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Sample records for intranodal hemorrhagic spindle

  1. Intranodal Palisaded Myofibroblastoma in a Submandibular Lymph Node

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    Leila Bouhajja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma (IPM, also known as “intranodal hemorrhagic spindle cell tumor with amianthoid fibers,” is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, often with the presence of amianthoid fibers. Usually IPM affects inguinal lymph nodes, but three cases have been described in the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. We report a new case of a 44-year-old women with submandibular mass. Cervical ultrasound showed a suspect right submandibular adenomegaly. The patient underwent an excision of the submandibular mass. Histological features of the tumor include an encapsulated fusocellular proliferation, with nuclear palisading, amianthoid fibers, hemosiderin pigment, and extravasated erythrocytes. In the light of these results, we made the diagnosis of IPM. No recurrence was found 5 years after surgery.

  2. Intranode data communications in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-01-07

    Intranode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes configured to execute processes, where the data communications include: allocating, upon initialization of a first process of a computer node, a region of shared memory; establishing, by the first process, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; sending, to a second process on the same compute node, a data communications message without determining whether the second process has been initialized, including storing the data communications message in the message buffer of the second process; and upon initialization of the second process: retrieving, by the second process, a pointer to the second process's message buffer; and retrieving, by the second process from the second process's message buffer in dependence upon the pointer, the data communications message sent by the first process.

  3. Intranode data communications in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-07-23

    Intranode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes configured to execute processes, where the data communications include: allocating, upon initialization of a first process of a compute node, a region of shared memory; establishing, by the first process, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; sending, to a second process on the same compute node, a data communications message without determining whether the second process has been initialized, including storing the data communications message in the message buffer of the second process; and upon initialization of the second process: retrieving, by the second process, a pointer to the second process's message buffer; and retrieving, by the second process from the second process's message buffer in dependence upon the pointer, the data communications message sent by the first process.

  4. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Intracerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics ...

  5. The Making of SPINdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ho-Pun; Governatori, Guido

    We present the design and implementation of SPINdle - an open source Java based defeasible logic reasoner capable to perform efficient and scalable reasoning on defeasible logic theories (including theories with over 1 million rules). The implementation covers both the standard and modal extensions to defeasible logics. It can be used as a standalone theory prover and can be embedded into any applications as a defeasible logic rule engine. It allows users or agents to issues queries, on a given knowledge base or a theory generated on the fly by other applications, and automatically produces the conclusions of its consequences. The theory can also be represented using XML.

  6. Valve spindle gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Z.; Harazim, A.; Kerlin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A gland is proposed of the valve spindle designed for radioactive or otherwise harmful media, such as in nuclear power plant primary circuits. The gland is installed in the valve cover and consists of a primary and a secondary part and of a gland case partitioning the gland space into two chambers. The bottom face of the gland case is provided with a double-sided collar for controlling the elements of the bottom primary gland while the top face is provided with a removable flange. (M.S.)

  7. Pituitary spindle cell oncocytoma

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    Soledad Sosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell oncocytoma is an infrequent benign non-endocrine sellar neoplasm. Due to its similar morphology to pituitary adenomas, consideration of this differential diagnosis would conduce to a more careful surgical approach in order to avoid intraoperative bleeding and aiming to a complete resection, on which depends long-term outcomes. We present the case of a 60-year-old male who complained about visual abnormalities, with computerized visual field confirmation. On biochemistry, a panhypopituitarism was detected. The brain magnetic resonance images showed a sellar mass. A non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma was presumptively diagnosed and due to the visual impairment, surgical transesphenoidal treatment was indicated. The histological diagnosis was spindle cell oncocytoma. Five months after surgery, the control image demonstrated a lesion that was considered as remnant tumor, hence radiosurgery was performed. During the follow-up, the tumor reduced its size and four years after initial treatment, the sellar resonance imaging showed disappearance of the residual tumor. Communication of new cases of this rare entity will enlarge the existing evidence and will help to determinate the most effective treatment and prognosis.

  8. Splinter hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingernail hemorrhage ... Splinter hemorrhages look like thin, red to reddish-brown lines of blood under the nails. They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the ...

  9. Endolymphatic Ethiodized Oil Intranodal Lymphangiography and Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization for the Treatment of Postoperative Lymphatic Leak After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Pelvic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hannah; Srinivasa, Ravi N; Gemmete, Joseph J; Hage, Anthony; Bundy, Jacob; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To report the approach, technical success, clinical outcomes, complications, and follow-up of ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with cyanoacrylate glue embolization for the treatment of lymphatic leak after robot-assisted laparoscopic pelvic resection. Materials and Methods: Four men with mean age 68.7 ± 14.3 years were treated with ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with cyanoacrylate embolization for postoperative lymphatic leak. Patients underwent either (1) cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit and bilateral extensive pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and presented with postoperative lymphatic ascites ( n  = 2) or (2) prostatectomy with bilateral standard pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate carcinoma and presented with postoperative pelvic lymphoceles ( n  = 2). Intranodal lymphangiography and embolization procedural details, technical success, clinical outcomes, and follow-up were recorded. Results: In four patients, a total of six ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiograms were performed, two procedures being repeated interventions. Inguinal lymph node catheterization and ethiodized oil lymphangiography was technically effective in all procedures. A mean of 5.2 ± 2.0 mL of ethiodized oil was used for lymphatic opacification. Cyanoacrylate was diluted to 24.2% with ethiodized oil and 0.44 mL of cyanoacrylate was instilled during first time interventions. On repeat procedures, cyanoacrylate was diluted to 51.7%, and 0.52 mL was instilled. The primary clinical success rate was 50% ( n  = 2/4). Clinical success was achieved in all patients after two interventions ( n  = 4; 100%). No complications were reported at mean follow-up of 134.7 ± 79.2 days (range: 59-248 days). Conclusion: Ethiodized oil intranodal lymphangiography with direct cyanoacrylate glue embolization is a minimally invasive treatment option for lymphatic leak after pelvic resection.

  10. Human ASPM participates in spindle organisation, spindle orientation and cytokinesis

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    Woods C Geoffrey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the Abnormal Spindle Microcephaly related gene (ASPM are the commonest cause of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH a disorder characterised by a small brain and associated mental retardation. ASPM encodes a mitotic spindle pole associated protein. It is suggested that the MCPH phenotype arises from proliferation defects in neural progenitor cells (NPC. Results We show that ASPM is a microtubule minus end-associated protein that is recruited in a microtubule-dependent manner to the pericentriolar matrix (PCM at the spindle poles during mitosis. ASPM siRNA reduces ASPM protein at the spindle poles in cultured U2OS cells and severely perturbs a number of aspects of mitosis, including the orientation of the mitotic spindle, the main determinant of developmental asymmetrical cell division. The majority of ASPM depleted mitotic cells fail to complete cytokinesis. In MCPH patient fibroblasts we show that a pathogenic ASPM splice site mutation results in the expression of a novel variant protein lacking a tripeptide motif, a minimal alteration that correlates with a dramatic decrease in ASPM spindle pole localisation. Moreover, expression of dominant-negative ASPM C-terminal fragments cause severe spindle assembly defects and cytokinesis failure in cultured cells. Conclusions These observations indicate that ASPM participates in spindle organisation, spindle positioning and cytokinesis in all dividing cells and that the extreme C-terminus of the protein is required for ASPM localisation and function. Our data supports the hypothesis that the MCPH phenotype caused by ASPM mutation is a consequence of mitotic aberrations during neurogenesis. We propose the effects of ASPM mutation are tolerated in somatic cells but have profound consequences for the symmetrical division of NPCs, due to the unusual morphology of these cells. This antagonises the early expansion of the progenitor pool that underpins cortical

  11. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Stintzing, Johannes; Konrad, Boris N; Genzel, Lisa; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2015-11-26

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.

  12. Preretinal hemorrhage

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    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  13. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  14. Mechanical design principles of a mitotic spindle.

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    Ward, Jonathan J; Roque, Hélio; Antony, Claude; Nédélec, François

    2014-12-18

    An organised spindle is crucial to the fidelity of chromosome segregation, but the relationship between spindle structure and function is not well understood in any cell type. The anaphase B spindle in fission yeast has a slender morphology and must elongate against compressive forces. This 'pushing' mode of chromosome transport renders the spindle susceptible to breakage, as observed in cells with a variety of defects. Here we perform electron tomographic analyses of the spindle, which suggest that it organises a limited supply of structural components to increase its compressive strength. Structural integrity is maintained throughout the spindle's fourfold elongation by organising microtubules into a rigid transverse array, preserving correct microtubule number and dynamically rescaling microtubule length.

  15. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

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    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  16. Accuracy of Spindle Units with Hydrostatic Bearings

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    Fedorynenko Dmytro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the research of precision regularities in a spindle unit by the trajectory of the spindle installed on hydrostatic bearings. The mathematical model of trajectories spindle with lumped parameters that allows to define the position of the spindle with regard the simultaneous influence of design parameters, geometrical deviations ofform, temperature deformation bearing surfaces, the random nature of operational parameters and technical loads of hydrostatic bearings has been developed. Based on the results of numerical modeling the influence of shape errors of bearing surface of hydrostatic bearing on the statistical characteristics of the radius vector trajectories of the spindle by varying the values rotational speed of the spindle and oil pressure in front hydrostatic bearing has been developed. The obtained statistical regularities of precision spindle unit have been confirmed experimentally. It has been shown that an effective way to increase the precision of spindle units is to regulate the size of the gap in hydrostatic spindle bearings. The new design of an adjustable hydrostatic bearing, which can improve the accuracy of regulation size gap has been proposed.

  17. Subconjunctival hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyes Viral infection Certain eye surgeries or injuries A subconjunctival hemorrhage is common in newborn infants. In this case, the condition is thought to be caused by the pressure changes across the infant's body during childbirth.

  18. Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which can be improved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) is common and can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:22167847

  19. Sleep spindle density in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Hvidtfelt, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether...... the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin...... levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included. Unspecified, slow, and fast SS were automatically detected, and SS densities were defined as number per minute and were computed across sleep stages and sleep cycles. The between-cycle trends of SS densities in N2...

  20. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

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    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  1. The Physics of the Metaphase Spindle.

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    Oriola, David; Needleman, Daniel J; Brugués, Jan

    2018-05-20

    The assembly of the mitotic spindle and the subsequent segregation of sister chromatids are based on the self-organized action of microtubule filaments, motor proteins, and other microtubule-associated proteins, which constitute the fundamental force-generating elements in the system. Many of the components in the spindle have been identified, but until recently it remained unclear how their collective behaviors resulted in such a robust bipolar structure. Here, we review the current understanding of the physics of the metaphase spindle that is only now starting to emerge.

  2. Spinal spindle cell haemangioma: an atypical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan-Hranilović, J; Vucić, M; Sajko, T; Bedek, D; Tomić, K; Lupret, V

    2007-03-01

    We present a case of the 31-year-old male patient who complained of weakness in both legs and progressed slowly. Neuroimagine of the thoracic spine showed an intraspinal, extradural mass lesion, measuring 5.3 x 1.2 cm at the Th1-Th3 level. Histologically the lesion was a spindle cell haemangioma composed of dilated vascular spaces and a proliferation of bland appearing interspersed spindle cells. Immunohistochemical analysis was diffusely positive for VIM, SMA and focally for CD34. This lesion is uncommon and shows a predilection for distal extremities. Spindle cell haemangioma within the spine has not been previously reported in the literature.

  3. Analytical modeling for thermal errors of motorized spindle unit

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Teng; Gao, Weiguo; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Yifan; Chang, Wenfen; Liang, Cunman; Tian, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Modeling method investigation about spindle thermal errors is significant for spindle thermal optimization in design phase. To accurately analyze the thermal errors of motorized spindle unit, this paper assumes approximately that 1) spindle linear thermal error on axial direction is ascribed to shaft thermal elongation for its heat transfer from bearings, and 2) spindle linear thermal errors on radial directions and angular thermal errors are attributed to thermal variations of bearing relati...

  4. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  5. Usefulness of hemodynamically distribution of intranodal vessels in differentiating metastatic neck lymph nodes-value of color doppler and spectral wave sonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic assessment of enlarged lymph nodes, based on its perfusion pattern by taking tissue diagnosis as gold standard. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Radiology and Pathology, PIMS Hospital, Islamabad, from February to May 2016. Methodology: Color sonography of patients with clinically, palpable cervical lymph nodes were carried by senior trainee under the supervision of senior radiologist. Ultrasound guided tissue diagnosis was obtained in all suspected malignant cases. Histopathology was taken as the gold standard for determining accuracy. Results: Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of color Doppler ultrasound in detecting malignant cervical lymphadenopathy was found to be 88.46%, 86.05%, 79.31% and 92.50%, respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 86.95%, when intranodal vascular pattern on color Doppler imaging was analyzed. Using spectral wave indexes, the same values were 92.31%, 90.70%, 85.71%, 95.12%, respectively with overall diagnostic accuracy of 91.30%. Conclusion: Color Doppler sonography is much sensitive borderline than grey scale findings alone. Furthermore, lymph nodes appearing in the detection of malignant nodes on grey scale images can be reliably diagnosed on Doppler scan. (author)

  6. Local sleep spindle modulations in relation to specific memory cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.; Hofman, W.F.; de Boer, M.; Talamini, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep spindles have been connected to memory processes in various ways. In addition, spindles appear to be modulated at the local cortical network level. We investigated whether cueing specific memories during sleep leads to localized spindle modulations in humans. During learning of word-location

  7. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  8. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El All Howayda S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs, although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4, suspicious (n = 2 and malignant (n = 3, based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5 and malignant (n = 3. In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma. For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma. In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes.

  9. Intracerebral hemorrhage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracerebral hemorrhage may be caused by trauma (brain injury) or abnormalities of the blood vessels (aneurysm or angioma), but it is most commonly associated with high blood pressure (hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage).

  10. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  11. Adaptive Spindle Balancing Using Magnetically Levitated Bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNEY, PATRICK S.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; PETTEYS, REBECCA; REDMOND, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, WILLIAM N.

    1999-01-01

    A technological break through for supporting rotating shafts is the active magnetic bearing (AMB). Active magnetic bearings offer some important advantages over conventional ball, roller or journal bearings such as reduced frictional drag, no physical contact in the bearing, no need for lubricants, compatibility with high vacuum and ultra-clean environments, and ability to control shaft position within the bearing. The disadvantages of the AMB system are the increased cost and complexity, reduced bearing stiffness and the need for a controller. Still, there are certain applications, such as high speed machining, biomedical devices, and gyroscopes, where the additional cost of an AMB system can be justified. The inherent actuator capabilities of the AMB offer the potential for active balancing of spindles and micro-shaping capabilities for machine tools, The work presented in this paper concentrates on an AMB test program that utilizes the actuator capability to dynamically balance a spindle. In this study, an unbalanced AMB spindle system was enhanced with an LMS (Least Mean Squares) algorithm combined with an existing PID (proportional, integral, differential) control. This enhanced controller significantly improved the concentricity of an intentionally unbalanced shaft. The study included dynamic system analysis, test validation, control design and simulation, as well as experimental implementation using a digital LMS controller

  12. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouasmi, S.; Merzoug, B.; Abba, G.; Kherredine, L.

    2012-02-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  13. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouasmi, S; Merzoug, B; Kherredine, L; Abba, G

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  14. CT in pontine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Masao; Ikeda, Ken; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 10 patients with primary pontine hemorrhage were reviewed. All patients were hypertensive. Pontine hemorrhage can be divided into 3 groups from the viewpoint of location of hematomas. These are the tegmentobasilar type, tegmental type and basilar type. The tegmentobasilar type produces characteristic clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and poor prognosis, otherwise, another two types produce atypical clinical features for pontine hemorrhage and good prognosis. (author)

  15. Sleep spindles and intelligence: evidence for a sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Genzel, Lisa; Bleifuss, Annabell; Simor, Péter; Pótári, Adrián; Körmendi, János; Gombos, Ferenc; Steiger, Axel; Bódizs, Róbert; Dresler, Martin

    2014-12-03

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in nonrapid eye movement sleep, which play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Sleep spindle features are stable within and vary between individuals, with, for example, females having a higher number of spindles and higher spindle density than males. Sleep spindles have been associated with learning potential and intelligence; however, the details of this relationship have not been fully clarified yet. In a sample of 160 adult human subjects with a broad IQ range, we investigated the relationship between sleep spindle parameters and intelligence. In females, we found a positive age-corrected association between intelligence and fast sleep spindle amplitude in central and frontal derivations and a positive association between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in all except one derivation. In males, a negative association between intelligence and fast spindle density in posterior regions was found. Effects were continuous over the entire IQ range. Our results demonstrate that, although there is an association between sleep spindle parameters and intellectual performance, these effects are more modest than previously reported and mainly present in females. This supports the view that intelligence does not rely on a single neural framework, and stronger neural connectivity manifesting in increased thalamocortical oscillations in sleep is one particular mechanism typical for females but not males. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416358-11$15.00/0.

  16. Spatial signals link exit from mitosis to spindle position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill Elaine; Tsuchiya, Dai; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Lacefield, Soni; Bloom, Kerry; Amon, Angelika

    2016-05-11

    In budding yeast, if the spindle becomes mispositioned, cells prevent exit from mitosis by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN). The MEN is a signaling cascade that localizes to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and activates the phosphatase Cdc14. There are two competing models that explain MEN regulation by spindle position. In the 'zone model', exit from mitosis occurs when a MEN-bearing SPB enters the bud. The 'cMT-bud neck model' posits that cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-bud neck interactions prevent MEN activity. Here we find that 1) eliminating cMT- bud neck interactions does not trigger exit from mitosis and 2) loss of these interactions does not precede Cdc14 activation. Furthermore, using binucleate cells, we show that exit from mitosis occurs when one SPB enters the bud despite the presence of a mispositioned spindle. We conclude that exit from mitosis is triggered by a correctly positioned spindle rather than inhibited by improper spindle position.

  17. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kate Bonner

    Full Text Available Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells.

  18. Muscle Spindles and Locomotor Control-An Unrecognized Falls Determinant?

    OpenAIRE

    Marks Ray

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Historically, evidence muscle spindles might be involved in locomotion was provided by their presence in tetrapod antigravity muscles associated with posture and locomotion. Later, Brodal (1962) noted muscle spindles in all muscles of locomotion. To unravel the complexity of the muscle spindle and its role in human locomotor control many investigators have since conducted lesion and/or anaesthesia studies in subhuman species and human contexts. QUESTIONS: How ...

  19. Inscuteable Regulates the Pins-Mud Spindle Orientation Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc) is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3) and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals). Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals) is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg) is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg) before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud). PMID:22253744

  20. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  1. Modal analysis of spindle of grinder machine based on ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Chaocong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of research is to a certain type grinding wheel spindle for which a 3D model of the spindle is established by SolidWorks software and ANSYS software is imported for model analysis.Natural frequency,vibration type and critical speed of the spindle model are obtained and the resulting data are scientifically analyzed.The results show that the spindle structure is reasonable,the machining accuracy can be ensured and the position where the most severe deformation and the main shaft fatigue fracture may occur can be found out,which also provide the theoretical basis for further optimization design and precision control.

  2. Modal analysis of spindle of grinder machine based on ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    HE Chaocong; LIU Peipei; YAN Chunfei; WANG Muhuan; LIN Jun

    2015-01-01

    The object of research is to a certain type grinding wheel spindle for which a 3D model of the spindle is established by SolidWorks software and ANSYS software is imported for model analysis.Natural frequency,vibration type and critical speed of the spindle model are obtained and the resulting data are scientifically analyzed.The results show that the spindle structure is reasonable,the machining accuracy can be ensured and the position where the most severe deformation and the main shaft fat...

  3. TFG-MET fusion in an infantile spindle cell sarcoma with neural features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Noesel, M.M. van; Wijnen, M.; Zhang, L.; Chen, C.L.; Sung, Y.S.; Antonescu, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of congenital and infantile sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been characterized to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we report an unusual spindle cell

  4. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  5. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  6. Monitoring Method of Cutting Force by Using Additional Spindle Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Ahmed Aly Diaa; Matsubara, Atsushi; Sugihara, Motoyuki; Saraie, Hidenori; Ibaraki, Soichi; Kakino, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a monitoring method of cutting forces for end milling process by using displacement sensors. Four eddy-current displacement sensors are installed on the spindle housing of a machining center so that they can detect the radial motion of the rotating spindle. Thermocouples are also attached to the spindle structure in order to examine the thermal effect in the displacement sensing. The change in the spindle stiffness due to the spindle temperature and the speed is investigated as well. Finally, the estimation performance of cutting forces using the spindle displacement sensors is experimentally investigated by machining tests on carbon steel in end milling operations under different cutting conditions. It is found that the monitoring errors are attributable to the thermal displacement of the spindle, the time lag of the sensing system, and the modeling error of the spindle stiffness. It is also shown that the root mean square errors between estimated and measured amplitudes of cutting forces are reduced to be less than 20N with proper selection of the linear stiffness.

  7. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-si...

  8. Using Micromanipulation to Analyze Control of Vertebrate Meiotic Spindle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takagi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of microtubules (MTs have been reported to contribute to control of the size and shape of spindles, but quantitative analysis of how the size and shape correlate with the amount and density of MTs in the spindle remains incomplete. Here, we measured these parameters using 3D microscopy of meiotic spindles that self-organized in Xenopus egg extracts and presented a simple equation describing the relationship among these parameters. To examine the validity of the equation, we cut the spindle into two fragments along the pole-to-pole axis by micromanipulation techniques that rapidly decrease the amount of MTs. The spheroidal shape spontaneously recovered within 5 min, but the size of each fragment remained small. The equation we obtained quantitatively describes how the spindle size correlates with the amount of MTs while maintaining the shape and the MT density.

  9. Dynamics Analysis of Unbalanced Motorized Spindles Supported on Ball Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved dynamic model for unbalanced high speed motorized spindles. The proposed model includes a Hertz contact force model which takes into the internal clearance and an unbalanced electromagnetic force model based on the energy of the air magnetic field. The nonlinear characteristic of the model is analysed by Lyapunov stability theory and numerical analysis to study the dynamic properties of the spindle system. Finally, a dynamic operating test is carried out on a DX100A-24000/20-type motorized spindle. The good agreement between the numerical solutions and the experimental data indicates that the proposed model is capable of accurately predicting the dynamic properties of motorized spindles. The influence of the unbalanced magnetic force on the system is studied, and the sensitivities of the system parameters to the critical speed of the system are obtained. These conclusions are useful for the dynamic design of high speed motorized spindles.

  10. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  11. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  12. The spindle assembly checkpoint: More than just keeping track of the spindle.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, KS; Engebrecht, J

    2015-01-01

    Genome stability is essential for cell proliferation and survival. Consequently, genome integrity is monitored by two major checkpoints, the DNA damage response (DDR) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The DDR monitors DNA lesions in G1, S, and G2 stages of the cell cycle and the SAC ensures proper chromosome segregation in M phase. There have been extensive studies characterizing the roles of these checkpoints in response to the processes for which they are named; however, emerging e...

  13. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  14. Hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Turkel, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mnaymneh, W. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Simple prepatellar bursitis is easily diagnosed both clinically and by MRI. MRI shows the typical T1 and T2 lengthening of fluid within the bursa. However, because of complex MRI appearance of hemorrhage, chronic hemorrhagic bursitis and the size of the prepatellar mass the clinical and MRI appearance can be very different. (orig.)

  15. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert eBódizs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males with an age range of 15–22 years (mean: 18 years and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Slow spindles (SSs and fast spindles (FSs were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method. A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = .57; p = .005 was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = .43; p = .04 and amplitude (r = .41; p = .049. The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = .80 (p = .002 and r = .67 (p = .012, for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = .60, p = .04. Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unravelling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps cognitive

  16. Fast and slow spindles during the sleep slow oscillation: disparate coalescence and engagement in memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Bergmann, Til O; Marshall, Lisa; Born, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Thalamo-cortical spindles driven by the up-state of neocortical slow (memory consolidation during sleep. We examined interactions between SOs and spindles in human slow wave sleep, focusing on the presumed existence of 2 kinds of spindles, i.e., slow frontocortical and fast centro-parietal spindles. Two experiments were performed in healthy humans (24.5 ± 0.9 y) investigating undisturbed sleep (Experiment I) and the effects of prior learning (word paired associates) vs. non-learning (Experiment II) on multichannel EEG recordings during sleep. Only fast spindles (12-15 Hz) were synchronized to the depolarizing SO up-state. Slow spindles (9-12 Hz) occurred preferentially at the transition into the SO down-state, i.e., during waning depolarization. Slow spindles also revealed a higher probability to follow rather than precede fast spindles. For sequences of individual SOs, fast spindle activity was largest for "initial" SOs, whereas SO amplitude and slow spindle activity were largest for succeeding SOs. Prior learning enhanced this pattern. The finding that fast and slow spindles occur at different times of the SO cycle points to disparate generating mechanisms for the 2 kinds of spindles. The reported temporal relationships during SO sequences suggest that fast spindles, driven by the SO up-state feed back to enhance the likelihood of succeeding SOs together with slow spindles. By enforcing such SO-spindle cycles, particularly after prior learning, fast spindles possibly play a key role in sleep-dependent memory processing.

  17. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-six (57%) had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (22%) had pure intraventricular hemorrhage, and 10 (22%) had both. There were 2 deaths, both with intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume. Presence of intraventricular hemorrhage was not associated with poor outcome, but hydrocephalus showed a trend (p=0.09) toward poor outcome. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, combined intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume also showed a trend toward better outcome prediction than intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume alone. Although not an independent outcome predictor, future studies should assess intraventricular hemorrhage qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:22068828

  18. Spindle-cell carcinoma of esophagus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Chang; Lee, Jae Mun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kyo Young; Hahn, Seong Tai; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    Spindle-cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, and has generated many terminology problems. It is characterized by a bulky polypoid intraluminal mass with a lobulated surface located in the middle third of the esophagus. Local expansion of this organ is observed. The lesion may be pedunculated but despite its bulk, causes little obstruction. We report the imaging findings of a case of spindle-cell carcinoma arising in the upper esophagus

  19. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated......, 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend stroke patients...

  20. Measurement of Spindle Rigidity by using a Magnet Loader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Taku; Matsubara, Atsushi; Fujita, Tomoya; Muraki, Toshiyuki; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Kazuyuki

    The static rigidity of a rotating spindle in the radial direction is investigated in this research. A magnetic loading device (magnet loader) has been developed for the measurement. The magnet loader, which has coils and iron cores, generates the electromagnetic force and attracts a dummy tool attached to the spindle. However, the eddy current is generated in the dummy tool with the spindle rotation and reduces the attractive force at high spindle speed. In order to understand the magnetic flux and eddy current in the dummy tool, the electromagnetic field analysis by FEM was carried out. Grooves on the attraction surface of the dummy tool were designed to cut the eddy current flow. The dimension of the groove were decided based on the FEM analysis, and the designed tool were manufactured and tested. The test result shows that the designed tool successfully reduces the eddy current and recovers the attractive force. By using the magnet loader and the grooved tool, the spindle rigidity can be measured when the spindle rotates with a speed up to 10,000 min-1.

  1. Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Linnea Boegeskov; Goertz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a disease with high mortality and a substantial risk of recurrence. However, the recurrence risk is poorly documented and the knowledge of potential predictors for recurrence among co-morbidities and medicine with antithrombotic effect is limited....... OBJECTIVES: 1) To estimate the short- and long-term cumulative risks of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 2) To investigate associations between typical comorbid diseases, surgical treatment, use of medicine with antithrombotic effects, including antithrombotic treatment (ATT), selective serotonin...

  2. Hemorrhagic brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Motoichiro; Takekawa, S.D.; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    Tumor hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) was found in 14 patients with brain metastases (7 % of two hundred patients with brain metastases), from April 1979 to July 1983. Primary foci of these lesions were the lung (6 patients), breast (2), kidney (2), uterus (2), colon (1) and adrenal gland (1). ''Stroke'' syndrome was the initial presenting symptom in 3 patients; neurological focal sign or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in the remaining patients. CT demonstrated peritumoral hemorrhage in all patients with solid mass, intratumoral hemorrhage in a few patients and also cerebral or ventricular hemorrhage, which was fatal complication, in 2 patients (colon and breast cancers). A cystic mass with fluid-blood level was noted in a patient with breast cancer. Several predisposing factors including chemotherapy, thrombocytopenia, radiotherapy or combination of these were recognized in 8 patients. Of these, chemotherapy was the most causative factor of tumor hemorrhage. Brain irradiation for hemorrhagic brain metastases was effective for prolongation of mean survival time of these patients as follows; 10 months in irradiated group, whereas 1.5 months in non-irradiated group. (author)

  3. Imaging of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Ryan; Garg, Ankur

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke comprises approximately 15% to 20% of all strokes. This article provides readers with an understanding of the indications and significance of various neuroimaging techniques available for patients presenting with hemorrhagic strokes of distinct causes. The most common initial neuroimaging study is a noncontrast head CT, which allows for the identification of hemorrhage. Once an intracranial hemorrhage has been identified, the pattern of blood and the patient's medical history, neurologic examination, and laboratory studies lead the practitioner to pursue further neuroimaging studies to guide the medical, surgical, and interventional management. Given that hemorrhagic stroke constitutes a heterogeneous collection of diagnoses, the subsequent neuroimaging pathway necessary to better evaluate and care for these patients is variable based on the etiology.With an increasing incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation associated with the aging population and the introduction of three new direct factor Xa inhibitors and one direct thrombin inhibitor to complement vitamin K antagonists, oral anticoagulant use continues to increase. Patients on oral anticoagulants have a sevenfold to tenfold increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Furthermore, patients who have an ICH associated with oral anticoagulant use have a higher mortality rate than those with primary ICH. Despite the reduced incidence of hypertension-related ICH over the past decade, it is expected that the incidence of ICH will continue to increase. Neuroimaging studies are integral to the identification of hemorrhagic stroke, determination of the underlying etiology, prevention of hematoma expansion, treatment of acute complications, and treatment of the underlying etiology, if indicated. Neuroimaging is essential for prognostication and thus directly impacts patient care.

  4. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Ujma, Péter P; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ) with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males) with an age range of 15-22 years (mean: 18 years) and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test). Slow spindles (SSs) and fast spindles (FSs) were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method (IAM). A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = 0.57; p = 0.005) was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = 0.43; p = 0.04) and amplitude (r = 0.41; p = 0.049). The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = 0.80 (p = 0.002) and r = 0.67 (p = 0.012), for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = 0.60, p = 0.04). Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unraveling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps

  5. Spindle neurons of the human anterior cingulate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Vogt, B. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding their precise distribution along both ventrodorsal and anteroposterior axes of the cingulate gyrus are still lacking. In the present study, morphological features and the anatomic distribution of this cell type were studied using computer-assisted mapping and immunocytochemical techniques. Spindle neurons are restricted to the subfields of the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 24), exhibiting a greater density in anterior portions of this area than in posterior portions, and tapering off in the transition zone between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, a majority of the spindle cells at any level is located in subarea 24b on the gyral surface. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the neurofilament protein triple was present in a large percentage of these neurons and that they did not contain calcium-binding proteins. Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons. Finally, spindle cells were consistently affected in Alzheimer's disease cases, with an overall loss of about 60%. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spindle cells of the human cingulate cortex represent a morphological subpopulation of pyramidal neurons whose restricted distribution may be associated with functionally distinct areas.

  6. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  7. Analysis and topology optimization design of high-speed driving spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Yang, Hai

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional model of high-speed driving spindle is established by using SOLIDWORKS. The model is imported through the interface of ABAQUS, A finite element analysis model of high-speed driving spindle was established by using spring element to simulate bearing boundary condition. High-speed driving spindle for the static analysis, the spindle of the stress, strain and displacement nephogram, and on the basis of the results of the analysis on spindle for topology optimization, completed the lightweight design of high-speed driving spindle. The design scheme provides guidance for the design of axial parts of similar structures.

  8. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  9. Microcatheter embolization of hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, Seppo K.; Leppaenen, Martti J.; Pimenoff, Georg; Seppaenen, Janne M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of embolotherapy using microcatheters in patients with hemorrhage from various locations. Methods. Among 29 patients there were 13 with severe epistaxis, 7 with gastrointestinal bleeding, 4 with hemorrhage in the kidney, 4 with bleeding in pelvic organs and 1 with bleeding in the shoulder region. In all cases, a Tracker-18 or Tracker-10 microcatheter was advanced coaxially through a 4.1 Fr guiding catheter in order to reach the bleeding site as distally as possible. Polyvinyl alcohol microparticles and/or platinum microcoils were used as embolic material. Results. The bleeding was stopped in 90% (26 of 29) of cases. In 66% of cases the treatment was curative, in 7% preoperative, and in 17% palliative. There were 3 clinical failures. Conclusion. Microcatheter embolization is an effective and safe means of managing different kinds of hemorrhage of various causes from a variety of sites

  10. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007301.htm Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the ...

  11. MR imaging features of spindle cell lipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwadi, Anand; Abdul-Halim, Rehan; Highland, Adrian; Kotnis, Nikhil [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Fernando, Malee [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the MR imaging features of spindle cell lipomas (SCL) and to compare these appearances directly with the histopathological findings. A retrospective review of our soft tissue tumor database was performed. This yielded 1,327 histologically proven lipomas, of which 25 were confirmed as being SCLs. Fourteen of the 25 patients had MR examinations available for review and only these patients were included in our study. Lesions were assessed at MR examination for the degree of internal fat signal content with grade 0 representing 0 % fat signal and grade 4 100 % fat signal. The degree of fat suppression and contrast-enhancement pattern were also recorded. The excision specimens were independently reviewed by a consultant histopathologist. The histology specimens were assessed for the amount of internal fat and non-adipose tissue and graded using the same scale applied for the imaging. Where core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed, the CNB specimens were also examined for positive features of SCL. In our study, 93 % (13/14) of our patients were male and the average age was 58 years. 65 % (9/14) of the lesions presented in the upper back, shoulder, or neck. All lesions were subcutaneous. 35 % (5/14) of the SCLs demonstrated grade 3 (>75 %) or grade 4 (100 %) fat signal on MR examination. 35 % (5/14) of the lesions had grade 2 (25-75 %) fat signal and 29 % (4/14) of the lesions demonstrated grade 0 (0 %) or grade 1 (<25 %) fat signal. 43 % (6/14) of lesions demonstrated homogenous fat suppression, 28 % (4/14) showed focal areas of high internal signal, and 28 % (4/14) had diffuse internal high signal on fluid-sensitive fat-saturated sequences. 86 % (6/7) of the cases demonstrated septal/nodular enhancement. The diagnosis was evident on the CNB specimen in 100 % (9/9) cases. The histopathology fat content grade was in agreement with the imaging grade in 86 % (12/14) cases. The internal signal pattern of SCL can range broadly, with low fat content lesions seen almost

  12. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  13. Measuring and modeling polymer concentration profiles near spindle boundaries argues that spindle microtubules regulate their own nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Bryan; Stiehl, Olivia; Foster, Peter J.; Shelley, Michael J.; Needleman, Daniel J.; Fürthauer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Spindles are self-organized microtubule-based structures that segregate chromosomes during cell division. The mass of the spindle is controlled by the balance between microtubule turnover and nucleation. The mechanisms that control the spatial regulation of microtubule nucleation remain poorly understood. While previous work found that microtubule nucleators bind to pre-existing microtubules in the spindle, it is still unclear whether this binding regulates the activity of those nucleators. Here we use a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling to investigate this issue. We measured the concentration of microtubules and soluble tubulin in and around the spindle. We found a very sharp decay in the concentration of microtubules at the spindle interface. This is inconsistent with a model in which the activity of nucleators is independent of their association with microtubules but consistent with a model in which microtubule nucleators are only active when bound to pre-existing microtubules. This argues that the activity of microtubule nucleators is greatly enhanced when bound to pre-existing microtubules. Thus, microtubule nucleators are both localized and activated by the microtubules they generate.

  14. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  15. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  16. Sleep spindle activity in double cortex syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.

  17. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time.

  18. Subarachnoid mesencephalic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Soledad; De Luca, Silvina; Ceciliano, Alejandro; Mondello, Eduardo; Oviedo, Jorge D.; Lopardo Villarino, Guzman; Eyheremendy, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 57 y.o. male who has had severe headache of sudden onset without neck stiffness or other signs of neurological foci was reported. Initial CT scan showed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain MRI and digital angiography were performed later and bleeding was interpreted as a result of an abnormal hemodynamic status developed by cerebral venous thrombosis. (author)

  19. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T 1 - or T 2 -weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  20. Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela

    2005-01-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...

  1. The fission yeast spindle orientation checkpoint: a model that generates tension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, Yannick; Reyes, Céline; Goldstone, Sherilyn; Tournier, Sylvie

    2006-10-15

    In all eukaryotes, the alignment of the mitotic spindle with the axis of cell polarity is essential for accurate chromosome segregation as well as for the establishment of cell fate, and thus morphogenesis, during development. Studies in invertebrates, higher eukaryotes and yeast suggest that astral microtubules interact with the cell cortex to position the spindle. These microtubules are thought to impose pushing or pulling forces on the spindle poles to affect the rotation or movement of the spindle. In the fission yeast model, where cell division is symmetrical, spindle rotation is dependent on the interaction of astral microtubules with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In these cells, a bub1-dependent mitotic checkpoint, the spindle orientation checkpoint (SOC), is activated when the spindles fail to align with the cell polarity axis. In this paper we review the mechanism that orientates the spindle during mitosis in fission yeast, and discuss the consequences of misorientation on metaphase progression. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sleep Spindles and Intelligence in Early Childhood--Developmental and Trait-Dependent Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P.; Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Sleep spindles act as a powerful marker of individual differences in cognitive ability. Sleep spindle parameters correlate with both age-related changes in cognitive abilities and with the age-independent concept of IQ. While some studies have specifically demonstrated the relationship between sleep spindles and intelligence in young children, our…

  3. Developmental Changes in Sleep Spindle Characteristics and Sigma Power across Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. McClain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles, a prominent feature of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep electroencephalogram (EEG, are linked to cognitive abilities. Early childhood is a time of rapid cognitive and neurophysiological maturation; however, little is known about developmental changes in sleep spindles. In this study, we longitudinally examined trajectories of multiple sleep spindle characteristics (i.e., spindle duration, frequency, integrated spindle amplitude, and density and power in the sigma frequency range (10–16 Hz across ages 2, 3, and 5 years (n=8; 3 males. At each time point, nocturnal sleep EEG was recorded in-home after 13-h of prior wakefulness. Spindle duration, integrated spindle amplitude, and sigma power increased with age across all EEG derivations (C3A2, C4A1, O2A1, and O1A2; all ps < 0.05. We also found a developmental decrease in mean spindle frequency (p<0.05 but no change in spindle density with increasing age. Thus, sleep spindles increased in duration and amplitude but decreased in frequency across early childhood. Our data characterize early developmental changes in sleep spindles, which may advance understanding of thalamocortical brain connectivity and associated lifelong disease processes. These findings also provide unique insights into spindle ontogenesis in early childhood and may help identify electrophysiological features related to healthy and aberrant brain maturation.

  4. Parietal Fast Sleep Spindle Density Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Lauri, Giulia; Truglia, Ilaria; Cordone, Susanna; Sarasso, Simone; Scarpelli, Serena; Mangiaruga, Anastasia; D'Atri, Aurora; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have identified two types of sleep spindles: fast (13–15 Hz) centroparietal and slow (11–13 Hz) frontal spindles. Alterations in spindle activity have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Only few studies have separately assessed fast and slow spindles in these patients showing a reduction of fast spindle count, but the possible local specificity of this phenomenon and its relation to cognitive decline severity are not clear. Moreover, fast and slow spindle density have never been assessed in AD/MCI. We have assessed fast and slow spindles in 15 AD patients, 15 amnesic MCI patients, and 15 healthy elderly controls (HC). Participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording (19 cortical derivations). Spindles during nonrapid eye movements sleep were automatically detected, and spindle densities of the three groups were compared in the derivations where fast and slow spindles exhibited their maximum expression (parietal and frontal, resp.). AD and MCI patients showed a significant parietal fast spindle density decrease, positively correlated with Minimental State Examination scores. Our results suggest that AD-related changes in spindle density are specific for frequency and location, are related to cognitive decline severity, and may have an early onset in the pathology development. PMID:27066274

  5. Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection and Genetic Influence Estimation Using Continuous Wavelet Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamczyk, M.; Genzel, L.K.E.; Dresler, M.; Steiger, A.; Friess, E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence for the role of sleep spindles in neuroplasticity has led to an increased interest in these non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep oscillations. It has been hypothesized that fast and slow spindles might play a different role in memory processing. Here, we present a new sleep spindle

  6. Experimental study on bearing preload optimum of machine tool spindle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tao; Xu Guanghua; Zhang Qin; Hua Cheng; Zhang Hu; Jiang Kuosheng

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate the possibility and the effect of temperature rise and vibration level of bearing by adjusting axial preloads and radial loads in spindle bearing test rig. The shaft of the test rig is driven by a motorized high speed spindle at the range of 0∼20000 rpm. The axial preloads and radial loads on bearings are controlled by using hydraulic pressure which can be adjusted automatically. Temperature rise and radial vibration of test bearings are measured by thermocouples and Polytec portable laser vibrometer PDV100. Experiment shows that the temperature rise of bearings is nonlinear varying with the increase of radial loads, but temperature rise almost increases linearly with the increase of axial preload and rotating speed. In this paper, an alternate axial preload is used for bearings. When the rotating speed passes through the critical speed of the shaft, axial preload of bearings will have a remarkable effect. The low preload could reduce bearing vibration and temperature rise for bearings as well. At the others speed, the high preload could improve the vibration performance of high speed spindle and the bearing temperature was lower than that of the constant pressure preload spindle.

  7. A Balance between Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Volumes Controls Spindle Length

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucia; Kovačovicová, Kristina; Dang-Nguyen, T.; Šodek, Martin; Škultéty, M.; Anger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), e0149535-e0149535 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2201 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mitotoc spindle * size * cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  8. Vibration sensitivity of human muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, James B; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2007-07-01

    The responses of the various muscle receptors to vibration are more complicated than a naïve categorization into stretch (muscle spindle primary ending), length (muscle spindle secondary endings), and tension (Golgi tendon organs) receptors. To emphasize the similarity of responses to small length changes, we recorded from 58 individual muscle afferents subserving receptors in the ankle or toe dorsiflexors of awake human subjects (32 primary endings, 20 secondary endings, and six Golgi tendon organs). Transverse sinusoidal vibration was applied to the distal tendon of the receptor-bearing muscle, while subjects either remained completely relaxed or maintained a weak isometric contraction of the appropriate muscle. In relaxed muscle, few units responded in a 1:1 manner to vibration, and there was no evidence of a preferred frequency of activation. In active muscle the response profiles of all three receptor types overlapped, with no significant difference in threshold between receptor types. These results emphasize that when intramuscular tension increases during a voluntary contraction, Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle secondary endings, not just muscle spindle primary endings, can effectively encode small imposed length changes.

  9. Sleep spindle alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Warby, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify changes of sleep spindles (SS) in the EEG of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five sleep experts manually identified SS at a central scalp location (C3-A2) in 15 PD and 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Each SS was given a confidence score...

  10. Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and clastogens by using toad bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. ... Egyptian Journal of Biology ... The used chemicals induced high percentages of micronuclei with variable sizes, which clarify the sensitivity of bone marrow cells of Bufo regularis to ...

  11. Physical Limits on the Precision of Mitotic Spindle Positioning by Microtubule Pushing forces: Mechanics of mitotic spindle positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon; Garzon-Coral, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Tissues are shaped and patterned by mechanical and chemical processes. A key mechanical process is the positioning of the mitotic spindle, which determines the size and location of the daughter cells within the tissue. Recent force and position-fluctuation measurements indicate that pushing forces, mediated by the polymerization of astral microtubules against- the cell cortex, maintain the mitotic spindle at the cell center in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The magnitude of the centering forces suggests that the physical limit on the accuracy and precision of this centering mechanism is determined by the number of pushing microtubules rather than by thermally driven fluctuations. In cells that divide asymmetrically, anti-centering, pulling forces generated by cortically located dyneins, in conjunction with microtubule depolymerization, oppose the pushing forces to drive spindle displacements away from the center. Thus, a balance of centering pushing forces and anti-centering pulling forces localize the mitotic spindles within dividing C. elegans cells. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fission yeast cells undergo nuclear division in the absence of spindle microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Castagnetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to spindle microtubules. In fission yeast, mitosis occurs within an intact nuclear membrane with the mitotic spindle elongating between the spindle pole bodies. We show here that in fission yeast interference with mitotic spindle formation delays mitosis only briefly and cells proceed to an unusual nuclear division process we term nuclear fission, during which cells perform some chromosome segregation and efficiently enter S-phase of the next cell cycle. Nuclear fission is blocked if spindle pole body maturation or sister chromatid separation cannot take place or if actin polymerization is inhibited. We suggest that this process exhibits vestiges of a primitive nuclear division process independent of spindle microtubules, possibly reflecting an evolutionary intermediate state between bacterial and Archeal chromosome segregation where the nucleoid divides without a spindle and a microtubule spindle-based eukaryotic mitosis.

  13. MR of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.; Dion, J.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging was performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR images as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of MR of the basal cisterns results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR studies in many cases

  14. Various phases of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of intracerebral hemorrhage except typical putamen thalamic hemorrhage were reported. It is not difficult to diagnose typical attacks of cerebral apoplexy in patients older than 40 years with hypertension by CT. When the condition of the onset is not typical, cerebral infarction must be considered. Though conservative treatment is performed for severe cerebral hemorrhage and cerbral infarction, there is no specific medicine curing these diseases completely. On the contrary, the risk that the administration of fibrinolysis activators and STA-MCA anastomosis may induce cerebral hemorrhage is stressed. Not a few patients with cerebral apoplexy accompanied by small hemorrhagic focuses have been found, especially since CT was used widely. However, treatment for this disease has many inconsistencies. From above-mentioned facts, we recognize excellent roles of CT in an application of surgery for cerebral hemorrhage of early stage, and we, general radiologists, are under an obligation to advise most adequate theraphy for each patient. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Sleep Spindles as an Electrographic Element: Description and Automatic Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Coppieters ’t Wallant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle is a peculiar oscillatory brain pattern which has been associated with a number of sleep (isolation from exteroceptive stimuli, memory consolidation and individual characteristics (intellectual quotient. Oddly enough, the definition of a spindle is both incomplete and restrictive. In consequence, there is no consensus about how to detect spindles. Visual scoring is cumbersome and user dependent. To analyze spindle activity in a more robust way, automatic sleep spindle detection methods are essential. Various algorithms were developed, depending on individual research interest, which hampers direct comparisons and meta-analyses. In this review, sleep spindle is first defined physically and topographically. From this general description, we tentatively extract the main characteristics to be detected and analyzed. A nonexhaustive list of automatic spindle detection methods is provided along with a description of their main processing principles. Finally, we propose a technique to assess the detection methods in a robust and comparable way.

  16. Inter-expert and intra-expert reliability in sleep spindle scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure the inter-expert and intra-expert agreement in sleep spindle scoring, and to quantify how many experts are needed to build a reliable dataset of sleep spindle scorings. Methods The EEG dataset was comprised of 400 randomly selected 115 s segments of stage 2 sleep from 110...... with higher reliability than the estimation of spindle duration. Reliability of sleep spindle scoring can be improved by using qualitative confidence scores, rather than a dichotomous yes/no scoring system. Conclusions We estimate that 2–3 experts are needed to build a spindle scoring dataset...... with ‘substantial’ reliability (κ: 0.61–0.8), and 4 or more experts are needed to build a dataset with ‘almost perfect’ reliability (κ: 0.81–1). Significance Spindle scoring is a critical part of sleep staging, and spindles are believed to play an important role in development, aging, and diseases of the nervous...

  17. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Sørensen, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Repeat imaging in patients with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NASAH) remains controversial. We aim to report our experience with NASAH with different hemorrhage patterns, and to investigate the need for further diagnostic workup to determine the underlying cause of hemorrhage. M...... adequate with absence of hematoma and vasospasm. In contrast, a follow-up DSA should be mandatory for confirming or excluding vascular pathology in case of nPMSAH in order to prevent rebleeding....

  18. A comparison of two sleep spindle detection methods based on all night averages: individually adjusted versus fixed frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Przemyslaw Ujma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are frequently studied for their relationship with state and trait cognitive variables, and they are thought to play an important role in sleep-related memory consolidation. Due to their frequent occurrence in NREM sleep, the detection of sleep spindles is only feasible using automatic algorithms, of which a large number is available. We compared subject averages of the spindle parameters computed by a fixed frequency (11-13 Hz for slow spindles, 13-15 Hz for fast spindles automatic detection algorithm and the individual adjustment method (IAM, which uses individual frequency bands for sleep spindle detection. Fast spindle duration and amplitude are strongly correlated in the two algorithms, but there is little overlap in fast spindle density and slow spindle parameters in general. The agreement between fixed and manually determined sleep spindle frequencies is limited, especially in case of slow spindles. This is the most likely reason for the poor agreement between the two detection methods in case of slow spindle parameters. Our results suggest that while various algorithms may reliably detect fast spindles, a more sophisticated algorithm primed to individual spindle frequencies is necessary for the detection of slow spindles as well as individual variations in the number of spindles in general.

  19. Perimesencephalic hemorrhage: a nonaneurysmal and benign form of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gijn, J.; van Dongen, K. J.; Vermeulen, M.; Hijdra, A.

    1985-01-01

    We studied 28 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and normal angiograms. On early CT (within 5 days) in 13 cases, blood was seen mainly or only in the cisterns around the midbrain. This pattern of hemorrhage was found in only 1 of 92 patients with a ruptured aneurysm. None of the unexplained

  20. Radiation-induced spindle cell sarcoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mubeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has been known to induce malignant transformation in human beings. Radiation-induced sarcomas are a late sequel of radiation therapy. Most sarcomas have been reported to occur after exposure to a radiation dose of 55 Gray (Gy and above, with a dose ranging from 16 to 112 Gys. Spindle cell sarcomas, arising after radiotherapy given to treat the carcinoma of head and neck region is a very uncommon sequel. This is a rare case report of spindle cell sarcoma of left maxilla, in a 24-year-old male, occurring as a late complication of radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 given for the treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye 21 years back.

  1. Left atrial spindle cell sarcoma – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Mehta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary spindle cell sarcoma of the left atrium is an extremely rare tumour. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment since it responds poorly to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In spite of all the treatment, the prognosis remains poor due to inadvertent delay in diagnosis, few therapeutic options and propensity to metastasize. We present a 47-year-old male who underwent a surgical excision of a left atrial mass in February 2010. It was proved to be a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma on histopathology. He presented again in October 2010 with recurrence of the tumour for which he was re-operated. However, the tumour recurred again within one month, to which the patient succumbed.

  2. Cytokeratin: a Shortcut to Diagnose Spindle Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Nazhvani A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A relatively rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is spindle cell carcinoma (SPCC. It is composed of epithelium-derived spindle cells arranged in sheets with mesenchymal properties and small, hard-ly detectable regions of SCC, challenging its definite diagnosis. We encountered five cases of SPCC. In case one, chronic inflammation and subepithelial blister with leukoplakia was found 5 years before our examination. And later, exophytic features, keratotic papules and scar with elevated margins was seen on lateral border of the tongue. In case two, three and four, an abnormal soft tissue elevations were examined, and in the fifth case we examined the soft and bony speci-men from the posterior aspect of maxillary ridge. We evaluated all of them histologically and immunohistochemically for cytokeratin to reach final diagnosis.

  3. CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder with spindle-cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Cohen, Brandon E; Cassarino, David S

    2016-11-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is classified as a CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disease. The phenotypic variability along the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative diseases is highlighted by the distinct histologic subtypes of LyP types A, B, C, and the more recently described types D, E, and F. We report the case of an elderly woman with a clinical presentation and histopathologic findings consistent with LyP, whose atypical CD30+ infiltrate uniquely demonstrated a spindle-cell morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of LyP characterized by CD30+ spindle-shaped cells, and may represent a new and distinct histologic variant of LyP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relations between ultrastructure of mitotic spindle and chromosome translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. treated with an 0.25 per cent mixture of water-soluble glycosides from Nerium oleander were insepected in a light microscope (LM and severe disturbances were found in all phases of mitosis. The same cells were observed in the electron microscope (EM and relations were noted and analysed between the chromosome arrangement and the submicroscopic structure of the mitotuc spindle. The successive steps in the disintegration of the formed spindle are described: fragmentatiun of all microtubules (MTs starting from the poles, disappearance of non-kinetachore MTs and further the external MTs of the kineto,chore bundle. The central (internal parallel ones remain the longest at the kinerf,ochares. Oleander glycosides cause disintegration of the existing MTs and prevent formation of new ones. The causes of restitution transformations in the successive phases of mitosis are discussed.

  5. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) ... may not even realize you have a subconjunctival hemorrhage until you look in the mirror and notice ...

  6. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  7. Multiple Duties for Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Kinases in Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Adele L.; Wassmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) controls the proper attachment to and alignment of chromosomes on the spindle. The SAC detects errors and induces a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, preventing chromatid separation. Once all chromosomes are properly attached, the SAC-dependent arrest is relieved and chromatids separate evenly into daughter cells. The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In meiosis, haploid cells containing new genetic combinations are generated from a diploid cell through two specialized cell divisions. Though apparently less robust, SAC control also exists in meiosis. Recently, it has emerged that SAC kinases have additional roles in executing accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions. Here, we summarize the main differences between mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, and explain why meiotic divisions pose special challenges for correct chromosome segregation. The less-known meiotic roles of the SAC kinases are described, with a focus on two model systems: yeast and mouse oocytes. The meiotic roles of the canonical checkpoint kinases Bub1, Mps1, the pseudokinase BubR1 (Mad3), and Aurora B and C (Ipl1) will be discussed. Insights into the molecular signaling pathways that bring about the special chromosome segregation pattern during meiosis will help us understand why human oocytes are so frequently aneuploid. PMID:29322045

  8. Multiple Duties for Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Kinases in Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele L. Marston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC controls the proper attachment to and alignment of chromosomes on the spindle. The SAC detects errors and induces a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, preventing chromatid separation. Once all chromosomes are properly attached, the SAC-dependent arrest is relieved and chromatids separate evenly into daughter cells. The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In meiosis, haploid cells containing new genetic combinations are generated from a diploid cell through two specialized cell divisions. Though apparently less robust, SAC control also exists in meiosis. Recently, it has emerged that SAC kinases have additional roles in executing accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions. Here, we summarize the main differences between mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, and explain why meiotic divisions pose special challenges for correct chromosome segregation. The less-known meiotic roles of the SAC kinases are described, with a focus on two model systems: yeast and mouse oocytes. The meiotic roles of the canonical checkpoint kinases Bub1, Mps1, the pseudokinase BubR1 (Mad3, and Aurora B and C (Ipl1 will be discussed. Insights into the molecular signaling pathways that bring about the special chromosome segregation pattern during meiosis will help us understand why human oocytes are so frequently aneuploid.

  9. Spindle vibration and sound field measurement using optical vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Kourosh

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical systems often produce a considerable amount of vibration and noise. To be able to obtain a complete picture of the dynamic behaviour of these systems, vibration and sound measurements are of significant importance. Optical metrology is well-suited for non-intrusive measurements on complex objects. The development and the use of remote non-contact vibration measurement methods for spindles are described and vibration measurements on thin- walled structures and sound field measuremen...

  10. Relations between ultrastructure of mitotic spindle and chromosome translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. treated with an 0.25 per cent mixture of water-soluble glycosides from Nerium oleander were insepected in a light microscope (LM) and severe disturbances were found in all phases of mitosis. The same cells were observed in the electron microscope (EM) and relations were noted and analysed between the chromosome arrangement and the submicroscopic structure of the mitotuc spindle. The successive steps in the disintegration of the formed spi...

  11. Akap350 Recruits Eb1 to The Spindle Poles, Ensuring Proper Spindle Orientation and Lumen Formation in 3d Epithelial Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Evangelina; Tonucci, Facundo M; Hidalgo, Florencia; Ferretti, Anabela; Ibarra, Solange; Pariani, Alejandro; Vena, Rodrigo; Favre, Cristián; Girardini, Javier; Kierbel, Arlinet; Larocca, M Cecilia

    2017-11-02

    The organization of epithelial cells to form hollow organs with a single lumen requires the accurate three-dimensional arrangement of cell divisions. Mitotic spindle orientation is defined by signaling pathways that provide molecular links between specific spots at the cell cortex and astral microtubules, which have not been fully elucidated. AKAP350 is a centrosomal/Golgi scaffold protein, implicated in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Using 3D epithelial cell cultures, we found that cells with decreased AKAP350 expression (AKAP350KD) formed polarized cysts with abnormal lumen morphology. Analysis of mitotic cells in AKAP350KD cysts indicated defective spindle alignment. We established that AKAP350 interacts with EB1, a microtubule associated protein that regulates spindle orientation, at the spindle poles. Decrease of AKAP350 expression lead to a significant reduction of EB1 levels at spindle poles and astral microtubules. Conversely, overexpression of EB1 rescued the defective spindle orientation induced by deficient AKAP350 expression. The specific delocalization of the AKAP350/EB1complex from the centrosome decreased EB1 levels at astral microtubules and lead to the formation of 3D-organotypic structures which resembled AKAP350KD cysts. We conclude that AKAP350 recruits EB1 to the spindle poles, ensuring EB1 presence at astral microtubules and proper spindle orientation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  12. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the hypopharynx: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillu Ram Kandel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell carcinoma of hpopharynx is a rare pathology. It is a poorly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma and morphologically resembles sarcoma. This is a disease of old age. It is usually associated with smoking and alcohol abuse. When it is associated with radiation exposure history it behaves more aggressively. Surgery is considered as the main modality of treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy if necessary. Here we present a case of 79 year old male with spindle cell carcinomaof right piriform fossa with 2-month history of progressive dysphasia and hoarseness that has been affecting his ability to speak and swallow with history of weight loss and past history of radiotherapy. So possibility of spindle cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx should beconsidered in an old patient with rapidly developing swelling of the hypopharynx with past history of radiation exposure. As it is a highly aggressive disease it should be treated timely and more aggressively to prolong the survival of the patient.   

  13. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  14. CENP-W plays a role in maintaining bipolar spindle structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarczyk

    Full Text Available The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of CENP-W in HeLa cells labeled with histone H2B and tubulin fluorescent proteins induced rapid fragmentation of originally bipolar spindles in a high proportion of cells. CENP-W depletion was associated with depletion of Hec1 at kinetochores. The possibility of promiscuous centrosomal duplication was ruled out by immunofluorescent examination of centrioles. However, centrioles were frequently observed to be abnormally split. In addition, a large proportion of the supernumerary poles lacked centrioles, but were positively stained with different centrosomal markers. These observations suggested that perturbation in spindle force distribution caused by defective kinetochores could contribute to a mechanical mechanism for spindle pole disruption. 'Spindle free' nocodazole arrested cells did not exhibit pole fragmentation after CENP-W depletion, showing that pole fragmentation is microtubule dependent. Inhibition of centrosome separation by monastrol reduced the incidence of spindle pole fragmentation, indicating that Eg5 plays a role in spindle pole disruption. Surprisingly, CENP-W depletion rescued the monopolar spindle phenotype of monastrol treatment, with an increased frequency of bipolar spindles observed after CENP-W RNAi. We overexpressed the microtubule cross-linking protein TPX2 to create spindle poles stabilized by the microtubule cross-linking activity of TPX2. Spindle pole fragmentation was suppressed in a TPX2-dependent fashion. We propose that CENP-W, by influencing proper kinetochore assembly, particularly microtubule docking sites, can confer spindle pole resistance to traction

  15. Sleep spindles and intelligence in early childhood-developmental and trait-dependent aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    Sleep spindles act as a powerful marker of individual differences in cognitive ability. Sleep spindle parameters correlate with both age-related changes in cognitive abilities and with the age-independent concept of IQ. While some studies have specifically demonstrated the relationship between sleep spindles and intelligence in young children, our previous work in older subjects revealed sex differences in the sleep spindle correlates of IQ, which was never investigated in small children before. We investigated the relationship between age, Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) scores and sleep spindles in 28 young children (age 4-8 years, 15 girls). We specifically investigated sex differences in the psychometric correlates of sleep spindles. We also aimed to separate the correlates of sleep spindles that are because of age-related maturation from other effects that reflect an age-independent relationship between sleep spindles and general intelligence. Our results revealed a modest positive correlation between fast spindle amplitude and age. Raven CPM scores positively correlated with both slow and fast spindle amplitude, but this effect remained a tendency in males and vanished after correcting for the effects of age. Age-corrected correlations between Raven CPM scores and both slow and fast spindle amplitude were only significant in females. Overall, our results show that in male children sleep spindles are a maturational marker, but in female children they indicate trait-like intelligence, in line with previous studies in adolescent and adult subjects. Thalamocortical white matter connectivity may be the underlying mechanism behind both higher spindle amplitude and higher intelligence in female, but not male subjects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The structure of the mitotic spindle and nucleolus during mitosis in the amebo-flagellate Naegleria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Mitosis in the amebo-flagellate Naegleria pringsheimi is acentrosomal and closed (the nuclear membrane does not break down). The large central nucleolus, which occupies about 20% of the nuclear volume, persists throughout the cell cycle. At mitosis, the nucleolus divides and moves to the poles in association with the chromosomes. The structure of the mitotic spindle and its relationship to the nucleolus are unknown. To identify the origin and structure of the mitotic spindle, its relationship to the nucleolus and to further understand the influence of persistent nucleoli on cellular division in acentriolar organisms like Naegleria, three-dimensional reconstructions of the mitotic spindle and nucleolus were carried out using confocal microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies against three different nucleolar regions and α-tubulin were used to image the nucleolus and mitotic spindle. Microtubules were restricted to the nucleolus beginning with the earliest prophase spindle microtubules. Early spindle microtubules were seen as short rods on the surface of the nucleolus. Elongation of the spindle microtubules resulted in a rough cage of microtubules surrounding the nucleolus. At metaphase, the mitotic spindle formed a broad band completely embedded within the nucleolus. The nucleolus separated into two discreet masses connected by a dense band of microtubules as the spindle elongated. At telophase, the distal ends of the mitotic spindle were still completely embedded within the daughter nucleoli. Pixel by pixel comparison of tubulin and nucleolar protein fluorescence showed 70% or more of tubulin co-localized with nucleolar proteins by early prophase. These observations suggest a model in which specific nucleolar binding sites for microtubules allow mitotic spindle formation and attachment. The fact that a significant mass of nucleolar material precedes the chromosomes as the mitotic spindle elongates suggests that spindle elongation drives nucleolar division.

  17. CENP-W Plays a Role in Maintaining Bipolar Spindle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    2014-01-01

    The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of CENP-W in HeLa cells labeled with histone H2B and tubulin fluorescent proteins induced rapid fragmentation of originally bipolar spindles in a high proportion of cells. CENP-W depletion was associated with depletion of Hec1 at kinetochores. The possibility of promiscuous centrosomal duplication was ruled out by immunofluorescent examination of centrioles. However, centrioles were frequently observed to be abnormally split. In addition, a large proportion of the supernumerary poles lacked centrioles, but were positively stained with different centrosomal markers. These observations suggested that perturbation in spindle force distribution caused by defective kinetochores could contribute to a mechanical mechanism for spindle pole disruption. ‘Spindle free’ nocodazole arrested cells did not exhibit pole fragmentation after CENP-W depletion, showing that pole fragmentation is microtubule dependent. Inhibition of centrosome separation by monastrol reduced the incidence of spindle pole fragmentation, indicating that Eg5 plays a role in spindle pole disruption. Surprisingly, CENP-W depletion rescued the monopolar spindle phenotype of monastrol treatment, with an increased frequency of bipolar spindles observed after CENP-W RNAi. We overexpressed the microtubule cross-linking protein TPX2 to create spindle poles stabilized by the microtubule cross-linking activity of TPX2. Spindle pole fragmentation was suppressed in a TPX2-dependent fashion. We propose that CENP-W, by influencing proper kinetochore assembly, particularly microtubule docking sites, can confer spindle pole resistance to traction forces exerted

  18. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  19. Anosmia After Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greebe, Paut; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale

    Background and Purpose-Anosmia frequently occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage not only after clipping, but also after endovascular coiling. Thus, at least in part, anosmia is caused by the hemorrhage itself and not only by surgical treatment. However, it is unknown whether anosmia is

  20. Computed Tomography of Interacerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the nematoma, associated cerebral edema, ventricular deformity and displacement, and hydrocephalus are all readily assessed. Aside from head trauma, the principal cause of intracerebral hematoma is hypertensive vascular disease. Although hematomas from various causes may present similar CT appearances frequently the correct etiology may be suggested by consideration of patient's age, clinical history, and the location of the hematoma. The analytical study was performed in 180 cases of intracerebral hemorrhages by CT from October 1981 to January 1983. The results were as follows; 1. The most prevalent age group was 6th decade (37.2%). Male was prevalent to female at the ration of 1.6 to 1. 2. The most common symptom and sign was mental disturbance (48.7%), motor weakness (23%), headache (10.6%), nausea and vomiting (9.8%). 3. The causes of hemorrhage were hypertension (53.9%), head trauma (30.6%), aneurysm (6.1%) and A-V malformation (7.2%). 4. The frequent locations of hemorrhage were basal ganglia and thalamus (40.4%), lobes (35%), ventricles (21.8%). 5. The distribution of hemorrhage was intracerebral hemorrhage (65.6%), intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (30.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (4.4%).

  1. Clathrin is spindle-associated but not essential for mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Borlido

    Full Text Available Clathrin is a multimeric protein involved in vesicle coat assembly. Recently clathrin distribution was reported to change during the cell cycle and was found to associate with the mitotic spindle. Here we test whether the recruitment of clathrin to the spindle is indicative of a critical functional contribution to mitosis.Previously a chicken pre-B lymphoma cell line (DKO-R was developed in which the endogenous clathrin heavy chain alleles were replaced with the human clathrin heavy chain under the control of a tetracycline-regulatable promoter. Receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis were significantly inhibited in this line following clathrin knockout, and we used this to explore the significance of clathrin heavy chain expression for cell cycle progression. We confirmed using confocal microscopy that clathrin colocalised with tubulin at mitotic spindles. Using a propidium iodide flow cytometric assay we found no statistical difference in the cell cycle distribution of the knockout cells versus the wild-type. Additionally, we showed that the ploidy and the recovery kinetics following cell cycle arrest with nocodazole were unchanged by repressing clathrin heavy chain expression.We conclude that the association of clathrin with the mitotic spindle and the contribution of clathrin to endocytosis are evolutionarily conserved. However we find that the contribution of clathrin to mitosis is less robust and dependent on cellular context. In other cell-lines silencing RNA has been used by others to knockdown clathrin expression resulting in an increase in the mitotic index of the cells. We show an effect on the G2/M phase population of clathrin knockdown in HEK293 cells but show that repressing clathrin expression in the DKO-R cell-line has no effect on the size of this population. Consequently this work highlights the need for a more detailed molecular understanding of the recruitment and function of clathrin at the spindle, since the

  2. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaushi, Shinji; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC 50 concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells

  3. Intercentrosomal angular separation during mitosis plays a crucial role for maintaining spindle stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Basu, S.; Paul, R.

    2015-10-01

    Cell division through proper spindle formation is one of the key puzzles in cell biology. In most mammalian cells, chromosomes spontaneously arrange to achieve a stable bipolar spindle during metaphase which eventually ensures proper segregation of the DNA into the daughter cells. In this paper, we present a robust three-dimensional mechanistic model to investigate the formation and maintenance of a bipolar mitotic spindle in mammalian cells under different physiological constraints. Using realistic parameters, we test spindle viability by measuring the spindle length and studying the chromosomal configuration. The model strikingly predicts a feature of the spindle instability arising from the insufficient intercentrosomal angular separation and impaired sliding of the interpolar microtubules. In addition, our model successfully reproduces chromosomal patterns observed in mammalian cells, when activity of different motor proteins is perturbed.

  4. Optimal design of high-speed loading spindle based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Dong, Yu; Ge, Qingkuan; Yang, Hai

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional model of high-speed loading spindle is established by using ABAQUS’s modeling module. A finite element analysis model of high-speed loading spindle was established by using spring element to simulate bearing boundary condition. The static and dynamic performance of the spindle structure with different specifications of the rectangular spline and the different diameter neck of axle are studied in depth, and the influence of different spindle span on the static and dynamic performance of the high-speed loading spindle is studied. Finally, the optimal structure of the high-speed loading spindle is obtained. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving the overall performance of the test-bed

  5. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  6. Error Correction of Radial Displacement in Grinding Machine Tool Spindle by Optimizing Shape and Bearing Tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Khairul Jauhari; Achmad Widodo; Ismoyo Haryanto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the radial displacement error correction capability of a high precision spindle grinding caused by unbalance force was investigated. The spindle shaft is considered as a flexible rotor mounted on two sets of angular contact ball bearing. Finite element methods (FEM) have been adopted for obtaining the equation of motion of the spindle. In this paper, firstly, natural frequencies, critical frequencies, and amplitude of the unbalance response caused by resi...

  7. Synthesis and surface modification of spindle-type magnetic nanoparticles: gold coating and PEG functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Garza , Juan; Wang , Biran; Madeira , Alexandra; Di-Giorgio , Christophe; Bossis , Georges

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we describe the synthesis of gold coated spindle-type iron nanoparticles and its surface modification by a thiolated fluorescently-labelled polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer. A forced hydrolysis of ferric salts in the presence of phosphate ions was used to produce α-Fe2O3 spindle-type particles. The oxide powders were first reduced to α-iron under high temperature and controlled dihydrogen atmosphere. Then, the resulting magnetic spindle-type particles w...

  8. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  9. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief. (author)

  10. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadahiko; Ogata, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Nakao, Satoshi; Mizue, Hidenari; Kobayashi, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    1. We have reviewed 34 cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset, 23 mature and 11 premature infants) experienced in 10-year period from 1971 to 1980, with special reference to gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, presence or absence of asphyxia, symptoms and cause of death. 2. Regarding 9 autopsied cases and 7 cases diagnosed by CT-scan, 10 mature infants composed of 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, 2 subdural hematomas, 2 intracerebral and 1 subependymal hemorrhage; 6 premature infants consisted of 4 subependymal hemorrhages with ventricular rupture and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages. Most of them presented with respiratory distress, vomiting and convulsive seizures which developed within 5 days after birth. 3. Poor outcome including death amounted 49% of mature and 63% of premature infants. Along with degree of intracranial hematoma, prematurity and pulmonary complication were felt to be important prognostic factors. 4. Introduction of CT-scan led to prompt diagnosis and treatment, thus lowering mortality rate of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. (author)

  11. Hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Nobunori; Nakamura, Saburo; Kushi, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Moriyasu, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the extension and severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage, as demonstrated by computed tomography (CT), and hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage was studied. In 94 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, as analyzed by CT scan performed within 7 days after onset, high-density areas in the subarachnoid space were recognized in 61 cases (64%) and secondary hydrocephalus occurred in 22 cases (23%). 17 cases died within 2 weeks, before the occurrence of the hydrocephalus. The CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage was classified into 5 types, according to its severity and extension; especially the degree of high density in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem was remarked. Secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed in 90% of the cases; they had a density higher than a CT number of 60 in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem (Type V). The mean interval between the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage and the appearance of hydrocephalus was 20.6 days. We conclude that a significantly high density of extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space, especially in the basal cistern and/or the cisterns around the brain stem, can be predictive of secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Matsumoto, S [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief.

  13. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J.; Siech, M.

    2000-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  14. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  15. REM sleep behaviour disorder is associated with lower fast and higher slow sleep spindle densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jacques; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences in sleep spindle properties and scalp topography between patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and healthy controls, whole-night polysomnograms of 35 patients diagnosed with RBD and 35 healthy control subjects matched for age and sex were compared. Recordings included a 19-lead 10-20 electroencephalogram montage and standard electromyogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram and respiratory leads. Sleep spindles were automatically detected using a standard algorithm, and their characteristics (amplitude, duration, density, frequency and frequency slope) compared between groups. Topological analyses of group-discriminative features were conducted. Sleep spindles occurred at a significantly (e.g. t34 = -4.49; P = 0.00008 for C3) lower density (spindles ∙ min(-1) ) for RBD (mean ± SD: 1.61 ± 0.56 for C3) than for control (2.19 ± 0.61 for C3) participants. However, when distinguishing slow and fast spindles using thresholds individually adapted to the electroencephalogram spectrum of each participant, densities smaller (31-96%) for fast but larger (20-120%) for slow spindles were observed in RBD in all derivations. Maximal differences were in more posterior regions for slow spindles, but over the entire scalp for fast spindles. Results suggest that the density of sleep spindles is altered in patients with RBD and should therefore be investigated as a potential marker of future neurodegeneration in these patients. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Noninvasive three-dimensional live imaging methodology for the spindles at meiosis and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-gao; Huo, Tiancheng; Tian, Ning; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Fengying; Lu, Danyu; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Sun, Jia-lin; Xue, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The spindle plays a crucial role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis and mitosis. Studying spindles in living cells noninvasively is of great value in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Here, we present a novel spindle imaging methodology, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). Without any dye labeling and fixation, we demonstrate the first successful application of FF-OCT to noninvasive three-dimensional (3-D) live imaging of the meiotic spindles within the mouse living oocytes at metaphase II as well as the mitotic spindles in the living zygotes at metaphase and telophase. By post-processing of the 3-D dataset obtained with FF-OCT, the important morphological and spatial parameters of the spindles, such as short and long axes, spatial localization, and the angle of meiotic spindle deviation from the first polar body in the oocyte were precisely measured with the spatial resolution of 0.7 μm. Our results reveal the potential of FF-OCT as an imaging tool capable of noninvasive 3-D live morphological analysis for spindles, which might be useful to ART related procedures and many other spindle related studies.

  17. Relationship between focal penicillin spikes and cortical spindles in the cerveau isolé cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Kaibara, M; Girvin, J P

    1983-01-01

    Using the unanesthetized, cerveau isolé preparation in the cat, the association between artificially induced penicillin (PCN) spikes and spontaneously occurring electrocorticographic (ECoG) spindles was investigated. Spikes were elicited by surface application of small pledgets of PCN. After the application of PCN, there was a decrease in spindle amplitude but no change in frequency, duration, or spindle wave frequency in the area of the focus. Examination of the times of occurrence of the spikes and spindles disclosed that in the majority of cases, within a few minutes of the initiation of the foci, there was very high simultaneity, usually 100% between the occurrences of these two events. Examination of the times of occurrence of the spikes within the ECoG spindles failed to disclose any compelling evidence which would favor either the hypothesis that spikes "trigger" spindles or the hypothesis that spindles predispose to focal spikes. Thus, whether spikes trigger spindles, or spikes simply occur in a nonspecific manner during the occurrence of the spindle, or whether it is a combination of both these explanations, must remain an open question on the basis of the data available.

  18. Imaging features of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, M.; Vogel, W.; Horger, M.

    2006-01-01

    There are diverse etiologies of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, so specific diagnosis may be difficult. Conventional radiography tends to be misleading as hemoptysis may lacking in patients with hemorrhagic anemia. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be differentiated from focal pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, active infection (tuberculosis) neoplasia, trauma, or embolism. (orig.)

  19. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  20. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  1. Dual mechanism controls asymmetric spindle position in ascidian germ cell precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodon, François; Chenevert, Janet; Hébras, Céline; Dumollard, Rémi; Faure, Emmanuel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Nishida, Hiroki; Sardet, Christian; McDougall, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Mitotic spindle orientation with respect to cortical polarity cues generates molecularly distinct daughter cells during asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, during ACD it remains unknown how the orientation of the mitotic spindle is regulated by cortical polarity cues until furrowing begins. In ascidians, the cortical centrosome-attracting body (CAB) generates three successive unequal cleavages and the asymmetric segregation of 40 localized postplasmic/PEM RNAs in germ cell precursors from the 8-64 cell stage. By combining fast 4D confocal fluorescence imaging with gene-silencing and classical blastomere isolation experiments, we show that spindle repositioning mechanisms are active from prometaphase until anaphase, when furrowing is initiated in B5.2 cells. We show that the vegetal-most spindle pole/centrosome is attracted towards the CAB during prometaphase, causing the spindle to position asymmetrically near the cortex. Next, during anaphase, the opposite spindle pole/centrosome is attracted towards the border with neighbouring B5.1 blastomeres, causing the spindle to rotate (10 degrees /minute) and migrate (3 microm/minute). Dynamic 4D fluorescence imaging of filamentous actin and plasma membrane shows that precise orientation of the cleavage furrow is determined by this second phase of rotational spindle displacement. Furthermore, in pairs of isolated B5.2 blastomeres, the second phase of rotational spindle displacement was lost. Finally, knockdown of PEM1, a protein localized in the CAB and required for unequal cleavage in B5.2 cells, completely randomizes spindle orientation. Together these data show that two separate mechanisms active during mitosis are responsible for spindle positioning, leading to precise orientation of the cleavage furrow during ACD in the cells that give rise to the germ lineage in ascidians.

  2. Different maturational changes of fast and slow sleep spindles in the first four years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Atri, Aurora; Novelli, Luana; Ferrara, Michele; Bruni, Oliviero; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Massive changes in brain morphology and function in the first years of life reveal a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation accompanied by regional modifications of NREM sleep. One of the most sensible marker of this maturation process is represented by electroencephalographic (EEG) activity within the frequency range of sleep spindles. However, direct evidence that these changes actually reflect maturational modifications of fast and slow spindles still lacks. Our study aimed at answering the following questions: 1. Do cortical changes at 11.50 Hz frequency correspond to slow spindles? 2. Do fast and slow spindles show different age trajectories and different topographical distributions? 3. Do changes in peak frequency explain age changes of slow and fast spindles? We measured the antero-posterior changes of slow and fast spindles in the first 60 min of nightly sleep of 39 infants and children (0-48 mo.). We found that (A) changes of slow spindles from birth to childhood mostly affect frontal areas (B) variations of fast and slow spindles across age groups go in opposite direction, the latter progressively increasing across ages; (C) this process is not merely reducible to changes of spindle frequency. As a main finding, our cross-sectional study shows that the first form of mature spindle (i.e., corresponding to the adult phasic event of NREM sleep) is marked by the emergence of slow spindles on anterior regions around the age of 12 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep Spindle Detection and Prediction Using a Mixture of Time Series and Chaotic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hekmatmanesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that sleep spindles (bursts of oscillatory brain electrical activity are significant indicators of learning, memory and some disease states. Therefore, many attempts have been made to detect these hallmark patterns automatically. In this pilot investigation, we paid special attention to nonlinear chaotic features of EEG signals (in combination with linear features to investigate the detection and prediction of sleep spindles. These nonlinear features included: Higuchi's, Katz's and Sevcik's Fractal Dimensions, as well as the Largest Lyapunov Exponent and Kolmogorov's Entropy. It was shown that the intensity map of various nonlinear features derived from the constructive interference of spindle signals could improve the detection of the sleep spindles. It was also observed that the prediction of sleep spindles could be facilitated by means of the analysis of these maps. Two well-known classifiers, namely the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP and the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN were used to distinguish between spindle and non-spindle patterns. The MLP classifier produced a~high discriminative capacity (accuracy = 94.93%, sensitivity = 94.31% and specificity = 95.28% with significant robustness (accuracy ranging from 91.33% to 94.93%, sensitivity varying from 91.20% to 94.31%, and specificity extending from 89.79% to 95.28% in separating spindles from non-spindles. This classifier also generated the best results in predicting sleep spindles based on chaotic features. In addition, the MLP was used to find out the best time window for predicting the sleep spindles, with the experimental results reaching 97.96% accuracy.

  4. Lateralised sleep spindles relate to false memory generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John J; Monaghan, Padraic

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH. Sleep increased acceptance of unseen-lure words as previously seen compared to the wake group, particularly for RH presentations of word lists. RH lateralised stage 2 sleep spindle density relative to the LH correlated with this increase in false memories, suggesting that RH sleep spindles enhanced false memories in the RH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity- A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Abhishek; Nagpal, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Spindle Cell Carcinoma (SpCC), also known as Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, is a rare and peculiar biphasic malignant neoplasm that occurs mainly in the upper aero-digestive tract, mostly in larynx. SCC accounts for 3% of all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck region. It is a rare variant of SCC which shows spindled or pleomorphic tumour cells simulating a true sarcoma. We present a case report of SpCC nasal cavity in a 50-year-old female patient, presented with intermittent epistaxis from left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcero-exophytic type of mass in the left nasal cavity and a smooth bulge on the left side of anterior hard palate. Patient underwent excision of nasal mass along with partial palatectomy by facial degloving approach and reconstruction of palate with naso-labial flap. The postoperative histopathological report showed SCC. Surgery forms the mainstay of treatment. Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy is warranted in order to improve treatment results. As only few cases have been reported, we report a case of this rare entity to contribute for better understanding and awareness of this rare malignancy. PMID:27190843

  6. Cenp-meta is required for sustained spindle checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rubin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cenp-E is a kinesin-like motor protein required for efficient end-on attachment of kinetochores to the spindle microtubules. Cenp-E immunodepletion in Xenopus mitotic extracts results in the loss of mitotic arrest and massive chromosome missegregation, whereas its depletion in mammalian cells leads to chromosome segregation defects despite the presence of a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Cenp-meta has previously been reported to be the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate Cenp-E. In this study, we show that cenp-metaΔ mutant neuroblasts arrest in mitosis when treated with colchicine. cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a mitotic delay. Yet, despite the persistence of the two checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1 on unattached kinetochores, these cells eventually enter anaphase and give rise to highly aneuploid daughter cells. Indeed, we find that cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a slow but continuous degradation of cyclin B, which eventually triggers the mitotic exit observed. Thus, our data provide evidence for a role of Cenp-meta in sustaining the SAC response.

  7. Vibration of rotating-shaft design spindles with flexible bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chaw-Wu

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an accurate mathematical model predicting forced vibration of rotating-shaft HDD spindle motors with flexible stationary parts. The mathematical model consists of three parts: a rotating part, a stationary part, and bearings. The rotating part includes a flexible hub, a flexible shaft press-fit into the hub, and N elastic disks mounted on the hub. The stationary part can include motor bracket (stator), base casting, and top cover. The bearings under consideration can be ball bearings or hydrodynamic bearings (HDB). The rotating disks are modelled through the classical plate theory. The rotating part (except the disks) and the stationary part are modelled through finite element analyses (FEA). With mode shapes and natural frequencies obtained from FEA, the kinetic and potential energies of the rotating and stationary parts are formulated and discretized to compensate for the gyroscopic effects from rotation. Finally, use of Lagrange equation results in the equations of motion. To verify the mathematical model, frequency response functions are measured experimentally for an HDB spindle carrying two identical disks at motor and drive levels. Experimental measurements agree very well with theoretical predictions not only in resonance frequency but also in resonance amplitude.

  8. Topological defects in confined populations of spindle-shaped cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkämper, Christoph; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Most spindle-shaped cells (including smooth muscles and sarcomas) organize in vivo into well-aligned `nematic’ domains, creating intrinsic topological defects that may be used to probe the behaviour of these active nematic systems. Active non-cellular nematics have been shown to be dominated by activity, yielding complex chaotic flows. However, the regime in which live spindle-shaped cells operate, and the importance of cell-substrate friction in particular, remains largely unexplored. Using in vitro experiments, we show that these active cellular nematics operate in a regime in which activity is effectively damped by friction, and that the interaction between defects is controlled by the system’s elastic nematic energy. Due to the activity of the cells, these defects behave as self-propelled particles and pairwise annihilate until all displacements freeze as cell crowding increases. When confined in mesoscopic circular domains, the system evolves towards two identical +1/2 disclinations facing each other. The most likely reduced positions of these defects are independent of the size of the disk, the cells’ activity or even the cell type, but are well described by equilibrium liquid crystal theory. These cell-based systems thus operate in a regime more stable than other active nematics, which may be necessary for their biological function.

  9. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis. (author)

  10. MRI of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Takemoto, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 23 patients with putaminal or thalamic hematomas were reviewed. Inversion recovery (IR, TR; 2100 - 2500 msec, TI; 600 msec) and long spin echo (SE, TR; 1800 - 2500 msec, TE; 120 msec) images were obtained with a 0.5T MR scanner. Hematomas within 3 hours after hemorrhage were isointense to the gray matter on both IR and long SE images. Two day-old hematomas were hyperintense in part of it on IR images and hypointense on long SE images. In acute hematomas, there was a marked hyperintense crescent area around hematomas on long SE images which marked hypointense on IR images. Hematomas in the resolving stage had peripheral hyperintensity on IR images and then on long SE images. This hyperintensity filled into the center of hematomas with time. In the resolving stage linear hypointensity was recognized at immedeately adjacent to the hematoma on long SE images. In the chronic stage, hematomas were hypointense on both IR and long SE images. In a few cases, the central portion of hematomas demonstrated hyperintensity on long SE images which indicated the presence of fluid in the old hematoma cavity. (author)

  11. Spindle-shaped Microstructures: Potential Models for Planktonic Life Forms on Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Walsh, Maud M.; Sugitani, Kenichiro; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Spindle-shaped, organic microstructures ("spindles") are now known from Archean cherts in three localities (Figs. 1-4): The 3 Ga Farrel Quartzite from the Pilbara of Australia [1]; the older, 3.3-3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, also from the Pilbara of Australia [2]; and the 3.4 Ga Kromberg Formation of the Barberton Mountain Land of South Africa [3]. Though the spindles were previously speculated to be pseudofossils or epigenetic organic contaminants, a growing body of data suggests that these structures are bona fide microfossils and further, that they are syngenetic with the Archean cherts in which they occur [1-2, 4-10]. As such, the spindles are among some of the oldest-known organically preserved microfossils on Earth. Moreover, recent delta C-13 study of individual spindles from the Farrel Quartzite (using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry [SIMS]) suggests that the spindles may have been planktonic (living in open water), as opposed to benthic (living as bottom dwellers in contact with muds or sediments) [9]. Since most Precambrian microbiotas have been described from benthic, matforming communities, a planktonic lifestyle for the spindles suggests that these structures could represent a segment of the Archean biosphere that is poorly known. Here we synthesize the recent work on the spindles, and we add new observations regarding their geographic distribution, robustness, planktonic habit, and long-lived success. We then discuss their potential evolutionary and astrobiological significance.

  12. Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Corsino, Patrick E; Davis, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    instability. Expression of these complexes in the MCF10A cell line leads to retinoblastoma protein (Rb) hyperphosphorylation, a subsequent increase in proliferation rate, and increased expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. This results in a strengthening of the spindle assembly...

  13. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheen Fei Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.

  14. A New Approach to Spindle Radial Error Evaluation Using a Machine Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha C.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The spindle rotational accuracy is one of the important issues in a machine tool which affects the surface topography and dimensional accuracy of a workpiece. This paper presents a machine-vision-based approach to radial error measurement of a lathe spindle using a CMOS camera and a PC-based image processing system. In the present work, a precisely machined cylindrical master is mounted on the spindle as a datum surface and variations of its position are captured using the camera for evaluating runout of the spindle. The Circular Hough Transform (CHT is used to detect variations of the centre position of the master cylinder during spindle rotation at subpixel level from a sequence of images. Radial error values of the spindle are evaluated using the Fourier series analysis of the centre position of the master cylinder calculated with the least squares curve fitting technique. The experiments have been carried out on a lathe at different operating speeds and the spindle radial error estimation results are presented. The proposed method provides a simpler approach to on-machine estimation of the spindle radial error in machine tools.

  15. Hybrid Prediction Model of the Temperature Field of a Motorized Spindle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal characteristics of a motorized spindle are the main determinants of its performance, and influence the machining accuracy of computer numerical control machine tools. It is important to accurately predict the thermal field of a motorized spindle during its operation to improve its thermal characteristics. This paper proposes a model to predict the temperature field of a high-speed and high-precision motorized spindle under different working conditions using a finite element model and test data. The finite element model considers the influence of the parameters of the cooling system and the lubrication system, and that of environmental conditions on the coefficient of heat transfer based on test data for the surface temperature of the motorized spindle. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the coefficient of heat transfer of the spindle, and its temperature field is predicted using a three-dimensional model that employs this optimal coefficient. A prediction model of the 170MD30 temperature field of the motorized spindle is created and simulation data for the temperature field are compared with the test data. The results show that when the speed of the spindle is 10,000 rpm, the relative mean prediction error is 1.5%, and when its speed is 15,000 rpm, the prediction error is 3.6%. Therefore, the proposed prediction model can predict the temperature field of the motorized spindle with high accuracy.

  16. Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cryptic angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shinichi; Sano, Keiji; Kwak, Suyong; Saito, Isamu.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 44 patients with hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and nine patients with cerebellar hemorrhage caused by small angiomas is described. Hypertensive hemorrhage occurred most frequently in the patients in their seventies, whereas the onset of angioma-caused hemorrhage was often seen below the age of 40. Clinical syndromes of cerebellar hemorrhages can be categorized into three basic types: the vertigo syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction syndrome and brain stem compression syndrome. Patients with small (>= 2 cm in diameter in CT scans) and medium-sized (2 cm = 3 cm) hematomas deteriorated into unresponsive conditions and developed signs of brain stem compression. Surgical mortality was 32% in the hypertensive group, while it was 0% in the angioma group. Mortality as well as morbidity in both groups was strongly influenced by the preoperative status of consciousness. Our results suggest that substantial improvement could be obtained in the overall outcome of this disease by emergency craniectomy and removal of hematomas in all patients with large hematomas regardless of the levels of consciousness and regardless of the causes of bleeding. Furthermore, when clinical information and CT findings are suggestive of a ''cryptic'' angioma as the causative lesion, posterior fossa surgery may be indicated to extirpate the lesion, even if the hematoma is small. (author)

  17. Drosophila parthenogenesis: A tool to decipher centrosomal vs acentrosomal spindle assembly pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    Development of unfertilized eggs in the parthenogenetic strain K23-O-im of Drosophila mercatorum requires the stochastic interactions of self-assembled centrosomes with the female chromatin. In a portion of the unfertilized eggs that do not assemble centrosomes, microtubules organize a bipolar anastral mitotic spindle around the chromatin like the one formed during the first female meiosis, suggesting that similar pathways may be operative. In the cytoplasm of eggs in which centrosomes do form, monastral and biastral spindles are found. Analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy suggests that these spindles are derived from the stochastic interaction of astral microtubules directly with kinetochore regions or indirectly with kinetochore microtubules. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic spindle assembly requires both acentrosomal and centrosomal pathways, strengthening the hypothesis that astral microtubules can dictate the organization of the spindle by capturing kinetochore microtubules

  18. Autocatalytic microtubule nucleation determines the size and mass of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Franziska; Oriola, David; Dalton, Benjamin; Brugués, Jan

    2018-01-11

    Regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. A prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. Previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. However, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. Here, we developed an assay based on laser ablation to directly probe microtubule nucleation events in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Combining this method with theory and quantitative microscopy, we show that the size of a spindle is controlled by autocatalytic growth of microtubules, driven by microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation. The autocatalytic activity of this nucleation system is spatially regulated by the limiting amounts of active microtubule nucleators, which decrease with distance from the chromosomes. This mechanism provides an upper limit to spindle size even when resources are not limiting. © 2018, Decker et al.

  19. Mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle on a machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, J.S.; Crisp, D.W.; Petrowski, P.L.

    1987-12-07

    The present invention is directed to a mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle utilized on a machine tool such as a lathe. The mounting arrangement of the present invention comprises a housing which is secured to the casing of the air bearing in such a manner that the housing position can be selectively adjusted to provide alignment of the air-bearing drive shaft supported by the housing and the air-bearing spindle. Once this alignment is achieved the air between spindle and the drive arrangement is maintained in permanent alignment so as to overcome misalignment problems encountered in the operation of the machine tool between the air-bearing spindle and the shaft utilized for driving the air-bearing spindle.

  20. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eRay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A spindle detection method was developed that: 1 extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma relative to ongoing background sigma activity using complex demodulation, 2 accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and 3 employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile. Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11-16 Hz filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles.

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  2. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  3. Obstetric hemorrhage: A global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Dena; Nathan, Lisa; Chazotte, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage remains the number one cause of maternal death globally despite the fact that it is largely a preventable and most often a treatable condition. While the global problem is appreciated, some may not realize that in the United States postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and unfortunately, the incidence is on the rise. In New York, obstetric hemorrhage is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the state. National data suggests that hemorrhage is disproportionally overrepresented as a contributor to severe maternal morbidity and we suspect as we explore further this will be true in New York State as well. Given the persistent and significant contribution to maternal mortality, it may be useful to analyze the persistence of this largely preventable cause of death within the framework of the historic "Three Delays" model of maternal mortality. The ongoing national and statewide problem with postpartum hemorrhage will be reviewed in this context of delays in an effort to inform potential solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of Contactless Power Supply for Spindle Ultrasonic Vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. R.; Lee, Y. L.; Liu, H. T.; Chen, S. M.; Chang, H. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a contactless power supply for the ultrasonic motor on the spindle is proposed. The proposed power supply is composed of a series-parallel resonant circuit and a cylindrical contactless transformer. Based on the study and rotation experiments, it can be seen that the proposed power supply can both provide a stable ac power with 25 kHz / 70 V to the ultrasonic motor. When the output power is 250 W, the efficiency of the proposed supply is 89.8 % in respectively rotation tests. When the output power is more than 150 W, the efficiency of the proposed supply is higher than 80 % within the rated output power range.

  5. In-silico modeling of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ibrahim

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint ((MSAC is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that ensures the correct segregation of chromosomes by restraining cell cycle progression from entering anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle. Its malfunction can lead to cancer.We have constructed and validated for the human (MSAC mechanism an in silico dynamical model, integrating 11 proteins and complexes. The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/Mad2 induced Cdc20 sequestering based on the Template Model, MCC formation, and APC inhibition. Originating from the biochemical reactions for the underlying molecular processes, non-linear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of 11 proteins and complexes of the (MSAC are derived. Most of the kinetic constants are taken from literature, the remaining four unknown parameters are derived by an evolutionary optimization procedure for an objective function describing the dynamics of the APC:Cdc20 complex. MCC:APC dissociation is described by two alternatives, namely the "Dissociation" and the "Convey" model variants. The attachment of the kinetochore to microtubuli is simulated by a switching parameter silencing those reactions which are stopped by the attachment. For both, the Dissociation and the Convey variants, we compare two different scenarios concerning the microtubule attachment dependent control of the dissociation reaction. Our model is validated by simulation of ten perturbation experiments.Only in the controlled case, our models show (MSAC behaviour at meta- to anaphase transition in agreement with experimental observations. Our simulations revealed that for (MSAC activation, Cdc20 is not fully sequestered; instead APC is inhibited by MCC binding.

  6. Proprioceptive Feedback through a Neuromorphic Muscle Spindle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Vannucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Connecting biologically inspired neural simulations to physical or simulated embodiments can be useful both in robotics, for the development of a new kind of bio-inspired controllers, and in neuroscience, to test detailed brain models in complete action-perception loops. The aim of this work is to develop a fully spike-based, biologically inspired mechanism for the translation of proprioceptive feedback. The translation is achieved by implementing a computational model of neural activity of type Ia and type II afferent fibers of muscle spindles, the primary source of proprioceptive information, which, in mammals is regulated through fusimotor activation and provides necessary adjustments during voluntary muscle contractions. As such, both static and dynamic γ-motoneurons activities are taken into account in the proposed model. Information from the actual proprioceptive sensors (i.e., motor encoders is then used to simulate the spindle contraction and relaxation, and therefore drive the neural activity. To assess the feasibility of this approach, the model is implemented on the NEST spiking neural network simulator and on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic hardware platform and tested on simulated and physical robotic platforms. The results demonstrate that the model can be used in both simulated and real-time robotic applications to translate encoder values into a biologically plausible neural activity. Thus, this model provides a completely spike-based building block, suitable for neuromorphic platforms, that will enable the development of sensory-motor closed loops which could include neural simulations of areas of the central nervous system or of low-level reflexes.

  7. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  8. Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder: a high-density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, D T; Goldstein, M R; Landsness, E C; Peterson, M J; Riedner, B A; Ferrarelli, F; Wanger, T; Guokas, J J; Tononi, G; Benca, R M

    2013-03-20

    Sleep spindles are believed to mediate several sleep-related functions including maintaining disconnection from the external environment during sleep, cortical development, and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Prior studies that have examined sleep spindles in major depressive disorder (MDD) have not demonstrated consistent differences relative to control subjects, which may be due to sex-related variation and limited spatial resolution of spindle detection. Thus, this study sought to characterize sleep spindles in MDD using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine the topography of sleep spindles across the cortex in MDD, as well as sex-related variation in spindle topography in the disorder. All-night hdEEG recordings were collected in 30 unipolar MDD participants (19 women) and 30 age and sex-matched controls. Topography of sleep spindle density, amplitude, duration, and integrated spindle activity (ISA) were assessed to determine group differences. Spindle parameters were compared between MDD and controls, including analysis stratified by sex. As a group, MDD subjects demonstrated significant increases in frontal and parietal spindle density and ISA compared to controls. When stratified by sex, MDD women demonstrated increases in frontal and parietal spindle density, amplitude, duration, and ISA; whereas MDD men demonstrated either no differences or decreases in spindle parameters. Given the number of male subjects, this study may be underpowered to detect differences in spindle parameters in male MDD participants. This study demonstrates topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in MDD. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of sleep spindles and sex in the pathophysiology of MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FLAIR images of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Saito, Koji; Okuyama, Tohru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Akira; Shibata, Kazunori [Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We studied MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences in 37 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysmal rupture. FLAIR sequence suppressed the CSF signal and produced very heavy T{sub 2} weighted images. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be demonstrated as high signal intensity on FLAIR sequences in all patients clear visualization of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was able to be obtained by MR FLAIR sequences in not only Fisher`s group 3 or 4, but also Fisher`s group 2. Moreover it was suited for the detection of intraaxial hematoma, Sylvian hematoma, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior fossa and interhemispheric fissure. Especially, it was useful for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Therefore, if patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage present slight headache or atypical symptoms, sometimes it may be more suitable to perform MRI FLAIR pulse sequences first. Aneurysms were found in 21 cases (56.8%). When the aneurysmal size is more than 7 mm, the rate of detection becomes 100%. Aneurysms present various MR appearances because of flow characteristics. Aneurysms were demonstrated as low signal intensity except in 3 cases. In one out of 3 cases, aneurysms were revealed as high signal intensity and in the other two cases, it was revealed as mixed signal intensity. According to the previous studies, rapid flow was demonstrated as low signal intensity by vascular flow void, and delayed flow was demonstrated as high or mixed signal intensity by flow related enhancement and even echo rephasing. MR clearly delineates the size, the lumen, the flow, and the extraaxial location of aneurysms. (K.H.)

  10. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  11. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumar, J.; Otero, E.; Castineira, A.; Arrojo, L.; Linares, M.; Castineira, J.A.; Vidal, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  12. PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gasanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we report the incidence and etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage, and modern classifications according to the literature data. Methods of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage are analyzed.

  13. Pleural liquid during hemorrhagic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Claudio; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2007-02-15

    The effect of approximately 25% or 35% blood loss (b.l.) on volume, pressure, and protein concentration of pleural liquid has been determined in anesthetized rabbits in lateral or supine posture. Volume and pressure of pleural liquid did not change with 25% b.l. 30 and 60 min after beginning of hemorrhage, and with 35% b.l. at 30 min (bleeding time approximately 10 and 12 min, respectively). With 35% b.l. protein concentration of pleural liquid was 85% greater (PPleural liquid seems protected against derangements from hemorrhage up to 25% b.l. for periods shorter than 1 h.

  14. Thermal Characteristic Analysis and Experimental Study of a Spindle-Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a thermo-mechanical coupling analysis model of the spindle-bearing system based on Hertz’s contact theory and a point contact non-Newtonian thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL theory are developed. In this model, the effect of preload, centrifugal force, the gyroscopic moment, and the lubrication state of the spindle-bearing system are considered. According to the heat transfer theory, the mathematical model for the temperature field of the spindle system is developed and the effect of the spindle cooling system on the spindle temperature distribution is analyzed. The theoretical simulations and the experimental results indicate that the bearing preload has great effect on the frictional heat generation; the cooling fluid has great effect on the heat balance of the spindle system. If a steady-state heat balance between the friction heat generation and the cooling system cannot be reached, thermally-induced preload will lead to a further increase of the frictional heat generation and then cause the thermal failure of the spindle.

  15. On the Dynamics of Rocking Motion of the Hard-Disk Drive Spindle Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    Excessive rocking motion of the spindle motor system can cause track misregistration resulting in poor throughput or even drive failure. The chance of excessive disk stack rocking increases as a result of decreasing torsional stiffness of spindle motor bearing system due to the market demand for low profile hard drives. As the track density increases and the vibration specification becomes increasingly stringent, rocking motion of a spindle motor system deserves even more attention and has become a primary challenge for a spindle motor system designer. Lack of understanding of the rocking phenomenon combined with misleading paradox has presented a great difficulty in the effort of avoiding the rocking motion in the hard-disk drive industry. This paper aims to provide fundamental understanding of the rocking phenomenon of a rotating spindle motor system, to clarify the paradox in disk-drive industry and to provide a design guide to an optimized spindle system. This paper, theoretically and experimentally, covers a few important areas of industrial interest including the prediction of rocking natural frequencies and mode shape of a rotating spindle, free vibration, and frequency response under common forcing functions such as rotating and fixed-plane forcing functions. The theory presented here meets with agreeable experimental observation.

  16. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...

  17. Automatic sleep spindle detection: Benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle properties index cognitive faculties such as memory consolidation and diseases such as major depression. For this reason, scoring sleep spindle properties in polysomnographic recordings has become an important activity in both research and clinical settings. The tediousness of this manual task has motivated efforts for its automation. Although some progress has been made, increasing the temporal accuracy of spindle scoring and improving the performance assessment methodology are two aspects needing more attention. In this paper, four open-access automated spindle detectors with fine temporal resolution are proposed and tested against expert scoring of two proprietary and two open-access databases. Results highlight several findings: 1 that expert scoring and polysomnographic databases are important confounders when comparing the performance of spindle detectors tested using different databases or scorings; 2 because spindles are sparse events, specificity estimates are potentially misleading for assessing automated detector performance; 3 reporting the performance of spindle detectors exclusively with sensitivity and specificity estimates, as is often seen in the literature, is insufficient; including sensitivity, precision and a more comprehensive statistic such as Matthew’s correlation coefficient, F1-score, or Cohen’s κ is necessary for adequate evaluation; 4 reporting statistics for some reasonable range of decision thresholds provides a much more complete and useful benchmarking; 5 performance differences between tested automated detectors were found to be similar to those between available expert scorings; 6 much more development is needed to effectively compare the performance of spindle detectors developed by different research teams. Finally, this work clarifies a long-standing but only seldom posed question regarding whether expert scoring truly is a reliable gold standard for sleep spindle assessment.

  18. Automated high-throughput quantification of mitotic spindle positioning from DIC movies of Caenorhabditis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cluet

    Full Text Available The mitotic spindle is a microtubule-based structure that elongates to accurately segregate chromosomes during anaphase. Its position within the cell also dictates the future cell cleavage plan, thereby determining daughter cell orientation within a tissue or cell fate adoption for polarized cells. Therefore, the mitotic spindle ensures at the same time proper cell division and developmental precision. Consequently, spindle dynamics is the matter of intensive research. Among the different cellular models that have been explored, the one-cell stage C. elegans embryo has been an essential and powerful system to dissect the molecular and biophysical basis of spindle elongation and positioning. Indeed, in this large and transparent cell, spindle poles (or centrosomes can be easily detected from simple DIC microscopy by human eyes. To perform quantitative and high-throughput analysis of spindle motion, we developed a computer program ACT for Automated-Centrosome-Tracking from DIC movies of C. elegans embryos. We therefore offer an alternative to the image acquisition and processing of transgenic lines expressing fluorescent spindle markers. Consequently, experiments on large sets of cells can be performed with a simple setup using inexpensive microscopes. Moreover, analysis of any mutant or wild-type backgrounds is accessible because laborious rounds of crosses with transgenic lines become unnecessary. Last, our program allows spindle detection in other nematode species, offering the same quality of DIC images but for which techniques of transgenesis are not accessible. Thus, our program also opens the way towards a quantitative evolutionary approach of spindle dynamics. Overall, our computer program is a unique macro for the image- and movie-processing platform ImageJ. It is user-friendly and freely available under an open-source licence. ACT allows batch-wise analysis of large sets of mitosis events. Within 2 minutes, a single movie is processed

  19. Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Asao, Toyohiko; Shibata, Takeo

    1981-01-01

    Eleven cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were diagnosed and followed up by CT scanning. By CT, hemorrhagic lesions were shown as high density areas in an acute stage and imaged as low density areas after the hemorrhage was absorbed. The time of absorption varies depending upon the site and the severity of hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage, petechial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were absorbed rapidly in more than 70% of the exanimed cases, CT scanning 1 - 2 weeks after the onset revealed absorption of hemorrhage. However, the absorption delayed in intracerebral hematoma; CT scan taken after one month showed hemorrhagic lesions remaining in 75% of the cases. In nine cases who survived, following the absorption of the hemorrhagic lesions, cerebral atrophy was observed in 4 cases (44%), ventricular enlargement in 3 cases (33%), and complete recovery in 2 cases (22%). From these results, CT scanning for diagnosis of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage should be done before the hemorrhagic lesion is absorbed (within 7 days of the onset). Follow-up study by CT is important for observing changes and predicting prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage. (Ueda, J.)

  20. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  1. Analysis of radial runout for symmetric and asymmetric HDD spindle motors with rotor eccentricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.-J.; Kim, K.-T.; Hwang, S.-M.; Lee, S.-B.; Park, N.-G.

    2001-01-01

    Radial runout of disk drive spindle is one of the major limiting factors in achieving higher track densities in hard disk drives. Mechanical, magnetic and their coupled origins, such as unbalanced mass, reaction forces and magnetic forces, introduce radial runout of spindle motors. In this paper, radial magnetic forces are calculated with respect to the various rotor eccentricities using analytic method. Based on the results of the radial magnetic forces, the radial runout of the spindle motor is analyzed using finite element and transfer matrices. Results show that an asymmetric motor has a worse performance on unbalanced magnetic forces and radial runout when mechanical and magnetic coupling exists

  2. Design of Accelerated Reliability Test for CNC Motorized Spindle Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorized spindle is the key functional component of CNC machining centers which is a mechatronics system with long life and high reliability. The reliability test cycle of motorized spindle is too long and infeasible. This paper proposes a new accelerated test for reliability evaluation of motorized spindle. By field reliability test, authors collect and calculate the load data including rotational speed, cutting force and torque. Load spectrum distribution law is analyzed. And authors design a test platform to apply the load spectrum. A new method to define the fuzzy acceleration factor based on the vibration signal is proposed. Then the whole test plan of accelerated reliability test is done.

  3. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy corresponds to a syndrome characterized by a transient myocardial dysfunction affecting the left ventricular apex that classically occurs after major physical or emotional stress (also called 'broken heart syndrome' or 'stress-induced cardiomyopathy'). The author describes the case of a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage. (author)

  4. Antifibrinolytic treatment in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Lindsay, K. W.; Murray, G. D.; Cheah, F.; Hijdra, A.; Muizelaar, J. P.; Schannong, M.; Teasdale, G. M.; van Crevel, H.; van Gijn, J.

    1984-01-01

    We enrolled 479 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether treatment with the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid improves outcome by preventing rebleeding. At three months there was no statistical difference

  5. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labor...

  6. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  7. Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Astrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to rebleeding and the prevention of rebleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: A literature search was performed to investigate factors associated with rebleeding after SAH. RESULTS: The review of the literature...

  8. CT differential diagnosis between hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction localized in basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Masahiro; Kawase, Takeshi.

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms of hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage and of middle cerebral artery occlusion are sometimes similar to each other. Hemorrhage sometimes occurs following cerebral infarction. We experienced 7 patients with hemorrhages localized in the basal ganglia following cerebral infarction. The CT findings of 55 patients with putaminal hemorrhage and 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction localized at the basal ganglia were investigated retrospectively in order to discuss their characteristics. The high-density area (HD) of a putaminal hemorrhage was homogeneous on a plain CT within a week of the onset. There was a close correlation between the size of the HD and the timing of its disappearance. The HD with a maximum diameter of A cm generally disappeared A weeks after. On the other hand, the HD of a hemorrhagic infarction was lower in density than that of the putaminal hemorrhage. The HD of a hemorrhagic infarction generally disappeared earlier than that of a putaminal hemorrhage. Ring enhancement was visualized on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) from 2 or 3 weeks after the onset in patients with putaminal hemorrhages except in the case of small hemorrhages (less than 1 cm diameter). Ring enhancement was also visualized in 6 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction; one of them was recognized within a week of the onset. Contrast enhancement of the cortex in the territory of the middle cerebral artery was visualized in 4 out of 7 patients with hemorrhagic infarction. This finding seems to indicate one characteristic of hemorrhagic infarction. (author)

  9. Computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ro; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Sim, Bo Sung

    1981-01-01

    Computed Tomography has become increasingly important diagnostic method as the initial examination in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage with direct detection of extravasated blood in basal cistern and cortical sulci. Furthermore, CT provides better and exact visualization of the presence, localization, extent and degree of intracerebral, intraventricular and subdural hemorrhage, infarction, hydrocephalus and rebleeding which may be associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and also could detect the causative lesions with contrast enhancement in many cases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to various causes and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Authors analysed a total of 153 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage confirmed by lumbar puncture at Seoul National University Hospital from March 1979 to April 1981, with special emphasis on CT findings. All of the cases took CT scan and 125 cases of them angiography. The results are as follows: 1. Most prevalent age group was 4th to 6th decades (78%). The ratio of male to female was 1.1: 1. 2. Of 125 cases with angiography, aneurysm was a major cause (68%). Others were arterio-venous malformation (9.6%), Moya-moya disease (4%) and unknown (18.4%). 3. Of all 153 cases with CT scan, hemorrhage was demonstrated in 98 cases (64.1%); SAH in 72 cases (47.1%), ICH in 65 cases (42.5%), IVH in 34 cases (22.2%) and SDH in 1 case (0.7%). SAH combined with ICH was a major group (34.7%) in SAH. Detection rate of SAH was 68.3% within the first 7 days and 5.8% after 7 dyas. 4. In aneurysms, SAH was detected in 60 of 85 cases (70.6%); 88.1% within the first 7 dyas and 5.6% after 7 dyas. Anterior communicating artery was the most common site of the aneurysms (40%), in which detection rate of SAH was 100% within the first 7 days. SAH was combined with ICH in 38.3%. 5. On CT, SAH of unilateral Sylvian fissure was pathognomonic for ruptured MCA

  10. Computed tomography in intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1984-01-01

    In tracranial hemorrhage in leukemia was clinicopathologically studied in 62 cases of autopsy materials, with special attention paid to a morphological comparison of CT images with pathological findings. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 32 of the 62 leukemic patients (51.6%), and in 13 of these patients (21.0%) it was responsible for death. Leukemic intracranial hemorrhage occurred more often in the acute leukemic type than in the chronic type, and even more often in younger leukemic patinents; it was pathologically characterized by multiple lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere, prone to combination with SAH or SDH. The hemorrhages could be divided into five types: (1) scattered small hemorrhagic type, (2) hematoma type, (3) fusion type (large hemorrhage composed of assembled small hemorrhages), (4) SAH type, and (5) SDH type. Among these types, the fusion type was considered to be characteristic of leukemia. CT was undertaken in 5 pathologically proven cases, with findings of the scattered small hemorrhagic type in 1, of the SDH type in 3, and of the fusion type in 1. Yet, one case with scattered small hemorrhages and two cases with SDH failed to be detected by CT. However, one case with a typical fusion hemorrhage was found to have multiple, irregular, high-density areas with surrounding edema and a mass effect as well as pathological findings. Therefore, a large-fusion hemorrhage, which is one of the most characteristic types of leukemic intracranial hemorrhage, could be demonstrated as distinctive CT images which reflected neuropathological findings. On the other hand, small parenchymal hemorrhages and relatively thin subdural hemorrhages could not be detected by CT. In conclusion, it seems that CT has value in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  11. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  12. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive......BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...

  13. Declarative memory performance is associated with the number of sleep spindles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen; Baier, Paul Christian; Weinhold, Sara Lena; Dittmar, Manuela; Heiermann, Steffanie; Aldenhoff, Josef B; Göder, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory relies on the nonrapid eye movement rather than the rapid eye movement phase of sleep. In addition, it is known that aging is accompanied by changes in sleep and memory processes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the overnight consolidation of declarative memory in healthy elderly women. Sleep laboratory of University. Nineteen healthy elderly women (age range: 61-74 years). We used laboratory-based measures of sleep. To test declarative memory, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test was performed. Declarative memory performance in elderly women was associated with Stage 2 sleep spindle density. Women characterized by high memory performance exhibited significantly higher numbers of sleep spindles and higher spindle density compared with women with generally low memory performance. The data strongly support theories suggesting a link between sleep spindle activity and declarative memory consolidation.

  14. Sleep-spindle detection: crowdsourcing and evaluating performance of experts, non-experts and automated methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warby, Simon C.; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to crowdsource spindle identification by human experts and non-experts, and we compared their performance with that of automated detection algorithms in data from middle- to older-aged subjects from the general population. We also refined methods for forming group consensus and evaluating the performance...... of event detectors in physiological data such as electroencephalographic recordings from polysomnography. Compared to the expert group consensus gold standard, the highest performance was by individual experts and the non-expert group consensus, followed by automated spindle detectors. This analysis showed...... that crowdsourcing the scoring of sleep data is an efficient method to collect large data sets, even for difficult tasks such as spindle identification. Further refinements to spindle detection algorithms are needed for middle- to older-aged subjects....

  15. Cortical dendritic activity correlates with spindle-rich oscillations during sleep in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Julie; Richard, Clément J; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Takahashi, Naoya; Kaplan, David I; Doron, Guy; de Limoges, Denis; Bocklisch, Christina; Larkum, Matthew E

    2017-09-25

    How sleep influences brain plasticity is not known. In particular, why certain electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are linked to memory consolidation is poorly understood. Calcium activity in dendrites is known to be necessary for structural plasticity changes, but this has never been carefully examined during sleep. Here, we report that calcium activity in populations of neocortical dendrites is increased and synchronised during oscillations in the spindle range in naturally sleeping rodents. Remarkably, the same relationship is not found in cell bodies of the same neurons and throughout the cortical column. Spindles during sleep have been suggested to be important for brain development and plasticity. Our results provide evidence for a physiological link of spindles in the cortex specific to dendrites, the main site of synaptic plasticity.Different stages of sleep, marked by particular electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures, have been linked to memory consolidation, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that dendritic calcium synchronisation correlates with spindle-rich sleep phases.

  16. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Hisao

    1983-01-01

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Afferent Innervation, Muscle Spindles, and Contractures Following Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injury in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Sia; Hu, Liangjun; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-10-01

    We used an established mouse model of elbow flexion contracture after neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) to test the hypothesis that preservation of afferent innervation protects against contractures and is associated with preservation of muscle spindles and ErbB signaling. A model of preganglionic C5 through C7 NBPI was first tested in mice with fluorescent axons using confocal imaging to confirm preserved afferent innervation of spindles despite motor end plate denervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were then created in wild-type mice. Four weeks later, we assessed total and afferent denervation of the elbow flexors by musculocutaneous nerve immunohistochemistry. Biceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area were measured by micro computed tomography. An observer who was blinded to the study protocol measured elbow flexion contractures. Biceps spindle and muscle fiber morphology and ErbB signaling pathway activity were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries caused similar total denervation and biceps muscle atrophy. However, after preganglionic injuries, afferent innervation was partially preserved and elbow flexion contractures were significantly less severe. Spindles degenerated after postganglionic injury but were preserved after preganglionic injury. ErbB signaling was inactivated in denervated spindles after postganglionic injury but ErbB signaling activity was preserved in spindles after preganglionic injury with retained afferent innervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were associated with upregulation of ErbB signaling in extrafusal muscle fibers. Contractures after NBPI are associated with muscle spindle degeneration and loss of spindle ErbB signaling activity. Preservation of afferent innervation maintained spindle development and ErbB signaling activity, and protected against contractures. Pharmacologic modulation of ErbB signaling, which is being investigated as a

  18. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  19. A Modeling approach for analysis and improvement of spindle-holder-tool assembly dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Budak, Erhan; Ertürk, A.; Erturk, A.; Özgüven, H. N.; Ozguven, H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The most important information required for chatter stability analysis is the dynamics of the involved structures, i.e. the frequency response functions (FRFs) which are usually determined experimentally. In this study, the tool point FRF of a spindle-holder-tool assembly is analytically determined by using the receptance coupling and structural modification techniques. Timoshenko’s beam model is used for increased accuracy. The spindle is also modeled analytically with elastic supports repre...

  20. Direct kinetochore?spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Magidson, Valentin; Steinman, Jonathan B.; He, Jie; Le Berre, Ma?l; Tikhonenko, Irina; Ault, Jeffrey G.; McEwen, Bruce F.; Chen, James K.; Sui, Haixin; Piel, Matthieu; Kapoor, Tarun M.; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes? kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled with MT depolymerization. However, we found that chromosomes still maintained their position at the...

  1. Warts phosphorylates mud to promote pins-mediated mitotic spindle orientation in Drosophila, independent of Yorkie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Sanchez, Desiree; Johnston, Christopher A

    2015-11-02

    Multicellular animals have evolved conserved signaling pathways that translate cell polarity cues into mitotic spindle positioning to control the orientation of cell division within complex tissue structures. These oriented cell divisions are essential for the development of cell diversity and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Despite intense efforts, the molecular mechanisms that control spindle orientation remain incompletely defined. Here, we describe a role for the Hippo (Hpo) kinase complex in promoting Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-mediated spindle orientation. Knockdown of Hpo, Salvador (Sav), or Warts (Wts) each result in a partial loss of spindle orientation, a phenotype previously described following loss of the Pins-binding protein Mushroom body defect (Mud). Similar to orthologs spanning yeast to mammals, Wts kinase localizes to mitotic spindle poles, a prominent site of Mud localization. Wts directly phosphorylates Mud in vitro within its C-terminal coiled-coil domain. This Mud coiled-coil domain directly binds the adjacent Pins-binding domain to dampen the Pins/Mud interaction, and Wts-mediated phosphorylation uncouples this intramolecular Mud interaction. Loss of Wts prevents cortical Pins/Mud association without affecting Mud accumulation at spindle poles, suggesting phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to specifically activate cortical Mud function. Finally, loss of Wts in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelial cells results in diminished cortical Mud and defective planar spindle orientation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis for dynamic regulation of the cortical Pins/Mud spindle positioning complex and highlight a novel link with an essential, evolutionarily conserved cell proliferation pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep spindles may predict response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Hatch, Benjamin; Salimi, Ali; Mograss, Melodee; Boucetta, Soufiane; O'Byrne, Jordan; Brandewinder, Marie; Berthomier, Christian; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia constitutes the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia, only few reports have investigated how sleep architecture relates to response to this treatment. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether pre-treatment sleep spindle density predicts treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. Twenty-four participants with chronic primary insomnia participated in a 6-week cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia performed in groups of 4-6 participants. Treatment response was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 12-months' follow-up assessments. Secondary outcome measures were extracted from sleep diaries over 7 days and overnight polysomnography, obtained at pre- and post-treatment. Spindle density during stage N2-N3 sleep was extracted from polysomnography at pre-treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis assessed whether sleep spindle density predicted response to cognitive-behavioral therapy. After adjusting for age, sex, and education level, lower spindle density at pre-treatment predicted poorer response over the 12-month follow-up, as reflected by a smaller reduction in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index over time. Reduced spindle density also predicted lower improvements in sleep diary sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset immediately after treatment. There were no significant associations between spindle density and changes in the Insomnia Severity Index or polysomnography variables over time. These preliminary results suggest that inter-individual differences in sleep spindle density in insomnia may represent an endogenous biomarker predicting responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Insomnia with altered spindle activity might constitute an insomnia subtype characterized by a neurophysiological vulnerability to sleep disruption associated with impaired responsiveness to

  3. Spindle formation in the mouse embryo requires Plk4 in the absence of centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Sharif, Bedra; Riparbelli, Maria G; Fu, Jingyan; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2013-12-09

    During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Plk4, a protein kinase known as a master regulator of centriole formation, is also essential for spindle assembly in the absence of centrioles. Depletion of maternal Plk4 prevents nucleation and growth of microtubules and results in monopolar spindle formation. This leads to cytokinesis failure and, consequently, developmental arrest. We show that Plk4 function depends on its kinase activity and its partner protein, Cep152. Moreover, tethering Cep152 to cellular membranes sequesters Plk4 and is sufficient to trigger spindle assembly from ectopic membranous sites. Thus, the Plk4-Cep152 complex has an unexpected role in promoting microtubule nucleation in the vicinity of chromosomes to mediate bipolar spindle formation in the absence of centrioles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinesin-8 effects on mitotic microtubule dynamics contribute to spindle function in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Zachary R.; Crapo, Ammon; Hough, Loren E.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin-8 motor proteins destabilize microtubules. Their absence during cell division is associated with disorganized mitotic chromosome movements and chromosome loss. Despite recent work studying effects of kinesin-8s on microtubule dynamics, it remains unclear whether the kinesin-8 mitotic phenotypes are consequences of their effect on microtubule dynamics, their well-established motor activity, or additional, unknown functions. To better understand the role of kinesin-8 proteins in mitosis, we studied the effects of deletion of the fission yeast kinesin-8 proteins Klp5 and Klp6 on chromosome movements and spindle length dynamics. Aberrant microtubule-driven kinetochore pushing movements and tripolar mitotic spindles occurred in cells lacking Klp5 but not Klp6. Kinesin-8–deletion strains showed large fluctuations in metaphase spindle length, suggesting a disruption of spindle length stabilization. Comparison of our results from light microscopy with a mathematical model suggests that kinesin-8–induced effects on microtubule dynamics, kinetochore attachment stability, and sliding force in the spindle can explain the aberrant chromosome movements and spindle length fluctuations seen. PMID:27146110

  5. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and “off-line” processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  6. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. On the Free Vibration Modeling of Spindle Systems: A Calibrated Dynamic Stiffness Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gaber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bearings on the vibrational behavior of machine tool spindles is investigated. This is done through the development of a calibrated dynamic stiffness matrix (CDSM method, where the bearings flexibility is represented by massless linear spring elements with tuneable stiffness. A dedicated MATLAB code is written to develop and to assemble the element stiffness matrices for the system’s multiple components and to apply the boundary conditions. The developed method is applied to an illustrative example of spindle system. When the spindle bearings are modeled as simply supported boundary conditions, the DSM model results in a fundamental frequency much higher than the system’s nominal value. The simply supported boundary conditions are then replaced by linear spring elements, and the spring constants are adjusted such that the resulting calibrated CDSM model leads to the nominal fundamental frequency of the spindle system. The spindle frequency results are also validated against the experimental data. The proposed method can be effectively applied to predict the vibration characteristics of spindle systems supported by bearings.

  8. Online Dynamic Balance Technology for High Speed Spindle Based on Gain Parameter Adaption and Scheduling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance vibration is one of the main vibration forms of a high speed machine tool spindle. The overlarge unbalance vibration will have some adverse effects on the working life of the spindle system and the surface quality of the work-piece. In order to reduce the unbalance of a high speed spindle system, a pneumatic online dynamic balance device and its control system are presented in the paper. To improve the balance accuracy and adaptation of the balance system, the gain parameter adaption and scheduling control method are proposed first, and then the different balance effects of the influence coefficient method and the gain scheduling control method are compared through many dynamic balance experiments of the high speed spindle. The experimental results indicate that the gain parameters can be changed timely according to the transformation of the speed and kinetic parameters of the spindle system. The balance accuracy can be improved for a high speed spindle with time-varying characteristics, based on the adaptive gain scheduling control method.

  9. Clathrin heavy chain 1 is required for spindle assembly and chromosome congression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Liu, Li; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Guang-Peng; Schatten, Heide; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation.

  10. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon; Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3β in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor

  11. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kasim Diril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  12. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, M Kasim; Bisteau, Xavier; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Caldez, Matias J; Wee, Sheena; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kaldis, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL) MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA) rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  13. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bum Shin; Shin, Kyoung Hee; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  14. CT findings of fundal hemorrhage in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munemoto, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Shuzo; Kimura, Akira; Futami, Kazuya; Kogure, Yuzaburo; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Demachi, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old man. He lost consciousness as a result of a third subarachnoid hemorrhage attack. On neurological examination, he was found to be comatose and to have no spontaneous respiration. A mydriasis was noticed on both eyes. Bilateral retinal bleeding was also observed, with the bleeding of the left side more severe than that of the right side. After his death, his brain and eyes were examined by means of a CT scan. The CT films showed a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage and ventricular hematoma. The thin-sliced CT films showed left retinal bleeding. Retinal bleeding may be caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Usually we make a sketch of the retinal bleeding on the basis of a doctor's report. A photo of an optic fundus is a good record; however, taking a photo is troublesome for severely ill patients. The CT finding of retinal bleeding is gross, but a CT image is one good way to record retinal bleeding. (author)

  15. Comparison of a Four-Section Spindle and Stomacher for Efficacy of Detaching Microorganisms from Fresh Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyun; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the effect of the spindle and stomacher for detaching microorganisms from fresh vegetables. The spindle is an apparatus for detaching microorganisms from food surfaces, which was developed in our laboratory. When processed with the spindle, food samples were barely disrupted, the original shape was maintained, and the diluent was clear, facilitating further detection analysis more easily than with stomacher treatment. The four-section spindle consists of four sample bag containers (A, B, C, and D) to economize time and effort by simultaneously processing four samples. The aerobic plate counts (APC) of 50 fresh vegetable samples were measured following spindle and stomacher treatment. Correlations between the two methods for each section of the spindle and stomacher were very high (R(2) = 0.9828 [spindle compartment A; Sp A], 0.9855 [Sp B], 0.9848 [Sp C], and 0.9851 [Sp D]). One-tenth milliliter of foodborne pathogens suspensions was inoculated onto surfaces of food samples, and ratios of spindle-to-stomacher enumerations were close to 1.00 log CFU/g between every section of the spindle and stomacher. One of the greatest features of the spindle is that it can treat large-sized samples that exceed 200 g. Uncut whole apples, green peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes were processed by the spindle and by hand massaging by 2 min. Large-sized samples were also assayed for aerobic plate count and recovery of the three foodborne pathogens, and the difference between each section of the spindle and hand massaging was not significant (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that the spindle apparatus can be an alternative device for detaching microorganisms from all fresh vegetable samples for microbiological analysis by the food processing industry.

  16. Age-related Changes In Sleep Spindles Characteristics During Daytime Recovery Following a 25-Hour Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïna eRosinvil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11-15Hz; >0.5s help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g. daytime, even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups.Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 ± 5.0 and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1 healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artefact-free NREM sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min, amplitude (μV, frequency (Hz and duration (s were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects.Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure module spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep.

  17. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  18. MR imaging of intraocular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Louis, L.A.; Weiss, R.; Ellsworth, R.; Chang, S.; Deck, M.D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated with MR imaging 11 globes (nine patients) with spontaneous or traumatic intraocular hemorrhage. Subretinal blood was present in eight. Intravitreal bleeding was associated in seven and three subchoroidal. The ages of the hemorrhages ranged from 1 day to 6 months. Six of the subretinal and two subchoroidal cases had clotted blood with different intensity on the short TE images but were markedly hypointense on long TR/long TE images. The intravitreal blood was hyperintense on all sequences except in one. All imaging was performed with .5 T, 256 matrix, and 4- and 7- mm section thickness. Because of the varied appearance of hemorrhages, the authors scanned and are scanning two rabbits with intravitreal blood in vivo. Parameters include: 3-mm sections, T1, PD, T2 scans in .3-T and 1.5-T imagers. Initial results for the first 2 days show no change in signal intensity (hyperintense on all sequences). The T1 images show a diminishing intensity up to 8 days, and T2 scans remained hyperintense. These results so far correlate with the patient findings. The authors present the clinical findings and experimental correlation

  19. White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Zhu, Alyssa H; Lindquist, John R; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-11-29

    Sleep spindles promote the consolidation of motor skill memory in young adults. Older adults, however, exhibit impoverished sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) explaining why motor memory consolidation in older adults fails to benefit from sleep remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that male and female older adults show impoverished overnight motor skill memory consolidation relative to young adults, with the extent of impairment being associated with the degree of reduced frontal fast sleep spindle density. The magnitude of the loss of frontal fast sleep spindles in older adults was predicted by the degree of reduced white matter integrity throughout multiple white matter tracts known to connect subcortical and cortical brain regions. We further demonstrate that the structural integrity of selective white matter fiber tracts, specifically within right posterior corona radiata, right tapetum, and bilateral corpus callosum, statistically moderates whether sleep spindles promoted overnight consolidation of motor skill memory. Therefore, white matter integrity within tracts known to connect cortical sensorimotor control regions dictates the functional influence of sleep spindles on motor skill memory consolidation in the elderly. The deterioration of white matter fiber tracts associated with human brain aging thus appears to be one pathophysiological mechanism influencing subcortical-cortical propagation of sleep spindles and their related memory benefits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have shown that sleep spindle expression is reduced and sleep-dependent motor memory is impaired in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations have remained unknown. The present study reveals that age-related degeneration of white matter within select fiber tracts is associated with reduced sleep spindles in older adults. We further demonstrate that, within these same fiber tracts, the degree of

  20. Analysis of angiographic findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage: comparison between intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kwon, Jin Sook; Yoon, Soo Woong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angioarchitectures of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to determine whether there was correlation between angioarchitectures and patterns of intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral, intraventricular, and both) in cerebral AVM. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who between November 1989 and December 1994 suffered supratentorial AVM with intracranial hemorrhage were studied retrospectively. Among 128 patients, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage were seen in 68(53%) and 24 patients(19%), respectively, while both types were seen in the remaining 36 (28%). We analyzed the angioarchitectual characteristics of AVM, namely nidi, feeding arteries and draining veins, in three hemorrhagic groups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and both. The X 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. A cortically located nidus was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while a periventricular location was most common in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001). Location in the corpus callosum, choroid plexus, or intraventricular area was more frequent in the intraventricular than the intracerebral hemorrhagic group (p<0.05). Superficial venous drainage was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.001), and deep venous drainage in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p=3D0.001). The angioarchitectual characteristics of cerebral arteriovenous malformation correlate significantly with patterns of intracranial hemorrhage, and awareness of the type of hemorrhage could help to manage patients and determine prognosis.=20

  1. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs. PMID:23593258

  2. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  3. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  4. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  5. Spindle assembly checkpoint acquisition at the mid-blastula transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maomao Zhang

    Full Text Available The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC maintains the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. Nonpathogenic cells lacking the SAC are typically only found in cleavage stage metazoan embryos, which do not acquire functional checkpoints until the mid-blastula transition (MBT. It is unclear how proper SAC function is acquired at the MBT, though several models exist. First, SAC acquisition could rely on transcriptional activity, which increases dramatically at the MBT. Embryogenesis prior to the MBT relies primarily on maternally loaded transcripts, and if SAC signaling components are not maternally supplied, the SAC would depend on zygotic transcription at the MBT. Second, checkpoint acquisition could depend on the Chk1 kinase, which is activated at the MBT to elongate cell cycles and is required for the SAC in somatic cells. Third, SAC function could depend on a threshold nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C ratio, which increases during pre-MBT cleavage cycles and dictates several MBT events like zygotic transcription and cell cycle remodeling. Finally, the SAC could by regulated by a timer mechanism that coincides with other MBT events but is independent of them. Using zebrafish embryos we show that SAC acquisition at the MBT is independent of zygotic transcription, indicating that the checkpoint program is maternally supplied. Additionally, by precociously lengthening cleavage cycles with exogenous Chk1 activity, we show that cell cycle lengthening and Chk1 activity are not sufficient for SAC acquisition. Furthermore, we find that SAC acquisition can be uncoupled from the N:C ratio. Together, our findings indicate that SAC acquisition is regulated by a maternally programmed developmental timer.

  6. Intraretinal hemorrhages in cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Kelly, T J; Marcus, D F

    1984-08-01

    Retinal hemorrhages can be associated with typical cystoid macular edema. We examined the fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms of 313 eyes of 264 patients with documented cystoid macular edema to establish the incidence and characteristics of associated intraretinal hemorrhages. As we wanted to study only those hemorrhages unique to cystoid macular edema, we excluded 86 eyes because the patients had diseases known to be associated with retinal hemorrhages. These diseases included diabetes mellitus, branch retinal vein occlusion, hypertensive retinopathy, venous stasis retinopathy, and perifoveal telangiectasia. Of the remaining 227 eyes with cystoid macular edema, 56 (24.7%) were identified with retinal hemorrhages not associated with systemic disease. The hemorrhages were characteristically oval, round, or linear and frequently filled or partially filled the intraretinal cystoid space. In many patients, a blood-fluid level was observed.

  7. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato

    1989-01-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  8. MR imaging of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickler, E.; Lufkin, R.B.; Frazee, J.; Lylyk, P.; Vinuela, F.; Bentson, J.R.; Dion, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced in four Macaca nemestrina monkeys using the technique of Frazee. CT and MR imaging were performed immediately after the procedure and at frequent intervals up to 2 weeks after hemorrhage. The imaging studies were compared with clinical evaluations and pathologic specimens of all animals. Additional human clinical CT/MR studies of subarachnoid hemorrhage were also studied. Acute hemorrhage was recognized on MR as an increase in signal in the region of clot compared with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. This most likely reflects T1 shortening due to proton binding rather than a pure paramagnetic effect. While CT is sensitive to the hemoglobin protein in acute hemorrhage, the superior resolution of the basal cisterns on MR images results in equal or better definition of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage on MR in many cases

  9. Smurf2 as a novel mitotic regulator: From the spindle assembly checkpoint to tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Finola E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the mitotic program with high fidelity is dependent upon precise spatiotemporal regulation of posttranslational protein modifications. For example, the timely polyubiquitination of critical mitotic regulators by Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled activity of APC/C-Cdc20 in early mitosis, allowing bipolar attachment of kinetochores to mitotic spindle and facilitating equal segregation of sister chromatids. The critical effector of the spindle checkpoint, Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2, is recruited to unattached kinetochores forming a complex with other regulatory proteins to efficiently and cooperatively inhibit APC/C-Cdc20. A weakened and/or dysfunctional spindle checkpoint has been linked to the development of genomic instability in both cell culture and animal models, and evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of the spindle checkpoint plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Recent studies have illuminated a network of both degradative and non-degradative ubiquitination events that regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Within this context, our recent work showed that the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-terminus-family E3 ligase Smurf2 (Smad specific ubiquitin regulatory factor 2, known as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling, is required for a functional spindle checkpoint by promoting the functional localization and stability of Mad2. Here we discuss putative models explaining the role of Smurf2 as a new regulator in the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic mitotic localization of Smurf2 to the centrosome and other critical mitotic structures provides implications about mitotic checkpoint control dependent on various ubiquitination events. Finally, deregulated Smurf2 activity may contribute to carcinogenesis by

  10. Fusimotor control of spindle sensitivity regulates central and peripheral coding of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ning; He, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Proprioceptive afferents from muscle spindles encode information about peripheral joint movements for the central nervous system (CNS). The sensitivity of muscle spindle is nonlinearly dependent on the activation of gamma (γ) motoneurons in the spinal cord that receives inputs from the motor cortex. How fusimotor control of spindle sensitivity affects proprioceptive coding of joint position is not clear. Furthermore, what information is carried in the fusimotor signal from the motor cortex to the muscle spindle is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the issue of communication between the central and peripheral sensorimotor systems using a computational approach based on the virtual arm (VA) model. In simulation experiments within the operational range of joint movements, the gamma static commands (γ(s)) to the spindles of both mono-articular and bi-articular muscles were hypothesized (1) to remain constant, (2) to be modulated with joint angles linearly, and (3) to be modulated with joint angles nonlinearly. Simulation results revealed a nonlinear landscape of Ia afferent with respect to both γ(s) activation and joint angle. Among the three hypotheses, the constant and linear strategies did not yield Ia responses that matched the experimental data, and therefore, were rejected as plausible strategies of spindle sensitivity control. However, if γ(s) commands were quadratically modulated with joint angles, a robust linear relation between Ia afferents and joint angles could be obtained in both mono-articular and bi-articular muscles. With the quadratic strategy of spindle sensitivity control, γ(s) commands may serve as the CNS outputs that inform the periphery of central coding of joint angles. The results suggest that the information of joint angles may be communicated between the CNS and muscles via the descending γ(s) efferent and Ia afferent signals.

  11. Evaluating and Improving Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection by Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yin Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11–16 Hz measured by electroencephalography (EEG mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts. To resolve the problem, numerous computerized methods have been developed to automate the process of sleep spindle identification. Still, the performance of these automated sleep spindle detection methods varies inconsistently from study to study. There are two reasons: (1 the lack of common benchmark databases, and (2 the lack of commonly accepted evaluation metrics. In this study, we focus on tackling the second problem by proposing to evaluate the performance of a spindle detector in a multi-objective optimization context and hypothesize that using the resultant Pareto fronts for deriving evaluation metrics will improve automatic sleep spindle detection. We use a popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2, to optimize six existing frequency-based sleep spindle detection algorithms. They include three Fourier, one continuous wavelet transform (CWT, and two Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based algorithms. We also explore three hybrid approaches. Trained and tested on open-access DREAMS and MASS databases, two new hybrid methods of combining Fourier with HHT algorithms show significant performance improvement with F1-scores of 0.726–0.737.

  12. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  13. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program....

  14. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2 + . The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  15. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitiotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krauss, Sharon W

    2005-01-01

    Important pathological hallmarks of many breast cancers include centrosome amplification, spindle pole defects leading to aberrant chromosome segregation, altered nucleoskeletal proteins and perturbed cytokinesis...

  16. The effects of eszopiclone on sleep spindles and memory consolidation in schizophrenia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Shinn, Ann K; Tucker, Matthew A; Ono, Kim E; McKinley, Sophia K; Ely, Alice V; Goff, Donald C; Stickgold, Robert; Manoach, Dara S

    2013-09-01

    In schizophrenia there is a dramatic reduction of sleep spindles that predicts deficient sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Eszopiclone (Lunesta), a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic, acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus where spindles are generated. We investigated whether eszopiclone could increase spindles and thereby improve memory consolidation in schizophrenia. In a double-blind design, patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 3 mg of eszopiclone. Patients completed Baseline and Treatment visits, each consisting of two consecutive nights of polysomnography. On the second night of each visit, patients were trained on the motor sequence task (MST) at bedtime and tested the following morning. Academic research center. Twenty-one chronic, medicated schizophrenia outpatients. We compared the effects of two nights of eszopiclone vs. placebo on stage 2 sleep spindles and overnight changes in MST performance. Eszopiclone increased the number and density of spindles over baseline levels significantly more than placebo, but did not significantly enhance overnight MST improvement. In the combined eszopiclone and placebo groups, spindle number and density predicted overnight MST improvement. Eszopiclone significantly increased sleep spindles, which correlated with overnight motor sequence task improvement. These findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that the spindle deficit in schizophrenia impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and may be ameliorated by eszopiclone. Larger samples may be needed to detect a significant effect on memory. Given the general role of sleep spindles in cognition, they offer a promising novel potential target for treating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  17. Obstetric Emergencies: Shoulder Dystocia and Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Bhalwal, Asha; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage represent two of the most common emergencies faced in obstetric clinical practice, both requiring prompt recognition and management to avoid significant morbidity or mortality. Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon, unpredictable, and unpreventable obstetric emergency and can be managed with appropriate intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage occurs more commonly and carries significant risk of maternal morbidity. Institutional protocols and algorithms for the prevention and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage have become mainstays for clinicians. The goal of this review is to summarize the diagnosis, incidence, risk factors, and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  19. CT findings of fulminant subarachnoid hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Isayama, Kazuo; Yajima, Kouzo; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yano, Masami; Otsuka, Toshibumi

    1985-01-01

    We studied the clinical features and CT findings of 20 cases with fulminant subarachonid hemorrhages in the acute stage. They were admitted to our hospital within 3 hours after the attack as DOA (dead on arrival) or near DOA. CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhages were located in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain stem in all cases. In 90 % of the cases, the subarachnoid hemorrhage formed a clot or a thick layer. Massive intracerebral hematomas were observed in 10 % of the cases. Acute intraventricular hemorrhages were seen in 80 % of the cases. The mechanism of intraventricular hemorrhage in 70 % of the cases was of the reflux type, which was characterized by a reflux of the severe subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cistern. Acute and diffuse brain swelling on CT scan was observed in several cases, which also showed initial increased intracranial pressures. The major mechanisms leading to acute death or a very severe state soon after subarachnoid hemorrhage might be caused by acute brain-stem failure due to severe subarachnoid hemorrhages in the basal cisterns surrounding the brain-stem and an acute increase in intracranial pressure by cerebral edema following subarachnoid hemorrhage and secondary cerebral ischemia due to cardiac and respiratory arrest. (author)

  20. The Roles of Thrombospondins in Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating cerebrovascular disease with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombospondins (TSPs, as matricellular proteins, belong to the TSP family which is comprised of five members. All TSPs modulate a variety of cellular functions by binding to various receptors. Recently, TSPs gained attention in the area of hemorrhagic stroke, especially TSP-1. TSP-1 participates in angiogenesis, the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and fibrosis after hemorrhagic stroke through binding to various molecules including but not limited to CD36, CD47, and TGF-β. In this review, we will discuss the roles of TSPs in hemorrhagic stroke and focus primarily on TSP-1.

  1. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Masaki Nishida,1 Yusaku Nakashima,2 Toru Nishikawa11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Bunkyo, 2Medical Technology Research Laboratory, Research and Development Division, Medical Business Unit, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, JapanIntroduction: Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process.Methods: Healthy control participants (n=17 and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11 were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement. Participants' brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs. Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5–16 Hz and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5–12.5 Hz.Result: Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups.Conclusion: Because the changes in slow

  2. Frequency Response Studies using Receptance Coupling Approach in High Speed Spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Jakeer Hussain; Ramakotaiah, K.; Srinivas, J.

    2018-01-01

    In order to assess the stability of high speed machining, estimate the frequency response at the end of tool tip is of great importance. Evaluating dynamic response of several combinations of integrated spindle-tool holder-tool will consume a lot of time. This paper presents coupled field dynamic response at tool tip for the entire integrated spindle tool unit. The spindle unit is assumed to be relying over the front and rear bearings and investigated using the Timoshenko beam theory to arrive the receptances at different locations of the spindle-tool unit. The responses are further validated with conventional finite element model as well as with the experiments. This approach permits quick outputs without losing accuracy of solution and further these methods are utilized to analyze the various design variables on system dynamics. The results obtained through this analysis are needed to design the better spindle unit in an attempt to reduce the frequency amplitudes at the tool tip to improvise the milling stability during cutting process.

  3. Direct kinetochore–spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Magidson, Valentin; Steinman, Jonathan B.; He, Jie; Le Berre, Maël; Tikhonenko, Irina; Ault, Jeffrey G.; McEwen, Bruce F.; Chen, James K.; Sui, Haixin; Piel, Matthieu; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes′ kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled with MT depolymerization. However, we found that chromosomes still maintained their position at the spindle equator during metaphase and segregated properly during anaphase when one of their K-fibers was severed near the kinetochore with a laser microbeam. We also found that, in normal fully assembled spindles, K-fibers of some chromosomes did not extend to the spindle pole. These K-fibers connected to adjacent K-fibers and/or nonkinetochore MTs. Poleward movement of chromosomes with short K-fibers was uncoupled from MT depolymerization at the kinetochore. Instead, these chromosomes moved by dynein-mediated transport of the entire K-fiber/kinetochore assembly. Thus, at least two distinct parallel mechanisms drive chromosome segregation in mammalian cells. PMID:25023516

  4. Direct kinetochore-spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Magidson, Valentin; Steinman, Jonathan B; He, Jie; Le Berre, Maël; Tikhonenko, Irina; Ault, Jeffrey G; McEwen, Bruce F; Chen, James K; Sui, Haixin; Piel, Matthieu; Kapoor, Tarun M; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2014-07-21

    Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes' kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled with MT depolymerization. However, we found that chromosomes still maintained their position at the spindle equator during metaphase and segregated properly during anaphase when one of their K-fibers was severed near the kinetochore with a laser microbeam. We also found that, in normal fully assembled spindles, K-fibers of some chromosomes did not extend to the spindle pole. These K-fibers connected to adjacent K-fibers and/or nonkinetochore MTs. Poleward movement of chromosomes with short K-fibers was uncoupled from MT depolymerization at the kinetochore. Instead, these chromosomes moved by dynein-mediated transport of the entire K-fiber/kinetochore assembly. Thus, at least two distinct parallel mechanisms drive chromosome segregation in mammalian cells.

  5. Thermal Error Modelling of the Spindle Using Data Transformation and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for predicting spindle deformation based on temperature data. The method introduces the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS, which is a neurofuzzy modeling approach that integrates the kernel and geometrical transformations. By utilizing data transformation, the number of ANFIS rules can be effectively reduced and the predictive model structure can be simplified. To build the predictive model, we first map the original temperature data to a feature space with Gaussian kernels. We then process the mapped data with the geometrical transformation and make the data gather in the square region. Finally, the transformed data are used as input to train the ANFIS. A verification experiment is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Six Pt100 thermal resistances are used to monitor the spindle temperature, and a laser displacement sensor is used to detect the spindle deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can precisely predict the spindle deformation and greatly improve the thermal performance of the spindle. Compared with back propagation (BP networks, the proposed method is more suitable for complex working conditions in practical applications.

  6. Spindle frequency activity in the sleep EEG: individual differences and topographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, E; Achermann, P; Dijk, D J; Borbély, A A

    1997-11-01

    The brain topography of EEG power spectra in the frequency range of sleep spindles was investigated in 34 sleep recordings from 20 healthy young men. Referential (F3-A2, C3-A2, P3-A2 and O1-A2) and bipolar derivations (F3-C3, C3-P3 and P3-O1) along the anteroposterior axis were used. Sleep spindles gave rise to a distinct peak in the EEG power spectrum. The distribution of the peak frequencies pooled over subjects and derivations showed a bimodal pattern with modes at 11.5 and 13.0 Hz, and a trough at 12.25 Hz. The large inter-subject variation in peak frequency (range: 1.25 Hz) contrasted with the small intra-subject variation between derivations, non-REM sleep episodes and different nights. In some individuals and/or some derivations, only a single spindle peak was present. The topographic distributions from referential and bipolar recordings showed differences. The power showed a declining trend over consecutive non-REM sleep episodes in the low range of spindle frequency activity and a rising trend in the high range. The functional and topographic heterogeneity of sleep spindles in conjunction with the intra-subject stability of their frequency are important characteristics for the analysis of sleep regulation on the basis of the EEG.

  7. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Andrea H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Results Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. Conclusion We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity.

  8. Measurement Research of Motorized Spindle Dynamic Stiffness under High Speed Rotating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed motorized spindle has become a key functional unit of high speed machine tools and effectively promotes the development of machine tool technology. The development of higher speed and more power puts forward the stricter requirement for the performance of motorized spindle, especially the dynamic performance which affects the machining accuracy, reliability, and production efficiency. To overcome the problems of ineffective loading and dynamic performance measurement of motorized spindle, a noncontact electromagnetic loading device is developed. The cutting load can be simulated by using electromagnetic force. A new method of measuring force by force sensors is presented, and the steady and transient loading force could be measured exactly. After the high speed machine spindle is tested, the frequency response curves of the spindle relative to machine table are collected at 0~12000 rpm; then the relationships between stiffness and speeds as well as between damping ratio and speeds are obtained. The result shows that not only the static and dynamic stiffness but also the damping ratio declined with the increase of speed.

  9. Spindle disturbances in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells induced by mobile communication frequency range signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thorsten; Münter, Klaus; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schmid, Ernst

    2008-12-01

    The production of spindle disturbances in FC2 cells, a human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cell line, by non-ionizing radiation was studied using an electromagnetic field with a field strength of 90 V/m at a frequency of 835 MHz. Due to the given experimental conditions slide flask cultures were exposed at room temperature in a microTEM (transversal electromagnetic field) cell, which allows optimal experimental conditions for small samples of biological material. Numerical calculations suggest that specific absorption rates of up to 60 mW/kg are reached for maximum field exposure. All exposure field parameters--either measured or calculable--are precisely defined and, for the first time, traceable to the standards of the SI system of physical units. Compared with co-incident negative controls, the results of two independently performed experiments suggest that exposure periods of time from 0.5 to 2 h with an electric field strength of 90 V/m are spindle acting agents as predominately indicated by the appearance of spindle disturbances at the ana- and telophase stages (especially lagging and non-disjunction of single chromosomes) of cell divisions. The spindle disturbances do not change the fraction of mitotic cells with increasing exposure time up to 2 h. Due to the applied experimental conditions an influence of temperature as a confounder parameter for spindle disturbances can be excluded.

  10. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  12. Method for automated building of spindle thermal model with use of CAE system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The spindle is one of the most important units of the metal-cutting machine tool. Its performance is critical to minimize the machining error, especially the thermal error. Various methods are applied to improve the thermal behaviour of spindle units. One of the most important methods is mathematical modelling based on the finite element analysis. The most common approach for its realization is the use of CAE systems. This approach, however, is not capable to address the number of important effects that need to be taken into consideration for proper simulation. In the present article, the authors propose the solution to overcome these disadvantages using automated thermal model building for the spindle unit utilizing the CAE system ANSYS.

  13. Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling Controls Mitotic Spindle Orientation during Epithelial Morphogenesis and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jingjing; Swiercz, Jakub M.; Bañón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration of epithelial tissues rely on the accurate orientation of cell divisions, which is specified by the mitotic spindle axis. To remain in the epithelial plane, symmetrically dividing epithelial cells align their mitotic spindle axis with the plane. Here, we...... show that this alignment depends on epithelial cell-cell communication via semaphorin-plexin signaling. During kidney morphogenesis and repair, renal tubular epithelial cells lacking the transmembrane receptor Plexin-B2 or its semaphorin ligands fail to correctly orient the mitotic spindle, leading...... to severe defects in epithelial architecture and function. Analyses of a series of transgenic and knockout mice indicate that Plexin-B2 controls the cell division axis by signaling through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Cdc42. Our data uncover semaphorin-plexin signaling as a central...

  14. Modeling and characterization of an electromagnetic system for the estimation of Frequency Response Function of spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlalolini, David; Ritou, Mathieu; Rabréau, Clément; Le Loch, Sébastien; Furet, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents an electromagnetic system that has been developed to measure the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of machine-tool spindle, at different spindle speeds. This system consists in four Pulse Width Modulation amplifiers and four electromagnets to produce magnetic forces of ± 190 N for the static mode and ± 80 N for the dynamic mode up to 5 kHz. In order to measure the Frequency Response Function (FRF) of spindle, the applied force is required, which is a key issue. A dynamic force model is proposed in order to obtain the load from the measured current in the amplifiers. The model depends on the exciting frequency and on the magnetic characteristics of the system. The predicted force at high speed is validated with a specific experiment and the performance limits of the experimental device are investigated. The FRF obtained with the electromagnetic system is compared to a classical tap test measurement.

  15. The Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Sliding Bearing High-Speed Motorized Spindle by Rotor Dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Songsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is paper presents thermohydrodynamic characteristics of high speed motorized spindle sliding bearing rotor system. The dynamic characteristic of the oil film bearing is affected by temperature increment, thereby affecting the high-speed spindle rotor system dynamics. This study applied the hydrodynamic lubrication theory, the influence of temperature on the viscosity of lubricating oil, associated with the bearing stiffness, oil film damping and other performance parameters, is considered in generalized Reynolds equation of oil film bearing. The theoretical model of the sliding bearing rotor system is established by using the transfer matrix method to analyze the dynamic characteristic and verified by experiments. The results show the high temperature environment in the motorized spindle and the friction of the bearing lead to oil temperature rise and viscosity reduction, which influences the bearing capacity, stiffness and damping, hence impact on the critical speeds and modal shapes of the sliding bearing rotor system.

  16. Gas flow through the clearances of screw spindle vacuum pumps; Gasspaltstroemungen in Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Wenderott, D. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen

    1998-12-31

    The documentation `Schraubenmaschinen` deals with the subject `screw spindle vacuum pump` for the first time. Therefore, this paper presents the type of maschine `screw spindle vacuum pump`, fixes its limits to the better known screw type compressor and finally classifies it in the crossover of vacuum-technology, characteristic geometry and the numerical simulation. The suggested reflections to choose a proper model of flow are based on the geometry of the screw spindle vacuum pump and fundamentals concerning the vacuum-technology and the state of flow. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Schriftenreihe `Schraubenmaschinen` behandelt erstmals das Thema `Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpe`. Aus diesem Grund stellt der vorliegende Beitrag den Maschinentyp Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpe vor, grenzt ihn zur bekannteren Schraubenmaschine ab und ordnet ihn in der Schnittmenge aus Vakuumtechnik, charakteristischer Maschinengeometrie und der Simulation ein. Auf den vakuumtechnischen und stroemungstechnischen Grundlagen sowie geometrischen Betrachtungen basieren die genannten Ueberlegungen zur Auswahl geeigneter Stroemungsmodelle. (orig.)

  17. Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular volume after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a devastating disorder with an often poor prognosis. The occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important factors determining outcome in

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central OMIM: JUVENILE POLYPOSIS/HEREDITARY HEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA SYNDROME McDonald J, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pyeritz RE. Hereditary hemorrhagic ... 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3182136d32. Review. Citation on PubMed McDonald J, Wooderchak-Donahue W, VanSant Webb C, Whitehead ...

  19. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  20. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage mimicking an acute scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, O; Mattei, R; Ciardini, E; Centonze, N; Noccioli, B

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-two cases of scrotal hematoma caused by neonatal adrenal hemorrhage are reported in the literature and unnecessary surgical exploration was performed in nine (41%), suspecting testicular torsion. In this paper, we present a newborn male with right adrenal gland hemorrhage causing right scrotal swelling and discoloration of groin managed conservatively.

  1. Primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Miyamoto, Seiji; Kyoi, Kikuo; Utsumi, Shozaburo; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Masuda, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage were studied in terms of the radiological and histological findings. The cases having hemorrhage in the tumor, as established through CT or histologically, were excluded if their onsets were not sudden due to intracranial hemorrhages. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) From an anatomical point of view, cerebral subcortical hemorrhages account for 80%; hemorrhages in the cerebellopontine angle, 10%, and hemorrhages in the basal ganglia, 10%. 2) Plain CT findings showed perifocal low-density areas within 24 hours after onset in all 10 cases. 3) Enhanced CT findings showed enhanced areas in 4 or 6 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 5) From a histological point of view, glioblastomas account for 30%; malignant astrocytomas, 20%; astrocytomas, 20%; malignant ependymomas, 10%; hemangioblastoma, 10%, and transitional meningiomas, 10%. In conclusion, a perifocal low-density area on CT within 24 hours after onset is the most meaningful indication of intracranial hemorrhage originating from a brain tumor. A histological 'perinuclear halo' in an astrocytoma as an artifact due to hemorrhage may often be misleading in diagnosing mixed oligo-astrocytomas. (author)

  2. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. In newborns, adrenal hemorrhage is not an uncommon event. The large size of the adrenal cortex contributes to an increased vulnerability to trauma during a difficult delivery [1]. However, the neonatal adrenal hemorrhage may rarely present as inguinoscrotal swelling [2,3]. This condition can simulate torsion of ...

  3. Detecting fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Berkowicz, Adela

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry.......The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry....

  4. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  5. Recurrent Bleeding After Perimesencephalic Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-12-01

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only 1 well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. We describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. To validate the radiologic findings, we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and 2 neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had 2 episodes after the onset headache with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CT scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on 2 subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, the prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocephalus associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosaka, Yoshiki

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients exhibited a communicating hydrocephalus following subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms and were treated with shunt procedures. The interval between subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery averaged 9 weeks. Seven of the patients showed improvement. The prognostic value for surgical management was evaluated on the basis of three different diagnostic examinations (computed tomography (CT), cisternography and constant infusion test). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 78 per cent in cisternography, and 63 per cent in infusion test and CT. All patients responding to surgery showed a typical pattern in cisternography, consisting of ventricular retention of radiopharmaceutical tracer for 48 h or longer in association with no radioactivity over the cerebral hemispheres. The constant infusion test correlated well with typical cisternographic patterns. CT is useful in demonstrating pathophysiological changes in hydrocephalus. Periventricular hypodensity was visible in patients with normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, accompanied by fairly rapid deterioration. All of them responded well to shunting. In most cases which benefited from the shunt, the postoperative CT showed not only normal-sized ventricles but also marked regression of the hypodensity over a short period. (author)

  7. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  8. Medulla Oblongata Hemorrhage and Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeske, Kevin T; Sarano, Maurice E; Fugate, Jennifer E; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-12-19

    Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. There was full recovery after 7 days. Detailed case report. Hemorrhage into medulla oblongata pressor centers may result in acute, reversible, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, affirming the adrenergic origin of this condition.

  9. Neck and scleral hemorrhage in drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Russell T; Jentzen, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the cause and manner of death for a body recovered from the water can be difficult because of a lack of autopsy findings specific for drowning. This case report describes a 30-year-old man found submerged at the bottom of a hotel pool. An autopsy revealed scleral hemorrhages and fascial hemorrhages of multiple muscles of the anterior and posterior neck bilaterally. No evidence of traumatic injury was on the surface of the body. An investigation by law enforcement found no evidence of foul play. The occurrence of petechial and neck hemorrhage in a body recovered from the water is controversial, and a review of this literature will be given. We suggest that fascial hemorrhages of the muscles of the neck, as well as cephalic hemorrhages, can be explained by drowning-related elevated central venous pressure that is communicated to the head through the valveless veins of the neck. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. A case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Hosotani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage in young women is caused by the high frequency of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian bleeding. Here, we describe a case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage, which is a rare cause of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was suspected in a 38-year-old Japanese woman based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Her last menstrual period was 23 days prior, and ovarian bleeding was considered based on bloody ascites revealed by culdocentesis. She underwent emergency surgery for hypovolemic shock. Although both ovaries were of normal size and no abnormal findings were observed, we performed a partial omentectomy because multiple clots were attached only to the greater omentum. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred, and she was discharged 11 days after the surgery. Because she did not have a clear history of trauma and underlying disease, idiopathic omental hemorrhage was diagnosed.

  11. A case of traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Yamakawa, Kazuomi; Nakazawa, Shozo.

    1980-01-01

    CT scan is recognized to be a rapid, noninvasive and informative examination in evaluation of the head injured patient. It is also possible to evaluate the presence of the intracerebral hematoma without remarkable mass effect, cerebral contusion, associated cerebral edema and ventricular hemorrhage. We present a case of traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage. The patient was a 40-year-old male admitted to our hospital in a drowsy state following a fall from about one meter high. Craniogram showed a linear fracture in the left parietotemporal regions. In the CT scan, intraventricular hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage without intracerebral hematoma was shown. A symmetrical moderate dilatation of both lateral ventricles was also shown. Cerebral angiography revealed no abnormality. His condition deteriorated progressively, so ventricular drainage was performed, but he expired 5 days later. Considering this case, the mechanisms of pure intraventricular hemorrhage following head injury were discussed. (author)

  12. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  13. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE→TC→Cortex. Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 →TC 1 →Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 →Cortex 2 →Cortex 3

  14. Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Spindle pada Retrofit Mesin Bubut CNC Menggunakan Kontroler PID Gain Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikri Yoga Permana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada mesin bubut Computerized Numerical Control (CNC, proses pemahatan benda kerja memerlukan kecepatan potong yang tetap agar hasil kerja memiliki tingkat presisi tinggi. Dalam prakteknya, ketika terjadi pemotongan, diameter benda kerja akan selalu berkurang dan tingkat kedalaman pahat berubah-ubah sesuai dengan proses yang dilakukan sehingga mempengaruhi kecepatan putar motor spindle sehingga mengakibatkan tingkat presisi hasil kerja menjadi berkurang. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan kontroler PI Gain Scheduling untuk mengatur kecapatan motor spindle. Hasil yang didapatkan berupa simulasi kontroler PI Gain Scheduling. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan kontroler PI Gain Scheduling mampu membuat respon sistem sesuai dengan yang diinginkan.

  15. In-situ hot corrosion testing of candidate materials for exhaust valve spindles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Hoeg, Harro A.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2011-01-01

    The two stroke diesel engine has been continually optimized since its invention more than a century ago. One of the ways to increase fuel efficiency further is to increase the compression ratio, and thereby the temperature in the combustion chamber. Because of this, and the composition of the fuel...... used, exhaust valve spindles in marine diesel engines are subjected to high temperatures and stresses as well as molten salt induced corrosion. To investigate candidate materials for future designs which will involve the HIP process, a spindle with Ni superalloy material samples inserted in a HIPd Ni49...

  16. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been...

  18. Sequential activities of Dynein, Mud and Asp in centrosome-spindle coupling maintain centrosome number upon mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosveld, Floris; Ainslie, Anna; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2017-10-15

    Centrosomes nucleate microtubules and are tightly coupled to the bipolar spindle to ensure genome integrity, cell division orientation and centrosome segregation. While the mechanisms of centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation and bipolar spindle assembly have been the focus of numerous works, less is known about the mechanisms ensuring the centrosome-spindle coupling. The conserved NuMA protein (Mud in Drosophila ) is best known for its role in spindle orientation. Here, we analyzed the role of Mud and two of its interactors, Asp and Dynein, in the regulation of centrosome numbers in Drosophila epithelial cells. We found that Dynein and Mud mainly initiate centrosome-spindle coupling prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) by promoting correct centrosome positioning or separation, while Asp acts largely independently of Dynein and Mud to maintain centrosome-spindle coupling. Failure in the centrosome-spindle coupling leads to mis-segregation of the two centrosomes into one daughter cell, resulting in cells with supernumerary centrosomes during subsequent divisions. Altogether, we propose that Dynein, Mud and Asp operate sequentially during the cell cycle to ensure efficient centrosome-spindle coupling in mitosis, thereby preventing centrosome mis-segregation to maintain centrosome number. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The Effect of the Rotor Static Eccentricity on the Electro-Mechanical Coupled Characteristics of the Motorized Spindle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zaixin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed motorized spindle is a multi-variable, non-linear and strong coupling system. The rotor static eccentricity is inevitable because of machining or assembling error. The rotor static eccentricities have an important effect on the electromechanical coupled characteristics of the motorized spindle. In this paper, the electromechanical coupled mathematical model of the motorized spindle was set up. The mathematical model includes mechanical and electrical equation. The mechanical and electrical equation is built up by the variational principle. Furthermore, the inductance parameters without the rotor static eccentricity and the inductance parameters with rotor static eccentricity have been calculated by the winding function method and the high speed motorized spindle was simulated. The result show that the rotor static eccentricity can delay the starting process of the motorized spindle, and at steady state, the rotor circuit currents are still large because of the rotor static eccentricity.

  20. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal(s) by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g., Fourier transform-based approaches) which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g., more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment). This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means toward probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz) is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts' sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%), outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts' assessment of detected spindles.

  1. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eTsanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG signal(s by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g. Fourier transform-based approaches which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g. more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment. This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means towards probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts’ sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%, outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts’ assessment of detected spindles.

  2. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ecer Menteş

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants were elevated and blood coagulation tests were in normal range. Hepatit A,B,C and TORCH markers were negative. Punch biopsy obtained from gluteal area showed leukositoclastic vasculity. Focal fibrinogen accumulation was detected by immun fluorescent microscopy. Regression on lesions was not observed despite supportive therapy, so prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day therapy was started. On the third day of the steroid therapy, complete recovery was achived.

  3. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carette, Marie-France; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  4. Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, N; Macdonald, R L

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects people with a mean age of 55 years. Although there are about 9/100 000 cases per year worldwide, the young age and high morbidity and mortality lead to loss of many years of productive life. Intracranial aneurysms account for 85% of cases. Despite this, the majority of survivors of aneurysmal SAH have cognitive deficits, mood disorders, fatigue, inability to return to work, and executive dysfunction and are often unable to return to their premorbid level of functioning. The main proven interventions to improve outcome are aneurysm repair in a timely fashion by endovascular coiling rather than neurosurgical clipping when feasible and administration of nimodipine. Management also probably is optimized by neurologic intensive care units and multidisciplinary teams. Improved diagnosis, early aneurysm repair, administration of nimodipine, and advanced neurointensive care support may be responsible for improvement in survival from SAH in the last few decades. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)

  6. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-03-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author).

  7. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emadi Koochak H

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was first described in the Crimea in 1944 and then in 1956 in congo. CCHF is a viral hemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group that belongs to Bunyaviridae family virus. It is transmitted to human by tick bite. The most efficient and common tick that is the vectors of CCHF is a member of the Hyalomma genus which infected many mammals such as livestock, this tick is the main reservoire of virus in nature. Humans also become infected with CCHF virus by direct contact with blood or other infected tissues from livestock or human patients (nosocomial infection. Disease has been found in saharic Africa, Eastern Europe, Pakistan, India and Middle East (specially Iran and Iraq. This disease recently spread in Iran so in 1999 to 2001 at least 222 suspected case(81 definite case reported that led to the death of 15 of 81 cases. It is estimated that 30 percent of the country's cattle are contaminated with this virus."nIn humans, after a short incubation period it appears suddenly with fever, chills, myalgia and GI symptoms followed by severe bleeding and DIC that led to death .If the patient improved, has a long {2-4 weeks convalescence period. Disease diagnosed by clinical manifestations, serologic tests, viral culture and PCR and its specific treatment is oral ribavirin for 10 days, for prevention of disease personal protective measures from tick bite, spraying poison of mews to reduce of ticks crowd, isolation of patients and dis-infection of contaminated personal equipments that who suffering from CCHF is recommended.

  8. Hemodynamics in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The author in an attempt to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the clinical stages of Korean hemorrhagic fever measured plasma volume, cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow utilizing radioisoto as during various phases of the disease. Cardiac output was measured by radiocardiography with external monitoring method using RIHSA. Effective renal plasma flow was obtained from blood clearance curve drawn by external monitoring after radiohippuran injection according to the method described by Razzak et al. The study was carried out in thirty-eight cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) Plasma volume was increased in the patients during the oliguric and hypertensive-diuretic phases, while it was normal in the patients during the normotensive-diuretic phase. 2) Cardiac index was increased in the patients during the oliguric phase and was slightly increased in the patients at the hypertensive diuretic phase. It was normal in the other phases. 3) Total peripheral resistance was increased in the hypertensive patients during diuretic phase, while it was normal in the rest of phases. 4) Effective renal plasma flow was significantly reduced in the patients during the oliguric and diuretic phases as well as at one month after the oliguric onset. There was no significant difference between the oliguric and the early diuretic phases. Renal plasma flow in the group of patients at one month after the oliguric onset was about 45% of the normal, however, it returned to normal level at six months after the onset. 5) Clinical syndrome of relative hypervolemia was observed in some patients during the oliguric phase or hypertensive diuretic phase. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were high cardiac output and normal to relatively increased peripheral resistance these cases. Relatively increased circulating blood volumes due to decreased effective vascular space was suggested for the mechanism of relative hypervolemia. 6) Cardiac

  9. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  10. Evaluation of computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seon Young; Lee, Young Sik; Suh, Jeong Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of computed tomography, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult. C.T. scanning is an invaluable investigation providing the rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. It reliably demonstrates the presence and distribution of fresh blood within the ventricular system. C.T. is also useful as a surgical guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematoma by easily performable follow-up studies. We reviewed 31 cases of intraventricular hemorrhage in C.T. in the department of radiology of Ewha Womans University Hospital during the period from August, 1982 to August, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The most patients were encountered in the 5th decade and the male to female ratio was 1.2 : 1. 2. Hypertension was the main cause of the intraventricular hemorrhage; 18 out of 31 patients. Remaining 13 patients were caused by hypoxia, aneurysm, Moya Moya disease, coagulation defect, trauma and undetermined etiology. 3. 18 out of 31 patients showed hemorrhage in the lateral ventricles only and all ventricles in 10 patients. 4. 28 out of 31 patients showed associated with intracranial hematoma; Those were intracerebral hematomas in 16 patients, intracerebral hematoma with subarachnoid hemorrhage in 4 patients and extracerebral hematoma in 2 patients. 5. Outcome was assessed using the Glasgow scale. According to them, the total mortality rates was 54.8%, however, 32.3% of patients returned to normal or minor disability. Patients, who had hypertension and marked degree of hemorrhage in the ventricular systems had a poor outcome. Patients with only ventricular hemorrhage had better outcome than associated intracranial hematoma. 6. 16 out of 31 patients were treated by surgical methods and 15 out of 31 patients by conservative methods. 75% of patients were died in conservative treatment. 7. Conclusively, causes, degree of intraventricular

  11. Interplay between microtubule bundling and sorting factors ensures acentriolar spindle stability during C. elegans oocyte meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Mullen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following KLP-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array. Surprisingly, despite this defect we found that during anaphase, microtubules are able to reorganize into a bundled array that facilitates chromosome segregation. This phenotype therefore enabled us to identify factors promoting microtubule organization during anaphase, whose contributions are normally undetectable in wild-type worms; we found that SPD-1 (PRC1 bundles microtubules and KLP-18 (kinesin-12 likely sorts those bundles into a functional orientation capable of mediating chromosome segregation. Therefore, our studies have revealed an interplay between distinct mechanisms that together promote spindle formation and chromosome segregation in the absence of structural cues such as centrioles.

  12. Abnormal spindles in second meiosis in canola (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the occurrence of abnormal spindles in the second meiotic division in some canola cultivars recently introduced in Brazil. Fusion of spindles was observed in metaphase II rejoining the two sets of chromosomes segregated in anaphase I and also sequential and tripolar spindles were discovered rejoining two sets of chromatids segregated in anaphase II. The frequency of cells with abnormal spindles ranged from 3.18 to 8.10%. The results suggested that this abnormality was caused by environmental stress that affected the plants during the blooming period.O presente estudo descreve a ocorrência de fusos anormais na segunda divisão meiótica em algumas cultivares da canola recentemente introduzidas no Brasil. Fusão de fusos foi observada em metáfase II reunindo os dois conjuntos cromossômicos segregados na anáfase I; fusos sequenciais e tripolares reunindo cromátides segregadas na anáfase II também foram observados. A frequência de células com fusos anormais variou de 3,18 a 8,10% entre as variedades. Os resultados sugerem que estas anormalidades foram causadas por condições climáticas adversas que afetaram as plantas no período de florescimento. As implicações genéticas destas anormalidades são descritas.

  13. FUSIMOTOR EFFECTS OF MIDBRAIN STIMULATION ON JAW MUSCLE-SPINDLES OF THE ANESTHETIZED CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAYLOR, A; JUCH, PJW

    The effects of electrical stimulation within the midbrain on fusimotor output to the jaw elevator muscles were studied in anaesthetized cats. Muscle spindle afferents recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were categorised as primary or secondary by their responses to succinylcholine

  14. Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quyn, A.J.; Appleton, P.L.; Carey, F.A.; Steele, R.J.; Barker, N.; Clevers, H.; Ridgway, R.A.; Sansom, O.J.; Nathke, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of asymmetric divisions for stem cell function and maintenance is well established in the developing nervous system and the skin; however, its role in gut epithelium and its importance for tumorigenesis is still debated. We demonstrate alignment of mitotic spindles perpendicular to

  15. Muscle spindles in elongation of the extremity: proprioceptive conflict or activity deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, V I; Saifutdinov, M S; Chikorina, N K

    2008-07-01

    Comparison of electrophysiological and morphological parameters of shin muscles of experimental animals during shin elongation by Ilizarov's method indicates involvement of muscle spindles into reconstruction of the skeletal muscular tissue in response to its dosed distraction, which results in temporary deficit of specific somatosensory afferentation.

  16. TFG-MET fusion in an infantile spindle cell sarcoma with neural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flucke, Uta; van Noesel, Max M; Wijnen, Marc; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Sung, Yun-Shao; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of congenital and infantile sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been characterized to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we report an unusual spindle cell sarcoma presenting as a large and infiltrative pelvic soft tissue mass in a 4-month-old girl, which revealed a novel TFG-MET gene fusion by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing. The tumor resembled the morphology of an infantile fibrosarcoma with both fascicular and patternless growth, however, it expressed strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, while lacking SOX10 staining and retaining H3K27me3 expression. Although this immunoprofile suggested partial neural/neuroectodermal differentiation, overall features were unusual and did not fit into any known tumor types (cellular schwannoma, MPNST), raising the possibility of a novel pathologic entity. The TFG-MET gene fusion expands the genetic spectrum implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital spindle cell sarcomas, with yet another example of kinase oncogenic activation through chromosomal translocation. The discovery of this new fusion is significant since the resulting MET activation can potentially be inhibited by targeted therapy, as MET inhibitors are presently available in clinical trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phosphatase-regulated recruitment of the spindle- and kinetochore-associated (Ska complex to kinetochores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Sivakumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinetochores move chromosomes on dynamic spindle microtubules and regulate signaling of the spindle checkpoint. The spindle- and kinetochore-associated (Ska complex, a hexamer composed of two copies of Ska1, Ska2 and Ska3, has been implicated in both roles. Phosphorylation of kinetochore components by the well-studied mitotic kinases Cdk1, Aurora B, Plk1, Mps1, and Bub1 regulate chromosome movement and checkpoint signaling. Roles for the opposing phosphatases are more poorly defined. Recently, we showed that the C terminus of Ska1 recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 to kinetochores. Here we show that PP1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A both promote accumulation of Ska at kinetochores. Depletion of PP1 or PP2A by siRNA reduces Ska binding at kinetochores, impairs alignment of chromosomes to the spindle midplane, and causes metaphase delay or arrest, phenotypes that are also seen after depletion of Ska. Artificial tethering of PP1 to the outer kinetochore protein Nuf2 promotes Ska recruitment to kinetochores, and it reduces but does not fully rescue chromosome alignment and metaphase arrest defects seen after Ska depletion. We propose that Ska has multiple functions in promoting mitotic progression and that kinetochore-associated phosphatases function in a positive feedback cycle to reinforce Ska complex accumulation at kinetochores.

  18. Pacemaker activity in a sensory ending with multiple encoding sites : The cat muscle spindle primary ending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banks, RW; Hulliger, M; Scheepstra, KA; Otten, E

    1997-01-01

    1. A combined physiological, histological and computer modelling study was carried out on muscle spindles of the cat tenuissimus muscle to examine whether there was any correlation between the functional interaction of putative encoding sites, operated separately by static and dynamic fusimotor

  19. Spindle trees (Euonymus japonica Thunb.) growing in a polluted environment are less sensitive to gamma irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kim, J. K.; Cha, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2013), s. 233-243 ISSN 2322-3243 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Spindle tree * oxidative stress * ionizing radiation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://www.ijrr.com/browse.php?a_code=A-10-1-478&slc_lang=en&sid=1

  20. A SUMOylation Motif in Aurora-A: Implications for Spindle Dynamics and Oncogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez de Castro, Ignacio; Aguirre-Portolés, Cristina [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Benedicte [CNRS-UMR 6061, Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, IFR 140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, Université Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Fernández-Miranda, Gonzalo [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Klotzbucher, Andrea; Kubbutat, Michael H. G. [ProQinase GmBH, Freiburg (Germany); Megías, Diego [Confocal Microscopy Core Unit, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick [CNRS-UMR 6061, Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, IFR 140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, Université Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Malumbres, Marcos, E-mail: mmm@cnio.es, E-mail: iperez@cnio.es [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-14

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in centrosome maturation, spindle dynamics, and chromosome orientation and it is frequently over-expressed in human cancers. In this work, we show that Aurora-A interacts with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 and co-localizes with SUMO1 in mitotic cells. Aurora-A can be SUMOylated in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of the highly conserved SUMOylation residue lysine 249 significantly disrupts Aurora-A SUMOylation and mitotic defects characterized by defective and multipolar spindles ensue. The Aurora-A{sup K249R} mutant has normal kinase activity but displays altered dynamics at the mitotic spindle. In addition, ectopic expression of the Aurora-A{sup K249R} mutant results in a significant increase in susceptibility to malignant transformation induced by the Ras oncogene. These data suggest that modification by SUMO residues may control Aurora-A function at the spindle and that deficiency of SUMOylation of this kinase may have important implications for tumor development.

  1. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  2. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  3. Spontaneous muscle hematomas in a patient with Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jency Maria Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and Dengue shock syndrome manifest in various forms, ranging from petechial skin hemorrhage to life threatening cerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhages. However it is very rare to have muscle hematomas in DHF. We report a rare case of spontaneous Iliopsoas hematoma complicating Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  4. Imaging features of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage; Roentgenmorphologie von diffusen Lungenhaemorrhagien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, M.; Vogel, W.; Horger, M.

    2006-09-15

    There are diverse etiologies of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, so specific diagnosis may be difficult. Conventional radiography tends to be misleading as hemoptysis may lacking in patients with hemorrhagic anemia. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be differentiated from focal pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, active infection (tuberculosis) neoplasia, trauma, or embolism. (orig.)

  5. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm with fundal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kida, Shinya; Nitta, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Shinjiro

    1985-01-01

    CT scan and fundus oculi of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm were investigated in 42 patients who were admitted between January, 1980, and August, 1984. Fundal hemorrhage (FH) was observed in 22 patients. The patients with FH showed a worse clinical grade (Hunt Kosnik) on admission than those without FH. The mortality rate of patients with FH was 64 %, much higher than the 5 % rate of those without FH. Moreover, the patients with FH showed more trouble in daily living than those without FH. CT scans of patients with FH usually showed severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), whereas those of patients without FH showed only mild hemorrhage. These findings suggest that fundal hemorrhage is caused by acute intracranial hypertension following subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. However, no significant correlation between the laterality of FH and the hemispheric dominancy of SAH could be demonstrated. (author)

  6. Contribution of placenta accreta to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S

    2015-04-01

    To quantify the contribution of placenta accreta to the rate of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. All hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) for the years 2009 and 2010 (N=570,637) were included in a retrospective cohort study using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Placenta accreta included placental adhesion to the uterine wall, musculature, and surrounding organs (accreta, increta, or percreta). Severe postpartum hemorrhage included postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion, hysterectomy, or other procedures to control bleeding (including uterine suturing and ligation or embolization of pelvic arteries). Rates, rate ratios, population-attributable fractions (ie, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage attributable to placenta accreta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between placenta accreta and risk factors. The incidence of placenta accreta was 14.4 (95% CI 13.4-15.4) per 10,000 deliveries (819 cases among 570,637 deliveries), whereas the incidence of placenta accreta with postpartum hemorrhage was 7.2 (95% CI 6.5-8.0) per 10,000 deliveries. Postpartum hemorrhage among women with placenta accreta was predominantly third-stage hemorrhage (41% of all cases). Although placenta accreta was strongly associated with postpartum hemorrhage (rate ratio 8.3, 95% CI 7.7-8.9), its low frequency resulted in a small population-attributable fraction (1.0%, 95% CI 0.93-1.16). However, the strong association between placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy (rate ratio 286, 95% CI 226-361) resulted in a population-attributable fraction of 29.0% (95% CI 24.3-34.3). Placenta accreta is too infrequent to account for the recent temporal increase in postpartum hemorrhage but contributes substantially to the proportion of postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy.

  7. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. PMID:27030764

  8. Combining time-frequency and spatial information for the detection of sleep spindles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindles are short (0.5-2.0 s bursts of activity in the 11-16 Hz band occurring during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. This sporadic activity is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, brain plasticity, and protection of sleep integrity. Many automatic detectors have been proposed to assist or replace experts for sleep spindle scoring. However, these algorithms usually detect too many events making it difficult to achieve a good tradeoff between sensitivity (Se and false detection rate (FDr. In this work, we propose a semi-automatic detector comprising a sensitivity phase based on well-established criteria followed by a specificity phase using spatial and spectral criteria.In the sensitivity phase, selected events are those which amplitude in the 10 – 16 Hz band and spectral ratio characteristics both reject a null hypothesis (p <0.1 stating that the considered event is not a spindle. This null hypothesis is constructed from events occurring during rapid eye movement (REM sleep epochs. In the specificity phase, a hierarchical clustering of the selected candidates is done based on events’ frequency and spatial position along the anterior-posterior axis. Only events from the classes grouping most (at least 80% spindles scored by an expert are kept. We obtain Se = 93.2% and FDr = 93.0% in the first phase and Se = 85.4% and FDr = 86.2% in the second phase. For these two phases, Matthew’s correlation coefficients are respectively 0.228 and 0.324. Results suggest that spindles are defined by specific spatio-spectral properties and that automatic detection methods can be improved by considering these features.

  9. The role of p53 in the response to mitotic spindle damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein has defined roles in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in response to a range of cellular stresses including DNA damage, dominant oncogene expression, hypoxia, metabolic changes and viral infection. In addition to these responses, p53 can also be activated when damage occurs to the mitotic spindle. Initially, spindle damage activates a p53-independent checkpoint which functions at the metaphase-anaphase transition and prevents cells from progressing through mitosis until the completion of spindle formation. Cells eventually escape from this block (a process termed 'mitotic slippage'), and an aberrant mitosis ensues in which sister chromatids fail to segregate properly. After a delay period, p53 responds to this mitotic failure by instituting a G1-like growth arrest, with an intact nucleus containing 4N DNA, but without the cells undergoing division. Cells lacking wild-type p53 are still able to arrest transiently at mitosis, and also fail to undergo division, underscoring that the delay in mitosis is p53-independent. However, these cells are not prevented from re-entering the cell cycle and can reduplicate their DNA unchecked, leading to polyploidy. Additionally, p53-null cells which experience spindle failure often show the appearance of micronuclei arising from poorly segregated chromosomes which have de-condensed and been enclosed in a nuclear envelope. The ability of p53 to prevent their formation suggests an additional G2 involvement which prevents nuclear breakdown prior to mitosis. The molecular mechanism by which p53 is able to sense mitotic failure is still unknown, but may be linked to the ability of p53 to regulate duplication of the centrosome, the organelle which nucleates spindle formation. (authors)

  10. Experimental Analysis and Full Prediction Model of a 5-DOF Motorized Spindle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost and power consumption of DC power amplifiers are much greater than that of AC power converters. Compared to a motorized spindle supported with DC magnetic bearings, a motorized spindle supported with AC magnetic bearings is inexpensive and more efficient. This paper studies a five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF motorized spindle supported with AC hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs. Most models of suspension forces, except a “switching model”, are quite accurate, but only in a particular operating area and not in regional coverage. If a “switching model” is applied to a 5-DOF motorized spindle, the real-time performance of the control system can be significantly decreased due to the large amount of data processing for both displacement and current. In order to solve this defect, experiments based on the “switching model” are performed, and the resulting data are analyzed. Using the data analysis results, a “full prediction model” based on the operating state is proposed to improve real-time performance and precision. Finally, comparative, verification and stiffness tests are conducted to verify the improvement of the proposed model. Results of the tests indicate that the rotor has excellent characteristics, such as good real-time performance, superior anti-interference performance with load and the accuracy of the model in full zone. The satisfactory experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the “full prediction model” applied to the control system under different operating stages. Therefore, the results of the experimental analysis and the proposed full prediction model can provide a control system of a 5-DOF motorized spindle with the most suitable mathematical models of the suspension force.

  11. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  12. Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGerminal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is the most common variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and is characteristics of the premature infant. The importance of the lesion relates not only to its high incidence but to their attendant complications (IC: hydrocephalus. Brain sonography is the procedure of choice in diagnosis of germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study we have used brain sonography for detection of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and their incidences. The studied population was consisted of premature neonate (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks who admitted in Mofid Hospital NICU (Tehran, Iran during a one year period. For all neonate (including criteria brain sonography in first week of life was done and in presence of IVH, serial Brain sonography was done weekly for detection of hydrocephalus. A total of 57 neonate entered the study. Intraventicular-germinal matrix hemorrhage was seen in 64.4% (35 patients. Forty percent of patients with intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage had grade I, 11% grade II, 25.7% grade III, 2.8% grade VI. Hydrocephalus was detected in 20 percent of patients who had intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage. That incidence of IVH in our study in comparison with other area and situation is higher. Hydrocephaly had direct relation with severity of IVH. This shows that with control of risk factor of IVH, we can control Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

  13. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy after Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Francis, Andrew W; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female subject after lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery that was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately after witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal, and subretinal involvement. At 4-month follow-up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy after lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted after episodes of seizure in adults.

  14. Intracerebral hemorrhage complicating viral hepatitis A | Belfquih ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HVA IgM. Eight 8 weeks after, she developed hemorrhagic syndrome coupled with fever associated and persistent jaundice. The blood count showed aregenerative pancytopenia secondary to aplastic anemia confirmed by bone marrow biopsy.

  15. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care includes careful management of the patient’s fluid (hydration) and electrolyte (e.g., sodium, potassium, chloride) levels, ... TG, Peters CJ. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1997;8(Suppl 1):64-73 . ...

  16. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...

  17. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  18. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  19. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.

  20. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  1. Potentialities of embolization of life threatening hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvichev, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author analysed experience in the embolization of the abdominal vessels in 79 patients with diseases and lesions of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by life threatening hemorrhage. In 51 cases embolization was used as an independent method of hemorrhage arrest and in 28 cases for patients' preoperative preparation. A hemostatic sponge combined with a superselective administration of 150-200 ml of aminocaproic acid was used as an emboilizing material. Complications attributed to embolization were noted in 5 patients: pancreatitis, subdiaphragmatic abscess, paranephritis, ischemia of the gluteal soft tissues, sciatic neuritis. An analysis has shown that urgent embolization of the abdominal vessels in diseases and lesions of the organs of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by massive hemorrhage, can be used as an independent method for hemorrhage arrest

  2. How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids and red blood cells (RBC) in the early phase, and plasma and platelets...... in the late phase. With the introduction of the cell-based model of hemostasis in the mid 1990ties, our understanding of the hemostatic process and of coagulopathy has improved. This has contributed to a change in resuscitation strategy and transfusion therapy of massive hemorrhage along with an acceptance...... outcome, although final evidence on outcome from randomized controlled trials are lacking. We here present how we in Copenhagen and Houston, today, manage patients with massive hemorrhage....

  3. Dynamic maintenance of asymmetric meiotic spindle position through Arp2/3 complex-driven cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Unruh, Jay R.; Deng, Manqi; Slaughter, Brian D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Mature mammalian oocytes are poised for the completion of second polar body extrusion upon fertilization by positioning the metaphase spindle in close proximity to an actomyosin-rich cortical cap. Loss of this spindle position asymmetry is often associated with poor oocyte quality and infertility 1–3. Here, we report a novel role for the Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex in the maintenance of asymmetric spindle position in mature mouse oocytes. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to the cortical cap in a Ran GTPase-dependent manner and accounts for the nucleation of the majority of actin filaments in both the cortical cap and a cytoplasmic actin network. Inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity or localization leads to rapid dissociation of the spindle from the cortex. High resolution live imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis reveal that in normal oocytes actin filaments flow continuously away from the Arp2/3-rich cortex, generating a cytoplamic streaming that results in a net pushing force on the spindle toward the actomyosin cap. Arp2/3 inhibition not only diminishes this actin flow and cytoplamic streaming but also enables a reverse streaming driven by myosin-II-based cortical contraction, leading to spindle movement away from the cortex. We conclude that the Arp2/3 complex maintains asymmetric meiotic spindle position by generating an actin polymerization-driven cytoplamic streaming and by suppressing a counteracting force from myosin-II-based contractility. PMID:21874009

  4. The function of the sleep spindle: a physiological index of intelligence and a mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart M; Smith, Carlyle T

    2011-04-01

    Until recently, the electrophysiological mechanisms involved in strengthening new memories into a more permanent form during sleep have been largely unknown. The sleep spindle is an event in the electroencephalogram (EEG) characterizing Stage 2 sleep. Sleep spindles may reflect, at the electrophysiological level, an ideal mechanism for inducing long-term synaptic changes in the neocortex. Recent evidence suggests the spindle is highly correlated with tests of intellectual ability (e.g.; IQ tests) and may serve as a physiological index of intelligence. Further, spindles increase in number and duration in sleep following new learning and are correlated with performance improvements. Spindle density and sigma (14-16Hz) spectral power have been found to be positively correlated with performance following a daytime nap, and animal studies suggest the spindle is involved in a hippocampal-neocortical dialogue necessary for memory consolidation. The findings reviewed here collectively provide a compelling body of evidence that the function of the sleep spindle is related to intellectual ability and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc; Marquette, Gerald P; Varin, Jocelyne; Champagne, Josette; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version for term breech singleton fetuses and to identify risk factors involved with this complication. A prospective observational study was performed including all patients undergoing a trial of external cephalic version for a breech presentation of at least 36 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2001 in our center. A search for fetal erythrocytes using the standard Kleihauer-Betke test was obtained before and after each external cephalic version. The frequency and volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage were calculated. Putative risk factors for fetomaternal hemorrhage were evaluated by chi(2) test and Mann-Whitney U test. A Kleihauer-Betke test result was available before and after 1,311 trials of external cephalic version. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive in 67 (5.1%) before the procedure. Of the 1,244 women with a negative Kleihauer-Betke test before external cephalic version, 30 (2.4%) had a positive Kleihauer-Betke test after the procedure. Ten (0.8%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 1 mL, and one (0.08%) had an estimated fetomaternal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL. The risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage was not influenced by parity, gestational age, body mass index, number of attempts at version, placental location, or amniotic fluid index. The risk of detectable fetomaternal hemorrhage during external cephalic version was 2.4%, with fetomaternal hemorrhage more than 30 mL in less than 0.1% of cases. These data suggest that the performance of a Kleihauer-Betke test is unwarranted in uneventful external cephalic version and that in Rh-negative women, no further Rh immune globulin is necessary other than the routine 300-microgram dose at 28 weeks of gestation and postpartum. II.

  6. Treatment for Supra-tentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    長島, 梧郎; 藤本, 司; 鈴木, 龍太; 浅井, 潤一郎; 松永, 篤子; 張, 智為; 永井, 美穂; Goro, NAGASHIMA; Tsukasa, FUJIMOTO; Ryuta, SUZUKI; Jun-ichiro, ASAI; Atsuko, MATSUNAGA; Tomoo, CHANG; Miho, NAGAI; 昭和大学藤が丘病院脳神経外科

    2002-01-01

    Only vague guidelines exist for the surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the indications for surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage and compared the outcomes of computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration with those after hematoma removal under craniotomy. Our indications for CT-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration were an age < 80 years old, a hematoma volume ≧ 10 ml, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≦ 14. Those for hemat...

  7. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  8. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.; Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI

    1988-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography. (orig.)

  9. A Case of Rivaroxaban Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chin-Yu Lo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is a newer anticoagulant initially approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Rivaroxaban has several characteristics that are more favorable than warfarin. One of the characteristics is decreased risk of hemorrhage. We report one of the first case reports of severe intracranial hemorrhage associated with rivaroxaban in an elderly patient with decreased renal function. We aim to alert emergency medicine providers regarding the likelihood of encountering these patient as newer anticoagulants rise in popularity.

  10. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  11. PATHOGENESIS OF HEMORRHAGIC DUE TO DENGUE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a viral disease that is mediated by a mosquito, which causes morbidity and mortality. Viruses can increase vascular permeability which can lead to hemorrhagic diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. In Indonesia, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by dengue virus infection which was found to be endemic accompanied by an explosion of extraordinary events that appear at various specified period. The diagnosis of dengue is determined based on the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1999, which are sudden high fever accompanied by a marked tendency to hemorrhage positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, mucosal hemorrhagic, hematemesis or melena and thrombocytopenia. The problem that still exists today is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with varying degrees of dengue involving levels of vWF (von Willebrand factor and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 can not be explained. The mechanism of hemorrhagic in dengue virus infections acquired as a result of thrombocytopenia, platelet disfunction decreased coagulation factors, vasculopathy with endothelial injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.

  12. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  13. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Time-frequency dynamics during sleep spindles on the EEG in rodents with a genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy (WAG/Rij rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Sitnikova, Evgenija Y.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Khramova, Marina V.

    2015-03-01

    Sleep spindles are known to appear spontaneously in the thalamocortical neuronal network of the brain during slow-wave sleep; pathological processes in the thalamocortical network may be the reason of the absence epilepsy. The aim of the present work is to study developed changes in the time-frequency structure of sleep spindles during the progressive development of the absence epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats. EEG recordings were made at age 7 and 9 months. Automatic recognition and subsequent analysis of sleep spindles on the EEG were performed using the continuous wavelet transform. The duration of epileptic discharges and the total duration of epileptic activity were found to increase with age, while the duration of sleep spindles, conversely, decreased. In terms of the mean frequency, sleep spindles could be divided into three classes: `slow' (mean frequency 9.3Hz), `medium' (11.4Hz), and `fast' (13.5Hz). Slow and medium (transitional) spindles in five-month-old animals showed increased frequency from the beginning to the end of the spindle. The more intense the epilepsy is, the shorter are the durations of spindles of all types. The mean frequencies of `medium' and `fast' spindles were higher in rats with more intense signs of epilepsy. Overall, high epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats was linked with significant changes in spindles of the transitional type, with less marked changes in the two traditionally identified types of spindle, slow and fast.

  16. CT findings of falical and tentorial subdural hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Jung, Nam Keun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography has been established as an indispensable tool in the detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Extra axial fluid collections are usually easily distinguished from intracerebral hemorrhages. However, hemorrhages in atypical locations, such as in falx and tentorial regions, can be difficult to diagnose with CT. The tentorial and falcial collection of subdural blood are rather unusual. Authors report here 84 cases of falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhages with reference data that we have encountered in the last two years. The results were as follows; 1. In 589 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the incidence of subdural hemorrhage was 372 cases (63.2%). 2. Among 372 cases with subdural hemorrhage, 84 cases (22.6%) had falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage. In 84 cases with falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage, there were 50 cases (13.4%) of falcial subdural hemorrhages, 21 cases (5.7%) of tentorial subdural hemorrhage and 13 cases (3.5%) of combined falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhage. 3. The location of falcial subdural hemorrhage was anterior in 30 cases (60%), posterior in 15 cases (30%) and middle in 5 cases (10%). 4. The location of tentorial subdural hemorrhage was petrous edge in 7 cases (33.3%), occipital attachment in 6 cases (28.6%), tentorial hiatus in 5 cases (23.8%), and diffuse in 3 cases (14.3%). 5. In 13 cases showing combined falcial and tentorial subdural hemorrhage, there was 3 cases (23.1%) of posterior falx and tentorial hiatus, 2 cases (15.4%) of anterior falx and petrous edge, 2 cases of anterior falx and tentorial hiatus, 2 cases of posterior falx and petrous edge, 2 cases of posterior falx and occipital attachment, 1 case (7.7%) of posterior falx and diffuse, and 1 case of posterior, middle falx and diffuse. 6. In the cases with falcial and/or tentorial subdural hemorrhage, the incidence of associated intracranial hemorrhage were intracrania subdural hemorrhage in 40 cases (47.6%), hemorrhagic brain

  17. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Rsenbaum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  18. [Hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, G; Buffone, A; Cicciarella, G; di Mari, P; Cirino, E

    2004-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are usually asymptomatic; they are usually identified occasionally during ultrasound or C.T. scans (incidentaloma). Among adrenal cysts the most common types are epithelial cysts and pseudocysts. Intracystic haemorrhage is one of the possible complications of adrenal pseudocysts. We report a case of a young woman with right superior abdominal pain, fever and acute anemia. A C.T. scan showed a 10 cm. mass between the liver and the right kidney. To be sure of the nature of this mass also M.R., urography and C.T.-guided biopsy were carried out. This latter only let us make the final diagnosis of hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst. Thereafter, a laparotomic right adrenalectomy was performed, with full recovery of the patient. Adrenal cysts may cause differential diagnostic problems with masses of contiguous organs like kidney, liver and gallbladder. For this reason, ultrasound and C.T. scans may not be sufficient and must be completed by M.R., urography and/or C.T.-guided biopsy. Intracystic hamorrhage, spontaneous or post-traumatic, may cause to the patient acute anemia which, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, indicates surgery. The operation usually is a laparotomic adrenalectomy, since the laparoscopic approach is not sufficient to control large masses with active bleeding inside.

  19. Regulation of mitotic spindle formation by the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Takaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10 was originally identified as the product of the gene associated with slowed nerve-conduction velocities of peripheral nerves. However, the function of ARHGEF10 in mammalian cells is totally unknown at a molecular level. ARHGEF10 contains no distinctive functional domains except for tandem Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology and putative transmembrane domains. Results Here we show that RhoA is a substrate for ARHGEF10. In both G1/S and M phases, ARHGEF10 was localized in the centrosome in adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-based knockdown of ARHGEF10 resulted in multipolar spindle formation in M phase. Each spindle pole seems to contain a centrosome consisting of two centrioles and the pericentriolar material. Downregulation of RhoA elicited similar phenotypes, and aberrant mitotic spindle formation following ARHGEF10 knockdown was rescued by ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA. Multinucleated cells were not increased upon ARHGEF10 knockdown in contrast to treatment with Y-27632, a specific pharmacological inhibitor for the RhoA effector kinase ROCK, which induced not only multipolar spindle formation, but also multinucleation. Therefore, unregulated centrosome duplication rather than aberration in cytokinesis may be responsible for ARHGEF10 knockdown-dependent multipolar spindle formation. We further isolated the kinesin-like motor protein KIF3B as a binding partner of ARHGEF10. Knockdown of KIF3B again caused multipolar spindle phenotypes. The supernumerary centrosome phenotype was also observed in S phase-arrested osteosarcoma U2OS cells when the expression of ARHGEF10, RhoA or KIF3B was abrogated by RNA interference. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that a novel RhoA-dependent signaling pathway under the control of ARHGEF10 has a pivotal role in the regulation of the cell division cycle. This pathway is not involved in

  20. How Hemorrhage Control Became Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alan James

    2018-02-27

    Just over 200 years ago, surgeons were puzzled that the use of the tourniquet to control hemorrhage as common sense during surgery was a relatively recent development. Within the last 20 years, much progress has been made to controlling hemorrhage in the prehospital context. Then, as now, it was surprising that progress on something that appeared obvious had occurred only recently, begging the question how controlling blood loss was common sense in a surgical context, but not for emergency treatment. Paper is a historical survey of the evolution of the medical understanding of hemorrhage along with technological response. The danger of blood loss had historically been consistently underestimated as physicians looked at other explanations for symptoms of how the human body responded to trauma. As the danger from hemorrhage became apparent, even obvious, responsibility for hemorrhage control was delegated down from the surgeon to the paramedic and eventually to individual service members and civilian bystanders with training to "Stop the Bleed." Hippocratic medicine assumed that blood diffused centrifugally into periphery through arteries. William Harvey's observation in 1615 that blood ran through a closed circulatory system gradually transformed conventional wisdom about blood loss, leading to the development of the tourniquet about a century later by Jean-Louis Petit, which made amputation of limbs survivable. However, physicians were cautious about their application during the First World War over concerns over effects on patient recovery. Hemorrhage had generally been seen as symptom to be managed until the patient would be seen by a surgeon who would stop the bleeding. More thorough collection and analysis of data related to case histories of soldiers wounded during the Vietnam Conflict transformed how surgeons understood the importance to hemorrhage leading to development of the doctrine of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the late 1990's. economic

  1. Fast FLAIR MR images of intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Hye Young; Cho, Young A; Kim, Wha Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging according to various stages, and to compare FLAIR imaging with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images along with spin-echo T1- and T2 weighted MR images of 32 lesions in 25 patients (12 males and 14 females, aged 3 - 84 yrs) with intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. For imaging, 1.5 T unit was used, and the nature of the lesions was found to be as follows : intracranial hemorrhage (n=15); tumor (n=9); infarction (n=4); arteriovenous malformation (n=3); and arachnoid cyst with hemorrhage (n=1). On the basis of spin-echo MR imaging, lesions were classified as acute, early subacute, late subacute, early chronic, or late chronic stage. The signal characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage were analysed in accordance with each staging, as seen on MR FLAIR imaging, and compared to the staging seen on spin-echo T1- and T-2 weighted MR imaging. The signal intensity of intracranial hemorrhage, as seen on FLAIR imaging, was not characteristic; it was similar to that of T2WI during the acute and subacute stages, and similiar to that of T1WI during the chronic stage. When used together with spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging, however, FLAIR imaging may be useful for the classification of chronic intracranial hemorrhage as either early or late stage. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Midori [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ayumu [Department of Chemistry, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Sizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aiba, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmura@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  3. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krauss, Sharon W

    2006-01-01

    We proposed to test the novel hypothesis that protein 4.1 is of critical importance to centrosome and mitotic spindle aberrations that directly impact aspects of breast cancer pathogenesis. We characterized...

  4. Abnormal spindle orientation during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Gramineae hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Beatriz Mendes-Bonato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of abnormal spindle orientation during microsporogenesis in an interspecific hybrid of the tropical grass Brachiaria. In the affected plant, prophase I was normal. In metaphase I, bivalents were regularly co-oriented but distantly positioned and spread over the equatorial plate. In anaphase I, chromosomes failed to converge into focused poles due to parallel spindle fibers. As a consequence, in telophase I, an elongated nucleus or several micronuclei were observed in each pole. In the second division, the behavior was the same, leading to polyads with several micronuclei. A total of 40% of meiotic products were affected. The use of this hybrid in production systems needing good-quality seeds is discussed.

  5. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys (Part 2)--Analyses of cutting force and spindle motor current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-12-01

    To establish a method of determining the machinability of dental materials for CAD/CAM systems, the machinability of titanium, two titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb), and free-cutting brass was evaluated through cutting force and spindle motor current. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and square end mills at four cutting conditions. Both the static and dynamic components of the cutting force represented well the machinability of the metals tested: the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb was worse than that of titanium, while that of free-cutting brass was better. On the other hand, the results indicated that the spindle motor current was not sensitive enough to detect the material difference among the titanium and its alloys.

  6. Asymmetric Centriole Numbers at Spindle Poles Cause Chromosome Missegregation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco R. Cosenza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer and correlates with the presence of extra centrosomes, which originate from centriole overduplication. Overduplicated centrioles lead to the formation of centriole rosettes, which mature into supernumerary centrosomes in the subsequent cell cycle. While extra centrosomes promote chromosome missegregation by clustering into pseudo-bipolar spindles, the contribution of centriole rosettes to chromosome missegregation is unknown. We used multi-modal imaging of cells with conditional centriole overduplication to show that mitotic rosettes in bipolar spindles frequently harbor unequal centriole numbers, leading to biased chromosome capture that favors binding to the prominent pole. This results in chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. Rosette mitoses lead to viable offspring and significantly contribute to progeny production. We further show that centrosome abnormalities in primary human malignancies frequently consist of centriole rosettes. As asymmetric centriole rosettes generate mitotic errors that can be propagated, rosette mitoses are sufficient to cause chromosome missegregation in cancer.

  7. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  8. Thermal Error Test and Intelligent Modeling Research on the Spindle of High Speed CNC Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhonghui; Peng, Bin; Xiao, Qijun; Bai, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Thermal error is the main factor affecting the accuracy of precision machining. Through experiments, this paper studies the thermal error test and intelligent modeling for the spindle of vertical high speed CNC machine tools in respect of current research focuses on thermal error of machine tool. Several testing devices for thermal error are designed, of which 7 temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of machine tool spindle system and 2 displacement sensors are used to detect the thermal error displacement. A thermal error compensation model, which has a good ability in inversion prediction, is established by applying the principal component analysis technology, optimizing the temperature measuring points, extracting the characteristic values closely associated with the thermal error displacement, and using the artificial neural network technology.

  9. Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a tumor with biphasic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, F.P.; Keren, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor. It is characterized by a large bulky mass in the middle third of the esophagus with a lobulated surface and local expansion of the esophagus. This lesion may be pedunculated and cause relatively little obstruction despite its bulk. The current view, based on ultrastructure and immunohistochemical evidence, has confirmed that the sarcomatous component of the squamous cell carcinoma originates from mesenchymal metaplasia of squamous cells. On the basis of this evidence and clinical behavior, it seems appropriate to consider carcinosarcoma and pseudosarcoma as equivalents and as variants of squamous cell carcinoma. Four patients with spindle-cell squamous carcinoma, an unusual subset of squamous carcinoma, are described, and the salient radiographic and pathologic features of this disorder's distinctive biphasic morphology are discussed

  10. Triangular relationship between sleep spindle activity, general cognitive ability and the efficiency of declarative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lustenberger

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.

  11. Neural mechanisms of mental schema: a triplet of delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Takefumi; Takei, Yuichi

    2018-02-06

    Schemas are higher-level knowledge structures that integrate and organise lower-level representations. As internal templates, schemas are formed according to how events are perceived, interpreted and remembered. Although these higher-level units are assumed to play a fundamental role in our daily life from an early age, the neuronal basis and mechanisms of schema formation and use remain largely unknown. It is important to elucidate how the brain constructs and maintains these higher-level units. In order to examine the possible neural underpinnings of schema, we recapitulate previous work and discuss their findings related to schemas as the brain template. We specifically focused on low beta/spindle oscillations, which are assumed to be the key components of schemas, and propose that the brain template is implemented with a triplet of neural oscillations, that is delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  13. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  15. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  16. A gene encoding the major beta tubulin of the mitotic spindle in Physarum polycephalum plasmodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G.; Paul, E.C.A.; Oetliker, M.; Dove, W.F.

    1988-03-01

    The multinucleate plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is unusual among eucaryotic cells in that it uses tubulins only in mitotic-spindle microtubules; cytoskeletal, flagellar, and centriolar microtubules are absent in this cell type. The authors identified a ..beta..-tubulin cDNA clone, ..beta..105, which is shown to correspond to the transcript of the betC ..beta..-tubulin locus and to encode ..beta..2 tubulin, the ..beta.. tubulin expressed specifically in the plasmodium and used exclusively in the mitotic spindle. Physarum amoebae utilize tubulins in the cytoskeleton, centrioles, and flagella, in addition to the mitotic spindle. Sequence analysis shows that ..beta..2 tubulin is only 83% identical to the two ..beta.. tubulins expressed in amoebae. This compares with 70 to 83% identity between Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin and the ..beta.. tubulins of yeasts, fungi, alga, trypanosome, fruit fly, chicken, and mouse. On the other hand, Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin is no more similar to, for example, Aspergillus ..beta.. tubulins than it is to those of Drosophila melanogaster or mammals. Several eucaryotes express at least one widely diverged ..beta.. tubulin as well as one or more ..beta.. tubulins that conform more closely to a consensus ..beta..-tubulin sequence. The authors suggest that ..beta..-tubulins diverge more when their expression pattern is restricted, especially when this restriction results in their use in fewer functions. This divergence among ..beta.. tubulins could have resulted through neutral drift. For example, exclusive use of Physarum ..beta..2 tubulin in the spindle may have allowed more amino acid substitutions than would be functionally tolerable in the ..beta.. tubulins that are utilized in multiple microtubular organelles. Alternatively, restricted use of ..beta.. tubulins may allow positive selection to operate more freely to refine ..beta..-tubulin function.

  17. Ketamine increases the frequency of electroencephalographic bicoherence peak on the alpha spindle area induced with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Tsuda, N; Sawa, T; Hagihira, S

    2007-09-01

    The reticular and thalamocortical system is known to play a prominent role in spindle wave activity, and the spindle wave is related to the sedative effects of anaesthetics. Recently, bispectral analysis of the EEG has been developed as a better method to indicate nonlinear regulation including the thalamocortical system linking to the cortical area. In the present study, in order to explore the interference of ketamine with the nonlinear regulation of the sub-cortical system, we examined the effect of ketamine on spindle alpha waves through the bispectral analysis. The study included 21 patients. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using a propofol-TCI system (target-controlled infusion, with target concentration 3.5 microg ml(-1)). An A-2000 BIS monitor was used and the raw EEG signals were collected via an RS232 interface on a personal computer. Bicoherence, the normalized bispectrum, and power spectrum were analysed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg kg(-1) racemic ketamine. Propofol caused alpha peaks in both power and bicoherence spectra, with average frequencies of 10.6 (SD 0.9) Hz and 10.7 (1.0) Hz, respectively. The addition of ketamine significantly shifted each peak to frequencies of 14.4 (1.4) Hz and 13.6 (1.5) Hz, respectively [P < 0.05, mean (SD)]. Ketamine shifted the alpha peaks of bicoherence induced by propofol to higher frequencies. This suggests that ketamine changes the alpha spindle rhythms through the modulation of the nonlinear sub-cortical reverberating network.

  18. Combined classical spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma spectrum imaging and clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younan, Yara; Gonzalez, Felix; Umpierrez, Monica; Singer, Adam D. [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Martinez, Anthony; Edgar, Mark [Emory University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reimer, Nickolas [Emory University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Atlanta, GA (United States); Subhawong, Ty [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Compile the largest study to date on the imaging and clinical features of the classic spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma spectrum and suggest this diagnosis be included in the differential for benign and malignant macroscopic fat-containing soft tissue masses regardless of the mass location or patient demographics. An institutional search was performed to identify all available classic-type spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas with available demographic and imaging data. Images and reports were analyzed by one MSK-trained radiologist and radiographic, anatomic and clinical data were recorded. Additionally, a literature search was performed to identify studies describing the spindle cell lipoma spectrum imaging features and were combined with institutional data. Forty-two institutional cases were identified, 37 of which had MRIs performed among which 21 had images available (T1- and T2-weighted pulse sequences) for review while the remainder had outside reports detailing the mass imaging features. There was a mean age of 57 with 79% of cases occurring in males. Contrary to prior reports, 57% of masses were subcutaneous, and the neck and back region accounted for 26% of cases. When the institutional cases were combined with available data in the literature, there was a new sample size of 91 masses, 74 of which had MRI and/or CT data. Eighty-seven percent of masses were heterogeneous, 51% were composed of less than 75% fat, 65% were in the back, neck or shoulder region, 27% of masses were deep and 91% demonstrated enhancement. Eighty-two percent of patients were males with a mean age of 58 at excision. Imaging features, patient demographics and tumor location alone are not enough to differentiate tumors of the spindle cell lipoma spectrum from other macroscopic fat-containing benign and malignant tumors, and these entities should be included in the same imaging differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. PLK1 regulates spindle formation kinetics and APC/C activation in mouse zygote

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran, V.; Brzáková, Adéla; Rehák, P.; Kovaříková, V.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 338-345 ISSN 0967-1994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk LH12057 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : APC/C * BI2536 * live cell imaging * mouse zygote * PLK1 * securin * spindle assembly Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016

  20. Phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) influences spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfang; Beauchemin, Myriam; Bertrand, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Functional analysis of a series of phosphorylation mutants reveals that Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) influences cell entry into anaphase and mitotic exit in taxol-exposed cells compared with cells expressing wild-type Bcl-xL or a series of other phosphorylation mutants, an effect that appears to be independent of its anti-apoptotic activity. During normal mitosis progression, Bcl-xL(Ser62) is strongly phosphorylated by PLK1 and MAPK14/SAPKp38α at the prometaphase, metaphase, and the anaphase boundaries, while it is de-phosphorylated at telophase and cytokinesis. Phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) localizes in centrosomes with γ-tubulin and in the mitotic cytosol with some spindle-assembly checkpoint signaling components, including PLK1, BubR1, and Mad2. In taxol- and nocodazole-exposed cells, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) also binds to Cdc20- Mad2-, BubR1-, and Bub3-bound complexes, while Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) does not. Silencing Bcl-xL expression and expressing the phosphorylation mutant Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) lead to an increased number of cells harboring mitotic spindle defects including multipolar spindle, chromosome lagging and bridging, aneuploidy with micro-, bi-, or multi-nucleated cells, and cells that fail to resolve undergo mitosis within 6 h. Together, the data indicate that during mitosis, Bcl-xL(Ser62) phosphorylation impacts on spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, influencing chromosome stability. Observations of mitotic cells harboring aneuploidy with micro-, bi-, or multi-nucleated cells, and cells that fail to resolve undergo mitosis within 6 h were also made with cells expressing the phosphorylation mutant Bcl-xL(Ser49Ala) and dual mutant Bcl-xL(Ser49/62Ala).

  1. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Liang Chen; Yin-Ting Cheng; Chin-Fa Su

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as ...

  2. Inhibition of muscle spindle afferent activity during masseter muscle fatigue in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Orazio; Della Torre, Giovannella; Lucchi, Maria Luisa; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Bortolami, Ruggero; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2003-09-01

    The influence of muscle fatigue on the jaw-closing muscle spindle activity has been investigated by analyzing: (1) the field potentials evoked in the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmot) by trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) stimulation, (2) the orthodromic and antidromic responses evoked in the Vmes by stimulation of the peripheral and central axons of the muscle proprioceptive afferents, and (3) the extracellular unitary discharge of masseter muscle spindles recorded in the Vmes. The masseter muscle was fatigued by prolonged tetanic masseter nerve electrical stimulation. Pre- and postsynaptic components of the potentials evoked in the Vmot showed a significant reduction in amplitude following muscle fatigue. Orthodromic and antidromic potentials recorded in the Vmes also showed a similar amplitude decrease. Furthermore, muscle fatigue caused a decrease of the discharge frequency of masseter muscle spindle afferents in most of the examined units. The inhibition of the potential amplitude and discharge frequency was strictly correlated with the extent of muscle fatigue and was mediated by the group III and IV afferent muscle fibers activated by fatigue. In fact, the inhibitory effect was abolished by capsaicin injection in the masseter muscle that provokes selective degeneration of small afferent muscle fibers containing neurokinins. We concluded that fatigue signals originating from the muscle and traveling through capsaicin-sensitive fibers are able to diminish the proprioceptive input by a central presynaptic influence. In the second part of the study, we examined the central projection of the masseter small afferents sensitive to capsaicin at the electron-microscopic level. Fiber degeneration was induced by injecting capsaicin into the masseter muscle. Degenerating terminals were found on the soma and stem process in Vmes and on the dendritic tree of neurons in Vmot. This suggests that small muscle afferents may influence the muscle spindle activity through

  3. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    En-Ju Chou; Liang-Yi Hung; Chieh-Ju C. Tang; Wen-Bin Hsu; Hsin-Yi Wu; Pao-Chi Liao; Tang K. Tang

    2016-01-01

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. In...

  4. Analysis of the failure of a vacuum spin-pit drive turbine spindle shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Pettitt, Jason M.

    2005-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's Rotor Spin Research Facility experienced a failure in the Spring of 2005 in which the rotor dropped from the drive turbine and caused extensive damage. A failure analysis of the drive turbine spindle shaft was conducted in order to determine the cause of failure: whether due to a material or design flaw. Also, a dynamic analysis was conducted in order to determine the natural modes present in the system and the associated frequencies that could have contributed...

  5. Expanding the histologic spectrum of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Samson W; Argani, Pedram; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Delahunt, Brett; Sebo, Thomas J; Reuter, Victor E; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2006-12-01

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas (MTSCs) are polymorphic neoplasms characterized by small, elongated tubules lined by cuboidal cells and/or cords of spindled cells separated by pale mucinous stroma. Nonclassic morphologic variants and features of MTSC have not been well studied. We identified 17 previously unreported MTSCs from Surgical Pathology and consultative files of the authors and their respective institutions and studied their morphologic features. A total of 10/17 cases were considered "classic," as described above, with 5/10 showing at least focal (20% to 50%) tubular predominance without apparent mucinous matrix. Alcian blue staining revealed abundant (>50%) mucin in all classic cases. Seven of 17 MTSCs were classified as "mucin-poor," with little to no extracellular mucin appreciable by hematoxylin and eosin. Four of these cases showed equal tubular and spindled morphology, 2 cases showed spindle cell predominance (70%; 95%), and 1 case showed tubular predominance (90%). In 5/7 mucin-poor cases, staining for Alcian blue revealed scant (<10%) mucin in cellular areas with the other 2 cases having 30% mucin. Unusual histologic features identified in the 17 cases were: foamy macrophages (n=8), papillations/well formed papillae (n=6/n=1), focal clear cells in tubules (n=3), necrosis (n=3), oncocytic tubules (n=2; 40%, 5%), numerous small vacuoles (n=2), heterotopic bone (n=1), psammomatous calcification (n=1), and nodular growth with lymphocytic cuffing (n=1). An exceptional case contained a well-circumscribed, HMB45-positive angiomyolipoma within the MTSC. MTSCs may be "mucin-poor" and show a marked predominance of either of its principal morphologic components, which coupled with the presence of other unusual features such as clear cells, papillations, foamy macrophages, and necrosis, may mimic other forms of renal cell carcinoma. Pathologists must be aware of the spectrum of histologic findings within MTSCs to ensure their accurate diagnosis.

  6. Analysis of EEG activity during sleep - brain hemisphere symmetry of two classes of sleep spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Magdalena M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents automatic analysis of some selected human electroencephalographic patterns during deep sleep using the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The periodicity of deep sleep EEG patterns was observed by calculating autocorrelation functions of their percentage contributions. The study confirmed the increasing trend of amplitude-weighted average frequency of sleep spindles from frontal to posterior derivations. The dominant frequencies from the left and the right brain hemisphere were strongly correlated.

  7. The kinesin spindle protein inhibitor filanesib enhances the activity of pomalidomide and dexamethasone in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-García, Susana; San-Segundo, Laura; González-Méndez, Lorena; Corchete, Luis A; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Martín-Sánchez, Montserrat; López-Iglesias, Ana-Alicia; Algarín, Esperanza Macarena; Mogollón, Pedro; Díaz-Tejedor, Andrea; Paíno, Teresa; Tunquist, Brian; Mateos, María-Victoria; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Díaz-Rodriguez, Elena

    2017-01-01

    [EN]Kinesin spindle protein inhibition is known to be an effective therapeutic approach in several malignancies. Filanesib (ARRY-520), an inhibitor of this protein, has demonstrated activity in heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma patients. The aim of the work herein was to investigate the activity of filanesib in combination with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone backbone, and the mechanisms underlying the potential synergistic effect. The ability of filanesib to enhance the activity of pomali...

  8. Putaminal hemorrhage: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Elliott, D.; Shamsnia, M.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of 100 patients with putaminal hemorrhage were hypertensive. Of the eight normotensive patients, seven were substance abusers or had bilateral putaminal hemorrhages. The one other normotensive patient was less than 40 years old. The 100 hemorrhages had the following locations: 1. Medial putaminal (17 cases; six were normotensive and less than 40 years old and five were substance abusers); 2. lateral putaminal extending through the external capsule (eleven cases); 3. putaminal-capsular and subcortical white matter (32 cases); 4. putaminal cerebral hemispheric (19 cases); 5. putaminal-thalamic (19 cases); 6. bilateral (two cases). A disproportionate number of black patients suffered hematoma extension to the cerebral hemispheres or thalamus (46%) compared to Caucasians (23%). Overall mortality was 20% (17 blacks and three Caucasians) and occurred in patients with hematoma extension to the thalamus or cerebral hemispheres. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in all 100 patients and provided no additional diagnostic yield. This indicates limited use for enhanced CT in hypertensive patients with putaminal hemorrhage who have a characteristic appearance of the acute hemorrhage on the nonenhanced CT. (orig.)

  9. Freehand technique for putaminal hemorrhage. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosuka, Kimihiko; Uno, Masaaki; Hirano, Kazuhiro; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Matsubara, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    We designed a new endoscopic surgical procedure for putaminal hemorrhage (freehand technique) and evaluated its effectiveness and safety in patients with putaminal hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) data sets from 40 healthy patients were used. The CT data were transformed into three-dimensional images using AZE VirtualPlace Plus. The nasion and external auditory foramen were the intraoperative reference points. The median point from medial of the globus pallidus to the insula was the target point. The location of the burr hole point was 80-125 mm above and 27.5 mm lateral to the nasion, and the direction was parallel to the midline and a line drawn from the burr hole to the ipsilateral external auditory foramen. This point was used for 15 patients with putaminal hemorrhage. In all cases, only one puncture was required, and there were no complications. The median surgical time was 91.7 minutes, and the median hematoma removal rate was 95.9%. No recurrent bleeding or operative complications occurred. The freehand technique is a simple and safe technique for patients with putaminal hemorrhage. We believe that this technique of endoscopic hematoma evacuation may provide a less-invasive method for treating patients with putaminal hemorrhage. (author)

  10. Xenopus laevis Kif18A is a highly processive kinesin required for meiotic spindle integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Möckel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The assembly and functionality of the mitotic spindle depends on the coordinated activities of microtubule-associated motor proteins of the dynein and kinesin superfamily. Our current understanding of the function of motor proteins is significantly shaped by studies using Xenopus laevis egg extract as its open structure allows complex experimental manipulations hardly feasible in other model systems. Yet, the Kinesin-8 orthologue of human Kif18A has not been described in Xenopus laevis so far. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xenopus laevis (Xl Kif18A. Xenopus Kif18A is expressed during oocyte maturation and its depletion from meiotic egg extract results in severe spindle defects. These defects can be rescued by wild-type Kif18A, but not Kif18A lacking motor activity or the C-terminus. Single-molecule microscopy assays revealed that Xl_Kif18A possesses high processivity, which depends on an additional C-terminal microtubule-binding site. Human tissue culture cells depleted of endogenous Kif18A display mitotic defects, which can be rescued by wild-type, but not tail-less Xl_Kif18A. Thus, Xl_Kif18A is the functional orthologue of human Kif18A whose activity is essential for the correct function of meiotic spindles in Xenopus oocytes.

  11. Dynamics modeling and modal experimental study of high speed motorized spindle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunsong; Chen, Xiaoan; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamical model of high speed motorized spindles in free state and work state. In the free state, the housing is modeled as a rotor with equivalent masses including bearing pedestals, motor stator and rear end cover. As a consequence, a double rotor dynamics can be modeled for high speed motorized spindles by a bearing element which connects the housing and bearing pedestals. In the work state, the housing is fixed and the system becomes a bearing-rotor dynamical model. An excitation-measurement test in the free state is designed to analyze the cross spectral density and auto spectral density of input and output signals. Then the frequency response function of system and coherence function of input and output signals which are used to analyze the inherent characteristics of the double- rotor model can be obtained. The other vibration test in the work state is designed to research the dynamical supporting characteristics of bearings and the effects from bearings on the inherent characteristics of the system. The good agreement between the experimental data and theoretical results indicates that the dynamical model in two states is capable of accurately predicting the dynamic behavior of high speed motorized spindles

  12. Mitotic Spindle Asymmetry: A Wnt/PCP-Regulated Mechanism Generating Asymmetrical Division in Cortical Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Delaunay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of asymmetric cell division (ACD during corticogenesis is incompletely understood. We document that spindle-size asymmetry (SSA between the two poles occurs during corticogenesis and parallels ACD. SSA appears at metaphase and is maintained throughout division, and we show it is necessary for proper neurogenesis. Imaging of spindle behavior and division outcome reveals that neurons preferentially arise from the larger-spindle pole. Mechanistically, SSA magnitude is controlled by Wnt7a and Vangl2, both members of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP-signaling pathway, and relayed to the cell cortex by P-ERM proteins. In vivo, Vangl2 and P-ERM downregulation promotes early cell-cycle exit and prevents the proper generation of late-born neurons. Thus, SSA is a core component of ACD that is conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates and plays a key role in the tight spatiotemporal control of self-renewal and differentiation during mammalian corticogenesis.

  13. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Gohta; Nédélec, François; Vale, Ronald D

    2005-10-24

    During the formation of the metaphase spindle in animal somatic cells, kinetochore microtubule bundles (K fibers) are often disconnected from centrosomes, because they are released from centrosomes or directly generated from chromosomes. To create the tightly focused, diamond-shaped appearance of the bipolar spindle, K fibers need to be interconnected with centrosomal microtubules (C-MTs) by minus end-directed motor proteins. Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy. Even though these two motors have overlapping functions, we show that Ncd is primarily responsible for focusing K fibers, whereas dynein has a dominant function in transporting K fibers to the centrosomes. We also report a novel localization of Ncd to the growing tips of C-MTs, which we show is mediated by the plus end-tracking protein, EB1. Computer modeling of the K fiber focusing process suggests that the plus end localization of Ncd could facilitate the capture and transport of K fibers along C-MTs. From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis.

  14. Primary histiocytic sarcoma arising in the head and neck with predominant spindle cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first case report of Histiocytic Sarcoma (HS with predominant spindle cell component occurring in the head and neck region of a 41-year-old man. The tumor was composed of sheets of large round to oval cells with pleomorphic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Multinucleated forms, numerous mitoses, and tumor necrosis were also noted. Sheets, fascicles, and whorls of spindle cells with spindled to ovoid vesicular nuclei, small to medium-sized distinct nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical staining in the tumor cells was positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme, CD45, and NSE. Focal expression of CD4 and S-100 was also noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated an abundance of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Chromosome study revealed a 57–80 hyperdiploid [7]/46, XY [13] karyotype, including 3 to 4 copies of various chromosomes. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings confirmed the diagnosis of HS.

  15. One-pot synthesis and electrochemical reactivity of carbon coated LiFePO4 spindles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Juanjuan; Hu Juncheng; Li Jinlin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon coated LiFePO 4 spindles have been successfully synthesized via a novel supercritical method. ► The concentrations of lithium have an effect on the morphology of carbon coated LiFePO 4 . ► Amorphous carbon layer formed on the surface of LiFePO 4 by adding glucose. ► The carbon coating is responsible for the enhanced electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Spindle-like carbon coated LiFePO 4 (LiFePO 4 /C) composites have been successfully synthesized via a novel one-pot supercritical methanol method. The products were characterized by X-ray power diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle size, morphology and electrochemical reactivity changed with the concentration of lithium and carbon source. A possible morphology evolution process was also proposed. The glucose not only facilitates the formation of single crystalline LiFePO 4 , but also gives an amorphous carbon layer on the surface LiFePO 4 spindles.

  16. Dynamics modeling and modal experimental study of high speed motorized spindle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunsong; Chen, Xiaoan; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Jinming [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China)

    2017-03-15

    This paper presents a dynamical model of high speed motorized spindles in free state and work state. In the free state, the housing is modeled as a rotor with equivalent masses including bearing pedestals, motor stator and rear end cover. As a consequence, a double rotor dynamics can be modeled for high speed motorized spindles by a bearing element which connects the housing and bearing pedestals. In the work state, the housing is fixed and the system becomes a bearing-rotor dynamical model. An excitation-measurement test in the free state is designed to analyze the cross spectral density and auto spectral density of input and output signals. Then the frequency response function of system and coherence function of input and output signals which are used to analyze the inherent characteristics of the double- rotor model can be obtained. The other vibration test in the work state is designed to research the dynamical supporting characteristics of bearings and the effects from bearings on the inherent characteristics of the system. The good agreement between the experimental data and theoretical results indicates that the dynamical model in two states is capable of accurately predicting the dynamic behavior of high speed motorized spindles.

  17. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  18. JMJD5 (Jumonji Domain-containing 5) Associates with Spindle Microtubules and Is Required for Proper Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhimin; Wu, Junyu; Su, Xiaonan; Zhang, Ye; Pan, Lixia; Wei, Huimin; Fang, Qiang; Li, Haitao; Wang, Da-Liang; Sun, Fang-Lin

    2016-02-26

    Precise mitotic spindle assembly is a guarantee of proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome instability caused by disturbed mitosis is one of the major features of various types of cancer. JMJD5 has been reported to be involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the nucleus, but little is known about its function in mitotic process. Here we report the unexpected localization and function of JMJD5 in mitotic progression. JMJD5 partially accumulates on mitotic spindles during mitosis, and depletion of JMJD5 results in significant mitotic arrest, spindle assembly defects, and sustained activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Inactivating SAC can efficiently reverse the mitotic arrest caused by JMJD5 depletion. Moreover, JMJD5 is found to interact with tubulin proteins and associate with microtubules during mitosis. JMJD5-depleted cells show a significant reduction of α-tubulin acetylation level on mitotic spindles and fail to generate enough interkinetochore tension to satisfy the SAC. Further, JMJD5 depletion also increases the susceptibility of HeLa cells to the antimicrotubule agent. Taken together, these results suggest that JMJD5 plays an important role in regulating mitotic progression, probably by modulating the stability of spindle microtubules. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Computed tomography and intracranial hemorrhages in the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Kushida, Yoshimasa; Shishido, Masaru; Nagasawa, Sadatsugu; Seiki, Yoshikatsu

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-two of 290 neonates admitted to the Perinatal Intensive Care Unit, Toho University Medical School, were examined by CT scan because of tentative clinical diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. CT scanner employed in this study was TCT-60 A from the Toshiba The Electric Co., Ltd. Fourteen cases (44%) were confirmed by the CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. Four cases had hemorrhage in the ventricle, while the remaining ten cases had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subdural hemorrhage was not revealed in our series. Three of the four cases with intraventricular hemorrhage showed a typical subependymal germinal matrix hemorrhage. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates seemed to be poor; two of the four cases died within a week. Their body weight at birth was apparently under the standard, and their Apgar score was 3 points. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was the main type of intracranial neonatal hemorrhages. In our series, it was constituted approximately 70% of the intracranial hemorrhages. The CT images of the subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonate were greatly different from those in adults. An irregular, wide high-density area around the falxtentorial junction was characteristic of the CT in many neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. In severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, a characteristic Y-shaped, high-density figure was demonstrated. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the deep venous system, high-density spreading immediately ventral to the falx-tentrium junction was demonstrated. These high-density areas due to blood in the subarachnoid space rapidly disappeared with the lapse of time. On the other hand, high-density areas in cerebral cisterns and/or fissures were rarely demonstrated in neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. The prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates was fairly good in the sense of life and cerebral functions. (author)

  20. Cerebral microbleeds and intracerebral hemorrhages in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Recently, it has become clear that the presence of cerebral microbleeds (MBs) on T2 * -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is closely related to intracerebral hemorrhages. This study investigated the incidence of MBs in chronic dialysis patients and prospective hemorrhagic complications of chronic dialysis patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages. Eighty patients (34 males, 46 females) with chronic renal failure, whose mean age was 62.9±11.4 years, were examined by MRI. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 7.8±6.3 years. MBs were found in 28 patients (35%) by T2 * -weighted MRI. Old intracerebral hemorrhages were seen in seven of the patients, and MBs were found in five (71%) of these seven patients. The frequency of old intracerebral hemorrhages was significantly higher in patients with MBs than in those without (p=0.048), and the numbers of MBs were significantly larger in patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages than in those without (p=0.0065). Three of the seven patients with old intracerebral hemorrhages had new hemorrhagic complications (two intracerebral hemorrhages and one cerebral microbleed) within a year. These intracerebral hemorrhages occurred in areas without MBs on the first T2 * -weighted MRI. T2 * -weighted MRI is useful for the detection of MBs, which may be a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage. When a patient has a large number of MBs and old intracerebral hemorrhages, the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage undoubtedly increases. (author)

  1. Arterial embolization therapy of traumatic renal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changxu; Chen Xiaolin; Huang Changhai; Pu Ge

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the angiographic manifestations and arterial embolizatin for traumatic renal hemorrhage when conservative treatment had failed. methods: 5 cases, all male, ranging in age from 12-29 years. All cases had history of injury. the main symptoms included severe abdominal pain, hematuria or coffee colored urine, rapid heart rate, hypotension. 3 suffered hemorrhagic shock. All cases underwent angiographic exam and the diagnosis was confirmed. Embolization materials were mainly self-blood clot and gelfoam. Results: Symptoms in all cases subsided quickly after embolization. Blood pressure recovered to normal within 12 hours; Hematuresis and abdominal pain disappeared or reduced in 1-2 days. One month later, intravenous urographic exam revealed recovered function of the injured kidneys. Conclusion: Renal arterial embolization in treating traumatic renal hemorrhage can control the bleeding while preserving the injured kidneys

  2. Frequency and determinants for hemorrhagic transformation of posterior cerebral stroke : Posterior ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Francesca; Gentile, Luana; Terruso, Valeria; Mastrilli, Sergio; Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Sarno, Caterina; Savettieri, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Marco

    2017-11-13

    hemorrhagic transformation is a threatening ischemic stroke complication. Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation differs greatly among studies, and its risk factors have been usually studied in patients with anterior ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated, in a hospital-based series of patients with posterior ischemic stroke not treated with thrombolysis, frequency and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Patients with posterior circulation stroke were seen in our Department during the period January 2004 to December 2009. Demographic and clinical information were collected. We estimated risk for spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation by means of uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. 119 consecutive patients were included (73 males, 61.3%). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7 patients (5.9%). Only clinical worsening was significantly associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.3-34.5). Our findings indicate that patients with posterior have a low risk of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation, suggesting that these patients might have greater advantage from intravenous thrombolysis.

  3. SPINDLE: A 2-Stage Nuclear-Powered Cryobot for Ocean World Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W.; Hogan, B.; Siegel, V. L.; Howe, T.; Howe, S.; Harman, J.; Richmond, K.; Flesher, C.; Clark, E.; Lelievre, S.; Moor, J.; Rothhammer, B.

    2016-12-01

    SPINDLE (Sub-glacial Polar Ice Navigation, Descent, and Lake Exploration) is a 2-stage autonomous vehicle system consisting of a robotic ice-penetrating carrier vehicle (cryobot) and a marsupial, hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV). The cryobot will descend through an ice body into a sub-ice aqueous environment and deploy the HAUV to conduct long range reconnaissance, life search, and sample collection. The HAUV will return to, and auto-dock with, the cryobot at the conclusion of the mission for subsequent data uplink and sample return to the surface. The SPINDLE cryobot has been currently designed for a 1.5 kilometer penetration through a terrestrial ice sheet and the HAUV has been designed for persistent exploration and science presence in for deployments up to a kilometer radius from the cryobot. Importantly, the cryobot is bi-directional and vertically controllable both in an ice sheet as well as following breakthrough into a subglacial water cavity / ocean. The vehicle has been designed for long-duration persistent science in subglacial cavities and to allow for subsequent return-to-surface at a much later date or subsequent season. Engineering designs for the current SPINDLE cryobot will be presented in addition to current designs for autonomous rendezvous, docking, and storing of the HAUV system into the cryobot for subsequent recovery of the entire system to the surface. Taken to completion in a three-phase program, SPINDLE will deliver an integrated and field-tested system that will be directly transferable into a Flagship-class mission to either the hypothesized shallow lakes of Europa, the sub-surface ocean of Ganymede, or the geyser/plume sources on both Europa and Enceladus. We present the results of several parallel laboratory investigations into advanced power transmission systems (laser, high voltage) as well as onboard systems that enable the SPINDLE vehicle to access any subglacial lake on earth while using non-nuclear surrogate, surface

  4. Alterations of Mg2+ After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun-Young; Yang, Dong Kwon; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2017-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is generally characterized by hemodynamic instability with cellular hypoxia and diminishing cellular function, resulting from an imbalance between systemic oxygen delivery and consumption and redistribution of fluid and electrolytes. Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation overall and second most abundant intracellular cation in the body and an essential cofactor for the energy production and cellular metabolism. Data for blood total Mg (tMg; free-ionized, protein-bound, and anion-bound forms) and free Mg 2+ levels after a traumatic injury are inconsistent and only limited information is available on hemorrhagic effects on free Mg 2+ as the physiologically active form. The aim of this study was to determine changes in blood Mg 2+ and tMg after hemorrhage in rats identifying mechanism and origin of the changes in blood Mg 2+ . Hemorrhagic shock produced significant increases in blood Mg 2+ , plasma tMg, Na + , K + , Cl - , anion gap, partial pressures of oxygen, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen but significant decreases in RBC tMg, blood Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - , pH, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and plasma/RBC ATP. During hemorrhagic shock, K + , anion gap, and BUN showed significant positive correlations with changes in blood Mg 2+ level, while Ca 2+ , pH, and T-CHO correlated to Mg 2+ in a negative manner. In conclusion, hemorrhagic shock induced an increase in both blood-free Mg 2+ and tMg, resulted from Mg 2+ efflux from metabolic damaged cell with acidosis and ATP depletion.

  5. Differences in Neuropeptide Y Secretion Between Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-M; Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Hochreiter, Andreas; Scheitzach, Judith; Bele, Sylvia; Brawanski, Alexander; Störr, Eva-M; Lohmeier, Anette; Proescholdt, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors, and its contribution to the multifactorial cascade of cerebral vasospasm due to nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not yet fully understood. This experimental study compared the hemorrhage-specific course of NPY secretion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and into plasma between 2 groups: patients with SAH and patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) or cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) over the first 10 days after hemorrhage. Seventy-nine patients were prospectively included: SAH patients (n=66) (historic population) and intracerebral hemorrhage patients (n=13). All patients received an external ventricular drain within 24 hours of the onset of bleeding. CSF and plasma were drawn daily from day 1 to day 10. The levels of NPY were determined by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The CSF samples of 29 patients (historic population) who had undergone spinal anesthesia due to orthopedic surgery served as the control group. NPY levels in CSF were significantly higher in the 2 hemorrhage groups than in the control group. However, the 2 hemorrhage groups showed significant differences in NPY levels in CSF (SAH mean, 0.842 ng/mL vs. BGH/CH mean, 0.250 ng/mL; P<0.001) as well as in the course of NPY secretion into CSF over the 10-day period. NPY levels in plasma did not differ significantly among SAH, BGH/CH, and controls. Our findings support the hypothesis that excessive release of NPY into CSF but not into plasma is specific to aneurysmal SAH in the acute period of 10 days after hemorrhage. In BGH/CH, CSF levels of NPY were also increased, but the range was much lower.

  6. Early Vitrectomy for Vitreous Hemorrhage Associated With Retinal Tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome of early surgery in vitreous hemorrhage, presumably associated with retinal tears. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series. METHODS: We included 40 consecutive cases in 39 patients treated with early vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage. Main

  7. Magnetic resonance appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemse, A.P.P.; Feldberg, M.A.M.; Witkamp, T.D.; Coppes, M.J.; Kramer, P.P.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate is described and compared with Ultrasound (US). The value of US studies in adrenal neonatal hemorrhage is well known. We present the MR appearance of this common condition. (orig.)

  8. Hemorrhage Detection and Segmentation in Traumatic Pelvic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Pavani; Wu, Jie; Tang, Yang; Cockrell, Charles H.; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn H.

    2012-01-01

    Automated hemorrhage detection and segmentation in traumatic pelvic injuries is vital for fast and accurate treatment decision making. Hemorrhage is the main cause of deaths in patients within first 24 hours after the injury. It is very time consuming for physicians to analyze all Computed Tomography (CT) images manually. As time is crucial in emergence medicine, analyzing medical images manually delays the decision-making process. Automated hemorrhage detection and segmentation can significantly help physicians to analyze these images and make fast and accurate decisions. Hemorrhage segmentation is a crucial step in the accurate diagnosis and treatment decision-making process. This paper presents a novel rule-based hemorrhage segmentation technique that utilizes pelvic anatomical information to segment hemorrhage accurately. An evaluation measure is used to quantify the accuracy of hemorrhage segmentation. The results show that the proposed method is able to segment hemorrhage very well, and the results are promising. PMID:22919433

  9. Fatal hemorrhage in irr[iated esophageal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ariga, Hisanori; Matsushita, Haruo; Wada, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shogo

    1998-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1994, 423 patients with esophageal cancer were given curative r[iation therapy. Of these patients, 31 died of massive hemorrhage and were used as the subjects of analysis in this study. The incidence of massive hemorrhage in all patients was 7% (31/423). In the 31 patients who died of massive hemorrhage, 27 h[ local tumors and two h[ no tumors at hemorrhage (two unknown cases). The mean time interval from the start of r[iation to hemorrhage was 9.2 months. In 9 autopsy cases the origin of hemorrhage was a tear of the aorta in 5 cases, necrotic local tumor in 3 cases and esophageal ulcer in 1 case. The positive risk factors for this complication seemed to be excess total dose, infection, metallic stent, and tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest pain or sentinel hemorrhage proceeding to massive hemorrhage was observed in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  10. Two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Zorzi, G; Paoletti, P; Mambelli, G; Carlucci, A

    2013-01-01

    The adrenal hemorrhage is a relatively rare event in newborns but must be considered in the presence of a persistent unexplained jaundice, especially in presence of predisposing factors. Serial ultrasonography is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We report two cases of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting with persistent jaundice. The causes of the neonatal adrenal hemorrhages were a difficult vaginal delivery in macrosomic infant and a neonatal infection.

  11. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  12. Spinal vascular malformations in non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, M. R.; Pennings, F. A.; Sprengers, M. E. S.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and no evidence for a cerebral aneurysm on angiography, a frequent cause of the hemorrhage is perimesencephalic hemorrhage or other cerebral vascular pathology. In some patients no cause is found. The exact incidence of a spinal

  13. Angiographic diagnosis of hemorrhage tumours of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadon, G.; Ehngloner, L.; Petri, K.

    1980-01-01

    2 angiographic investigations in small intestine tumors, accompanied with hemorrhage are considered. Conclusion is made that the most suitable moment for estimation of small intestine hemorrhage, according to the proper and literature data, is selective angiography. Wide application of the technique for preoperative detection of gastro-inestinal hemorrhage is recommended

  14. Dishevelled binds the Discs large 'Hook' domain to activate GukHolder-dependent spindle positioning in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Garcia

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical cell polarity cues and the mitotic spindle ensures proper orientation of cell divisions within complex tissues. Defects in mitotic spindle positioning have been linked to various developmental disorders and have recently emerged as a potential contributor to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of this process to human health, the molecular mechanisms that regulate spindle orientation are not fully understood. Moreover, it remains unclear how diverse cortical polarity complexes might cooperate to influence spindle positioning. We and others have demonstrated spindle orientation roles for Dishevelled (Dsh, a key regulator of planar cell polarity, and Discs large (Dlg, a conserved apico-basal cell polarity regulator, effects which were previously thought to operate within distinct molecular pathways. Here we identify a novel direct interaction between the Dsh-PDZ domain and the alternatively spliced "I3-insert" of the Dlg-Hook domain, thus establishing a potential convergent Dsh/Dlg pathway. Furthermore, we identify a Dlg sequence motif necessary for the Dsh interaction that shares homology to the site of Dsh binding in the Frizzled receptor. Expression of Dsh enhanced Dlg-mediated spindle positioning similar to deletion of the Hook domain. This Dsh-mediated activation was dependent on the Dlg-binding partner, GukHolder (GukH. These results suggest that Dsh binding may regulate core interdomain conformational dynamics previously described for Dlg. Together, our results identify Dlg as an effector of Dsh signaling and demonstrate a Dsh-mediated mechanism for the activation of Dlg/GukH-dependent spindle positioning. Cooperation between these two evolutionarily-conserved cell polarity pathways could have important implications to both the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in animals.

  15. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on the incidence of stroke subtypes among ethnic minority groups are limited. We assessed ethnic differences in the incidence of stroke subtypes in the Netherlands. METHODS: A Dutch nationwide register-based cohort study (n=7 423 174) was conducted between 1998 and 2010....... We studied the following stroke subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence differences between first-generation ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population (ethnic Dutch). RESULTS: Compared.......16-0.72), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.42; 0.20-0.88 and 0.34; 0.17-0.68) compared with ethnic Dutch counterparts. The results varied by stroke subtype and sex for the other minority groups. For example, Turkish women had a reduced incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas Turkish men had an increased incidence...

  16. [Selective embolization to treat obstetric hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Puchol, M D; Lanciego, C; Esteban, E; Ciampi, J J; Edo, M A; Ferragud, S

    2014-01-01

    To describe cases of obstetric hemorrhage that have called for selective intra-arterial embolization and the different embolization techniques used. To assess the clinical outcomes and postprocedural fertility. We studied 27 women with obstetric hemorrhage. In 24 patients, embolization was performed by catheterizing both uterine arteries and in 2 patients only one uterine artery was catheterized (pseudoaneurysm). The materials used for embolization consisted of Spongostan in 17/27, particles in 9/27, and coils in 1/27. Clinical follow-up included an analysis of early and late complications and of postprocedural fertility. Hemorrhage was classified as primary (25/27) or secondary (2/27). The cause of bleeding was vaginal delivery (20), cesarean sections (5), abortion (1), and cervical ectopic pregnancy (1). The initial technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 92.6% (25 of the 27 patients). Bleeding ceased and the outcome was satisfactory in 25 patients. During clinical follow-up ranging from one to seven years, 23 patients had normal menstruation and 6 patients completed 7 full-term pregnancies. Intra-arterial embolization for obstetric hemorrhage leads to good outcomes and few complications and it preserves fertility. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.

  19. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia clinical and molecular genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letteboer, T.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by vascular malformations in multiple organ systems. HHT has an age-related penetrance and variable clinical expression. The clinical symptoms are caused by direct

  20. Congo crimean hemorrhagic fever in balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, A.B.; Shaikh, M.; Khan, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To observe the pattern and mortality of Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Balochistan. Two hundred and twenty-six febrile patients with bleeding of sudden onset, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, vomiting, red eyes, flushed face, red throat and petechiae on the palate of both sexes were screened for CCHF over a period of 10 years. Clinical criteria for initial diagnosis directed the subsequent diagnostic work-up. The ages of these patients ranged from 7 years to 74 years. Sixty-three percent of these patients were positive for CCHF. Males were 68% of the total patients. Over the years, CCHF showed a gradual increase ranging from 43% to 80%. Total mortality was 15%, all being secondary cases. Death was not observed in primary CCHF cases. In this study, suspicion of viral hemorrhagic fever was raised in 62% cases at the time of admission and the patients were immediately isolated, noninvasive procedures were instigated and barrier nursing was implemented. None of the family and hospital staff members who had close contact with the patient became ill, while those who were not suspected initially (38%) infected the health care workers and the family members. Although CCHF is rare, this study stresses the need for proper health facilities in Pakistan and to include VHF (viral hemorrhagic fevers) in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever with hemorrhagic tendencies of sudden onset. (author)

  1. Symptomatic hemorrhagic complications associated with dural substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The increased risk of hemorrhagic complications associated with craniotomy is modified by choice of dural replacement. Our results could assist clinicians in their decision-making with respect to the optimal timing for synthetic dural substitutes in patients with tumor infiltration of the patient's dura, severe brain swelling in traumatic brain injury, or a result of shrinkage from exposure and electrocautery.

  2. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  3. Unraveling the distinctive features of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases using molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Raoni Almeida; Díaz, Natalia; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Suárez, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases are important toxins that play fundamental roles during envenomation. They share a structurally similar catalytic domain, but with diverse hemorrhagic capabilities. To understand the structural basis for this difference, we build and compare two dynamical models, one for the hemorrhagic atroxlysin-I from Bothrops atrox and the other for the non-hemorraghic leucurolysin-a from Bothrops leucurus. The analysis of the extended molecular dynamics simulations shows some changes in the local structure, flexibility and surface determinants that can contribute to explain the different hemorrhagic activity of the two enzymes. In agreement with previous results, the long Ω-loop (from residue 149 to 177) has a larger mobility in the hemorrhagic protein. In addition, we find some potentially-relevant differences at the base of the S1' pocket, what may be interesting for the structure-based design of new anti-venom agents. However, the sharpest differences in the computational models of atroxlysin-I and leucurolysin-a are observed in the surface electrostatic potential around the active site region, suggesting thus that the hemorrhagic versus non-hemorrhagic activity is probably determined by protein surface determinants.

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of uterine arterial embolization for intractable uterine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lang; Lu Lianwei; Ke Mengjia; Zhao Ru'en; Zeng Shaolan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of uterine arterial embolization (UAE) for intractable uterine hemorrhage. Methods: 16 patients with intractable uterine hemorrhage underwent bilateral UAE after failed conventional conservative treatment. Results: Uterine hemorrhage ceased within 12 hours in 15 patients (93.8%) after bilateral super-selective UAE. Internal iliac artery embolization was performed on one patient (6.2%) and hysterectomy was eventually carried out because of recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion: UAE is a rapid and effective treatment method obviating hysterectomy for intractable uterine hemorrhage. (authors)

  5. Disruption of spindle checkpoint function in rats following 28 days of repeated administration of renal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD(+) cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.

  6. Spindle-like thalamocortical synchronization in a rat brain slice preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, V; Biagini, G; D'Antuono, M; Louvel, J; Pumain, R; Avoli, M

    2000-08-01

    We obtained rat brain slices (550-650 microm) that contained part of the frontoparietal cortex along with a portion of the thalamic ventrobasal complex (VB) and of the reticular nucleus (RTN). Maintained reciprocal thalamocortical connectivity was demonstrated by VB stimulation, which elicited orthodromic and antidromic responses in the cortex, along with re-entry of thalamocortical firing originating in VB neurons excited by cortical output activity. In addition, orthodromic responses were recorded in VB and RTN following stimuli delivered in the cortex. Spontaneous and stimulus-induced coherent rhythmic oscillations (duration = 0.4-3.5 s; frequency = 9-16 Hz) occurred in cortex, VB, and RTN during application of medium containing low concentrations of the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (0.5-1 microM). This activity, which resembled electroencephalograph (EEG) spindles recorded in vivo, disappeared in both cortex and thalamus during application of the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid in VB (n = 6). By contrast, cortical application of kynurenic acid (n = 4) abolished spindle-like oscillations at this site, but not those recorded in VB, where their frequency was higher than under control conditions. Our findings demonstrate the preservation of reciprocally interconnected cortical and thalamic neuron networks that generate thalamocortical spindle-like oscillations in an in vitro rat brain slice. As shown in intact animals, these oscillations originate in the thalamus where they are presumably caused by interactions between RTN and VB neurons. We propose that this preparation may help to analyze thalamocortical synchronization and to understand the physiopathogenesis of absence attacks.

  7. Bir1 Deletion Causes Malfunction of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint and Apoptosis in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Qun; Liou, Liang-Chun; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    Cell division in yeast is a highly regulated and well studied event. Various checkpoints are placed throughout the cell cycle to ensure faithful segregation of sister chromatids. Unexpected events, such as DNA damage or oxidative stress, cause the activation of checkpoint(s) and cell cycle arrest. Malfunction of the checkpoints may induce cell death. We previously showed that under oxidative stress, the budding yeast cohesin Mcd1, a homolog of human Rad21, was cleaved by the caspase-like protease Esp1. The cleaved Mcd1 C-terminal fragment was then translocated to mitochondria, causing apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that Bir1 plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint and cell death. Similar to H 2 O 2 treatment, deletion of BIR1 using a BIR1-degron strain caused degradation of the securin Pds1, which binds and inactivates Esp1 until metaphase-anaphase transition in a normal cell cycle. BIR1 deletion caused an increase level of ROS and mis-location of Bub1, a major protein for spindle assembly checkpoint. In wild type, Bub1 was located at the kinetochores, but was primarily in the cytoplasm in bir1 deletion strain. When BIR1 was deleted, addition of nocodazole was unable to retain the Bub1 localization on kinetochores, further suggesting that Bir1 is required to activate and maintain the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our study suggests that the BIR1 function in cell cycle regulation works in concert with its anti-apoptosis function.

  8. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of kidney: A clinicopathologic study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucinous tubular and spindle carcinoma (MTSCC of kidney is a rare, low-grade polymorphic tumor. Recent studies have described a wide morphology spectrum of this tumor. Aim: To report the clinico-pathologic features of six cases of MTSCC of kidney. Materials and Methods: Six cases of MTSCC of kidney were studied and literature was reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was done by Envision method. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 44 to 84 years (mean 58.5 years. Four patients were males and two were females. The tumor was located in the left kidney in four cases and in the right kidney in two cases. The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 15 cm (mean 6.4 cm. All tumors exhibited an admixture of tubules, spindle cells, and mucinous stroma in variable proportions. Tubules were predominant in five cases and spindle cells in one case. Psammomatous calcifications, papillations, and necrosis were seen in two cases. Collections of foamy histiocytes were noted in four cases. Cytoplasmic vacuoles and osseous metaplasia were seen in one case each. All cases were Fuhrman′s nuclear grade II. Five cases were of stage pT1, and one was pT3. All cases stained positive for alcian blue at pH 2.5. Immunohistochemical stain CK7 was positive in all cases and CD10 was positive in 1/1 case. All patients were alive and well at follow-up of 12-59 months (mean 33.5 months. No metastases were detected. Conclusions: We report six cases of MTSCC of kidney, a rare distinct variant of RCC, with a favorable prognosis. A male predominance was seen in our cases. MTSCC shares histologic and immunohistochemical overlap with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC and cytogenetic analysis should be performed in difficult cases to avoid a misdiagnosis.

  9. Parameter Estimation of the Thermal Network Model of a Machine Tool Spindle by Self-made Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chieh Lo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characteristic analysis is essential for machine tool spindles because sudden failures may occur due to unexpected thermal issue. This article presents a lumped-parameter Thermal Network Model (TNM and its parameter estimation scheme, including hardware and software, in order to characterize both the steady-state and transient thermal behavior of machine tool spindles. For the hardware, the authors develop a Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module (BTSM which accompanying with three types of temperature-sensing probes (magnetic, screw, and probe. Its specification, through experimental test, achieves to the precision ±(0.1 + 0.0029|t| °C, resolution 0.00489 °C, power consumption 7 mW, and size Ø40 mm × 27 mm. For the software, the heat transfer characteristics of the machine tool spindle correlative to rotating speed are derived based on the theory of heat transfer and empirical formula. The predictive TNM of spindles was developed by grey-box estimation and experimental results. Even under such complicated operating conditions as various speeds and different initial conditions, the experiments validate that the present modeling methodology provides a robust and reliable tool for the temperature prediction with normalized mean square error of 99.5% agreement, and the present approach is transferable to the other spindles with a similar structure. For realizing the edge computing in smart manufacturing, a reduced-order TNM is constructed by Model Order Reduction (MOR technique and implemented into the real-time embedded system.

  10. Slow Freezing or Vitrification of Oocytes: Their Effects on Survival and Meiotic Spindles, and the Time Schedule for Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shee-Uan Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the slow-freezing method with increased sucrose concentration and new vitrification techniques significantly improve the results of cryopreservation of human oocytes. The recent perfection for vitrification includes the concepts of increase of cooling and warming rates using minimum volume methods, and decrease of toxicity by reducing the concentration of cryoprotectants. In the recent literature, the survival of cryopreserved oocytes ranged from 74% to 90% using the slow-freezing method and from 84% to 99% by vitrification. Overall, the survival rate of oocytes from vitrification (95%, 899/948 appeared higher than that of the slow-freezing method (75%, 1,275/1,683. The microtubules of meiotic spindles are vulnerable to the thermal changes and will depolymerize. After incubation, the microtubules repolymerize. Spindle recovery is faster after vitrification than slow freezing. Even so, after 3 hours of incubation, spindle recuperation is similar between vitrification and slow freezing. Considering both aspects of spindle recovery and oocyte aging, the time schedule for oocyte cryopreservation program makes fertilization in the optimal time. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is performed for oocytes at 3 hours of post-thaw incubation from the slow-freezing method and 2 hours from vitrification, with restoration of meiotic spindles. The pregnancy potential of cryopreserved oocytes is comparable to that of fresh oocytes or frozen embryos. Cryopreservation of oocytes would importantly contribute to oocyte donation and preservation of fertility for cancer patients.

  11. Functional recovery and surgical indication in putaminal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsu, Kazuhiko

    1983-01-01

    Forty-one cases of varied sized putaminal hemorrhage were classified into 4 types according to the precise localization on CT (Fig. 1). All cases with large-sized hemorrhage (more than 4-5 cm in the actual diameter) were treated surgically regardless of their types in CT classification. ADL was assessed 6 months after the onset in all 41 cases, and in 17 of these Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) was also given 1 to 3 months after the dominant hemispheric hemorrhage. Type I hemorrhage usually showed excellent ADL independently of the size of the hemorrhage (Table 3). In type II hemorrhage, the ADL is determined by the extent of the lesion and tended to deteriorate as the size of the hemorrhage increased (Table 4). Type III hemorrhage resumed less favorable ADL than the type II did (Table 5), and there was scarcely any functional recovery in Type IV hemorrhage (Table 6). On SLTA, impairment of the speaking ability was the prominant feature when the hemorrhage was primarily located in the anterior portion of the insula, while the hearing ability was more markedly impaired in the posteriorly located lesion. These location-dependent specific patterns of impairment on SLTA are schematically presented in Fig. 12. From these results described above, the author's CT classification is considered to be very useful not only in forecasting the prospects of functional recovery, but in determining the surgical indication in putaminal hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Kawashima, Masatou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  13. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki [Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Yakushiji, Yusuke [Saga University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Saga University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  14. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistency of the current classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages is discussed in the article. The author explains divergence of including of the subependymal (1st stage and intracerebral (4th stage hemorrhages into this classification. A new classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages including their origin, phases and stages is offered. The most common origin of intraventricular hemorrhages is subependymal hemorrhage (82,2%. Two phases of hemorrhage were distinguished: bleeding phase and resorption phase. Stages of intraventricular hemorrhages reflecting the blood movement after the onset of bleeding are the following: 1 — infill of the up to ½ of the lateral ventricles without their enlargement; 2 — infill of more than ½ of the lateral ventricles with their enlargement; 3 — infill of the IV ventricle, of the cerebellomedullary cistern and its dislocation into the subarachnoid space of the cerebellum, pons varolii, medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

  15. Characterization of hemorrhages in the tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; McEvoy, Fintan; Larsen, Helle Daugaard

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, all columns were radiographed and two were CT scanned. Histologically, the muscle hemorrhages contained cells from bone marrow and growth line cartilage. Ventral epiphysiolysis in either the cranial or caudal epiphysis of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) in 8 out of the 9 vertebral columns......Muscle hemorrhages are regularly observed in especially the tip of the tenderloin muscles of slaughter pigs. In order to characterize the hemorrhages, a macro- and microscopic examination of tenderloins with (n = 5) and without (n = 4) hemorrhages and the associated vertebral column was carried out...... was present. In the 5 cases with tenderloin hemorrhage, similar hemorrhage with growth line cartilage was found within the fracture of the epiphysis. The hemorrhages develop secondarily to epiphysiolysis in the lumbar vertebrae, where the tenderloin attaches to the spine. The lesions probably develop around...

  16. Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck

    OpenAIRE

    Chon W.; Amano R. S.

    2005-01-01

    When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Do...

  17. Msd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchorage ensures spindle orientation and primary cilia formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Akiko; Ikebe, Chiho; Tada, Masazumi; Toda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring microtubules to the centrosome is critical for cell geometry and polarity, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that the conserved human Msd1/SSX2IP is required for microtubule anchoring. hMsd1/SSX2IP is delivered to the centrosome in a centriolar satellite-dependent manner and binds the microtubule-nucleator ?-tubulin complex. hMsd1/SSX2IP depletion leads to disorganised interphase microtubules and misoriented mitotic spindles with reduced length and intensity....

  18. Pathogenesis of lober intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naoto; Namba, Hiroki; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Isoda, Haruo; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lober intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Although leptomeningeal and cortical arteries with the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) have been thought to rupture in CAA, the pathogenesis of CAA-related hemorrhage still remains obscure. We studied 10 cases of CAA according to the Boston criteria from April 2006 to July 2009 in Omaezaki Municipal Hospital. Based on clinical data, we examined the primary site of hemorrhage and hypothesized the mechanisms of bleeding. Intracerebral hematoma evacuation was performed to alleviate neurological deteriolation in 2 patients and to make diagnosis in 3 patients. The surgical specimens were pathologically examined. The characteristic MR images of CAA related hemorrhage were characterized by microbleeds, superficial siderosis, subpial or subarachnoid hemorrhage, subcortical hemorrhage and lober intracerebral hemorrhage. Chronological images obtained in 1 patient revealed that lober intracerebral hemorrhage developed from microbleed with subpial hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage in one side of the cortex in the affected facing cerebral sulci. Operative findings showed subpial and subarachnoid hemorrhages around the cortical veins on the affected cerebral sulci in all cases. Abnormal fragile vessels existed in one side of the cortex of the affected sulci but not in the other side of the cortex. Complete hamatoma evacuation was performed in 4 cases. The surgical specimens of the hematoma and the adjacent brain parenchyma were pathologically examined by tissue staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Many vessels in subpial, subcortical and subarachnoid space along the cerebral sulci were deposited with Aβ. From these findings, we speculated that the primary hemorrhage related to CAA occurred from the cortical arteries with Aβ deposition in the subpial space along the cerebral sulci and formed a lober intracerebral hematoma. Subarachnoid

  19. EFHC1, a protein mutated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, associates with the mitotic spindle through its N-terminus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Laurence de; Lakaye, Bernard; Coumans, Bernard; Leon, Christine; Ikeda, Takashi; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V.; Grisar, Thierry; Chanas, Grazyna

    2006-01-01

    A novel gene, EFHC1, mutated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) encodes a protein with three DM10 domains of unknown function and one putative EF-hand motif. To study the properties of EFHC1, we expressed EGFP-tagged protein in various cell lines. In interphase cells, the fusion protein was present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus with specific accumulation at the centrosome. During mitosis EGFP-EFHC1 colocalized with the mitotic spindle, especially at spindle poles and with the midbody during cytokinesis. Using a specific antibody, we demonstrated the same distribution of the endogenous protein. Deletion analyses revealed that the N-terminal region of EFHC1 is crucial for the association with the mitotic spindle and the midbody. Our results suggest that EFHC1 could play an important role during cell division

  20. v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B, and INCENP from the spindle midzone during cytokinesis failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Shuhei [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Nakayama, Yuji, E-mail: nakayama@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchi-cho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8414 (Japan); Honda, Takuya; Aoki, Azumi; Tamura, Naoki; Abe, Kohei; Fukumoto, Yasunori [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    Src-family tyrosine kinases are aberrantly activated in cancers, and this activation is associated with malignant tumor progression. v-Src, encoded by the v-src transforming gene of the Rous sarcoma virus, is a mutant variant of the cellular proto-oncogene c-Src. Although investigations with temperature sensitive mutants of v-Src have shown that v-Src induces many oncogenic processes, the effects on cell division are unknown. Here, we show that v-Src inhibits cellular proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that inducible expression of v-Src results in an accumulation of 4N cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that binucleation is induced through the inhibition of cytokinesis, a final step of cell division. The localization of Mklp1, which is essential for cytokinesis, to the spindle midzone is inhibited in v-Src-expressing cells. Intriguingly, Aurora B, which regulates Mklp1 localization at the midzone, is delocalized from the spindle midzone and the midbody but not from the metaphase chromosomes upon v-Src expression. Mklp2, which is responsible for the relocation of Aurora B from the metaphase chromosomes to the spindle midzone, is also lost from the spindle midzone. These results suggest that v-Src inhibits cytokinesis through the delocalization of Mklp1 and Aurora B from the spindle midzone, resulting in binucleation. -- Highlights: • v-Src inhibits cell proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. • v-Src induces binucleation together with cytokinesis failure. • v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B and INCENP from the spindle midzone.

  1. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in Arabidopsis Is Rapidly Shut Off during Severe Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Shinichiro; Schnittger, Arp

    2017-10-23

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in animals and yeast assures equal segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The prevalent occurrence of polyploidy in flowering plants together with the observation that many plants can be readily forced to double their genomes by application of microtubule drugs raises the question of whether plants have a proper SAC. Here, we provide a functional framework of the core SAC proteins in Arabidopsis. We reveal that Arabidopsis will delay mitosis in a SAC-dependent manner if the spindle is perturbed. However, we also show that the molecular architecture of the SAC is unique in plants. Moreover, the SAC is short-lived and cannot stay active for more than 2 hr, after which the cell cycle is reset. This resetting opens the possibility for genome duplications and raises the hypothesis that a rapid termination of a SAC-induced mitotic arrest provides an adaptive advantage for plants impacting plant genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. E-cadherin is required for centrosome and spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Inaba

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many adult stem cells reside in a special microenvironment known as the niche, where they receive essential signals that specify stem cell identity. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin and integrin plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cells within the niche. In Drosophila melanogaster, male germline stem cells (GSCs are attached to niche component cells (i.e., the hub via adherens junctions. The GSC centrosomes and spindle are oriented toward the hub-GSC junction, where E-cadherin-based adherens junctions are highly concentrated. For this reason, adherens junctions are thought to provide a polarity cue for GSCs to enable proper orientation of centrosomes and spindles, a critical step toward asymmetric stem cell division. However, understanding the role of E-cadherin in GSC polarity has been challenging, since GSCs carrying E-cadherin mutations are not maintained in the niche. Here, we tested whether E-cadherin is required for GSC polarity by expressing a dominant-negative form of E-cadherin. We found that E-cadherin is indeed required for polarizing GSCs toward the hub cells, an effect that may be mediated by Apc2. We also demonstrated that E-cadherin is required for the GSC centrosome orientation checkpoint, which prevents mitosis when centrosomes are not correctly oriented. We propose that E-cadherin orchestrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior, including polarization of stem cells toward the stem cell-niche interface and adhesion of stem cells to the niche supporting cells.

  3. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Tool-Spindle Interface Based on RCSA and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the stability of machining processes, the tool point frequency response functions (FRFs should be obtained initially. By the receptance coupling substructure analysis (RCSA, the tool point FRFs can be generated quickly for any combination of holder and tool without the need of repeated measurements. A major difficulty in the sub-structuring analysis is to determine the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface. This study proposed an identification method to recognize the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface by using RCSA and particle swarm optimization (PSO. In this paper, the XHK machining center is divided into two components, which are the tool and the spindle assembly firstly. After that, the end point FRFs of the tool are achieved by mode superposition method. The end receptances of the spindle assembly with complicated structure are obtained by impacting test method. Through translational and rotational springs and dampers, the tool point FRF of the machining center is obtained by coupling the two components. Finally, PSO is adopted to identify the connection parameters at the tool-holder interface by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured tool point FRFs. Comparison results between the predicted and measured tool point FRFs show a good agreement and demonstrate that the identification method is valid in the identification of connection parameters at the tool-holder interface.

  4. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  5. Inhibition of CDK7 bypasses spindle assembly checkpoint via premature cyclin B degradation during oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HaiYang; Jo, Yu-Jin; Sun, Tian-Yi; Namgoong, Suk; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-12-01

    To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset by preventing the premature activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until all kinetochores are attached to the spindle. Although an escape from mitosis in the presence of unsatisfied SAC has been shown in several cancer cells, it has not been reported in oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent a bypass of SAC during meiosis I in mouse oocytes. Inhibition of CDK7 using THZ1 accelerated the first meiosis, leading to chromosome misalignment, lag of chromosomes during chromosome segregation, and a high incidence of aneuploidy. Notably, this acceleration occurred in the presence of SAC proteins including Mad2 and Bub3 at the kinetochores. However, inhibition of APC/C-mediated cyclin B degradation blocked the THZ1-induced premature polar body extrusion. Moreover, chromosomal defects mediated by THZ1 were rescued when anaphase onset was delayed. Collectively, our results show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent premature anaphase onset by suppressing the bypass of SAC, thus ensuring chromosome alignment and proper segregation. These findings reveal new roles of CDK7 in the regulation of meiosis in mammalian oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Xanthium strumarium extract inhibits mammalian cell proliferation through mitotic spindle disruption mediated by xanthatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Piloto-Ferrer, Janet; Fiore, Mario; Stano, Pasquale; Cozzi, Renata; Tofani, Daniela; Cundari, Enrico; Francisco, Marbelis; Romero, Aylema; González, Maria L; Degrassi, Francesca

    2016-12-24

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family popularly used with multiple therapeutic purposes. Whole extracts of this plant have shown anti-mitotic activity in vitro suggesting that some components could induce mitotic arrest in proliferating cells. Aim of the present work was to characterize the anti-mitotic properties of the X. strumarium whole extract and to isolate and purify active molecule(s). The capacity of the whole extract to inhibit mitotic progression in mammalian cultured cells was investigated to identify its anti-mitotic activity. Isolation of active component(s) was performed using a bioassay-guided multistep separation procedure in which whole extract was submitted to a progressive process of fractionation and fractions were challenged for their anti-mitotic activity. Our results show for the first time that X. strumarium whole extract inhibits assembly of the mitotic spindle and spindle-pole separation, thereby heavily affecting mitosis, impairing the metaphase to anaphase transition and inducing apoptosis. The purification procedure led to a fraction with an anti-mitotic activity comparable to that of the whole extract. Chemical analysis of this fraction showed that its major component was xanthatin. The present work shows a new activity of X. strumarium extract, i.e. the alteration of the mitotic apparatus in cultured cells that may be responsible for the anti-proliferative activity of the extract. Anti-mitotic activity is shown to be mainly exerted by xanthatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  8. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, En-Ju; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Pao-Chi; Tang, Tang K

    2016-03-29

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LOX is a novel mitotic spindle-associated protein essential for mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufraqech, Myriem; Wei, Darmood; Weyemi, Urbain; Zhang, Lisa; Quezado, Martha; Kalab, Petr; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-05-17

    LOX regulates cancer progression in a variety of human malignancies. It is overexpressed in aggressive cancers and higher expression of LOX is associated with higher cancer mortality. Here, we report a new function of LOX in mitosis. We show that LOX co-localizes to mitotic spindles from metaphase to telophase, and p-H3(Ser10)-positive cells harbor strong LOX staining. Further, purification of mitotic spindles from synchronized cells show that LOX fails to bind to microtubules in the presence of nocodazole, whereas paclitaxel treated samples showed enrichment in LOX expression, suggesting that LOX binds to stabilized microtubules. LOX knockdown leads to G2/M phase arrest; reduced p-H3(Ser10), cyclin B1, CDK1, and Aurora B. Moreover, LOX knockdown significantly increased sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents that target microtubules. Our findings suggest that LOX has a role in cancer cell mitosis and may be targeted to enhance the activity of microtubule inhibitors for cancer therapy.

  10. Mto2 multisite phosphorylation inactivates non-spindle microtubule nucleation complexes during mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Weronika E.; Groocock, Lynda M.; Samejima, Itaru; Zou, Juan; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sawin, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule nucleation is highly regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. During mitosis in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation ceases simultaneously with intranuclear mitotic spindle assembly. Cytoplasmic nucleation depends on the Mto1/2 complex, which binds and activates the γ-tubulin complex and also recruits the γ-tubulin complex to both centrosomal (spindle pole body) and non-centrosomal sites. Here we show that the Mto1/2 complex disassembles during mitosis, coincident with hyperphosphorylation of Mto2 protein. By mapping and mutating multiple Mto2 phosphorylation sites, we generate mto2-phosphomutant strains with enhanced Mto1/2 complex stability, interaction with the γ-tubulin complex and microtubule nucleation activity. A mutant with 24 phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine, mto2[24A], retains interphase-like behaviour even in mitotic cells. This provides a molecular-level understanding of how phosphorylation ‘switches off' microtubule nucleation complexes during the cell cycle and, more broadly, illuminates mechanisms regulating non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. PMID:26243668

  11. Localization of spindle checkpoint proteins in cells undergoing mitosis with unreplicated genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Kathrine; Cooksey, Amanda M; Wise, Dwayne A

    2008-11-01

    CHO cells can be arrested with hydoxyurea at the beginning of the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. Subsequent treatment with the xanthine, caffeine, induces cells to bypass the S-phase checkpoint and enter unscheduled mitosis [Schlegel and Pardee,1986, Science 232:1264-1266]. These treated cells build a normal spindle and distribute kinetochores, unattached to chromosomes, to their daughter cells [Brinkley et al.,1988, Nature 336:251-254; Zinkowski et al.,1991, J Cell Biol 113:1091-1110; Wise and Brinkley,1997, Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 36:291-302; Balczon et al.,2003, Chromosoma 112:96-102]. To investigate how these cells distribute kinetochores to daughter cells, we analyzed the spindle checkpoint components, Mad2, CENP-E, and the 3F3 phosphoepitope, using immunofluorescence and digital microscopy. Even though the kinetochores were unpaired and DNA was fragmented, the tension, alignment, and motor components of the checkpoint were found to be present and localized as predicted in prometaphase and metaphase. This unusual mitosis proves that a cell can successfully localize checkpoint proteins and divide even when kinetochores are unpaired and fragmented. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor ispinesib (SB-715992) in models of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, James W; Davis, Jefferson; Reddy, Mamatha; Martin, Shamra; Samayoa, Kimberly; Vo, Hung; Thomsen, Karen; Bean, Peter; Kuo, Wen Lin; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Billig, Jessica; Feiler, Heidi S; Gray, Joe W; Wood, Kenneth W; Cases, Sylvaine

    2009-06-10

    Ispinesib (SB-715992) is a potent inhibitor of kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a kinesin motor protein essential for the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle and cell cycle progression through mitosis. Clinical studies of ispinesib have demonstrated a 9% response rate in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, and a favorable safety profile without significant neurotoxicities, gastrointestinal toxicities or hair loss. To better understand the potential of ispinesib in the treatment of breast cancer we explored the activity of ispinesib alone and in combination several therapies approved for the treatment of breast cancer. We measured the ispinesib sensitivity and pharmacodynamic response of breast cancer cell lines representative of various subtypes in vitro and as xenografts in vivo, and tested the ability of ispinesib to enhance the anti-tumor activity of approved therapies. In vitro, ispinesib displayed broad anti-proliferative activity against a panel of 53 breast cell-lines. In vivo, ispinesib produced regressions in each of five breast cancer models, and tumor free survivors in three of these models. The effects of ispinesib treatment on pharmacodynamic markers of mitosis and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo, revealing a greater increase in both mitotic and apoptotic markers in the MDA-MB-468 model than in the less sensitive BT-474 model. In vivo, ispinesib enhanced the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab, lapatinib, doxorubicin, and capecitabine, and exhibited activity comparable to paclitaxel and ixabepilone. These findings support further clinical exploration of KSP inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Observational Study on the Occurrence of Muscle Spindles in Human Digastric and Mylohyoideus Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Saverino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3–7 MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0–2 in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference (P<0.001 was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS.

  14. THE SPINDLE: AN IRRADIATED DISK AND BENT PROTOSTELLAR JET IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John; Youngblood, Allison; Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: Allison.Youngblood@colorado.edu, E-mail: Adam.Ginsburg@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of a bent, pulsed Herbig-Haro jet, HH 1064, emerging from the young star Parenago 2042 embedded in the H II region NGC 1977 located about 30' north of the Orion Nebula. This outflow contains eight bow shocks in the redshifted western lobe and five bow shocks in the blueshifted eastern lobe. Shocks within a few thousand AU of the source star exhibit proper motions of {approx}160 km s{sup -1} but motions decrease with increasing distance. Parenago 2042 is embedded in a proplyd-a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk. A remarkable set of H{alpha} arcs resembling a spindle surround the redshifted (western) jet. The largest arc with a radius of 500 AU may trace the ionized edge of a circumstellar disk inclined by {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The spindle may be the photoionized edge of either a {approx}3 km s{sup -1} FUV-driven wind from the outer disk or a faster MHD-powered flow from an inner disk. The HH 1064 jet appears to be deflected north by photoablation of the south-facing side of a mostly neutral jet beam. V2412 Ori, located 1' west of Parenago 2042 drives a second bent flow, HH 1065. Both HH 1064 and 1065 are surrounded by LL Ori-type bows marking the boundary between the outflow cavity and the surrounding nebula.

  15. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Ju Chou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Flexural Vibrations in Hard Disk Drive Spindle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, SEUNGCHUL

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the flexural vibration analysis of the hard disk drive (HDD) spindle system by means of the finite element method. In contrast to previous research, every system component is here analytically modelled taking into account its structural flexibility and also the centrifugal effect particularly on the disk. To prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the formulated models, commercial HDD systems with two and three identical disks are selected as examples. Then their major natural modes are computed with only a small number of element meshes as the shaft rotational speed is varied, and subsequently compared with the existing numerical results obtained using other methods and newly acquired experimental ones. Based on such a series of studies, the proposed method can be concluded as a very promising tool for the design of HDDs and various other high-performance computer disk drives such as floppy disk drives, CD ROM drives, and their variations having spindle mechanisms similar to those of HDDs.

  17. Drosophila Polo regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint through Mps1-dependent BubR1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carlos; Osswald, Mariana; Barbosa, João; Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana; Pinheiro, Diana; Guimarães, Sofia; Matos, Irina; Maiato, Helder; Sunkel, Claudio E

    2013-06-12

    Maintenance of genomic stability during eukaryotic cell division relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that prevents mitotic exit until all chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle. Polo is a mitotic kinase proposed to be involved in SAC function, but its role has remained elusive. We demonstrate that Polo and Aurora B functional interdependency comprises a positive feedback loop that promotes Mps1 kinetochore localization and activity. Expression of constitutively active Polo restores normal Mps1 kinetochore levels even after Aurora B inhibition, highlighting a role for Polo in Mps1 recruitment to unattached kinetochores downstream of Aurora B. We also show that Mps1 kinetochore localization is required for BubR1 hyperphosphorylation and formation of the 3F3/2 phosphoepitope. This is essential to allow recruitment of Cdc20 to unattached kinetochores and the assembly of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-inhibitory complexes to levels that ensure long-term SAC activity. We propose a model in which Polo controls Mps1-dependent BubR1 phosphorylation to promote Cdc20 kinetochore recruitment and sustained SAC function.

  18. Molecular basis of APC/C regulation by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-01-01

    In the dividing eukaryotic cell the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a multimeric assembly that inhibits the APC/C, delaying chromosome segregation. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy we determined the near-atomic resolution structure of an APC/C-MCC complex (APC/CMCC). We reveal how degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit (Cdc20APC/C) responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of UbcH10 (APC/C’s initiating E2) to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex allows for UbcH10 association, and we show from a structure of APC/CMCC in complex with UbcH10 how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20MCC) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced. PMID:27509861

  19. Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast as complex cystic lesion: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Hayashi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yoshinari; Ishibashi, Kei; Oikawa, Keisuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. This tumor can proliferate rapidly and cause cystic changes because of internal tissue necrosis. We evaluated a 54-year-old woman with right breast lump. Mammography showed a category four mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm. Ultrasonography (US) revealed a complex cystic lesion, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology demonstrated bloody fluid and malignant cells. Partial breast resection and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Immunohistology revealed spindle cells with positive results for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin, partially positive results for s-100, and negative results for desmin and α-actin. The pathological stage was IIA, and biochemical characterization showed that the tumor was triple negative. Six courses of FEC-100 chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m 2 , epirubicin 100 mg/m 2 , and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m 2 ) were administered. Radiotherapy was performed. This case is discussed with reference to the literature

  20. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  1. Neurogenic stunned myocardium following hemorrhagic cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleu, D.; Miyares, F.; Kettern, M.; Kumar, S.; Hassens, Y.; Salim, K.

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium NSM is a well-known complication of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but has been reported rarely in association with other central nervous system disorders. A case of NSM is described in a patient with hemorrhagic brain contusion associated with cerebral edema. An 18-year-old man was admitted with severe cranial trauma following a car roll-over. Six days after admission, he developed findings suggestive for NSM. The troponin T and creatine kinase-MB level were elevated and echocardiogram showed apical and inferoposterior hypokinesis and diffuse left ventricular akinesis with severely reduced ejection fraction 18%. Invasive measurements confirmed low cardiac output. His cardiac function resolved completely within 6 days after decompressive craniotomy. This case supports the presumed unifying role of the increased intracranial pressure, probably triggering a vigorous sympathetic outflow hyperactivity leading to NSM. (author)

  2. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  3. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  4. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  5. Glucose assisted synthesis of hollow spindle LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiaoning; Chang, Zhaorong; Chang, Kun; Li, Bao; Tang, Hongwei; Shangguan, Enbo; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. - Highlights: • A pure and well-crystallized LiMnPO_4 are synthesized via a solution-phase method. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite constitutes highly and uniformly distributed hollow spindles. • The LiMnPO_4/C composite exhibits a high specific capacity and cycling performance. • The growth process of the hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 particles is revealed. - Abstract: Nano-sized hollow spindle LiMnPO_4 with a well-developed olivine-type structure was synthesized with the assistance of glucose in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/H_2O under ambient pressure and 108 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the LiMnPO_4 particles consist of hollow spindles with a mean width of 200 nm, length of 500-700 nm, and wall thickness of about 30-60 nm. The LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite was obtained by sintering nano-sized LiMnPO_4 with glucose at 650 °C under an inert atmosphere for 4 h. With a coated carbon thickness of about 10 nm, the obtained composite maintained the morphology and size of the hollow spindle. The electrochemical tests show the specific capacity of LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite is 161.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.05C, 137.7 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 110.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2 C. The retention of discharge capacity maintains 92% after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. After different rate cycles the high capacity of the LiMnPO_4/C nanocomposite can be recovered. This high performance is attributed to the composite material's hollow spindle structure, which facilitates the electrolyte infiltration, resulting in an increased solid-liquid interface. The carbon layer covering the hollow spindle also contributes to the high performance of the LiMnPO_4/C material as the carbon layer improves its electronic conductivity and the nano-scaled wall thickness decreases the paths of Li

  6. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of kidney: A rare case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geramizadeh Bita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Low grade mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of kidney was newly established as a distinct renal cell carcinoma in the World Health Organization (WHO classification of 2004. Until now, less than 60 cases have been reported and the largest series represented approximately 15 patients with this type of tumor. Herein, we report a case of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma in a 63-year-old male presented with right flank pain which was diagnosed after nephrectomy. Pathologists should consider this diagnosis and its spectrum of histopathologic features in mind to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

  7. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  8. Stereotactic aspiration for hypertensive pontine hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Hidetoshi; Morii, Ken; Sato, Mitsuya; Sekiguchi, Kentaro; Sato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    Recently, CT-guided stereotactic aspiration has been attempted as a useful method for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Since the CT scanner was introduced in our clinic, we have experienced 55 cases with hypertensive pontine hemorrhage. We carried out stereotactic aspiration in nine cases consisting of four men and five women, ranging in age from 34 to 66 years. Operation was performed between 4 and 22 days after the hemorrhage (mean: 7.7 days). On the other hand, 46 cases were conservatively treated. They consisted of 31 men and 15 women, aged from 31 to 79 years, with a mean age of 55.5 years. The purpose of this study is to review the outcome at three months after the onset, and then to evaluate the clinical value of this method for hypertensive pontine hemorrhage. We have analyzed the outcome from the viewpoint of consciousness level, CT classification, and maximum transverse hematoma diameter on CT scan. In the present study, there was a statistically significant correlation between consciousness level and outcome in the conservative group. The outcome in the operated-on group tended to be superior to that in the conservatively treated group. Particularly, in cases of Japan Coma Scale 10 to 100, functionally favorable effects were considered to be obtained by stereotactic aspiration. According to CT classification, operation was considered to have exerted functionally favorable effects on unilateral basis tegmentum type and bilateral tegmentum type. The conservatively treated group showed a statistically significant correlation between maximum transverse hematoma diameter and outcome. A favorable prognosis was considered to be induced by operation in cases of 22 to 28 mm in maximum transverse hematoma diameter. (author)

  9. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Horta Veloso

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  10. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  11. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  12. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  13. A study on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa

    1982-01-01

    We studied 235 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage by CT for about five years. An acute intracerebral hematoma is characterized by sharply delineated high density area. Repeated CT examinations demonstrate reduction in size of the high density hematoma after intervals of 20 - 40 days. And then, in general, the areas formerly occupied with hematoma show normal or reduced density. One or two days after hemorrhage, the high density is surrounded by a thin low density zone. After a few days the low density area is seen at the anterior and posterior pole of the high density in the white matter. These low density are produced by edema or resolving hematoma. About five days after hemorrhage, high density area is associated with wide surrounding low density zone of edema and then gradually diminishes in size. The wide low density zone surrounding the high density of hematoma persisting for over 15 days is probably composed not only of edema, but also of liquefied hematoma, necrotic brain tissue and so on. Enlarged hematoma and surrounding low density area extend to anterior, posterior, superior and inferior direction in the white matter. CT studies with i.v. contrast enhancement demonstrate from the 2nd to 4th weeks a ring-shaped high density around the hematoma. We classified each of the putaminal and thalamic hemorrhage into four types based on CT findings of hematoma advancement. In this study, a statistical method of Speareman's coefficients of rank correlation was utilized. According to this investigation, the important factors influencing prognosis and operative results were found to be the CT findings including the location and size of a hematoma, as well as the rapidity and the direction of its evolution. (J.P.N.)

  14. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  15. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  16. Impaired Work Productivity After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Elizabeth A; Price, Thomas J; Bender, Catherine M; Ren, Dianxu; Poloyac, Samuel M; Sherwood, Paula R

    2016-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a sudden debilitating condition affecting individuals during the most productive times of their lives. Treatment advances have reduced mortality rates but increased the number of survivors facing deficits in physical and neuropsychological function. This study examined associations between neuropsychological function and work productivity after aSAH. Fifty-two patients with aSAH, employed before hemorrhage, were recruited from an ongoing National Institutes of Health study. Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), neuropsychological tests (executive function, psychomotor speed, attention and mental flexibility, memory), and Patient Assessment of Own Function were completed at 3 and 12 months after aSAH. Subjects in this analysis reported some level of difficulty in work productivity at 3 and 12 months (35% and 30%, respectively) after hemorrhage. Lower WLQ scores in time management and mental/interpersonal subscales were associated with poorer performance in psychomotor function (r = .5, p = .04 and r = .42, p = .09). Poorer mental flexibility and working memory correlated with time management difficulty at 3 months (r = -.4, p = .09 and r = .54, p = .02). Patients performing poorly on story recall tests were more likely to report difficulty with job physical performance (r = -.42, p = .09) and completing work effectively (r = .61, p = .009). Poorer working memory performance was associated with lower scores on mental/interpersonal WLQ subscales (r = .45, p = .05) and overall health-related work productivity loss (r = .47, p = .04). WLQ areas also correlated with participants' perception of their neuropsychological function after aSAH. These results suggest that neuropsychological deficits impact work quality after hemorrhage and provide strong impetus for future studies so that domain-specific interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes that affect quality of life including work productivity.

  17. [Hemorrhagic syndrome after transfusion of incompatible blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Z D; Bsryshev, B A; Khanin, A Z; Chuslov, A G

    1979-11-01

    The patients were observed by a reanimation-hematological team of the Leningrad emergency service. It has been established that the hemorrhagic syndrome is the main one deterimining the unity of pathogenesis and clinical picture of the hemotransfusional complication. Phase character of the changes in the homeostasis system during the transfusion of incompatible blood was noted. The express diagnosis of the disorders and a scheme of the sequence of administration of hemostatic drugs are proposed. Mortality among such patients was reduced.

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  19. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  20. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Perna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n=172 or hemorrhagic stroke (n=112 within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4 at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  1. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, T; Maki, Y; Ono, Y; Yoshizawa, T; Tsuboi, K [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the hematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation together with the ventricular drainage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases.

  2. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Tadao; Maki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukio; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Tsuboi, Kohji

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the mematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation togather with the ventricular dranage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases. (author)

  3. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  4. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Belma; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  5. Hemorrhage control by microsecond electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Yossi; Manivanh, Richard; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Phil; Wang, Jenny; Brinton, Mark; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Non-compressible hemorrhages are the most common preventable cause of death on battlefield or in civilian traumatic injuries. We report the use of sub-millisecond pulses of electric current to induce rapid constriction in femoral and mesenteric arteries and veins in rats. Extent of vascular constriction could be modulated by pulse duration, amplitude and repetition rate. Electrically-induced vasoconstriction could be maintained at steady level until the end of stimulation, and blood vessels dilated back to their original size within a few minutes after the end of stimulation. At higher settings, a blood clotting could be introduced, leading to complete and permanent occlusion of the vessels. The latter regime dramatically decreased the bleeding rate in the injured femoral and mesenteric arteries, with a complete hemorrhage arrest achieved within seconds. The average blood loss from the treated femoral artery was about 7 times less than that of a non-treated control. This new treatment modality offers a promising approach to non-damaging control of bleeding during surgery, and to efficient hemorrhage arrest in trauma patients.

  6. Morbidity after Hemorrhage in Children with Untreated Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Kim, Helen; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Chun-Xue; Ma, Jun; Su, Hua; Zhao, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are at risk of encountering life-threatening hemorrhage very early in their lives. The primary aim of invasive treatment is to reduce unfavorable outcome associated with a bAVM rupture. A better understanding of the morbidity of bAVM hemorrhage might be helpful for weighing the risks of untreated bAVM and invasive treatment. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcome after bAVM rupture and identify features to predict severe hemorrhage in children. Methods We identified all consecutive children admitted to our institution for bAVMs between July 2009 and December 2014. Clinical outcome after hemorrhagic presentation and subsequent hemorrhage was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for children. The association of demographic characteristics and bAVM morphology with severe hemorrhage (mRS >3 or requiring emergency hematoma evacuation) was studied using univariate and multivariable regression analyses. A nomogram based on multivariable analysis was formulated to predict severe hemorrhage risk for individual patients. Results A total of 134 patients were identified with a mean treatment-free follow-up period of 2.1 years. bAVM ruptured in 83 (62%) children: 82 had a hemorrhage at presentation and 6 of them experienced a recurrent hemorrhage during follow-up; 1 patient had other diagnostic symptoms but bled during follow-up. Among them, 49% (41/83) had a severe hemorrhage; emergency hematoma evacuation was required in 28% of them (23/83), and 24% (20/83) remained as disabled (mRS ≥ 3) at last follow-up. Forty-six percent (38/82) of children with hemorrhagic presentation were severely disabled (mRS >3). Forty-three percent (3/7) were severely disabled after subsequent hemorrhage. The annual rate of severe subsequent hemorrhage was 1% in the overall cohort and 3.3% in children with ruptured presentation. All the subsequent severe hemorrhage events occurred in children with severe

  7. Inhibition of clathrin by pitstop 2 activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and induces cell death in dividing HeLa cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Charlotte M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During metaphase clathrin stabilises the mitotic spindle kinetochore(K-fibres. Many anti-mitotic compounds target microtubule dynamics. Pitstop 2™ is the first small molecule inhibitor of clathrin terminal domain and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We investigated its effects on a second function for clathrin in mitosis. Results Pitstop 2 did not impair clathrin recruitment to the spindle but disrupted its function once stationed there. Pitstop 2 trapped HeLa cells in metaphase through loss of mitotic spindle integrity and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, phenocopying clathrin depletion and aurora A kinase inhibition. Conclusions Pitstop 2 is therefore a new tool for investigating clathrin spindle dynamics. Pitstop 2 reduced viability in dividing HeLa cells, without affecting dividing non-cancerous NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that clathrin is a possible novel anti-mitotic drug target.

  8. Intracranial Hemorrhage Following a 3-week Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 35-year-old female presented to the ED with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 11. Per her boyfriend, the patient was having headaches for the past 3 weeks. She was initially taken to an outside hospital where her GCS was reported as 13. A non-contrast head computed tomography (CT revealed a large lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage within the left frontal parietal lobe with midline shift. Upon examination, vitals were notable for blood pressure of 209/88mmHg, and her left pupil was fixed and dilated. The patient had extension of her right arm to noxious stimuli, paralysis of her right leg, and purposeful movement of the left arm and left leg. The patient was started on a nicardipine drip in the ED and subsequently taken to the operating room for a decompressive craniectomy. Significant findings: The patient’s head CT showed a significant area of hyperdensity consistent with an intracranial hemorrhage located within the left frontal parietal lobe (red arrow. Additionally, there is rightward midline shift up to 1.1cm (green arrow and entrapment of the right lateral ventricle (blue arrow. Discussion: Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the mortality for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH has declined steadily over the past several decades, the mortality for IPH mortality has not significantly.1 One of the most serious considerations when treating a patient with IPH is the management of intracranial pressure (ICP.2 Once an IPH is identified, immediate steps should be taken to bring ICP within acceptable levels including elevating the head of the bed to 30 degrees, sedation, and controlling hypertension with medications.2-3 Even with early and aggressive care, the prognosis for IPH remains poor; the 30-day mortality rate for IPH is estimated to be less than 50%, and a 2010 systematic review estimated only 12-39% of IPH patients achieve independent function.4-5 Predictors of

  9. Radiologic findings of diffuse Pulmonary hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ra; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To describe the chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Two radiologists retrospectively analysed the chest radiographic and CT findings of six patients with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Using open lung biopsy(n=3D2) and transbronchial lung biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D4), diagnosis was based on the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophage or intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases were Wegener's granulomatosis(n=3D2), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome(n=3D2), Henoch-Schonlein purpura(n=3D1), and idopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis(n=3D1). In all patients, sequential chest radiographs, obtained during a one to six-month period, were available. HRCT scans were obtained in five patinets, and conventional CT scans in one. Follow-up HRCT scans were obtained in two. We also analyzed the patterns of involvement, distribution and sequential changes in the pulmonary abnormalities seen on chest radiographs and CT scans. Chest radiographs showed multifocal patchy consolidation(n=3D6), ground-glass opacity(n=3D3), and multiple granular or nodular opacity(n=3D3). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, while in one there was consolidation only. Sequential chest radiographs demonstrated the improvement of initial pulmonary abnormalities and appearance of new lesions elsewhere within 5-6 days, though within 7-25 (average, 13) days, these had almost normalized. HRCT scans showed patchy consolidation(n=3D5), multiple patchy ground-glass opacity(n=3D5), or ill-defined air space nodules(n=3D4). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, and in one, ground-glass opacity only was noted. In two patients there were interlobular septal thickening and intalobular reticular opacity. The distribution of these abnormalities was almost always bilateral, diffuse with no zonal predominancy, and spared the apex of the lung and subpleural region were less affected. Although chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary

  10. Radiologic findings of diffuse Pulmonary hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ra; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1998-01-01

    To describe the chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Two radiologists retrospectively analysed the chest radiographic and CT findings of six patients with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Using open lung biopsy(n=3D2) and transbronchial lung biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D4), diagnosis was based on the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophage or intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases were Wegener's granulomatosis(n=3D2), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome(n=3D2), Henoch-Schonlein purpura(n=3D1), and idopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis(n=3D1). In all patients, sequential chest radiographs, obtained during a one to six-month period, were available. HRCT scans were obtained in five patinets, and conventional CT scans in one. Follow-up HRCT scans were obtained in two. We also analyzed the patterns of involvement, distribution and sequential changes in the pulmonary abnormalities seen on chest radiographs and CT scans. Chest radiographs showed multifocal patchy consolidation(n=3D6), ground-glass opacity(n=3D3), and multiple granular or nodular opacity(n=3D3). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, while in one there was consolidation only. Sequential chest radiographs demonstrated the improvement of initial pulmonary abnormalities and appearance of new lesions elsewhere within 5-6 days, though within 7-25 (average, 13) days, these had almost normalized. HRCT scans showed patchy consolidation(n=3D5), multiple patchy ground-glass opacity(n=3D5), or ill-defined air space nodules(n=3D4). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, and in one, ground-glass opacity only was noted. In two patients there were interlobular septal thickening and intalobular reticular opacity. The distribution of these abnormalities was almost always bilateral, diffuse with no zonal predominancy, and spared the apex of the lung and subpleural region were less affected. Although chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary

  11. Bilateral hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yoshio; Nakayama, Kenji; Matsumori, Kuniaki

    1982-01-01

    Five (9.6%) of 52 cases of supretentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage which suffered rehemorrhage in the contralateral regions were analyzed in the present study, and the 28 cases reported since 1950 were reviewed. The literature suggests that the time between the first hemorrhage and the second was quite long. However, the present series showed that re-hemorrhage in the contralateral side developed within one month in three out of five cases. In case 1, hemorrhages developed almost simultaneously in the left thalamus and in the right putamen. Three characteristics were observed: The symptoms including hemiparesis and/or hemispheric signs related to the first hemorrhage had a tendency to exacerbate after the second attack in other the contralateral region in the second attack, symptoms excessively severe for the size of the hematoma developed. Finally, the clinical course after the second hemorrhage was poor. (author)

  12. [Renal hemorrhage after ESWL: From small hematoma to renal blowout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, Jorge; Palmero Martí, Jose Luis; Ganau Ituren, Amparo; Pastor Lence, Juan Carlos; Benedicto Redón, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    To report two cases of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and their therapeutic management. Description of the clinical cases, together with the diagnosis and therapeutic management of these complications. We present two cases of patients with renal hemorrhage after ESWL, which were performed without immediate complications. One of the cases, after detecting an important laceration of the renal parenchyma, needed two embolization sessions for its short-term resolution; however, the patient finally passed away due to the complications derived from hemorrhage. The other case was solved through conservative management. Even though hemorrhage is an infrequent complication after ESWL, it should be suspected when the patient presents compatible clinical symptoms, since even though most cases are resolved in a conservative manner, on some occasions specific treatments for the hemorrhage are necessary. Old age and the presence of vascular comorbidities seem to be related to a higher risk of hemorrhage after ESWL.

  13. Dynamic study on digital cineangiography of acute digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianming; Feng Gansheng; Zeng Jun; Xu Caiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study dynamically acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage with digital cine angiography. Methods: Fifty patients with acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage were performed with digital cineangiography and observed dynamically during arterial, capillary and venous phases. Results: Among 50 cases, there were positive results in 44 ones including gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 14, biliary hemorrhage in 2, splenic arterial bleeding in 3, left gastric arterial bleeding in 4, right gastroepiploic arterial bleeding in 5, SMA bleeding in 7 and IMA bleeding in 9.17 cases underwent a permanent embolization through artery and 11 with temporary embolization as well as 9 with infusion of hemostatic agent via artery. Conclusions: Serial digital cineangiogram can dynamically show acute digestive tract hemorrhage within different phase. It is helpful to detect the location and cause of hemorrhage

  14. Pressor and hemodilution responses compensate for acute hemorrhage in bluefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, C S; Tremml, P G; DuBois, A B

    1988-01-01

    1. After hemorrhage of 21% blood volume (0.9% body weight) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (H.R.) of unanesthetized bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) recovered within 5 min. 2. Phentolamine blocked this recovery. 3. Atropine increased control H.R. from 48 to 87 per min, and to 108 after hemorrhage, with delay of BP recovery to 10 min. 4. With small, repeated hemorrhages every 20 min, hemodilution and recovery of BP occurred between hemorrhages. Removal of 27% blood volume resulted in only temporary recovery. 5. Thirty min after hemorrhage, plasma epinephrine was 5 x and norepinephrine 8 x control. 6. Thus, bluefish tolerate hemorrhage with initial vasoconstriction via alpha-adrenergic pathways, and hemodilution.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Unusual Cause of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nilesh H; O'Riordan, Jennifer A; Malik, Preeti; Vasanwala, Farhad F

    2017-09-27

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Hemorrhagic stroke comprises 10-20% of strokes. Here, we present a case report of hemorrhagic stroke that may have been secondary to untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in a young man with no other cardiovascular risk factors or features of metabolic syndrome. A 32-year-old man was admitted for hemorrhagic stroke. An initial thorough workup for the etiology of stroke was inconclusive. Eventually, a polysomnography was done, which demonstrated OSA suggesting that untreated OSA may have contributed to his stroke. OSA may cause hemorrhagic stroke by nocturnal blood pressure surge. So, all physicians should consider doing polysomnography for unexplained hemorrhagic stroke or in patients at risk. Diagnosing and treating OSA would be critical in preventing hemorrhagic stroke and its recurrences.

  16. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  17. Mechanisms of Hydrocephalus after Neonatal and Adult Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Strahle, Jennifer; Garton, Hugh J.L.; Maher, Cormac O.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and is an independent predictor of a worse outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). IVH may result in both injuries to the brain as well as hydrocephalus. This paper reviews evidence on the mechanisms and potential treatments for IVH-induced hydrocephalus. One frequently cited theory to explain hydrocephalus after IVH involves obliteration of the arachnoid villi by microt...

  18. A clinical study on neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroo; Inoue, Takao; Shimura, Kohji

    1980-01-01

    Clinical pigns, laboratory data, CT findings, CSF spectrophotometric findings and CSF/blood glucose ratio were reviewed on thirty six newborns with intracranial hemorrhage confirmed by CT and/or autopsy and the following findings were obtained. The sites of hemorrhage were: intraventricular 14, intracerebral 4, subdural 2, subarachnoidal 16. 1) Convulsion (39%), hypotonia (58%), apnea (47%), and bradycardia (58%) were seen, but those were not regarded as specific for the intracranial hemorrhage. 2) Severe anemia of hemoglobin value less than 14 g/dl (17%), more than 10% fall of hematocrit (10%), and hyperglycemia of blood glucose more than 200 mg/gl (42%) were seen almost equally in every type of hemorrhage. 3) On CSF spectrophotometry, ajj twelve cases of intraventricular and four cases of intracerebral hemorrhage had the oxyhemoglobin peak absorbance. However, of fourteen cases of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, three had the oxyhemoglobin peak absorbance but the other eleven cases had the bilirubin peak absorbance. 4) Hypoglycorrachia, defined as CSF/blood glucose ratio less than 0.4, was recognized only in the intraventricular hemorrhage group (5/9, 56%). It was concluded that lumbar puncture should be done first of all when intracranial hemorrhage is suspected. If hypoglycorrachia or oxyhemoglobin peak absorbance is recognized, computed tomography should be performed immediately to know the accurate site and extent of hemorrhage. Although hypoglycorrachia is more specific for the intraventricular hemorrhage, it is usually found several days after the hemorrhage. On the other hand, oxyhemoglobin can be identified in CSF within a day after the episode of hemorrhage and this method is more benifical for the early diagnosis. (author)

  19. Evolution of Parallel Spindles Like genes in plants and highlight of unique domain architecture#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consiglio Federica M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy has long been recognized as playing an important role in plant evolution. In flowering plants, the major route of polyploidization is suggested to be sexual through gametes with somatic chromosome number (2n. Parallel Spindle1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPS1 was recently demonstrated to control spindle orientation in the 2nd division of meiosis and, when mutated, to induce 2n pollen. Interestingly, AtPS1 encodes a protein with a FHA domain and PINc domain putatively involved in RNA decay (i.e. Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay. In potato, 2n pollen depending on parallel spindles was described long time ago but the responsible gene has never been isolated. The knowledge derived from AtPS1 as well as the availability of genome sequences makes it possible to isolate potato PSLike (PSL and to highlight the evolution of PSL family in plants. Results Our work leading to the first characterization of PSLs in potato showed a greater PSL complexity in this species respect to Arabidopsis thaliana. Indeed, a genomic PSL locus and seven cDNAs affected by alternative splicing have been cloned. In addition, the occurrence of at least two other PSL loci in potato was suggested by the sequence comparison of alternatively spliced transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis on 20 Viridaeplantae showed the wide distribution of PSLs throughout the species and the occurrence of multiple copies only in potato and soybean. The analysis of PSLFHA and PSLPINc domains evidenced that, in terms of secondary structure, a major degree of variability occurred in PINc domain respect to FHA. In terms of specific active sites, both domains showed diversification among plant species that could be related to a functional diversification among PSL genes. In addition, some specific active sites were strongly conserved among plants as supported by sequence alignment and by evidence of negative selection evaluated as difference between non-synonymous and

  20. Calcified subdural hematoma associated with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishige, Naoki; Sunami, Kenro; Sato, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    A case of calcified subdural hematoma associated with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is reported. A left frontal subdural hematoma with left putaminal hemorrhage was incidentally found when a CT scan was performed to evaluate right hemiparesis and aphasia in a 55-year-old man. The putaminal hemorrhage was not very extensive, but his clinical symptoms were rather serious. Not only the putaminal hemorrhage, but also the presence of the calcified subdural hematoma was considered to have caused his clinical deterioration. The subtotal removal of the calcified subdural hematoma brought about a good result. (author)

  1. Intranasal Fentanyl Intoxication Leading to Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzycki, Shannon; Yarema, Mark; Dunham, Michael; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.

  2. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.

  3. CT appearance of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Araki, Toru; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Hata, Kazuhiro

    1988-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was performed in three patients who were suspicious of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematoma in all three cases, and intrarenal hemorrhage in two cases, one of which had fluid collection in the pararenal space and hemorrhage in the posterior pararenal space on CT. Thickening of gerota fascia and bridging septa in the perirenal space was visualized on CT in all of them. CT demonstrated clearly the anatomic distribution and extent of renal hemorrhage, and it is important to comprehend the imaging anatomy of the perirenal area for CT evaluation.

  4. Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  5. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage during pregnancy: a case with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Amini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage during pregnancy, which can be tragic for the mother and the baby. We report a unique spontaneous hemorrhage during pregnancy in a case with horseshoe kidney with separated adrenal, presented for the first time in the world. Computed tomography scan showed a horseshoe kidney fused with left normal kidney. Interestingly the adrenal gland was remained in right flank and separated from the horseshoe kidney, which prepares a probable physical stress for the hemorrhage. Diagnosis and surgery were done successfully and the case was fully recovered after several days.

  6. Hemorrhage into a choledochal cyst in a hemophiliac child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.; Oates, E.

    1989-01-01

    A hemophiliac child presented with acute abdominal pain due to hemorrhage into an unsuspected choledochal cyst. Sonography delineated the cystic mass; hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Hemorrhage into a choledochal cyst in a hemophiliac child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, M.; Oates, E. (Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    A hemophiliac child presented with acute abdominal pain due to hemorrhage into an unsuspected choledochal cyst. Sonography delineated the cystic mass; hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis. (orig.).

  8. CT appearance of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Araki, Toru; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Hata, Kazuhiro

    1988-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was performed in three patients who were suspicious of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematoma in all three cases, and intrarenal hemorrhage in two cases, one of which had fluid collection in the pararenal space and hemorrhage in the posterior pararenal space on CT. Thickening of gerota fascia and bridging septa in the perirenal space was visualized on CT in all of them. CT demonstrated clearly the anatomic distribution and extent of renal hemorrhage, and it is important to comprehend the imaging anatomy of the perirenal area for CT evaluation. (author)

  9. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Uncovering the Molecular Machinery of the Human Spindle-An Integration of Wet and Dry Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas, Ana M.; Santamaria, Anna; Malik, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    apparatus compared to a success rate of 35% when expert knowledge alone was used. We compare our results to the previously published MitoCheck study and see that our approach does validate some findings by this consortium. Further, we predict so-called "hidden spindle hub'', proteins whose network...

  11. Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather than oligomerization, is required for the spindle checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, L; Melixetian, M; Faretta, M

    2001-01-01

    Mad2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint, a device that controls the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. The ability of Mad2 to form oligomers in vitro has been correlated with its ability to block the cell cycle upon injection into Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Mad2 forms...

  12. Research on a power management system for thermoelectric generators to drive wireless sensors on a spindle unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-16

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  13. MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; Veeranki, Sailaja Naga; Chinchole, Akash; Tyagi, Shweta

    2017-06-19

    Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular angiofibroma: analysis of 25 cases emphasizing its relationship to spindle cell lipoma and mammary-type myofibroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Krieken, J.H. van; Mentzel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma represents a rare benign mesenchymal tumor, occurring mainly in the superficial soft tissue of the genital region. The involvement of 13q14 in some cases confirmed the morphological suggested link with spindle cell lipoma and mammary-type myofibroblastoma. We analyzed the

  15. Sleep spindles during a nap correlate with post sleep memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studte, Sara; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    The consolidation of new associations is thought to depend in part on physiological processes engaged during non-REM (NREM) sleep, such as slow oscillations and sleep spindles. Moreover, NREM sleep is thought to selectively benefit associations that are adaptive for the future. In line with this, the current study investigated whether different reward cues at encoding are associated with changes in sleep physiology and memory retention. Participants' associative memory was tested after learning a list of arbitrarily paired words both before and after taking a 90-min nap. During learning, word-pairs were preceded by a cue indicating either a high or a low reward for correct memory performance at test. The motivation manipulation successfully impacted retention such that memory declined to a greater extent from pre- to post sleep for low rewarded than for high rewarded word-pairs. In line with previous studies, positive correlations between spindle density during NREM sleep and general memory performance pre- and post-sleep were found. In addition to this, however, a selective positive relationship between memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs at posttest and spindle density during NREM sleep was also observed. These results support the view that motivationally salient memories are preferentially consolidated and that sleep spindles may be an important underlying mechanism for selective consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulfolobus tengchongensis Spindle-Shaped Virus STSV1: Virus-Host Interactions and Genomic Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, X.; Chen, L.; Huang, X

    2005-01-01

    of variable length (68 nm on average) at one end and is the largest of the known spindle-shaped viruses. After infecting its host, the virus multiplied rapidly to high titers (>1010 PFU/ml). Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. STSV1 did not integrate...

  17. Primary spindle cell sarcoma of the prostate and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography/computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Öztürk

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Spindle sarcomas of the prostate have quite aggressive nature and they have high potential to metastase. Average life expectancy is <1 year and the prognosis is poor. CTx and radiation therapy can′t yield curative effects due to poor differentiation.

  18. p600 regulates spindle orientation in apical neural progenitors and contributes to neurogenesis in the developing neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Belzil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apical neural progenitors (aNPs drive neurogenesis by means of a program consisting of self-proliferative and neurogenic divisions. The balance between these two manners of division sustains the pool of apical progenitors into late neurogenesis, thereby ensuring their availability to populate the brain with terminal cell types. Using knockout and in utero electroporation mouse models, we report a key role for the microtubule-associated protein 600 (p600 in the regulation of spindle orientation in aNPs, a cellular event that has been associated with cell fate and neurogenesis. We find that p600 interacts directly with the neurogenic protein Ndel1 and that aNPs knockout for p600, depleted of p600 by shRNA or expressing a Ndel1-binding p600 fragment all display randomized spindle orientation. Depletion of p600 by shRNA or expression of the Ndel1-binding p600 fragment also results in a decreased number of Pax6-positive aNPs and an increased number of Tbr2-positive basal progenitors destined to become neurons. These Pax6-positive aNPs display a tilted mitotic spindle. In mice wherein p600 is ablated in progenitors, the production of neurons is significantly impaired and this defect is associated with microcephaly. We propose a working model in which p600 controls spindle orientation in aNPs and discuss its implication for neurogenesis.

  19. Depletion of a Drosophila homolog of yeast Sup35p disrupts spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis during male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, J; Williams, B C; Li, Z; Williams, E V; Goldberg, M L

    1998-01-01

    In the course of a genetic screen for male-sterile mutations in Drosophila affecting chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions in spermatocytes, we identified the mutation dsup35(63D). Examination of mutant testes showed that chromosome misbehavior was a consequence of major disruptions in meiotic spindle assembly. These perturbations included problems in aster formation, separation, and migration around the nuclear envelope; aberrations in spindle organization and integrity; and disappearance of the ana/telophase central spindle, which in turn disrupts cytokinesis. The dsup35(63D) mutation is caused by a P element insertion that affects, specifically in the testis, the expression of a gene (dsup35) encoding the Drosophila homolog of the yeast Sup35p and Xenopus eRF3 proteins. These proteins are involved in the termination of polypeptide synthesis on ribosomes, but previous studies have suggested that Sup35p and closely related proteins of the same family also interact directly with microtubules. An affinity-purified antibody directed against the product of the dsup35 gene was prepared; interestingly, this antibody specifically labels primary spermatocytes in one or two discrete foci of unknown structure within the nucleoplasm. We discuss how depletion of the dsup35 gene product in spermatocytes might lead to the global disruptions in meiotic spindle assembly seen in mutant spermatocytes.

  20. Method for Vibration Response Simulation and Sensor Placement Optimization of a Machine Tool Spindle System with a Bearing Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE) model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones' bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko's beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response. PMID:23012514