lightly labeled several intracellular structures. Immunofluorescence microscopy with affinity purified CNGC-specific antisera indicated that AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are present in the plasma membrane of protoplasts. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AtCNGC10 was associated with the plasma membrane of mesophyll, palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells of leaves, and the meristem, columella and cap cells of roots. AtCNCG10 was also observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae and vesicles of 50–150 nm in size. Patch clamp assays of an AtCNGC10-GFP fusion expressed in HEK293 cells measured significant cation currents. Conclusion AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are plasma membrane proteins. We postulate that AtCNGC10 traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi apparatus and associated vesicles to the plasma membrane. The presence of the cation channel, AtCNGC10, in root cap meristem cells, cell plate, and gravity-sensing columella cells, combined with the previously reported

  7. On the metal tolerance and resilience capacity of Helichrysum italicum G. Don growing on mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleci, Laura; Tani, Corrado; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effects of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of Helichrysum italicum growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; to highlight morphological modifications at anatomical and cytological level; to ascertain the plant tolerance to heavy metals, and their resilience capacity. Wild specimens of Helichrysum italicum, with their soil clod, were gathered from sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Niccioleta mine (Tuscany, Italy). Plants were brought to the botanical laboratory of the University of Florence, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. In particular, the secreting trichomes, which are responsible for the characteristic flavour of the plant, present a different morphology in the polluted specimens with respect to the not-polluted ones. Indeed, the latter present the typical trichomes of the Asteraceae family, with two lines of cells bearing the secretion accumulated on the apical cuticular space. Trichomes of the polluted plants, instead, present a completely different morphology, with a stalk of 3-4 cells and a large secreting apical cell (i.e. they are capitate hairs). Samples from contaminated sites, moreover, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor

  8. Tensit - a novel probabilistic simulation tool for safety assessments. Tests and verifications using biosphere models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Jakob; Vahlund, Fredrik; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the verification of a new simulation tool for dose assessment put together in a package under the name Tensit (Technical Nuclide Simulation Tool). The tool is developed to solve differential equation systems describing transport and decay of radionuclides. It is capable of handling both deterministic and probabilistic simulations. The verifications undertaken shows good results. Exceptions exist only where the reference results are unclear. Tensit utilise and connects two separate commercial softwares. The equation solving capability is derived from the Matlab/Simulink software environment to which Tensit adds a library of interconnectable building blocks. Probabilistic simulations are provided through a statistical software named at R isk that communicates with Matlab/Simulink. More information about these softwares can be found at www.palisade.com and www.mathworks.com. The underlying intention of developing this new tool has been to make available a cost efficient and easy to use means for advanced dose assessment simulations. The mentioned benefits are gained both through the graphical user interface provided by Simulink and at R isk, and the use of numerical equation solving routines in Matlab. To verify Tensit's numerical correctness, an implementation was done of the biosphere modules for dose assessments used in the earlier safety assessment project SR 97. Acquired probabilistic results for deterministic as well as probabilistic simulations have been compared with documented values. Additional verification has been made both with another simulation tool named AMBER and also against the international test case from PSACOIN named Level 1B. This report documents the models used for verification with equations and parameter values so that the results can be recreated. For a background and a more detailed description of the underlying processes in the models, the reader is referred to the original references. Finally, in the perspective of

  9. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    field programs, which lay the foundation for leadership positions, but which may be difficult for young faculty. The strategy is to use the Earth Institute as a test bed for institutional change, and then expand the successful programs to other Columbia Science and Engineering Departments, as appropriate. Columbia's administration is committed to changing policies and supporting successful programs beyond the completion of the NSF grant. Earth Institute ADVANCE programs include (a) a self study including a climate survey modeled after the 1999 MIT study, (b) a senior faculty working group that will facilitate recruitment and retention by providing support for searches, faculty development, and retention, (c) internal funding competitions designed to recruit and retain women scientists and engineers, and (d) focused workshops and conferences. The ADVANCE program will establish offices both on the Morningside campus in Manhattan and Lamont campus in Palisades, NY.

  10. Leaf anatomy of Gaillardia cabrerae (Asteraceae: Basic plan and comparative study of two contrasting habitat populations Anatomía foliar de Gaillardia cabrerae (Asteraceae: plan básico y estudio comparativo de dos poblaciones de hábitats contrastantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beinticinco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the leaf anatomy pattern of Gaillardia cabrerae Covas, an exclusive endemic camephyte from the Lihué Calel National Park, province of La Pampa, Argentina. Leaf cross sections and peelings of plants growing in two different populations were used to determine the basic leaf anatomy patterns and to estimate the influence of growth conditions in the two microhabitats. The analysis showed differences in epidermal cells area, stomata density and main diameter, lacunar parenchyma cells and central vascular bundle diameter and palisade parenchyma cells dimensions. These aspects might be reflecting environmental conditions of the populations, especially sun exposure and soil moisture. The results provide information on the relationship of the species to its environment, which could be used in the establishment of conservation policies.Gaillardia cabrerae Covas es un caméfito endémico del Parque Nacional Lihué Calel. En este estudio se evalúan características anatómicas de individuos de dos poblaciones provenientes de diferentes microhábitats de las Sierras de Lihué Calel. La información proporcionada es importante para entender las condiciones de vida de la especie y provee información inherente para establecer planes de conservación. Mediante cortes transversales y la técnica de peeling fue posible determinar el plan básico de la anatomía foliar y también verificar diferencias significativas en el área de células epidérmicas, densidad estomática, diámetro mayor de los estomas, diámetro de células del parénquima lagunar y del haz vascular central y en las dimensiones de las células del parénquima en empalizada. Las condiciones ambientales a las cuales estas poblaciones están sometidas, especialmente la exposición solar y la humedad del suelo son posibles factores que podrían explicar las diferencias detectadas en la anatomía foliar para ambas poblaciones.

  11. Ecological and biological characteristics and cutting propagation techniques of Tetrastigma obtectum%崖爬藤的生态生物学特征及其扦插繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莲莲; 王少平; 雷泽湘; 钟才荣; 唐志信; 任海

    2016-01-01

    Tetrastigma obtectum is an evergreen or half evergreen vine species of Vitaceae family with great potentials to be used for landscape greening. Leaf morphology in T. obtectum was comparatively studied using epidermal maceration and paraffin methods. The result indicated that T. obtectum had large average leaf area(23.1 cm2) and small leaf mass per area(4.4 mg·cm-2). The blade thickness of it was about 195.5μm, with underdeveloped palisade tissue. Large gaps between the cells of both palisade tissue and spongy tissue were good for T. obtectum to decrease the light transmission loss and improve the utilization of luminous energy, showing the suitability of shade and humid environment. With the aid of LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system and PAM-2100 portable chlorophyll fluorometer, the study on photosyn-thetic physiology was made. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (0.818) was high, which was helpful for light-harvesting. At the same time, the high non-photochemical quenching could be favorable to dissipate excess light en-ergy, which protected the photosynthetic tissue, and mitigated the effect of environment on photosynthesis. Its diurnal net photosynthetic rate in leaves showed a single peaked curve without midday depression. The peak value of net photosyn-thetic rate was 3.691μmol·m-2 ·s-1 occurring at about 14:00, and changes were close to the variations of photosynthet-ic active radiation, air temperature, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, but opposite to internal CO2 concentration. With the increase of net photosynthetic rate, CO2 consumption increased significantly leading to the de-crease of internal CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, the daily average value of instantaneous water use efficiency was 3.056μmol·mmol-1, fully embodied the strong utilization ability in water and weak light, and could keep high stomata aper-ture as well as high photosynthetic capacity. This showed that T. obtectum prefered to grow under shady and humid

  12. Tufa in Northern England: depositional facies, carbonate mineral fabrics, and role of biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, E.; Mawson, M.; Perri, E.; Tucker, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    soil hereabouts, and are gradually being washed down slope. Pisoids vary in size and shape, ranging from rods to sub-spherical forms, up to several cm long or a cm or more in diameter. The external surface is a smooth dull surface of a pale grey-buff colour; the nucleus may be a plant fragment, tufa intraclast or rock fragment. Microfacies Teesdale tufa is characterized by three microfacies all contributing to a basic stromatolitic or laminated microfabric: dendrolite, dense micrite and palisades of sparite. Laminae consist of an irregular alternation of the three microfacies, which vary in abundance within the main depositional facies. Dendrolitic layers are characterized of mineralized, upward-branching cyanobacterial filaments, forming bush-like fans. Coarse sparitic layers consist of palisades of bladed calcite spar characterized by rhombohedral terminations. Micritic layers consist of dark-brown dense laminae with some clotted fabric, composed of dark micritic crystals. In thin-section molds of moss stems are often preserved by a sparitic layer that formed a coating before decay of the moss organic tissues. Cavities are abundant in moss tufa and crusts. They are often empty or in some case filled by detrital particles. Pisoids under the microscope show a cortex characterized by a concentric structure consisting mainly dense micritic layers alternating with sporadic sparitic and/or dendrolitic layers. Calcified cyanobacterial filaments or their molds are very evident in the dendrolitic laminae, but also occur in the other microfacies, being incorporated in both the sparite macro-crystals and the micritic layers. Nanofacies of minerals The mineral composition of the autochthonous carbonate forming tufa is calcite with a few mole% Mg. Sub-hedral crystals of calcite, several tens of microns in size, form sparite crystals. Sub-polygonal micro-crystals and elongate fibres a few microns in size compose dense micrite and calcified filaments. Under extra-high SEM

  13. The Education Summit; A Different Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-05-01

    The last National Education Summit held by the Governors occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1989. That Summit, chaired by then Governor Clinton, produced the national goals for education announced by President Bush. These top-down goals are unfulfilled and are, for all practical purposes, dead. The 1996 Education Summit seems different, although its recommendations may suffer the same fate of those of the 1989 Summit. The 1996 Education Summit was held at IBM's Executive Conference Center in Palisades, New York. The Governors invited 44 executives of major businesses from virtually every state. CEO's from IBM, AT&T, Bell South, Eastman Kodak, Procter & Gamble, and Boeing were a part of the planning committee. Absent, for the most part, were professional educators and their organizations. The constitution of the 1996 Education Summit sent a clear signal, viz., that the "professional educators," whatever their individual talents, as a group have failed the nation's public schools and now its time for someone else to try. The "someone else" is the group of individuals that are the ultimate consumers of the output of the American education system. The collective point of view of the attending CEO's is that companies have undergone radical changes to become globally competitive, now it's time to keep the work force equally competitive. And this can only come through radical changes in the educational system. The CEO's point out that the companies they represent live or die by the (international) standards they establish, some of which are expressed in the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM), which represents a systemic approach to the changes American industry had to undergo to stay competitive. The executives clearly have run out of patience with the current system of public education. Many feel that they are running out of talented people to fill the important jobs that this society will need to fill to keep it moving forward. That talent is not being

  14. Cooperative Data Sharing: Simple Support for Clusters of SMP Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, David C.; Balley, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    -supplied high- performance locks. Although its inter-node performance is currently unimpressive due to rudimentary implementation technique, it even now outperforms highly-optimized MPI implementation on intra-node communication due to its support for non-copy communication. The similarity of the CDS1 architecture to that of other projects such as UNET and TRAP suggests that the inter-node performance can be increased significantly to surpass MPI or PVM, and it may be possible to migrate some of its functionality to communication controllers.

  15. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  16. Morfoanatomia de Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae Morpho-anatomy of Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae

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    Leonice M. F. Tresvenzol

    2010-12-01

    , lanceolate, dark green and shining. The inflorescence is racemose with infundibuliform flowers and gold yellow corolla; nectar glands are observed in the upper third calyx; androecium with four fertile stamens, didynamus and one staminode; gynoecium with terminal style, superior ovary, seated on a nectary disc. The fruit is flattened septifragal capsule with winged seeds. Anatomically, the blade leaflet is hypostomatic with predominantly paracytic stomata. The palisade parenchyma is pluriseriate, occupying about two thirds of the dorsiventral mesophyll. Glandular and non-glandular trichomes are observed in greater numbers in the young leaves.

  17. Dry matter yield and nutritional value of Marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in cerrado in São Paulo Produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu sob adubação nitrogenada e irrigação no cerrado paulista

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    Elisângela Dupas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate dry matter yield and nutritional value of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu using nitrogen doses and sprinkler irrigation in two periods of the year, aiming at reducing seasonality of forage production. It was used a randomized block design in a split-plot scheme, with five doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/cut, and the sub-plots were defined by the seasons of the year (wet and dry season, with and without irrigation. During the wet season, in the plots with and without irrigation, doses of 175 and 161 kg/ha/cut promoted the highest dry matter yields. During the dry season, 171 kg ha-1N with irrigation resulted in the highest dry matter yield. During the same season, there was no response to N fertilization in the lack of irrigation. Average contents of CP were 10% with and without irrigation. Contents of neutral detergent fiber decreased with nitrogen doses, while acid detergent fiber was not affected by fertilization. Plots under irrigation reached the maximal acid detergent fiber content at N dose of 60 kg ha-1. Irrigation promotes increase of 15% increase in dry matter yield and it increases contents of neutral detergent fiber.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu utilizando doses de nitrogênio e irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos do ano, visando à redução da estacionalidade de produção de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg/ha/corte e as subparcelas definidas pelos períodos do ano (período das águas e da seca, com e sem irrigação. No período das águas, nas parcelas com e sem irrigação, as doses de 175 e 161 kg/ha/corte promoveram as máximas produções de MS. No período da seca, a dose 171 kg ha-1 de N com irrigação propiciou a

  18. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

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    Erivaldo Alves do Nascimento

    2006-06-01

    cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS, one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS. The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS, (SCS and (SCSCS systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

  19. Caracterização anatômica das folhas de Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae Anatomic characterization of Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae leaves

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    Maria da Graça Teixeira de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    both faces is single layered. Uniserial tectorial trichomes and single celled and multicelled capitate glandular trichomes are present in both faces. The mesophyll is heterogeneous dorsi-ventral. Idioblasts containing inulin crystals are present throughout the foliar plate. The central veins in cross-section, in the medium portion of the foliar plate, have shown a very simple organization, not an outstanding one, where the chlorophyllian palisade parenchyma presents a solution of continuity. The vascular fagots are collateral.

  20. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  1. Puente sobre el río Parramatta, Australia

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available A bridge is now being built at Gladesville, Australia, of reinforced and prestressed concrete, which having a span of 277 m, will be the largest of its type in the world. The main arch consists of four parallel ribs, each 277 m in span. These ribs are hollow, and constitute the main structure of the arch. There are four secondary access spans on each side. The initial project was somewhat altered by the Sydney Dept. of Public Works. Each of the four main ribs of the central arch leaves 36 m clear height for fluvial navigation. The arched ribs are made up of 108 hollow units, each weighing 50 tons. At suitable intervals a number of transversal, prestressed diaphragms have been fitted, which serve to mutually stabilise the ribs. On the ribs a palisade of vertical supports carry the bridge deck. This is 22 m wide and has two sidewalks, each 1.80 m wide. The prestressed deck girders were made at two nearby workshops, one on each side of the bridge. The construction of the ribs was completed with the aid of a metallic scaffolding, which was moved from one rib to the next and served for the erection of all of them. Prestressing was done with Freyssinet type plane jacks. These were placed between the rib units, which were compressed, at the same as forcing the arch to lift off the scaffolding. After the oil had compressed the concrete, it was substituted by cement mortar. The operation was repeated at various points for each rib.En Gladesville, Sydney (Australia, se construye un puente, de hormigón armado y pretensado, que, por sus 277 m de luz, será el mayor de los hasta hoy construidos en arco. Está formado por cuatro arcos o nervios huecos como tramo central, de 277 m de luz, y cuatro tramos de acceso a uno y otro lado. El proyecto inicial sufrió alguna variante que introdujo el Departamento de Obras Públicas de Sydney. Cada uno de los cuatro arcos del tramo central, que deja una altura libre de 36 m para la navegación fluvial, se ha

  2. Changes in anatomy and root cell ultrastructure of soybean genotypes under manganese stress Alterações anatômicas e ultraestruturais em genótipos de soja pela desordem nutricional em manganês

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    José Lavres Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of both Mn deficiency and excess on the development of plants have been evaluated with regard to aspects of shoot anatomy, ultrastructure and biochemistry, focusing mainly on the manifestation of visual symptoms. However, there is little information in the literature on changes in the root system in response to Mn supply. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Mn doses (0.5, 2.0 and 200.0 μmol L-1 in a nutrient solution on the anatomy of leaves and roots of the Glycine max (L. cultivars Santa Rosa, IAC-15 and IAC-Foscarin 31. Visual deficiency symptoms were first observed in Santa Rosa and IAC-15, which were also the only cultivars where Mn-toxicity symptoms were observed. Only in IAC-15, a high Mn supply led to root diameter thickening, but without alteration in cells of the bark, epidermis, exodermis and endodermis. The degree of disorganization of the xylem vessels, in particular the metaxylem, differed in the cultivars. Quantity and shape of the palisade parenchyma cells were influenced by both Mn deficiency and toxicity. A reduction in the number of chloroplasts was observed in the three Mn-deficient genotypes. The anatomical alterations in IAC-15 due to nutritional stress were greater, as expressed in extensive root cell cytoplasm disorganization and increased vacuolation at high Mn doses. The degree of changes in the anatomical and ultrastructural organization of roots and leaves of the soybean genotypes studied differed, suggesting the existence of tolerance mechanisms to different intensities of Mn deficiency or excess.Os efeitos negativos provocados não apenas pela deficiência mas também pela toxidez de Mn no desenvolvimento das plantas têm sido avaliados considerando-se os aspectos anatômicos, de ultraestrutura e bioquímicos da parte aérea particularmente, onde os sintomas visuais são manifestados. Entretanto, há escassez na literatura de informações que abordem o sistema

  3. Alterações anatômicas em algodoeiro infectado pelo vírus da doença azul Anatomical alterations in blue disease infected cotton plant

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    Juliana K. Takimoto

    2009-01-01

    Luteoviridae family. Aiming to understand virus-host pathogenesis as well as to contribute with diagnostic and breeding aspects of cotton blue disease, in the present work, structural studies were performed via anatomical comparative analysis of health and infected plant tissues. For the anatomical studies, leaves from infected cotton plants were chosen when showing typical symptoms, such as: stunting, reduced leaf area with chlorotic vein and edges curled downward; clustered leaves, flowers and fruits due to reduced stem internodes. The results revealed that infected tissues present an increase in callose accumulation and calcium oxalate crystals; integrity of chloroplasts, which were distributed on the peripheral mesophyll cells, revealed a chemical alteration in the interior of palisade parenchyma cells. Inclusions in phloem and occasionally also xylem vessels were observed. The callose accumulation and the presence of inclusions in the phloem vessels are indications of a preferential relationship of the virus to these tissues.

  4. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    . The quantification of glandular trichomes on the adaxial surface of the epidermis was evaluated in young and mature leaves with camera lucida. The leaves are alternate or fasciculate and the blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with thin and smooth cuticle and dorsiventral mesophyll. There are predominantly anomocytic stomata on both surfaces, as well as glandular trichomes located in epidermal depressions. Various non-glandular trichomes are encountered on the abaxial surface. The palisade parenchyma consists of a single layer of cells and the parenchyma which is faced to the abaxial surface comprehends three to five layers of cells in compact arrangement. The young and mature leaves showed, respectively, 21.78±5.83 e 17.80±6.69 glandular trichomes on the adaxial side. The morpho-anatomical analysis of E. erythropappus leaves has proved to be a practical and rapid method for the identification and quality control of the vegetal species used for medical purposes.

  5. Degradation and Local Survival of Permafrost Through the Last Interglaciation in Interior Alaska and Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. V.; Froese, D. G.; Jensen, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    Permafrost in northern North America is warming, and recent modeling efforts have predicted the widespread disappearance of permafrost through much of the northern hemisphere over the next century. However, little is known of the impacts of past sustained warm intervals on permafrost dynamics, antiquity, and distribution due to difficulties in establishing reliable chronologies. Permafrost thus remains the last element of the Arctic cryosphere for which there is poor understanding of its adaptability to past warmer-than-present climate. Here we present observations from three sites in the region of interior Alaska and Yukon Territory that remained ice-free during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, which collectively demonstrate the variable nature of the response of permafrost to warming during the last interglaciation. Chronology for all sites is based on identification of Old Crow tephra (OCt; 140±10 ka) by glass major element composition. Throughout the study region, OCt is consistently associated with organic-rich sediments that represent the last interglaciation on the basis of pollen, insect, and macrofossil assemblages. At the Palisades site on the Yukon River, 250 km west of Fairbanks, OCt is 1.5-3.5 m below thick (>1m) organic-rich silts and peats that are locally rich in beaver-chewed wood and large wood stumps, some of which are in growth position. In contrast, placer mining at Thistle Creek in central Yukon Territory exposes a dramatic thaw unconformity that is presumably related to local, but incomplete, permafrost degradation during the last interglaciation. In upslope positions at Thistle Creek, OCt is incorporated into a steeply dipping, 30 cm thick, organic-rich silt horizon that truncates at least one intact, relict ice wedge. The steeply dipping organic- rich horizon grades downslope into organic-rich silt with dense accumulations of wood fragments, including tree stems up to 2 m long. Evidence for similar permafrost degradation during the last

  6. Pneumoconiose reumatoide (síndrome de Caplan com apresentação clássica Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (Caplan's syndrome with a classical presentation

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    Eduardo Mello De Capitani

    2009-09-01

    of a female patient with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed 34 years after 7 years of occupational exposure to silica at a porcelain plant. A chest X-ray showed circular opacities of 1-5 cm in diameter, bilaterally distributed at the periphery of the lungs. A CT-guided thoracic punch biopsy of one of those nodules revealed that it was rheumatoid nodule surrounded by a palisade of macrophages, which is typical of Caplan's syndrome. Aspects of diagnosis, classification and occurrence of this syndrome are discussed, emphasizing the importance of the occupational anamnesis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lung opacities on chest X-rays.

  7. Comparative anatomy of floral elaiophores in Vitekorchis Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum Kunth and a florally dimorphic species of Oncidium Sw. (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Rawski, Michał

    2014-06-01

    Recently, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the phylogeny of subtribe Oncidiinae, resulting in the re-alignment of several of its genera. Here, a description is given of the structure of the floral elaiophores (oil glands) of four species formerly assigned to Oncidium Sw. Those of Vitekorchis excavata (Lindl.) Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb.f.) Dalström and a species of Oncidium displaying floral dimorphism, namely O. heteranthum Poepp. & Endl. var. album, are compared with that of Gomesa longipes (Lindl.) M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams, whose epithelial elaiophores are typical of many Oncidiinae, in order to extend our understanding of elaiophore diversity within this subtribe. Floral elaiophore structure was examined and compared at anthesis for all four species using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. In all species investigated, with the exception of C. meirax, the floral elaiophore occurs on the labellar callus and is of the intermediate type, possessing both glabrous and trichomatous regions. By contrast, although all four species produce lipid secretions, C. meirax lacks an obvious elaiophore. In each case, the secretory tissue is represented by a single-layered epidermis of cuboidal cells (trichomatous and/or atrichomatous). Palisade cells are absent. The secretion may be wax- or oil-like and is usually produced by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). However, in C. meirax, where rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) predominates, oil accumulates as plastoglobuli within elaioplasts. These plastoglobuli are then discharged into the cytoplasm, forming oil bodies. In some species, oil usually accumulates within vesicles at the plasmalemma or in the periplasmic space before traversing the cell wall and accumulating beneath the cuticle, sometimes with distension of the latter. Gomesa longipes is unusual in its production of a heterogeneous secretion, whereas Vitekorchis

  8. Estudio anatómico y distribución de las reservas proteicas y lipídicas en semillas de diferentes tamaños de Cuphea glutinosa (Lythraceae

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    María Elena di Santo

    2012-12-01

    volumes and number and size of PB and OB present in palisade and spongy parenchyma, and epidermal cotiledons of two sizes' seeds. The weight of 1,000 big and small seeds was 1,011 ± 0.003586 g and 0,557 ± 0.002698 g respectively. The study was made on SEM photographs using the Image J 1.40 software. The results were statistically analyzed. Cuphea glutinosa presents a remarkable seed cover with cubical cells around the embryo. Cotyledons shows an anatomy similar to that of the adult leaf, with considerable differences in cellular volumes among tissues of both kind of seeds. The seeds' size was irrespective of the PB and OB sizes. Although, the distribution was very strongly influenced, because the big seeds accumulate their reserves mainly in PB and the small seeds in OB, with little variation in their energy contents, in spite of the great variation in seeds' size.

  9. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

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    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    transverse and paradermal sections were analyzed under an optical microscope (OM. Leaf surface was also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Histochemical tests were done using fresh material to identify and locate carbohydrates, starch, tannins, lignin, crystals and silica. Morphologically, the leaf is simple, oval-elliptical, with entire margin, acute base, acuminate apex and chartaceous texture. The venation pattern is camptodromous-brochidodromous. Anatomically, the leaf is hipostomatic, with compact and dorsiventral mesophyll, containing three layers of palisade parenchyma. The epidermis is uniseriate, silicified in some regions and presents cells with straight anticlinal walls. In the subepidermal position, there are several essential oil secretory cavities. Vascular bundles are collateral and surrounded by crystalliferous series. The obtained data were compared to those of other Myrtaceae species , leading to the conclusion that, the morphoanatomical traits of M. multiflora contribute to its diagnosis.

  10. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e fósforo remanescente em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo Carbon, light organic matter and remaining phosphorus in different soil management systems

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    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2010-05-01

    (Crotalaria juncea, pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, and palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha as cover crops -, and sub-plots consisting of maize and soybean crops. In March 2007, the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 e 0.10-0.20 m soil layers were sampled and assessed for COT, MOL, COT stocks and Prem. In the no tillage areas, increases in MOL content can reduce phosphorus adsorption in soil. Management systems without soil disturbance increases COT stocks in the superficial layers while conventional tillage and no tillage using pearl millet as cover crops provide a deeper incorporation of carbon in the soil.

  11. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Falls and Chester domes and Chain Lakes-Pelham dome-Bronson Hill structural trends, and the synformal Connecticut Valley-Gaspe structural trend can be traced southwest into the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement. A Mesozoic rift basin, the "Sandy Hook basin", and associated eastern boundary fault is identified, based upon gravity modeling, in the vicinity of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. The thickness of the rift-basin sedimentary rocks contained within the "Sandy Hook basin" is approximately 4.7 km, with the basin extending offshore to the east of the New Jersey coast. Gravity modeling indicates a deep rift basin and the magnetic data indicates a shallow magnetic basement caused by magnetic diabase sills and/or basalt flows contained within the rift-basin sedimentary rocks. The igneous sills and/or flows may be the eastward continuation of the Watchung and Palisades bodies. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water resources of Rockland County, New York, 2005-07, with emphasis on the Newark Basin Bedrock Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over the state of water resources in Rockland County, NY, prompted an assessment of current (2005-07) conditions. The investigation included a review of all water resources but centered on the Newark basin aquifer, a fractured-bedrock aquifer over which nearly 300,000 people reside. Most concern has been focused on this aquifer because of (1) high summer pumping rates, with occasional entrained-air problems and an unexplained water-level decline at a monitoring well, (2) annual withdrawals that have approached or even exceeded previous estimates of aquifer recharge, and (3) numerous contamination problems that have caused temporary or long-term shutdown of production wells. Public water supply in Rockland County uses three sources of water in roughly equal parts: (1) the Newark basin sedimentary bedrock aquifer, (2) alluvial aquifers along the Ramapo and Mahwah Rivers, and (3) surface waters from Lake DeForest Reservoir and a smaller, new reservoir supply in the Highlands part of the county. Water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer in the Ramapo River valley and the Lake DeForest Reservoir are subject to water-supply application permits that stipulate minimum flows that must be maintained downstream into New Jersey. There is a need, therefore, at a minimum, to prevent any loss of the bedrock-aquifer resource--to maintain it in terms of both sustainable use and water-quality protection. The framework of the Newark basin bedrock aquifer included characterization of (1) the structure and fracture occurrence associated with the Newark basin strata, (2) the texture and thickness of overlying glacial and alluvial deposits, (3) the presence of the Palisades sill and associated basaltic units on or within the Newark basin strata, and (4) the streams that drain the aquifer system. The greatest concern regarding sustainability of groundwater resources is the aquifer response to the seasonal increase in pumping rates from May through October (an average increase

  13. Trust but Verify: a spot check for the new stratified model of upper mantle anisotropy beneath North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Yuan, H.

    2011-12-01

    (Palisades, NY; Standing Stone, PA), suggesting a presence of a regional anisotropic feature. Both the depth and the orientation of anisotropy show reasonable agreement with the "spot" values in the new 3D model. Preliminary modeling of shear-wave splitting observations using the cross-convolution method (Menke et al. 2003; Yuan et al. 2008) shows a strong preference for a stratified two-layer anisotropic domain beneath HRV. At the same time, specific parameters (depth, symmetry axes direction, strength of anisotropy) appear to be sensitive to both data selection and to modeling strategy. Inverting a set of core-refracted phases (SKS and SKKS) with the help of a ray-based algorithm that neglects multiples we converge on models that differ considerably from Levin et al. (1999) results, and also from values in the Yuan et al. (2011) model. Use of a reflectivity algorithm leads to results more consistent with past finding and the model. In the presentation we will explore the relative importance of synthetic seismogram algorithms, data set (e.g., inclusion of deep-focus S waves), and overall assumptions about the anisotropy distribution (e.g., vertical vs. lateral variation).

  14. Caracterização anatômica e fitoquímica de folhas e rizomas de Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae Anatomical and phytochemical characterization of leaves and rhizomes from Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.G Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a grande potencialidade na utilização de Hedychium coronarium, na medicina popular e também como biorremediadora no tratamento de efluentes, objetivou-se uma diagnose dos órgãos, folha e rizoma, para elucidar resultados estruturais e fitoquímicos. A folha é anfiestomática, com predominância de estômatos na face abaxial. Em ambas as superfícies foliares há projeções de cera epicuticular sobre as paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas. O mesofilo dorsiventral apresenta hipoderme multisseriada (3 camadas em ambos os lados. O parênquima clorofiliano é diferenciado em paliçádico (1-2 camadas e lacunoso (4-5 camadas com muitos espaços intercelulares e ocorrência de idioblastos cristalíferos. Na nervura central, o aerênquima ocorre em único arco na região abaxial. Os feixes vasculares distribuem-se aleatoriamente e são de diferentes tamanhos, pequenos, médios e grandes, envolvidos por fibras. Os feixes menores localizam-se no lado abaxial da nervura. A triagem fitoquímica das folhas mostrou a presença de saponinas e ausência de taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides e flavonóides. Por meio de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada foram identificadas as presenças de cariofileno e mirceno no óleo essencial bruto obtido a partir das folhas de H. coronarium.Due to the great potentiality regarding the use of Hedychium coronarium in folk medicine and also as a bioremediator in effluent treatment, this study aimed to diagnose leaf and rhizome in order to elucidate structural and phytochemical results. Hedychium coronarium leaf is amphistomatal, with predominance of stomata on the abaxial surface. On both leaf surfaces, there are epicuticular wax projections over the anticlinal walls from epidermal cells. The dorsiventral mesophyll presents multiseriate (3 layers hypoderm on both sides. The chlorophyllian parenchyma is differentiated into palisade (1-2 layers and spongy (4-5 layers with many intercellular spaces and some

  15. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    basalt in flow interiors. Other large igneous provinces and ocean floor basalts could accommodate centuries' worth of world's CO2 emissions. Low-volume basaltic flows and fractured intrusives may potentially serve as smaller-scale CO2 storage targets. However, as illustrated by the example of the Palisade sill in the Newark basin, even densely fractured intrusive basalts are often impermeable, and instead may serve as caprock for underlying formations. Hydraulic properties of fractured formations are very site-specific, but observations and theory suggest that the majority of fractures at depth remain closed. Hydraulic tests in the northern Newark basin indicate that fractures introduce strong anisotropy and heterogeneity to the formation properties, and very few of them augment hydraulic conductivity of these fractured formations. Overall, they are unlikely to provide enough storage capacity for safe CO 2 injection at large scales, but can be suitable for small-scale controlled experiments and pilot injection tests. The risk of inducing earthquakes by underground injection has emerged as one of the primary concerns for large-scale carbon sequestration, especially in fractured and moderately permeable formations. Analysis of in situ stress and distribution of fractures in the subsurface are important steps for evaluating the risks of induced seismicity. Preliminary results from the Newark basin suggest that local stress perturbation may potentially create favorable stress conditions for CO2 sequestration by allowing a considerable pore pressure increase without carrying large risks of fault reactivation. Additional in situ stress data are needed, however, to accurately constrain the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress, and it is recommended that such tests be conducted at all potential CO 2 storage sites.

  16. Variabilidad ambiental y respuestas fisiológicas de Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae en un ambiente fragmentado en el Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramos

    2013-03-01

    determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P. cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P. cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an edge effect that could penetrate 17m inside the fragments. We conclude that P. cuadrijuga is a plastic species, able to overcome the stress conditions from anthropogenic transformations, species able to be used in high Andean forest restoration programs.

  17. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  18. Leaf anatomy of medicinal shrubs and trees from Misiones forest of the Paranaense Province (Argentina: Part 2 Anatomía foliar de arbustos y árboles medicinales de la Selva Misionera de la provincia Paranaense (Argentina: Parte 2

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    Ana M. Arambarri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains the study of the second part of medicinal shrubs and trees from Paranaense province. Forty five species of shrubs and trees belonging to 29 families inhabiting Misiones forest of the Paranaense biogeographic province (Argentina have been cited with medicinal properties. The work provides illustrations of diagnostic characters and conclusions of the main botanical differential traits, such as the presence of crystaliferous epidermis (e.g. Trixis divaricata subsp. divaricata; stomata and trichomes types (e. g. ciclocytic stomata in Pilocarpus pennatifolius and scale peltate trichomes in Tabebuia heptaphylla; midvein transection outlines (e.g. midvein convex and keel-shaped on the adaxial side in Schinus weinmanniifolia; presence and types of crystals (e.g. crystal sand in Cordia ecalyculata, raphides in Psychotria carthagenensis. This paper also gives an ecological interpretation of the species studied which shows predominantly a combination of mesomorphic (e.g. hypostomatic leaves, dorsiventral mesophyll and xeromorphic leaf traits (e.g. thick cuticle, abundant sclerenchyma, multilayered epidermis, mesophyll formed exclusively by palisade parenchyma, multilayered hypodermis, presence of sclereids. Only two species (Ilex paraguariensis and Manihot grahamii have mesomorphic (e.g. hypostomatic leaves, dorsiventral mesophyll and hygromorphic leaf characters (e.g. epidermis glabrous. Finally, the work provides a key to distinguish 107 medicinal shrubs and trees from the Paranaense biogeographic province (Part 1: Gallery forests and Part 2: Misiones forest that permit identified species using anatomy leaf characteristics.El presente trabajo corresponde a la segunda entrega del estudio de arbustos y árboles medicinales de la provincia biogeografica Paranaense. En esta parte, se analizaron 45 especies contenidas en 29 familias que habitan la Selva Misionera y han sido citadas con propiedades medicinales. El trabajo se acompa

  19. Cambios anatómicos y morfológicos en plántulas de Eucalyptus sp. en respuesta a diferentes niveles de luz Anatomical and morphological changes in Eucalyptus sp. seedlings in response to different levels of light

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    Ana B. Guarnaschelli

    2009-12-01

    acclimation. Increases in leaf area and in leaf coefficients were observed. At the same time, decreases in the thickness of leaves, epidermis, palisade parenchyma, and in the stomatal density were detected. Leaf dry mass and total dry mass decreased under the level S75. The increase in the level of light restriction produced proportional changes in leaf thickness and in leaf area ratio. Irrespective of the level of shade, some differences among the three species were observed, which could be associated with the environmental conditions of their native areas. Although some differences in the plasticity indexes were observed, average values for the three species were similar. This suggests that, for the characteristics considered in this study, the degree of shade acclimation was similar.

  20. Efecto de la contaminación ambiental en la anatomía de la hoja de Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae Effects of the environmental pollution on the anatomy of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bruno

    of stomas and trichomes, and estomatic index were determined. The internal structure of leaf was studied in cross sections and colored with astral blue-safranina or with hematoxylin, saffranin and fast green. The leaf epidermis variables obtained in polluted and non-polluted areas were compared statistically . The results show that in the polluted areas, the frequency of stomas, trichomes and stomatic index of the leaf are higher than in not polluted areas; and a reduction in palisade parenchyma thickness respect to the spongy one in the mesophyll is observed in polluted leaf.

  1. Descripción anatómica vegetativa de dos especies de Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae Vegetative anatomy of two Nymphoides species (Menyanthaceae

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    Mahinda Martínez

    2006-06-01

    xylem strands of a polyarch xilem, alternate with the phloem; it has a well defined endodermis. The stem has abundant aerenchyma and astrosclereids. Leaves have anomocytic stomata on the adaxial side, and abundant hydropoten on the abaxial; venation is actinodrome flavelated with the terminal portions modified to water pores; branched sclerenchyma present as idioblasts are common. In transverse section, the lamina has a simple epidermis, a mesophyll differentiated in a palisade parenchyma three to five layers thick, and a spongy mesophyll with large abundant air cavities in the abaxial side, astrosclereids are abundant. The mucilaginous exodermis had not previously been described, and the oxalate crystals described by other authors were not found.

  2. Multiple reinjections and crystal mush compaction in the solidification evolution of the Karaj Dam basement Sill, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghdour-Mashhour, Reza; Shabani, Amir Ali Tabbakh

    2017-07-01

    depletion of the lower half of the sill and the enrichment of the sandwich zone in incompatible elements and modal granophyre. Crystallization of the fourth pulse of magma produced a peak in incompatible clement concentrations at a sandwich horizon located at the 410 m level, where the floor and roof of the sill appeared to converge at this stage. Subsequent to the time of this enriched zone crystallizing, the fifth pulse of magma was emplaced near this level and inflated the chamber vertically for 200 m. Cumulus material containing interstitial melt and subsequent buoyancy driven upward transport of interstitial melt in this pulse concentrated incompatible elements at 47 m below the main peak, at the stratigraphic height of 360-370 m. The boundaries between the successive pulses were cryptic and represent a gradational contact in terms of grain size, chemical composition and crystallization sequence. This implies a short time interval between the emplacements of the magma. This sill is comparable with Antarctica Beacon Sill and Hudson River Palisades Sill, and the recognition of evidence for reinjection and compaction in these macroscopically uniform sills, as well as the Karaj Dam basement Sill, suggests that these processes may be common in the construction of sills with a thickness of more than 100 m.

  3. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  4. Nuclear criticality safety: general. 4. The CASTOR X/32S Method of Covering mis-loading Concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, Dale B.; Rombough, Charles T.; Diersch, Rudolf; Spilker, Harry

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, most cask licenses do not directly consider mis-loading. If the enrichment limit for a shipping cask is high and the reactivity control is inherent in the cask, the reactivity effect of a mis-load is small. However, in large-capacity casks, such as the CASTOR X/32S, the effect can be much larger. The U.S. Department of Energy Topical Report on Actinide- Only Burnup Credit takes the position that a fuel assembly mis-load does need to be analyzed since there are multiple independent checks, and thus, the double-contingency principle is met. Unfortunately, 11 assemblies were mis-loaded at Palisades. This event has caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ask for more detail on prevention of mis-loading. In the summer of 1999, Palisades loaded 11 assemblies, which did not comply with the loading requirements for their VSC-24 cask. The cask requires 5 yr of cooling, and these 11 assemblies had just a little more than 4 yr of cooling. The mis-loading did not result in an unsafe condition but in an un-reviewed condition. This mis-loading was not identified until November 2000 during a review related to an NRC information notice. The loading plan for the cask was incorrect. The engineering review of the loading plan missed the error. The operators had loaded the cask consistent with the loading plan. The cask loading was then confirmed by comparing to the loading plan. The loading plan was in error since the engineer assumed that the entire region of fuel was discharged at the same time. The 11 assemblies of concern were reinserted in the reactor, and the engineer and the reviewer did not check for this. The reactor records for all the assemblies were correct but apparently were not checked by the engineer who created the loading plan. To prevent a mis-load criticality event, the following steps will be required for the CASTOR X/32S storage and transport cask: 1. A loading plan will be prepared for each cask loaded. This plan will be

  5. Anatomía y usos de las hojas maduras de tres especies de Sabal (Arecaceae de la Península de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pérez

    2003-06-01

    differences. The adaxial an abaxial epidermis of the blade consist of one layer and, superficially, the anticlinal walls are straight; the stomata are intercostal, of the tetracytic type, present on both surfaces in S. mexicana and S. yapa and only on the abaxial surface on S. mauritiiformis. The hypodermis is one layer thick in S. yapa and in S. mexicana and two layers thick in S. mauritiiformis. In the three species the palisade parenchyma consists of several undefined strata as the cells are similar -in shape and size- to the cells in the spongy parenchyma, so there is no marked difference between these strata and the spongy parenchyma seems almost continuous. Both fibrous and vascular bundles are distributed between the hypodermis and the palisade parenchyma; the fiber bundles can be found towards the abaxial surface while the vascular and fiber bundles are located towards the adaxial surface. The fibers, in the three species, are elongated, with the pointed tips, undivided and unseptated. One to three wide vessels of metaxilem can be seen in the vascular bundles, those in S. yapa being the widest in diameter. The vascular bundles are surrounded by thick fiber sheaths which come in pairs. The anatomic structure of the petiole is similar to that of the blade, and is characterized by the many vascular and fiber bundles dispersed in the parenchymatous tissue, and which are very resistant. The histological structure of the blade and petiole reflects strength and flexibility, qualities which make these plants adequate in the construction of roofs for rural housing and other buildings.

  6. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

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    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  7. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  8. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3

  9. Structural changes in Psidium guajava 'Paluma' leaves exposed to tropospheric ozone Alterações anatômicas em folhas de Psidium guajava 'Paluma' expostas ao ozônio troposférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tresmondi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava 'Paluma' has being tested as an ozone (O3 bioindicator and responds with pigmentation between the veins on the adaxial surface, due to the accumulation of phenolic compounds. These compounds act as non-enzymatic antioxidants that neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS, formed from O3. This study aimed to evaluate the leaf structure of plants with and without visible symptoms and to establish these symptoms at the cellular level. Beside this we also aimed to detect structural changes that can minimize the effects of the O3 on the plant. The accumulation of phenolic substances, stomatal density and structural changes in P. guajava 'Paluma' leaf tissues exposed during the four seasons of the year were evaluated. The study was conducted at the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga ( PEFI, which is a park in the city of São Paulo that has high levels of O3. Leaves with symptoms showed, on the adaxial surface, anthocyanin accumulation in the vacuoles of epidermal cells and hypodermis. When the symptoms were more intense this accumulation was observed even in the first three layers of palisade parenchyma. Comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves, there was higher accumulation of phenolic compounds in the symptomatic leaves. Some parenchyma cells adjacent to substomatal chambers showed intrusive growth towards the stomatal pore, promoting its occlusion, which could reduce the entry of O3 in the leaf. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, in addition to the occlusion of the chamber, protect the plant against O3 effects. These features and the compact arrangement of the mesophyll contribute to why Psidium guajava 'Paluma' does not present cell death, a symptom usually observed in species sensitive to O3.Psidium guajava 'Paluma' vem sendo testada como bioindicadora de ozônio (O3 e responde com pigmentações, entre as nervuras, na superfície adaxial, decorrente do acúmulo de compostos fenólicos. Tais

  10. Viaducto sobre el río Fiumarella, Italia

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    Morandi, Riccardo

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available The viaduct over the Fiumarella river, which links Catanzaro and the Two Seas lines of communication, has recently been opened to the public. The central arch has a theoretical span of 231 m and a maximum rise of 62 m. It bridges a river, and is made of reinforced concrete. The cross section is a hollow rectangle. The arch supports a palisade of inclined, slender columns, upon which rests the deck. This is sufficiently wide to accommodate a pavement, 10.5 m wide, and two sidewalks, each 1.5 m wide. This project is remarkable because of the slender, logical design of each of its structural components, and also because the columns have a slope of 15° 30' with respect to the vertical. This inclination causes the columns to transmit to the outer surface of the arch loading components which tend to improve the stability of the bridge. Near the springers, the arch branches out into two legs, which at the base are distanced 22 m apart. This arrangement gives a better distribution of the loads on the foundations. The central span consists of two independent arches, the box section of which is 7.5x6.6 m at the springers, and 5.25x2 m at the crown. The neutral axis of the arch, whose total length is 274 m, corresponds to a fifth degree curve, such that at many points it is coincident with the funicular of forces due its own weight. Only at certain points is there some discontinuity, due to the concentrated loads and the corrections which have been applied to allow for the elastoplastic deformation of the material.El viaducto sobre el río Fiumarella, que constituye la unión entre Catanzaro y la vía de comunicación de Los dos Mares (Italia, ha entrado recientemente en servicio. El tramo central, de 231 m de luz teórica y 62 m de flecha, salva, el río con un arco de hormigón armado, de sección transversal hueca, formando una estructura tipo cajón. Este arco, junto con una serie de soportes inclinados, esbeltos, soportan el tablero de anchura

  11. Granuloma anular: distribuição tecidual dos dendrócitos dérmicos fator XIIIa+, das células dérmicas trombomodulina+ e de macrófagos CD68+ Granuloma annulare: tissue distribution of factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes, thrombomodulin+ dermal cells and CD68+ macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Wanderley Soub

    2003-06-01

    expresses the pro-coagulation factor XIIIa, while others express the anti-coagulation cofactor thrombomodulin. These cells can be involved in inflammatory and reparative tissue events. OBJETIVES: We investigated the participation of factor XIIIa+ dermal cells and thrombomodulin+ (TM+ dermal cells in the histopathological picture of granuloma annulare which is characterized by collagen necrobiosis and macrophagic infiltrate. METHODS: The histopathological picture of granuloma annulare observed in 23 skin biopsies was classified according to presence of complete or incomplete collagen degeneration and distribution of dermal infiltrate. Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and thrombomodulin+ dermal cells were recognized by specific antibodies applied in immunohistochemical protocols; a macrophage marker (CD68 was also used. Distribution of distinct cell subsets were observed and semiquantitative analysis performed. RESULTS: Factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes were rarely detected in the lesion while thrombomodulin+ and CD68+ cells represented a considerable part of cell infiltrate. They were seen at its periphery (palisade arrangement, among degenerated collagen or diffusely distributed. A tendency was noted for association between higher semiquantification of thrombomodulin+ cells and both lower semiquantification of FXIIIa+ dendrocytes and histological type II. Dermal dendrocyte hyperplasia around the lesion was detected. CONCLUSION: The different tissue distribution of the FXIIIa+ cells and TM+ cells could reflect their distinct and complementary roles in the recovery of dermal tissue and in the lesion evolutive process in granuloma annulare.

  12. Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Soffiatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger wâBrasilicereus Backeberg. Arrojadoa, Stephanocereus and Brasilicereus are endemic Brazilian Cereeae, occurring along the Espinhaço Range, in the campos rupestres, cerrados and caatingas, from northern Minas Gerais to southern Bahia. The genera are columnar, erect to semi-erect cacti, except for one species, A bahiensis, which is globose. This study describes the anatomy of dermal, fundamental and vascular systems, aiming to find diagnostic characters for the genera and species. Basal portions of stems were sectioned transversely and longitudinally, and stained with Astrablue and Safranin. The species share a uniseriate epidermis, with thick cuticle; well developed collenchymatic hypodermis, containing prismatic crystals; cortex with numerous mucilage cells, druses and vascular bundles; outside cortex as a palisade parenchyma; periderm composed of lignified cork cells alternating with suberized cells; pheloderm consisting of a few layers of thin-walled cells; phloem composed of solitary or multiple of two to three sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma; secondary xylem with solitary to multiple vessels, with simple perforation plates and alternate bordered to semi-bordered pits; axial parenchyma scanty vasicentric to incomplete; libriform septate fibres; large rays. Unlignified parenchyma is seen in the secondary xylem, varying from a few cells to bands among axial and radial elements. The following are considered diagnostic characters: the shape of lignified phellem cells, cubic to radially elongate, which individualizes S. leucostele; an underdeveloped hypodermis and the occurrence of sclereids in the cortex are exclusive to Brasilicereus markgrqfii.(Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and

  13. Light quality management in fruit orchards: physiological and technological aspects Manejo de la calidad de la luz en huertos frutales: Aspectos fisiológicos y tecnológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bastías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Light quality (sunlight spectrum management promises to provide a new technological alternative to sustainable production in horticultural crops. However, little information exists about physiological and technological aspects on light quality management in fruit crops. Sunlight composition changes widely in orchard canopies, inducing different plant responses in fruit trees mediated by phytochrome (PHY and cryptochrome (CRY activity. High proportion of far-red (FR in relation to red (R light increases shoot elongation, while blue (B light induces shoot dwarfing. Red and ultraviolet (UV light increases fruit skin anthocyanin synthesis, while FR light shows a negative effect. Red and B light can also alter leaf morpho-physiological traits in fruit trees, such palisade thickness, stomatal aperture, and chlorophyll content. Besides improvement of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR availability, the use of reflective films improves UV and R light proportion, with positive effects on PHY mediated-responses (fruit color, fruit weight, shoot growth, as reported in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, and sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L. L.. Colored nets widely alter spectral light composition with effects on plant growth, yield, and quality in apple, kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson, peach, and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. orchards. Mechanisms of colored nets seem to be associated to photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulated by PAR availability, R/B light proportion, and CRY activity. Alteration of light quality affects significantly fruit tree plant responses and could be a useful tool for sustainable (e.g. lower use of chemicals and labor-practices management of yield and quality in modern orchards.El manejo de la calidad de la luz (espectro de la luz solar promete proveer una nueva alternativa tecnológica para la producción sostenible de cultivos hortícolas. Sin

  14. Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dedecca

    1957-01-01

    one corresponding to the mid-rib; all the bundles show a normal orientation of the xylem and phloem tissues. Secondary vascular bundles are also present towards the wings of the petiole cross section. The structure of foliage blade is that of typical leaves of dorsiventral symmetry. At an early stage the blade consists of seven layers of relatively undifferentiated cells. At maturity, just one layer of palisade parenchyma and ten to twelve layers of spongy cells are present. Upper epidermis is uniseriate and formed only by epidermal cells proper; uniseriate lower epidermis exhibits these cells and stomata which are of the rubiaceous type, being formed by two guard cells and two subsidiary cells. Remarkable is the occurrence on the lower epidermis of certain structures called domatiae; the constancy of these structures on the lower epidermis of the leaves of Coffea and a few other rubiaceous genera has been considered an important taxonomic characteristic for genera identification. On the other hand, the domatia localization, shape, size and constitution, as well as the presence or absence of stomata on their outermost cell layer or the presence or absence of hairs on the borders of the domatia aperture, have shown to be important characteristics to be utilized in the differentiation of Coffea species and varieties. In Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer the ,domatiae are localized at the very angle formed by the secondary veins with the mid-rib, have a vesicular shape and open externally through an elliptical or round pore which measures 200-260 microns in diameter; the borders of the pore are nearly glabrous, a few hairs appearing only in a region distant from the borders; very few stomata are also present on the outermost cell layer of the domatia. Stipule structure is similar to that of foliage blade, but no differentiation between palisade parenchyma and spongy cells is apparent. The inflorescence is of the homotatic type, the lateral axes being very short

  15. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    3). Palisades, NY: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw (last visited 01/08/2009). Dobson, J.E., E.A. Bright, P.R. Coleman, R.C. Durfee, and B.A. Worley (2000) LandScan: A Global Population Database for Estimating Populations at Risk. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 66(7), 849-857. Elvidge, C.D., K.E. Baugh, V.R. Hobson, E.A. Kihn, and H.W. Kroehl (1998) Detection of Fires and Power Outages Using DMSP-OLS Data. In: Lunetta, R.S., and Elvidge, C.D. (eds.) Remote Sensing Change Detection: Environmental Monitoring Methods and Applications. Ann Arbor Press, pp 123-135. Elvidge, C.D., C. Aubrecht, K. Baugh, B. Tuttle, and A.T. Howard (2007) Satellite detection of power outages following earthquakes and other events. 3rd International Geohazards Workshop. GEO & IGOS Geohazards. Proceedings. ESA/ESRIN, Frascati (Rome), Italy, November 6-9, 2007. Kerle, N., R. Stekelenburg, F. van den Heuvel, and B.G.H. Gorte (2005) Near - real time post - disaster damage assessment with airborne oblique video data. In: van Oosterom, P.J.M., Zlatanova, S., and Elfriede, M. (eds.) Geo-information for disaster management Gi4DM : Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Geo-Information for Disaster Management. Berlin: Springer, pp 337-353. Zhang, Y., and N. Kerle (2008) Satellite remote sensing for near-real time data collection. In: Zlatanova, S., Li, J. (eds.) Geospatial information technology for emergency response. Berlin: Springer, pp 75-102.