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Sample records for intraneural ganglia critical

  1. Clock face model applied to tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa

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    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hebert-Blouin, Marie-Noelle [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Maniker, Allen H. [Beth Israel Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, New York, NY (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Tibial intraneural ganglia occurring in the popliteal fossa are often misdiagnosed because of their relative rarity. Their joint connection is typically not recognized and therefore not treated, leading to recurrence. This is a retrospective clinical study. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of six patients with confirmed tibial intraneural ganglia arising from the superior tibiofibular joint were analyzed and were compared to ten individuals with normal tibial nerves who were imaged with MRI. All studies were interpreted as left-sided. A previously designed clock face model introduced for peroneal intraneural ganglia was used to describe the superior tibiofibular joint connection (tail sign). A single axial image was sought to determine the normal anatomic and pathologic relationships of the tibial nerve and tibial articular branch to the superior tibiofibular joint. In all patients with intraneural ganglia, a single conventional axial image at the mid-fibular head level could reliably demonstrate: (1) intraneural cyst within the articular branch at the superior tibiofibular joint connection (tail sign) between 8 and 9 o'clock and intraneural cyst within the tibial nerve, (2) the central location of the tibial nerve posterior to the tibia, and (3) popliteus muscle denervation changes and atrophy (popliteus sign). This technique can provide radiologists and surgeons with rapid and reproducible information for diagnosis and treatment planning of tibial intraneural ganglia. Similar to its use with the clock face model in peroneal intraneural ganglia, a standard axial image at the mid-fibular head level can be used to interpret key features of tibial intraneural ganglia and identify the joint connection. Improved identification of the presence of a joint connection will change the therapeutic approach of this pathology and reduce cyst recurrences. (orig.)

  2. Sequential tibial and peroneal intraneural ganglia arising from the superior tibiofibular joint

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    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, MN (United States); Desy, Nicholas M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2008-01-15

    We present a patient who developed a peroneal intraneural ganglion and an adventitial cyst following the incomplete treatment of a tibial intraneural ganglion. These separate cysts all originated from the superior tibiofibular joint and dissected along their respective articular branches. A logical mechanistic explanation for these coexisting cysts is provided, which highlights the shared pathogenesis - its joint-related nature - rather than a multifocal de novo process. These observations would not only be consistent with, but would extend previous evidence in support of, the unifying articular (synovial) theory. (orig.)

  3. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

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    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  4. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the ulnar nerve in an unusual location: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ufuk; Salduz, Ahmet; Demirel, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Tuna; Sivacioğlu, Sevan

    2017-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are benign, mucinous, non-neoplastic lesions of the peripheral nerves. While the most common location of intraneural ganglion cysts is the ulnar nerve and its branches, intraneural ganglion cyst involving the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve has not yet been reported. A-25-year-old woman presented with pain and a palpable mass in the hypothenar region of the volar side of her right hand. Her neuromuscular examination was normal. The pain was unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. After confirming with imaging modalities, the initial diagnosis was considered as an intraneural ganglion cyst arising from superficial ulnar nerve. Excision of the ganglion and exploration of the articular branch (if seen in operation) decision was undertaken by the senior author. Whether MRI or intraoperative exploration, not identified an articular branch. Intraneural ganglion cysts of peripheral nerves may be seen in miscellaneous locations in the body. However, to our knowledge, an intraneural ganglion cyst involving the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve is unique. While a variety of theories have been proposed to enlighten the etiopathogenesis of intraneural ganglia, the latest and most affirmed is the unifying articular (synovial) theory. Intraneural ganglion cysts may be seen on the hypothenar side of the palm. The etiology and treatment of choice are closely associated with each other in this rare disorder. It is important to realize a related articular branch, otherwise the origin of cyst formation remains, and this may cause other para-articular cysts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The clinico-anatomic explanation for tibial intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the superior tibiofibular joint

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    Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Anatomy, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Schiefer, Terry K. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Krishnan, Kartik G. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Department of Neurological Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Kliot, Michel [University of Washington, Department of Neurosurgery, Seattle, Washington (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2007-04-15

    To demonstrate that tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa are derived from the posterior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint, in a mechanism similar to that of peroneal intraneural ganglia, which have recently been shown to arise from the anterior portion of the same joint. Retrospective clinical study and prospective anatomic study. The clinical records and MRI findings of three patients with tibial intraneural ganglion cysts were analyzed and compared with those of one patient with a tibial extraneural ganglion cyst and one volunteer. Seven cadaveric limbs were dissected to define the articular anatomy of the posterior aspect of the superior tibiofibular joint. The condition of the three patients with intraneural ganglia recurred because their joint connections were not identified initially. In two patients there was no cyst recurrence when the joint connection was treated at revision surgery; the third patient did not wish to undergo additional surgery. The one patient with an extraneural ganglion had the joint connection identified at initial assessment and had successful surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection. Retrospective evaluation of the tibial intraneural ganglion cysts revealed stereotypic features, which allowed their accurate diagnosis and distinction from extraneural cases. The intraneural cysts had tubular (rather than globular) appearances. They derived from the postero-inferior portion of the superior tibiofibular joint and followed the expected course of the articular branch on the posterior surface of the popliteus muscle. The cysts then extended intra-epineurially into the parent tibial nerves, where they contained displaced nerve fascicles. The extraneural cyst extrinsically compressed the tibial nerve but did not directly involve it. All cadaveric specimens demonstrated a small single articular branch, which derived from the tibial nerve to the popliteus. The branch coursed obliquely across the posterior

  6. Intraneural capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina.

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    Mastronardi, L; Guiducci, A; Frondizi, D; Carletti, S; Spera, C; Maira, G

    1997-01-01

    A case of intraneural capillary hemangioma involving the dorsal root of a spinal nerve of the cauda equina is reported. The patient was a 41-year-old man with a 3-month history of intermittent left lumbosciatalgia. MRI and CT myelography showed a space-occupying mass at the level of the cauda equina. Laminectomy of L5 and complete removal of the lesion were performed without neurological problems. The clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of hemangiomas of the cauda equina are analyzed.

  7. Intraneural fibroma of the median nerve at the wrist.

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    Burrows, Anthony M; Folpe, Andrew L; Wenger, Doris E; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Distal median neuropathy from carpal tunnel syndrome is the most well known lesion affecting the median nerve. Mass lesions may affect the nerve at the wrist. We present to our knowledge the first histologically confirmed case of an intraneural fibroma.

  8. Invasive Intraneural Interfaces: Foreign Body Reaction Issues

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    Fiorenza Lotti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR, which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal. Based on recent developments in biomaterials and inflammatory/fibrotic pathologies, we explore and select the biological solutions that might be adopted in the neural interfaces FBR context: modifications of the interface surface, such as organic and synthetic coatings; the use of specific drugs or molecular biology tools to target the microenvironment around the interface; the development of bio-engineered-scaffold to reduce immune response and promote interface-tissue integration. By linking what we believe are the major crucial steps of the FBR process with related solutions, we point out the main issues that future research has to focus on: biocompatibility without losing signal conduction properties, good reproducible in vitro/in vivo models, drugs exhaustion and undesired side effects. The underlined pros and cons of proposed solutions show clearly the importance of a better understanding of all the molecular and cellular pathways involved and the need of a multi-target action based on a bio-engineered combination approach.

  9. Common Features of Neural Activity during Singing and Sleep Periods in a Basal Ganglia Nucleus Critical for Vocal Learning in a Juvenile Songbird

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    Yanagihara, Shin; Hessler, Neal A.

    2011-01-01

    Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase. PMID:21991379

  10. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

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    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  11. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is an uncommon benign neoplasm characterized by focal perineural cell proliferation. The typical course is indolent, with gradual onset and slow progression of motor loss. In early childhood, uncertainty concerning the time of onset can lead to difficulty in distinguishin...

  12. Intraneural ganglion cyst: a 200-year-old mystery solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2008-10-01

    We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity.

  13. Cisto sinovial intraneural do nervo fibular: relato de caso Intraneural synovial cyst of the peroneal nerve: case report

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    Roberto Sergio Martins

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de um cisto sinovial intraneural ocorrendo no nervo fibular comum. O paciente apresentou-se com quadro de dor e dificuldade para a flexão dorsal e eversão do pé sendo submetido a exploração cirúrgica com exérese do cisto. Neste estudo são discutidos a patogênese, manifestações clínicas e tratamento desta rara lesão.The authors report the case of an intraneural synovial cyst of the peroneal nerve. The initial symptom was pain and weakness of dorsiflexion and eversion of the right foot. The patient was operated on and the cyst was totally resected. The authors discuss the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis as well as the treatment of that uncommon lesion.

  14. Intraneural nodular fasciitis of the radial nerve with rapidly progressive motor symptoms

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    Swetha J Sundar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The authors report the first case of intraneural nodular fasciitis occurring in the radial nerve and highlight the possibility of rapidly progressive motor deficit in patients presenting with this rare clinical entity.

  15. An inferior alveolar intraneural cyst: a case example and an anatomical explanation to support the articular theory within cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Strasia, Rhys P; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    The authors describe the case of an intraneural ganglion cyst involving a cranial nerve (V3), which was found to have a joint connection in support of an articular origin within the cranial nerves. An inferior alveolar intraneural cyst was incidentally discovered on a plain radiograph prior to edentulation. It was resected from within the mandibular canal with no joint connection perceived at surgery. Histologically, the cyst was confirmed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. Reinterpretation of the preoperative CT scan showed the cyst arising from the temporomandibular joint. This case is consistent with the articular (synovial) theory of intraneural ganglion cysts. An anatomical explanation and potential joint connection are provided for this case as well as several other cases of intraneural cysts in the literature, and thus unifying cranial nerve involvement with accepted concepts of intraneural ganglion cyst formation and propagation.

  16. Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report

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    Sevinç Teoman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ganglia dysfunction. They include: Dystonia (muscle tone problems) Huntington disease (disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 20. Review Date 5/30/2016 Updated by: Amit M. ...

  18. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Judy H. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emery, Kathleen H.; Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sorger, Joel [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection. (orig.)

  19. Peripheral nerve lipoma: Case report of an intraneural lipoma of the median nerve and literature review

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    Teles, Alisson Roberto; Finger, Guilherme; Schuster, Marcelo N.; Gobbato, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adipose lesions rarely affect the peripheral nerves. This can occur in two different ways: Direct compression by an extraneural lipoma, or by a lipoma originated from the adipose cells located inside the nerve. Since its first description, many terms have been used in the literature to mention intraneural lipomatous lesions. In this article, the authors report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with an intraneural median nerve lipoma and review the literature concerning the classification of adipose lesions of the nerve, radiological diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27695575

  20. Celiac ganglia block

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    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  1. Believer-Skeptic Meets Actor-Critic: Rethinking the Role of Basal Ganglia Pathways during Decision-Making and Reinforcement Learning.

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    Dunovan, Kyle; Verstynen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of behavioral control is a testament to the brain's capacity for dynamically resolving uncertainty during goal-directed actions. This ability to select actions and learn from immediate feedback is driven by the dynamics of basal ganglia (BG) pathways. A growing body of empirical evidence conflicts with the traditional view that these pathways act as independent levers for facilitating (i.e., direct pathway) or suppressing (i.e., indirect pathway) motor output, suggesting instead that they engage in a dynamic competition during action decisions that computationally captures action uncertainty. Here we discuss the utility of encoding action uncertainty as a dynamic competition between opposing control pathways and provide evidence that this simple mechanism may have powerful implications for bridging neurocomputational theories of decision making and reinforcement learning.

  2. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the ulnar nerve in an unusual location: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Intraneural ganglion cysts may be seen on the hypothenar side of the palm. The etiology and treatment of choice are closely associated with each other in this rare disorder. It is important to realize a related articular branch, otherwise the origin of cyst formation remains, and this may cause other para-articular cysts.

  3. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  4. International collaborative validation of intraneural invasion as a prognostic marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Moran; Binenbaum, Yoav; Trejo-Leider, Leonor;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, pattern of spread, and prognostic correlation of nerve invasion in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). METHODS: Using 3 different pathological categories of perineural invasion, intraneural invasion, and perineural...

  5. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

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    Pablos, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Seville (Spain); Valdes, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Cemedi, Seville (Spain); Gavilan, F. [Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  6. Protocadherin 17 regulates presynaptic assembly in topographic corticobasal Ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Naosuke; Tanimura, Asami; Yamasaki, Miwako; Inoue, Takeshi; Fukabori, Ryoji; Kuroda, Teiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Tezuka, Tohru; Sagara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shinji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2013-06-05

    Highly topographic organization of neural circuits exists for the regulation of various brain functions in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Although neural circuit-specific refinement during synapse development is essential for the execution of particular neural functions, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for synapse refinement are largely unknown. Here, we show that protocadherin 17 (PCDH17), one of the nonclustered δ2-protocadherin family members, is enriched along corticobasal ganglia synapses in a zone-specific manner during synaptogenesis and regulates presynaptic assembly in these synapses. PCDH17 deficiency in mice causes facilitated presynaptic vesicle accumulation and enhanced synaptic transmission efficacy in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Furthermore, PCDH17(-/-) mice exhibit antidepressant-like phenotypes that are known to be regulated by corticobasal ganglia circuits. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for PCDH17 in the synaptic development of specific corticobasal ganglia circuits and suggest the involvement of PCDH17 in such circuits in depressive behaviors.

  7. An orthotopic xenograft model of intraneural NF1 MPNST suggests a potential association between steroid hormones and tumor cell proliferation.

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    Perrin, George Q; Li, Hua; Fishbein, Lauren; Thomson, Susanne A; Hwang, Min S; Scarborough, Mark T; Yachnis, Anthony T; Wallace, Margaret R; Mareci, Thomas H; Muir, David

    2007-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are the most aggressive cancers associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Here we report a practical and reproducible model of intraneural NF1 MPNST, by orthotopic xenograft of an immortal human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cell line into the sciatic nerves of female scid mice. Intraneural injection of the cell line sNF96.2 consistently produced MPNST-like tumors that were highly cellular and showed extensive intraneural growth. These xenografts had a high proliferative index, were angiogenic, had significant mast cell infiltration and rapidly dominated the host nerve. The histopathology of engrafted intraneural tumors was consistent with that of human NF1 MPNST. Xenograft tumors were readily examined by magnetic resonance imaging, which also was used to assess tumor vascularity. In addition, the intraneural proliferation of sNF96.2 cell tumors was decreased in ovariectomized mice, while replacement of estrogen or progesterone restored tumor cell proliferation. This suggests a potential role for steroid hormones in supporting tumor cell growth of this MPNST cell line in vivo. The controlled orthotopic implantation of sNF96.2 cells provides for the precise initiation of intraneural MPNST-like tumors in a model system suitable for therapeutic interventions, including inhibitors of angiogenesis and further study of steroid hormone effects on tumor cell growth.

  8. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

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    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  9. [Information analysis of spinal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobko, P I; Kovaleva, D V; Kovalchuk, I E; Pivchenko, P G; Rudenok, V V; Davydova, L A

    2000-01-01

    Information parameters (entropia and redundancy) of cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia of albino rat foetuses, mature animals (cat and dog) and human subjects were analysed. Information characteristics of spinal ganglia were shown to be level-specified and to depend on their functional peculiarities. Information parameters of thoracic spinal ganglia of man and different animals are specie specified and may be used in assessment of morphological structures as information systems.

  10. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa; Ackerley, Rochelle M.; Glover, Paul M.; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T.; McGlone, Francis

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest The skin contains multiple types of sensory nerves that inform the brain about events occurring on the surface of the body. One way to study how this process works is to insert a very fine needle through the skin to stimulate a single sensory nerve with a small electrical current. This technique – known as intraneural microstimulation – can activate touch responses in the brain without an object actually contacting the skin. Another technique called functional magnetic resonance ...

  11. TOPOGRAFÍA INTRANEURAL DE LA RAMA PROFUNDA DEL NERVIO ULNAR EN EL ANTEBRAZO DISTAL: ESTUDIO CADAVÉRICO. Intraneural topography of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the distal forearm: cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Pisón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar la topografía intraneural de la rama profunda del nervio ulnar (RPNU en el antebrazo distal en vistas a su identificación mediante disección intraneural mínima durante la transferencia del nervio del pronador cuadrado (NPC a la RPNU. Materiales y métodos: En 15 antebrazos cadavéricos se fijó el paquete vasculonervioso ulnar a los planos musculares profundos cada un centímetro tomando como referencia el hueso pisiforme. Se disecó en sentido proximal la RPNU bajo microscopio quirúrgico (Olympus OME, 4-20x y se registró su posición intraneural en base a una división en cuadrantes. Se midió la distancia desde el origen de la rama cutánea dorsal (RCD del nervio ulnar al pisiforme y se registró su relación intraneural con la RPNU. Resultados: La RPNU se individualizó hasta 69mm (41-94 proximal al hueso pisiforme, ubicándose en el cuadrante posteromedial del nervio ulnar en el 78% (67-87, el 93% (92-93 y el 100% de los casos entre los 0-2, 3-6 y 7-9 centímetros, respectivamente. La distancia pisiforme-RCD fue de 63mm (52-83. En 11 miembros la disección de la RPNU se extendió proximalmente al origen de la RCD, ubicándose siempre entre esta última y la rama superficial del nervio ulnar. Conclusiones: La topografía intraneural de la RPNU en el sitio óptimo para su sección en vistas a su anastomosis con el NPC es predecible en la mayoría de los casos, lo que confirma la viabilidad de su identificación precisa mediante disección intraneural mínima.  Objective: to assess the intraneural anatomy of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve (DBUN in the distal forearm in reference to its identification by means of minimal intraneural dissection during pronator quadratus nerve to DBUN transfers. Materials and methods: In 15 cadaveric forearms the ulnar neurovascular bundle was identified and attached to the subjacent muscles every one centimeter. Pisiform bone was used as reference. Intraneural proximal dissection of

  12. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

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    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  13. Intraoral Pseudo-Onion Bulb Intraneural Proliferations in a Patient with Hemimandibular Hyperplasia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Richard J; Potluri, Anitha; Bauer, Richard E; Seethala, Raja R; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    This report and review of the literature describes a case of benign intraoral lesions of perineurial origin in a patient with symptomatic hemimandibular hyperplasia causing partial denture soreness. Perineuriomas are a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of perineurial cells. Intraoral perineuriomas are an extremely rare entity. Two main types of perineuriomas have been described: intraneural and extraneural perineuriomas. A third, similar entity, called an intraneural pseudoperineuriomatous proliferation, has recently been proposed in the literature as a separate and distinctive diagnosis. This report describes the histologic and clinical presentation of intraneural pseudoperineuriomatous proliferations in a patient with hemimandibular hyperplasia.

  14. [Neurobiology of parkinsonism. I. Neural substrates an neurochemistry of the basal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, S; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    1995-09-01

    Movement disorders, in general, are characterized by a breakdown in the integrated coordination of posture and motion by multiple brain and muscular systems. In the expression of parkinsonism, in particular, critical and altered structures such as substantia nigra, appear to be related to the cortex-basal ganglia and thalamus-basal ganglia sub-circuits.

  15. Probing ganglia dissolution and mobilization in a water-saturated porous medium using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, M.L.; Gladden, L.F.

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to probe the evolution of geometric characteristics such as the volume, shape, surface area, and cluster size of octanol ganglia trapped in a model porous medium, in this case a packing of spheres, as they dissolve into a mobile aqueous phase. The resulting pore-scale information is used to assess various assumptions used in existing models of the dissolution process. Dissolution of the ganglia was characterized by a reduction in the overall number of ganglia with little effect on the shape and mean of the volume distribution of the ganglia. This apparently anomalous result is explained by dissolution of the ganglia until they reach a critical size, which is dependent on the structure of the pore space, at which point they are mobilized and subsequently removed from the porous medium. The shape of the entrapped ganglia is characterized by a fractal dimension in the range 2.2--2.3, suggesting that models which assume a Euclidean geometry for the entrapped ganglia are appropriate. No significant change in the shape of entrapped ganglia is observed during dissolution. In agreement with the results of earlier workers, most hydrocarbon ganglia exist as singlets within the pore structure.

  16. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa Maria; Ackerley, Rochelle; Glover, Paul M; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T; McGlone, Francis

    2016-05-07

    Using ultra-high field 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we map the cortical and perceptual responses elicited by intraneural microstimulation (INMS) of single mechanoreceptive afferent units in the median nerve, in humans. Activations are compared to those produced by applying vibrotactile stimulation to the unit's receptive field, and unit-type perceptual reports are analyzed. We show that INMS and vibrotactile stimulation engage overlapping areas within the topographically appropriate digit representation in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additional brain regions in bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in contralateral prefrontal cortex are also shown to be activated in response to INMS. The combination of INMS and 7T fMRI opens up an unprecedented opportunity to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex.

  17. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  18. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  19. Detection of intraneural needle-placement with multiple frequency bioimpedance monitoring: a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvøy, Håvard; Sauter, Axel R

    2016-04-01

    Electrical impedance measurements have been used to detect intraneural needle placement, but there is still a lack of precision with this method. The purpose of the study was to develop a method for the discrimination of nerve tissue from other tissue types based on multiple frequency impedance measurements. Impedance measurements with 25 different frequencies between 1.26 and 398 kHz were obtained in eight pigs while placing the tip of a stimulation needle within the sciatic nerve and in other tissues. Various impedance variables and measurement frequencies were tested for tissue discrimination. Best tissue discrimination was obtained by using three different impedance parameters with optimal measurement frequencies: Modulus (126 kHz), Phase angle (40 kHz) and the Delta of the phase angle (between 126 and 158 kHz). These variables were combined in a Compound variable C. The area under the curve in a receiver operating characteristic was consecutively increased for the Modulus (78 %), Phase angle (86 %), Delta of the phase angle (94 %), and the Compound variable C (97 %), indicating highest specificity and sensitivity for C. An algorithm based on C was implemented in a real-time feasibility test and used in an additional test animal to demonstrate our new method. Discrimination between nerve tissue and other tissue types was improved by combining several impedance variables at multiple measurement frequencies.

  20. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Sen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%, levobupivacaine group 3 (15%, and lidocaine group 6 (30%. CONCLUSION: In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency.

  3. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

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    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  4. Effects of intraneural and perineural injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on nerve injury during peripheral nerve block in Wistar rats

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    Ilvana Hasanbegovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury during peripheral nerve blocks is relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating complication. Recent studies emphasized that location of needle insertion in relationship to the fascicles may be the predominant factor that determines the risk for neurologic complications. However, it is wellestablished that concentration of local anesthetic is also associated with the risk for injury. In this study, we examined the effect of location of injection and concentration of Ropivacaine on risk for neurologic complications. Our hypothesis is that location of the injection is more prognostic for occurrence of nerve injury than the concentration of Ropivacaine.Methods: In experimental design of the study fi fty Wistar rats were used and sciatic nerves were randomized to receive: Ropivacaine or 0.9% NaCl, either intraneurally or perineurally. Pressure data during application was acquired by using a manometer and was analyzed using software package BioBench. Neurologic examination was performed thought the following seven days, there after the rats were sacrificed while sciatic nerves were extracted for histological examination.Results: Independently of tested solution intraneural injections in most of cases resulted with high injection pressure, followed by obvious neurologic defi cit and microscopic destruction of peripheral nerves. Also, low injection pressure, applied either in perineural or intraneural extrafascicular area, resulted with transitory neurologic defi cit and without destruction of the nerve normal histological structure.Conclusions: The main mechanism which leads to neurologic injury combined with peripheral nerve blockade is intrafascicular injection. Higher concentrations of Ropivacaine during intrafascicular applications magnify nerve injury.

  5. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

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    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  6. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  7. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

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    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  9. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  10. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

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    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  11. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

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    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  12. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-02

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.

  13. Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi

    2010-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses.

  14. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  15. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-09

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  16. Reanimation of reversible facial paralysis by the double innervation technique using an intraneural-dissected sural nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Koichi; Hosokawa, Ko; Yano, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    In treating reversible facial paralysis, cross-facial nerve grafting offers voluntary and emotional reanimation. In contrast, rapid re-innervation and strong neural stimulation can be obtained with hypoglossal-facial nerve crossover. In this article, we describe the method of a combination of these techniques as a one-stage procedure. A 39-year-old man presented with facial paralysis due to nerve avulsion within the stylomastoid foramen. The sural nerve was harvested and two branches were created at its distal end by intraneural dissection. One branch was anastomosed to the contralateral facial nerve, and the other branch was used for hypoglossal-facial nerve crossover, followed by connecting the proximal stump of the graft to the trunk of the paralysed facial nerve in an end-to-end fashion. At 9 months postoperatively, almost complete facial symmetry and co-ordinated movements of the mimetic muscles were obtained with no obvious tongue atrophy. Since our method can efficiently gather neural inputs from the contralateral facial nerve and the ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve, it may become a good alternative for reanimation of reversible facial paralysis when the ipsilateral facial nerve is not available.

  17. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  18. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  19. Perineurioma intraneural de presentación intramandibular: estudio histológico, inmunohistoquímico y citogenético

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de un perineurioma intraneural del nervio dentario, de localización intramandibular. Se trata de un tumor poco frecuente del que se ha discutido su origen neoplásico o reactivo. La localización intraósea en región de cabeza y cuello es excepcional. Definimos las características histológicas e inmunohistoquímicas de este tumor, estableciendo el diagnóstico diferencial con la variedad extraneural de perineurioma, con otros tumores de la vaina del nerv...

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  1. Intraneural GJB1 gene delivery improves nerve pathology in a model of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargiannidou, Irene; Kagiava, Alexia; Bashiardes, Stavros; Richter, Jan; Christodoulou, Christina; Scherer, Steven S; Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2015-08-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is a common inherited neuropathy caused by mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin32 (Cx32). Clinical studies and disease models indicate that neuropathy mainly results from Schwann cell autonomous, loss-of-function mechanisms; therefore, CMT1X may be treatable by gene replacement. A lentiviral vector LV.Mpz-GJB1 carrying the GJB1 gene under the Schwann cell-specific myelin protein zero (Mpz) promoter was generated and delivered into the mouse sciatic nerve by a single injection immediately distal to the sciatic notch. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene expression was quantified and Cx32 expression was examined on a Cx32 knockout (KO) background. A gene therapy trial was performed in a Cx32 KO model of CMT1X. EGFP was expressed throughout the length of the sciatic nerve in up to 50% of Schwann cells starting 2 weeks after injection and remaining stable for up to 16 weeks. Following LV.Mpz-GJB1 injection into Cx32 KO nerves, we detected Cx32 expression and correct localization in non-compact myelin areas where gap junctions are normally formed. Gene therapy trial by intraneural injection in groups of 2-month-old Cx32 KO mice, before demyelination onset, significantly reduced the ratio of abnormally myelinated fibers (p = 0.00148) and secondary inflammation (p = 0.0178) at 6 months of age compared to mock-treated animals. Gene delivery using a lentiviral vector leads to efficient gene expression specifically in Schwann cells. Restoration of Cx32 expression ameliorates nerve pathology in a disease model and provides a promising approach for future treatments of CMT1X and other inherited neuropathies. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  2. Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves in the uterus, pelvic autonomic ganglia, lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papka, R E; Collins, J; Copelin, T; Wilson, K

    1999-10-01

    Nerves containing the calcium-binding protein calretinin have been reported in several organs but not in female reproductive organs and associated ganglia. This study was undertaken to determine if nerves associated with the uterus contain calretinin and the source(s) of calretinin-synthesizing nerves in the rat (are they sensory, efferent, or both?). Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves were present in the uterine horns and cervix where they were associated with arteries, uterine smooth muscle, glands, and the epithelium. Calretinin-immunoreactive terminals were apposed to neurons in the paracervical ganglia; in addition, some postganglionic neurons in this ganglion were calretinin positive. Calretinin perikarya were present in the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, no-dose ganglia, and lumbosacral spinal cord. Retrograde axonal tracing, utilizing Fluorogold injected into the uterus or paracervical parasympathetic ganglia, revealed calretinin-positive/Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the dorsal root and nodose ganglia. Also, capsaicin treatment substantially reduced the calretinin-positive fibers in the uterus and pelvic ganglia, thus indicating the sensory nature of these fibers. The presence of calretinin immunoreactivity identifies a subset of nerves that are involved in innervation of the pelvic viscera and have origins from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and vagal nodose ganglia. Though the exact function of calretinin in these nerves is not currently known, calretinin is likely to play a role in calcium regulation and their function.

  3. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  4. Integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Rafal; Larsen, Tobias

    2011-04-01

    This article seeks to integrate two sets of theories describing action selection in the basal ganglia: reinforcement learning theories describing learning which actions to select to maximize reward and decision-making theories proposing that the basal ganglia selects actions on the basis of sensory evidence accumulated in the cortex. In particular, we present a model that integrates the actor-critic model of reinforcement learning and a model assuming that the cortico-basal-ganglia circuit implements a statistically optimal decision-making procedure. The values of cortico-striatal weights required for optimal decision making in our model differ from those provided by standard reinforcement learning models. Nevertheless, we show that an actor-critic model converges to the weights required for optimal decision making when biologically realistic limits on synaptic weights are introduced. We also describe the model's predictions concerning reaction times and neural responses during learning, and we discuss directions required for further integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories.

  5. Involvement of dorsal root ganglia in Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoth, N; Sandbank, U

    1983-08-01

    Bouts of shooting pain along the extremities are common in the early stages of Fabry's disease. No pathological explanation has been advanced to clarify the mechanism of such pain. In the present case neuronal storage of glycolipid was confined to dorsal root ganglia neurones only. It is suggested that this may explain the shooting pain in Fabry's disease. In hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy, familial dysautonomia, and tabes dorsalis, changes in dorsal root ganglia cells cause similar clinical signs and thus it may be concluded that shooting pains in Fabry's disease may be caused by damage to dorsal root ganglia neurones.

  6. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-11-23

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain.

  7. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  8. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly t...

  9. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  10. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  11. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  12. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  13. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  14. Kv3-Like Potassium Channels Are Required for Sustained High-Frequency Firing in Basal Ganglia Output Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Matta, Shannon G.; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons in the substantial nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are key output neurons of the basal ganglia motor control circuit. These neurons fire sustained high-frequency, short-duration spikes that provide a tonic inhibition to their targets and are critical to movement control. We hypothesized that a robust voltage-activated K+ conductance that activates quickly and resists inactivation is essential to the remarkable fast-spiking capability in these neurons. Semi-quantitative...

  15. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  16. Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Peña-Contreras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory and symmetric (inhibitory synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. Rev. Biol . Trop. 55 (1: 261-267. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos la ultraestructura de las neuronas y sus sinapsis del ganglio cefálico de un invertebrado poco conocido del phylum Onychophora: Peripatus sedgwicki de los Andes Venezolanos, utilizando para ello la microscopía electrónica de transmisión. La localización taxonómica de los onicóforos ha sido controversial debido a sus características fenotípicas y genotípicas que los relacionan tanto con los anélidos como con los artrópodos. Para este trabajo se estudió el ganglio cefálico de P. sedgwicki de la zona montañosa de El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. El ganglio cefálico se localiza en la región anterior del animal y fue diseccionado

  17. AB300. SPR-27 Sonic hedgehog promotes sprouting of neurons in the pelvic ganglia and cavernous nerve during regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Ryan; Choe, Shawn; Harrington, Daniel A.; Stupp, Samuel I.; McVary, Kevin T.; Podlasek, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We’ve shown in previous studies that sonic hedgehog (SHH) protein delivered by nanoparticle based peptide amphiphile (PA) hydrogels to the cavernous nerve (CN) at the time of crush injury (mimicking prostatectomy), are neuroprotective and promote CN regeneration in a rat model. The mechanism of how SHH promotes CN regeneration is unknown. We hypothesize that SHH promotes sprouting of CN axons, in order to enhance nerve regeneration. We examine this hypothesis in an in vitro organ culture model. Methods The caudal portion of the pelvic ganglia (innervates penis) and CN were dissected from adult Sprague Dawley rats (n=47) and placed in Matrigel in growth factor reduced medium and were grown for three to five days. Pelvic ganglia were exposed to Affi-Gel beads containing: (I) SHH protein; (II) 5e1 and cyclopamine SHH inhibitors; and (III) SHH protein delivered by PA. Additional pelvic ganglia/CN tissue underwent CN crush and were exposed to SHH protein or PBS/mouse serum albumin (MSA) protein. Sprouting was evaluated for number of sprouts and their length, and by immunohistochemical analysis for sprouting markers (GAP43 and nNOS). Results Sprouting of pelvic ganglia and CN axons was increased with SHH treatment. Sprouts were more abundant, longer in length, with larger arborization of sprouts, in comparison to controls. More sprouting was promoted with SHH treatment of CN injured nerves. The CN had similar sprouting potential at 4 and 9 days after crush injury. Localization of SHH delivery makes a difference in sprouting potential. Conclusions The mechanism of how SHH PA treatment promotes CN regeneration, involves enhanced sprouting of pelvic ganglia and CN neurons. Understanding the mechanism of SHH PA action on neuronal tissue is critical for translation to prostatectomy patients and to further enhance regeneration. Funding Source(s) NIH/NIDDK DK079184

  18. Application research of Ganglia in Hadoop monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Ding, Jing; Zhou, Lixia; Yang, Yi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    There are many applications of Hadoop System in the field of large data, cloud computing. The test bench of storage and application in seismic network at Earthquake Administration of Tianjin use with Hadoop system, which is used the open source software of Ganglia to operate and monitor. This paper reviews the function, installation and configuration process, application effect of operating and monitoring in Hadoop system of the Ganglia system. It briefly introduces the idea and effect of Nagios software monitoring Hadoop system. It is valuable for the industry in the monitoring system of cloud computing platform.

  19. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  20. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  1. Do gap junctions regulate synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) typically suffer severely from different types of symptoms. Motor symptoms, restricting the patients’ ability to perform controlled movements in daily life, are of special clinical interest and have been related to neural activity in the basal ganglia. Low-freq

  2. Derek Denny-Brown: the man behind the ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Faber, Ingrid; Martins, Carlos Roberto; Casseb, Raphael F; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C; Teive, Hélio A G

    2017-02-01

    The authors present an historical review about the main contributions of Professor Derek Denny-Brown to neurology. Some of his achievements include the first description of sensory neuronopathies, and some of the essential textbooks on the function and anatomy of the basal ganglia. In 2016, on the 35th anniversary of his death, modern neurologists are still strongly influenced by his legacy.

  3. Phenotypic changes in satellite glial cells in cultured trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Vitali; Shraer, Nathanael; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-11-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are specialized cells that form a tight sheath around neurons in sensory ganglia. In recent years, there is increasing interest in SGCs and they have been studied in both intact ganglia and in tissue culture. Here we studied phenotypic changes in SGCs in cultured trigeminal ganglia from adult mice, containing both neurons and SGCs, using phase optics, immunohistochemistry and time-lapse photography. Cultures were followed for up to 14 days. After isolation virtually every sensory neuron is ensheathed by SGCs, as in the intact ganglia. After one day in culture, SGCs begin to migrate away from their parent neurons, but in most cases the neurons still retain an intact glial cover. At later times in culture, there is a massive migration of SGCs away from the neurons and they undergo clear morphological changes, and at 7 days they become spindle-shaped. At one day in culture SGCs express the glial marker glutamine synthetase, and also the purinergic receptor P2X7. From day 2 in culture the glutamine synthetase expression is greatly diminished, whereas that of P2X7 is largely unchanged. We conclude that SGCs retain most of their characteristics for about 24 h after culturing, but undergo major phenotypic changes at later times.

  4. Normal sexual dimorphism in the human basal ganglia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Everaerd, D.S.; Pol, C.; Franke, B.; Tendolkar, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Male and female brains differ in both structure and function. Investigating this sexual dimorphism in healthy subjects is an important first step to ultimately gain insight into sex-specific differences in behavior and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The basal ganglia are among the main regions

  5. Basal ganglia plus insula damage yields stronger disruption of smoking addiction than basal ganglia damage alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Tranel, Daniel; McNutt, Ashton; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction.

  6. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia; Lesiones malignas con apariencia mamografica de ganglios intramamarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  7. A population level computational model of the basal ganglia that generates parkinsonian Local Field Potential activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirogiannis, George L; Tagaris, George A; Sakas, Damianos; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2010-02-01

    Recordings from the basal ganglia's subthalamic nucleus are acquired via microelectrodes immediately prior to the application of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment for Parkinson's Disease (PD) to assist in the selection of the final point for the implantation of the DBS electrode. The acquired recordings reveal a persistent characteristic beta band peak in the power spectral density function of the Local Field Potential (LFP) signals. This peak is considered to lie at the core of the causality-effect relationships of the parkinsonian pathophysiology. Based on LFPs acquired from human subjects during DBS for PD, we constructed a computational model of the basal ganglia on the population level that generates LFPs to identify the critical pathophysiological alterations that lead to the expression of the beta band peak. To this end, we used experimental data reporting that the strengths of the synaptic connections are modified under dopamine depletion. The hypothesis that the altered dopaminergic modulation may affect both the amplitude and the time course of the postsynaptic potentials is validated by the model. The results suggest a pivotal role of both of these parameters to the pathophysiology of PD.

  8. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  9. Depth perception in cerebellar and basal ganglia disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, Matthias; Gomez, Christopher M; Tuite, Paul J; Pickett, Kristen; Konczak, Jürgen

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia serve not only a role in motor control but also in visual perception. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as patients with cerebellar lesions exhibit impairments of vision that are not fully explained by ocular motor deficits. It is less clear to which extent these visual deficits contribute to an impaired control of visually guided movements. This study examined whether a dysfunction of the cerebellum or the basal ganglia induces impairments in depth perception, which affect action. We employed an illusionary display, the Ames trapezoidal window, to determine the ability of PD patients (n=10) and patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) (n=6) to process depth cues when estimating object slant. Participants either pointed to the edges of the window (motor judgement) or verbally indicated the perceived orientation of the display (verbal judgement). To control for ocular and limb motor deficits, participants judged the slant of a non-illusionary display in a second task. Slant estimation of the non-illusionary window was not impaired in either patient group when compared to control subjects (all P>0.2). In contrast, SCA as well as PD patients exhibited significantly greater slant estimation errors than controls when pointing to the illusionary window (P=0.005). In addition, both patient groups made larger errors than controls in their verbal judgements during binocular viewing of the illusion (P=0.005), but not during monocular viewing (P>0.2). In sum, the present findings point towards a role for both the basal ganglia and cerebellum for the processing of visual information about depth. Since the deficits were seen both in the context of action and perception and were only partially reconciled by the availability of binocular depth cues, we conclude that basal ganglia as well as cerebellar disease may affect the visual perception of depth.

  10. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxid...

  11. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  12. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  13. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  14. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  15. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  16. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  17. Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, ac...

  18. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  19. Further evidence for peptidergic transmission in sympathetic ganglia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Y N; Jan, L Y; Kuffler, S W

    1980-01-01

    We previously proposed that, in sympathetic ganglia of the bullfrog, a peptide which resembles luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LH-RF, luliberin) functions as the transmitter for the late slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (epsp), a signal that may last 5-10 min. To test this hypothesis further, we have compared the physiological andpharmacological effects of LH-RF with those of the natural transmitter and have found a close parallel. (i) LH-RF, when ejected with a brief pulse of pre...

  20. Volumetric changes in the Basal Ganglia after antipsychotic monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, B H; Nørbak, H; Borgwardt, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to antipsychotic medication has been extensively associated with structural brain changes in the basal ganglia (BG). Traditionally antipsychotics have been divided into first and second generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) however, the validity of this classification has...... monotherapy. Material and Methods: We systematically searched PubMed for longitudinal MRI studies of patients with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis who had undergone a period of antipsychotic monotherapy. We used specific, predefined search terms and extracted studies were hand searched for additional...

  1. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA)); Murray, R.S. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  2. Bilateral Changes of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Protein and mRNA in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) plays a critical role in nociception. In contrast to cannabinoid receptor type 1 ligands, CB2R agonists do not produce undesirable central nervous system effects and thus promise to treat neuropathic pain that is often resistant to medical therapy. In the study presented here, we evaluated the bilateral distribution of the CB2R protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after unilateral peripheral nerve injury using immunohistochemistr...

  3. Modeling the contributions of Basal ganglia and Hippocampus to spatial navigation using reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Sukumar

    Full Text Available A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze.

  4. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  5. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  6. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: its role in pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Alexandra Leite Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia are a recent subject of research in the field of pain and a possible therapeutic target in the future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize some of the important physiological and morphological characteristics of these cells and gather the most relevant scientific evidence about its possible role in the development of chronic pain. CONTENT: In the sensory ganglia, each neuronal body is surrounded by satellite glial cells forming distinct functional units. This close relationship enables bidirectional communication via a paracrine signaling between those two cell types. There is a growing body of evidence that glial satellite cells undergo structural and biochemical changes after nerve injury, which influence neuronal excitability and consequently the development and/or maintenance of pain in different animal models of chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Satellite glial cells are important in the establishment of physiological pain, in addition to being a potential target for the development of new pain treatments.

  8. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  9. The basal ganglia: a substrate for fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, N.; Rio, J.; Tintore, M.; Nos, C.; Montalban, X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unitat de Neuroimmunologia Clinica, Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, J.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Ressonancia Magnetica (IDI), Servei de Radiologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The origin of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains uncertain. However, the use of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques has increased our understanding of this problem. We aimed to study the relationship between fatigue in MS and the presence of focal dysfunction in the basal ganglia and frontal white matter. Included in the study were 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS with mild disability and 20 healthy controls. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Patients were classified as ''fatigued'' when they expressed a subjective feeling of fatigue, and the FSS score was {>=}5.0 and/or the MFIS score was >38. Patients with no subjective fatigue were classified as ''nonfatigued'' when the FSS score was <4.0. Proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from two different regions: the frontal white matter and the lentiform nucleus. The relationships between fatigue and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were analysed. A significant decrease in NAA/Cr in the lentiform nucleus region in patients with fatigue was observed. No differences between the groups were found in the frontal white matter. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our results would support the idea that a specific dysfunction or involvement of the basal ganglia might partly contribute to the development of MS-related fatigue. (orig.)

  10. Individual differences in brainstem and basal ganglia structure predict postural control and balance loss in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; Chalavi, Sima; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Leunissen, Inge; Levin, Oron; Nieuwboer, Alice; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-02-01

    It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss. Analyses of white and gray matter in the brainstem showed that the pedunculopontine nucleus area appeared to be critical for postural control in both young and older adults. In addition, the brainstem mediated the effect of age on postural control, underscoring the brainstem's fundamental role in aging. Conversely, lower basal ganglia volume predicted better postural performance, suggesting an association between greater neural resources in the basal ganglia and greater movement vigor, resulting in exaggerated postural adjustments. Finally, results showed that practice, shorter height and heavier weight (i.e., higher body mass index), higher total physical activity, and larger ankle active (but not passive) range of motion were predictive of more stable posture, irrespective of age.

  11. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  12. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  13. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  14. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  15. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  16. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role...... envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model...... of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level...

  17. Characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yating Kong; Xifeng Pan; Qimei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to stroke, subcortical aphasia, basal ganglia aphasia and language rehabilitation published in Chinese from January 1988 to December 2005 were searched in Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) using the keywords of"stroke, basal ganglia aphasia, language rehabilitation" in Chinese. Meanwhile, English articles about aphasia published from January 1982 to December 2005 were searched in and Pubmed database. Besides, several books associated with the contents were looked through manually.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, the articles about the pathomechanism and neurolinguistic characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, diagnostic methods of aphasia and language rehabilitation were selected, and those had no obvious relation with the above contents were excluded.Inclusive criteria: literatures explain the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, neurolinguistic pathogenesis and methods of rehabilitation therapy in details. The repetitive studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 95 literatures about basal ganglia aphasia were collected, including 31 about the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, 45 about its neurolinguistic pathogenesis, 5 about the evaluation and classification of aphasia, and 14 about its rehabilitation therapy. Thirty accorded with the inclusive criteria were used for review, and the other 65 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: Concisely introduced the definition, past investigation of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke, then dwelled on the multiplicity neurolinguistics characteristics. Aphasia evaluation was dependent upon clinical aphasic symptoms. The relationship between symptom and focus of infection was explored, and the mechanism of pathosis language behavior on basal ganglia aphasia patients was understood to provide consequence data that could

  18. Visualization of mouse neuronal ganglia infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Alexandre Rochette

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry, which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives.

  19. Visualization of mouse neuronal ganglia infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Houle, Marie-Andrée; Blache, Marie-Claire; Légaré, François; Pearson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry), which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives.

  20. Neuronal plasticity of trigeminal ganglia in mice following nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynds, Randi; Lyu, Chuang; Lyu, Gong-Wei; Shi, Xie-Qi; Rosén, Annika; Mustafa, Kamal; Shi, Tie-Jun Sten

    2017-01-01

    Background Nerve injury may induce neuropathic pain. In studying the mechanisms of orofacial neuropathic pain, attention has been paid to the plastic changes that occur in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and nucleus in response to an injury of the trigeminal nerve branches. Previous studies have explored the impact of sciatic nerve injury on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and it has shown dramatic changes in the expression of multiple biomarkers. In large, the changes in biomarker expression in TGs after trigeminal nerve injury are similar to that in DRGs after sciatic nerve injury. However, important differences exist. Therefore, there is a need to study the plasticity of biomarkers in TGs after nerve injury in the context of the development of neuropathic pain-like behaviors. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of biomarkers associated with chronic persistent pain in TGs after trigeminal nerve injury. Materials and methods To mimic the chronic nature of the disorder, we used an intraoral procedure to access the infraorbital nerve (ION) and induced a nerve injury in mice. Immunohistochemistry and quantification were used for revealing the expression level of each biomarker in TGs after nerve injury. Results Two weeks after partial ION injury, immunohistochemistry results showed strongly upregulated expressions of activating transcription factor 3 and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ipsilateral TGs. Microglial cells were also activated after nerve injury. In regard to positive neuronal profile counting, however, no significant difference in expression was observed in galanin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated AKT, or P2X3 in ipsilateral TGs when compared to contralateral TGs. Conclusion In this study, the expression and regulation of biomarkers in TGs have been observed in response to trigeminal nerve injury. Our results suggest that NPY and Iba1 might play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of

  1. Interaction between basal ganglia and limbic circuits in learning and memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ghiglieri, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampus and striatum play distinctive roles in memory processes since declarative and non-declarative memory systems may act independently. However, hippocampus and striatum can also be engaged to function in parallel as part of a dynamic system to integrate previous experience and adjust behavioral responses. In these structures the formation, storage, and retrieval of memory require a synaptic mechanism that is able to integrate multiple signals and to translate them into persistent molecular traces at both the corticostriatal and hippocampal/limbic synapses. The best cellular candidate for this complex synthesis is represented by long-term potentiation (LTP). A common feature of LTP expressed in these two memory systems is the critical requirement of convergence and coincidence of glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs to the dendritic spines of the neurons expressing this form of synaptic plasticity. In experimental models of Parkinson's disease abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein affects these two memory systems by altering two major synaptic mechanisms underlying cognitive functions in cholinergic striatal neurons, likely implicated in basal ganglia dependent operative memory, and in the CA1 hippocampal region, playing a central function in episodic/declarative memory processes.

  2. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  3. Basal ganglia necrosis: a 'best-fit' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Mihaela; Lloyd, Katie; Likeman, Marcus; Jardine, Philip; Whone, Alan

    2016-12-01

    A previously well 16-year-old boy developed a rapid-onset hypokinetic syndrome, coupled with a radiological appearance of extensive and highly symmetrical basal ganglia and white matter change. The diagnostic process was challenging and we systematically considered potential causes. After excluding common causes of this clinico-radiological picture, we considered common disorders with this unusual radiological picture and vice versa, before finally concluding that this was a rare presentation of a rare disease. We considered the broad categories of: metabolic; toxic; infective; inflammatory, postinfective and immune-mediated; neoplastic; paraneoplastic and heredodegenerative. Long-term follow-up gave insight into the nature of the insult, confirming the monophasic course. During recovery, and following presumed secondary aberrant reinnervation, his disorder evolved from predominantly hypokinetic to hyperkinetic. Here, we explore the process of finding a 'best-fit' diagnosis: in this case, acute necrotising encephalopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Neuronal morphology and the synaptic organisation of sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, I L; Jobling, P; Messenger, J P; Teo, E H; Morris, J L

    2000-07-01

    In this article, we provide a short review of the structure and synaptic organisation of the final motor neurons in the sympathetic ganglia of mammals. Combinations of pathway tracing, multiple-labelling immunofluorescence and intracellular dye injection have shown that neurons in different functional pathways differ not only in their patterns of neuropeptide expression, but also in the size of their cell bodies and dendritic fields. Thus, vasoconstrictor neurons consistently are smaller than any other major functional class of neurons. Serial section ultrastructural analysis of dye filled neurons, together with electron microscopic and confocal microscopic analysis of immunolabelled synaptic inputs to sympathetic final motor neurons indicate that synapses are rare and randomly distributed over the surface of the neurons. The total number of synapses is simply proportional to the total surface area of the neurons. Many terminal boutons of peptide-containing preganglionic neurons do not make conventional synapses with target neurons. Furthermore, there is a spatial mismatch in the distribution of peptide-containing terminals and neurons expressing receptors for the corresponding peptides. Together, these results suggest that there are likely to be significant differences in the ways that the final sympathetic motor neurons in distinct functional pathways integrate their synaptic inputs. In at least some pathways, heterosynaptic actions of neuropeptides probably contribute to subtle modulation of ganglionic transmission.

  5. Gliocyte and synapse analyses in cerebral ganglia of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis: ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. 

  6. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Jennifer C; Miller, Andrew H

    2012-08-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation from multiple ganglia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemilar Mazyar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Simultaneous involvements of multiple cranial nerve ganglia (geniculate ganglion and peripheral ganglia of cranial nerves VIII, IX and X by varicella-zoster virus and its subsequent activation may result in the characteristic eruptions of herpes zoster cephalicus. Coexistence of facial palsy and involvement of upper cervical dermatomes by varicella-zoster virus is quite rare. Case presentation Here, we report a 71-year-old Iranian man with involvement of multiple sensory ganglia (geniculate ganglion and upper dorsal root ganglia by varicella-zoster virus. He presented with right-sided facial weakness along with vesicular eruptions on the right side of his neck, and second and third cervical dermatomes. Conclusion The present case is an example of herpes zoster cephalicus with cervical nerve involvement. Although resembling Ramsay Hunt syndrome with presence of facial nerve paralysis and accompanying vesicles, involvement of cervical dermatomes is not a feature of the classic Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

  8. Endoscopic considerations treating hydrocephalus caused by basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Roth

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery may potentially play a significant role in the initial management of patients with large basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Technical nuances and individualized goals are crucial for optimal outcomes.

  9. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  11. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning and operant conditioning (reward-based learning. A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point towards their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  12. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  13. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy...

  14. The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Fumika Mori; Ken-ichi Okada; Taishin Nomura; Yasushi Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control ...

  15. The Basal Ganglia as a Substrate for the Multiple Actions of Amphetamines

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior thro...

  16. Changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Okuchi, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka Police Hospital (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Sakaki, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Tominaga, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Kamada, Y. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Iwasaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    We report specific changes bilaterally in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia. A 69-year-old man, resuscitated after cardiac arrest, showed symmetrical low-density lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus on CT. MRI revealed methaemoglobin derived from minor haemorrhage in the basal ganglia and thalamus, not evident on CT. We suggest that this haemorrhage results from diapedesis of red blood cells through the damaged capillary endothelium following reperfusion. (orig.)

  17. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  18. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Dennison, Christina S; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J; Roark, Aubrey A

    2011-04-15

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A "gut feeling" without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning.

  20. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD. In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  1. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  2. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required.

  3. The subdiaphragmatic part of the phrenic nerve - morphometry and connections to autonomic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Du Plessis, Maira; Louis, Robert G; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartmann, Christopher T; Apaydin, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Few anatomical textbooks offer much information concerning the anatomy and distribution of the phrenic nerve inferior to the diaphragm. The aim of this study was to identify the subdiaphragmatic distribution of the phrenic nerve, the presence of phrenic ganglia, and possible connections to the celiac plexus. One hundred and thirty formalin-fixed adult cadavers were studied. The right phrenic nerve was found inferior to the diaphragm in 98% with 49.1% displaying a right phrenic ganglion. In 22.8% there was an additional smaller ganglion (right accessory phrenic ganglion). The remaining 50.9% had no grossly identifiable right phrenic ganglion. Most (65.5% of specimens) exhibited plexiform communications with the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, and suprarenal gland. The left phrenic nerve inferior to the diaphragm was observed in 60% of specimens with 19% containing a left phrenic ganglion. No accessory left phrenic ganglia were observed. The left phrenic ganglion exhibited plexiform communications to several ganglia in 71.4% of specimens. Histologically, the right phrenic and left phrenic ganglia contained large soma concentrated in their peripheries. Both phrenic nerves and ganglia were closely related to the diaphragmatic crura. Surgically, sutures to approximate the crura for repair of hiatal hernias must be placed above the ganglia in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries to the autonomic supply to the diaphragm and abdomen. These findings could also provide a better understanding of the anatomy and distribution of the fibers of that autonomic supply.

  4. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  5. Imaging features of intraosseous ganglia: a report of 45 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M.; Allen, G.; Evans, N. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Pathology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to report the spectrum of imaging findings of intraosseous ganglia (IG) with particular emphasis on the radiographic and magnetic resonance (MR) features. Forty-five patients with a final diagnosis of IG were referred to a specialist orthopaedic oncology service with the presumptive diagnosis of either a primary or secondary bone tumour. The diagnosis was established by histology in 25 cases. In the remainder, the imaging features were considered characteristic and the lesion was stable on follow-up radiographic examination. Radiographs were available for retrospective review in all cases and MR imaging in 29. There was a minor male preponderance with a wide adult age range. Three quarters were found in relation to the weight-bearing long bones of the lower limb, particularly round the knee. On radiographs all were juxta-articular and osteolytic; 74% were eccentric in location, 80% had a sclerotic endosteal margin and 60% of cases showed a degree of trabeculation. Periosteal new bone formation and matrix mineralization were not present. Of the 29 cases that underwent MR imaging, 66% were multiloculated. On T1-weighted images the IG contents were isointense or mildly hypointense in 90% cases. Forty-one per cent of the cases showed a slightly hyperintense rim lining that enhanced with a gadolinium chelate. Thirty-eight per cent were associated with soft tissue extension and 17% with a defect of the adjacent articular cortex. Fifty-five per cent showed surrounding marrow oedema on T2-weighted or STIR images and two cases (7%) a fluid-fluid level prior to any surgical intervention. The authors contend that it is semantics to differentiate between an IG and a degenerate subchondral cyst as, while the initial pathogenesis may vary, the histological endpoint is identical, as are the imaging features apart from the degree of associated degenerative joint disease. IGs, particularly when large, may be mistaken for a bone tumour. Correlation of the

  6. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C.M.; Pizzo, Donald P.; Debbi A. Morrissette; Jürgen Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia...

  7. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  8. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of basal ganglia and thalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Khema R; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew; Govind, Varan

    2013-07-01

    To assess the involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method. Fourteen definite-ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent whole brain DTI on a 3T scanner. Mean-diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were obtained bilaterally from the basal ganglia and thalamus in the regions-of-interest (ROIs). The MD was significantly higher (P < .02) in basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with ALS compared with controls. Correspondingly, the FA was significantly lower (P < .02) in these structures, except in caudate (P = .04) and putamen (P = .06) in patients compared with controls. There were mild to strong correlations (r = .3-.7) between the DTI measures of basal ganglia and finger-tap, foot-tap, and lip-and-tongue movement rate. The increased MD in basal ganglia and thalamus and decreased FA in globus pallidus and thalamus are indicative of neuronal loss or dysfunction in these structures. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. Latency-associated transcripts of equine herpesvirus type 4 in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, K; Wolfinger, U; Ludwig, H

    1999-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses. Unlike most other members of the Alphaherpesvirinae, EHV-4 was regarded as non-neurotropic. Here, neural and lymphoid tissues of 17 horses have been analysed post-mortem. EHV-4 DNA was detected in 11 cases (65%) by PCR, exclusively in the trigeminal ganglia. In order to define the transcriptional activity, RNA preparations of 10 EHV-4 DNA-positive ganglia were investigated by nested RT-PCR. EHV-4-specific transcripts derived from genes 63 [herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICPO gene homologue] and 64 (HSV-1 ICP4 gene homologue) were detected in six trigeminal ganglia. In one other case, only gene 64-specific transcripts were present. All of the transcripts proved to be antisense orientated when a strand-specific RT-PCR was applied. Type-specific primers for gene 33 (encoding glycoprotein B) served to detect transcripts of an acute EHV-4-infection, which were found in only one of the six ganglia positive for gene 63- and gene 64-specific transcripts. Overall, these studies clearly demonstrate that EHV-4 is latent in trigeminal ganglia.

  11. Anatomy of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Adam; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that the aortic plexus is a network of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves overlying the abdominal aorta, which is primarily involved with the sympathetic innervation to the mesenteric, pelvic and urogenital organs. Because a comprehensive anatomical description of the aortic plexus and its connections with adjacent plexuses are lacking, these delicate structures are prone to unintended damage during abdominal surgeries. Through dissection of fresh, frozen human cadavers (n = 7), the present study aimed to provide the first complete mapping of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males. Using standard histochemical procedures, ganglia of the aortic plexus were verified through microscopic analysis using haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase stains. All specimens exhibited four distinct sympathetic ganglia within the aortic plexus: the right and left spermatic ganglia, the inferior mesenteric ganglion and one previously unidentified ganglion, which has been named the prehypogastric ganglion by the authors. The spermatic ganglia were consistently supplied by the L1 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the newly characterized prehypogastric ganglion were supplied by the left and right L2 lumbar splanchnic nerves, respectively. Additionally, our examination revealed the aortic plexus does have potential for variation, primarily in the possibility of exhibiting accessory splanchnic nerves. Clinically, our results could have significant implications for preserving fertility in men as well as sympathetic function to the hindgut and pelvis during retroperitoneal surgeries. PMID:25382240

  12. Childhood onset generalised dystonia can be modelled by increased gain in the indirect basal ganglia pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, T D

    2003-11-01

    Clinical experience suggests an important role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway in the genesis of childhood onset generalised dystonia, but it has been difficult to reconcile the increased muscle activity in dystonia with the current model of basal ganglia function in which the indirect pathway is considered primarily inhibitory. The aim of this study was to present a modification of the direct-indirect pathway model, in which the indirect pathway is inverting rather than purely inhibitory, so that while high signals are inhibited, low signals are amplified. As the basal ganglia may be a feedback loop that modifies cortical activity, instability from excessive gain in this feedback loop could explain features of dystonia. A detailed mathematical model is provided, together with simulations of cortical cell population spiking behaviour when connected through a basal ganglia loop. The simulations show that increased gain in the indirect pathway relative to the direct pathway can lead to unstable uncontrolled synchronous oscillations in cortex and basal ganglia. This behaviour could result in dystonia. The model provides a consistent explanation for the association of dystonia with parkinsonism and disorders characterised by dopamine depletion, the ability to treat some dystonias with dopamine, the ability of neuroleptic drug treatment to cause an acute dystonic reaction treatable with anticholinergic drugs, and the ability of pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum to alleviate symptoms of generalised dystonia.

  13. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  14. Chronological changes in nonhaemorrhagic brain infarcts with short T1 in the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yasui, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Our purpose was to investigate nonhaemorrhagic infarcts with a short T1 in the cerebellum and basal ganglia. We carried out repeat MRI on 12 patients with infarcts in the cerebellum or basal ganglia with a short T1. Cerebellar cortical lesions showed high signal on T1-weighted spin-echo images beginning at 2 weeks, which became prominent from 3 weeks to 2 months, and persisted for as long as 14 months after the ictus. The basal ganglia lesions demonstrated slightly high signal from a week after the ictus, which became more intense thereafter. Signal intensity began to fade gradually after 2 months. High signal could be seen at the periphery until 5 months, and then disappeared, while low or isointense signal, seen in the central portion from day 20, persisted thereafter. (orig.)

  15. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  16. Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Omoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of synaptic contacts, cross-excitation of neurons in sensory ganglia during signal transmission is considered to be chemically mediated and appears increased in chronic pain states. In this study, we modulated neurotransmitter release in sensory neurons by direct application of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A to sensory ganglia in an animal model of neuropathic pain and evaluated the effect of this treatment on nocifensive. Unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE reduced the ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and reduced hindpaw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Direct application of BoNT/A to the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG was localized in the cell bodies of the DRG and reversed the SNE-induced decreases in withdrawal thresholds within 2 days of BoNT/A administration. Results from this study suggest that neurotransmitter release within sensory ganglia is involved in the regulation of pain-related signal transmission.

  17. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  18. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  19. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  20. Pulmonary vein region ablation in experimental vagal atrial fibrillation: role of pulmonary veins versus autonomic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Kristina; Chartier, Denis; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Dubuc, Marc; Cartier, Raymond; Armour, Andrew; Ting, Michael; Sakabe, Masao; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Comtois, Philippe; Nattel, Stanley

    2008-01-29

    Pulmonary vein (PV) -encircling radiofrequency ablation frequently is effective in vagal atrial fibrillation (AF), and there is evidence that PVs may be particularly prone to cholinergically induced arrhythmia mechanisms. However, PV ablation procedures also can affect intracardiac autonomic ganglia. The present study examined the relative role of PVs versus peri-PV autonomic ganglia in an experimental vagal AF model. Cholinergic AF was studied under carbachol infusion in coronary perfused canine left atrial PV preparations in vitro and with cervical vagal stimulation in vivo. Carbachol caused dose-dependent AF promotion in vitro, which was not affected by excision of all PVs. Sustained AF could be induced easily in all dogs during vagal nerve stimulation in vivo both before and after isolation of all PVs with encircling lesions created by a bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamp device. PV elimination had no effect on atrial effective refractory period or its responses to cholinergic stimulation. Autonomic ganglia were identified by bradycardic and/or tachycardic responses to high-frequency subthreshold local stimulation. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia overlying all PV ostia suppressed the effective refractory period-abbreviating and AF-promoting effects of cervical vagal stimulation, whereas ablation of only left- or right-sided PV ostial ganglia failed to suppress AF. Dominant-frequency analysis suggested that the success of ablation in suppressing vagal AF depended on the elimination of high-frequency driver regions. Intact PVs are not needed for maintenance of experimental cholinergic AF. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia at the base of the PVs suppresses vagal responses and may contribute to the effectiveness of PV-directed ablation procedures in vagal AF.

  1. Primary choriocarcinoma of the bilateral basal ganglia presenting in a teenaged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon C. Perry, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma (PICCC, a type of germ-cell tumor, is a very rare primary tumor of the central nervous system that generally arises in the pineal or suprasellar region. We present a case of a teenage boy with PICCC of the bilateral basal ganglia, an anatomic site for which we were unable to find the previous reports. We offer discussion of the differential diagnosis, imaging characteristics, and prognosis of PICCC and germ-cell tumors of the basal ganglia, in the hope that it will increase awareness and allow for early detection.

  2. Developmental Venous Anomaly With Asymmetrical Basal Ganglia Calcification: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developmental venous anomaly (DVA is a common lesion formerly known as venous angioma. DVAs drain normal brain parenchyma; however, parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVAs have been reported. Unilateral putamen and caudate calcification in the drainage territory of DVAs has so far been reported in 7 cases, all with deep venous drainage. We present two additional cases of DVAs, one with superficial and the other one with deep venous drainage, associated with basal ganglia calcifications. We emphasize that DVAs should be in the differential diagnosis of unilateral basal ganglia calcifications.

  3. Reelin signaling in the basal ganglia: comparative neuroanatomy and implications for vocal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Elizabeth Ross

    2017-01-01

    Vocal learning is a complex motor activity that relies on the coordination of different brain regions including the basal ganglia. By studying the vocal learning zebra finch, this work has uncovered a novel pathway that is regulated by singing behavior. The Reelin-signaling pathway like the human language transcription factor, FoxP2, is regulated in a basal ganglia region, Area X. The pathway was found to be regulated during the sensorimotor phase of song learning in finches as well as in adu...

  4. RNA sequencing of trigeminal ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after glyceryl trinitrate infusion with relevance to migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Sørensen, Lasse Maretty; Ramachandran, Roshni

    2016-01-01

    transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. METHODS: Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed......INTRODUCTION: Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate...

  5. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor induces gliogenesis in sensory ganglia, dorsal root, and within the dorsal root entry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Pizzo, Donald P; Morrissette, Debbi A; Winkler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100β revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root.

  6. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes C. M. Schlachetzki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100β revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root.

  7. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  8. Motor control in basal ganglia circuits using fMRI and brain atlas approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bardinet, Eric; Tremblay, Leon; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Dormont, Didier; Kim, Dae-Shik; Yelnik, Jerome; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined how the motor, premotor and associative basal ganglia territories process movement parameters such as the complexity and the frequency of movement. Twelve right-handed volunteers were studied using EPI BOLD contrast (3 T) while performing audio-paced finger tapping tasks designed to differentiate basal ganglia territories. Tasks varied movement complexity (repetitive index tapping, simple sequence of finger movements and complex sequence of 10 moves) and frequency (from 0.5 to 3 Hz). Activation maps were coregistered onto a 3-D brain atlas derived from post-mortem brains. Three main patterns of activation were observed. In the posterior putamen and the sensorimotor cortex, signal increased with movement frequency but not with movement complexity. In premotor areas, the anterior putamen and the ventral posterolateral thalamus, signal increased regularly with increasing movement frequency and complexity. In rostral frontal areas, the caudate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus and the ventral anterior/ventrolateral thalamus, signal increased mainly during the complex task and the high frequency task (3 Hz). These data show the different roles of motor, premotor and associative basal ganglia circuits in the processing of motor-related operations and suggest that activation can be precisely located within the entire circuitry of the basal ganglia.

  9. Respiratory Responses to Stimulation of Branchial Vagus Nerve Ganglia of a Teleost Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation of epibranchial vagus ganglia upon respiration of the carp were investigated. Single shocks evoked fast twitch responses in a number of respiratory muscles with latencies around 18 msec to the beginning and 30-35 msec to the peak of activity. Shocks given during

  10. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  11. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Flegel

    Full Text Available The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and ion channels, which are (potentially involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues.

  12. Activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson`s disease estimated by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohye, Chihiro [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-04-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies on the local cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolic rate, glucose metabolic rate in the basal ganglia of Parkinson`s disease are reviewed. PET has demonstrated that blood flow was decreased in the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal region, of Parkinson`s disease and that specific change in blood flow or metabolic rate in the basal ganglia was detected only in patients with hemi-parkinsonism. In authors` study on PET using {sup 18}FDG in patients with tremor type and rigid type Parkinson`s disease, changes in blood flow and metabolic rate were minimal at the basal ganglia level in tremor type patients, but cortical blood flow was decreased and metabolic rate was more elevated in the basal ganglia in rigid type patients. These findings were correlated with depth micro-recordings obtained by stereotactic pallidotomy. PET studies have also revealed that activity in the nerve terminal was decreased with decreasing dopamine and that dopamine (mainly D{sub 2}) activity was remarkably increased. PET studies with specific tracers are promising in providing more accurate information about functional state of living human brain with minimal invasion to patients. (N.K.).

  13. [A Role of the Basal Ganglia in Processing of Complex Sounds and Auditory Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkis, I G

    2015-01-01

    A hypothetical mechanism is suggested for processing of complex sounds and auditory attention in parallel neuronal loops including various auditory cortical areas connected with parts of the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus and basal ganglia. Release of dopamine in the striatum promotes bidirectional modulation of strong and weak inputs from the neocortex to striatal neurons giving rise to direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia. Subsequent synergistic disinhibition of one and inhibition of other groups of thalamic neurons by the basal ganglia result in the creation of contrasted neuronal representations of properties of auditory stimuli in related cortical areas. Contrasting is strengthened due to a simultaneous disinhibition of pedunculopontine nucleus and action at muscarine receptors on neurons in the medial geniculate body. It follows from this mechanism that involuntary attention to sound tone can enhance an early component of the responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortical area (50 msec) in the absence of dopamine due to a disinhibition of thalamic neurons via the direct pathway through the basal ganglia, whereas voluntary attention to complex sounds can enhance only those components of responses of neurones in secondary auditory cortical areas which latencies exceeds latencies of dopaminergic cells (i.e. after 100 msec). Various consequences of proposed mechanism are in agreement with known experimental data.

  14. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  15. Hereditary haemochromatosis: a case of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia associated with a parkinsonian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.E.; Jensen, L. Neerup; Krabbe, K.

    1995-01-01

    . A patient is reported with hereditary haemochromatosis and a syndrome of dementia, dysarthria, a slowly progressive gait disturbance, imbalance, muscle weakness, rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, ataxia, and dyssynergia. The findings on MRI of a large signal decrease in the basal ganglia, consistent...

  16. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  17. Mapping the basal ganglia alterations in children chronically exposed to manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Dion, Laurie-Anne; Gilbert, Guillaume; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Rocha, Gabriel; Wang, Yalin; Leporé, Natasha; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with neuromotor and neurocognitive deficits, but the exact mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity is still unclear. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in-vivo analysis of brain structures has become possible. Among different sub-cortical structures, the basal ganglia (BG) has been investigated as a putative anatomical biomarker in MR-based studies of Mn toxicity. However, previous investigations have yielded inconsistent results in terms of regional MR signal intensity changes. These discrepancies may be due to the subtlety of brain alterations caused by Mn toxicity, coupled to analysis techniques that lack the requisite detection power. Here, based on brain MRI, we apply a 3D surface-based morphometry method on 3 bilateral basal ganglia structures in school-age children chronically exposed to Mn through drinking water to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on brain anatomy. Our method successfully pinpointed significant enlargement of many areas of the basal ganglia structures, preferentially affecting the putamen. Moreover, these areas showed significant correlations with fine motor performance, indicating a possible link between altered basal ganglia neurodevelopment and declined motor performance in high Mn exposed children. PMID:28155922

  18. Abnormal Astrocytosis in the Basal Ganglia Pathway of Git1(-/-) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Yeon; Mah, Won

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the Git1 locus, exhibits severe astrocytosis in the globus pallidus (GP) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which send modulatory GABAergic inputs to the thalamus. A moderate level of astrocytosis was displayed in other regions of the basal ganglia pathway, including the ventrobasal thalamus and cortex, but not in other brain regions, such as the caudate putamen, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampal CA1. This basal ganglia circuit-selective astrocytosis was detected in both in adult (2-3 months old) and juvenile (4 weeks old) Git1(-/-) mice, suggesting a developmental origin. Astrocytes play an active role in the developing synaptic circuit; therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic markers. We detected increased and decreased levels of GABA and parvalbumin (PV), respectively, in the GP. This suggests that astrocytosis may alter synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, increased GABA expression colocalized with the astrocyte marker, GFAP, indicative of an astrocytic origin. Collectively, these results suggest that defects in basal ganglia circuitry, leading to impaired inhibitory modulation of the thalamus, are neural correlates for the ADHD-associated behavioral manifestations in Git1(-/-) mice.

  19. Structural findings in the basal ganglia in genetically determined and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Gaser, Christian; Klein, Christine

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral compensatory increase of basal ganglia (BG) gray matter value (GMV) was recently demonstrated in asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers, who likely have an increased risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized BG morphological changes in symptomatic Parkin mutation carrie...

  20. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects.

  1. Respiratory Responses to Stimulation of Branchial Vagus Nerve Ganglia of a Teleost Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation of epibranchial vagus ganglia upon respiration of the carp were investigated. Single shocks evoked fast twitch responses in a number of respiratory muscles with latencies around 18 msec to the beginning and 30-35 msec to the peak of activity. Shocks given during

  2. The disrupted basal ganglia and behavioural control: an integrative cross-domain perspective of spontaneous stereotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sebastian D; Parker, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in many captive animal species, as well as in humans with some severe psychiatric disorders, and is often cited as being related to general basal ganglia dysfunction. Despite this assertion, there is little in the literature examining SB specifically in terms of the basal ganglia mechanics. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrative, cross-domain perspective of SB by linking what we currently understand about the SB phenotype with the ever-growing literature on the anatomy and functionality of the basal ganglia. After outlining current models of SB from different theoretical perspectives, we offer a broad but detailed overview of normally functioning basal ganglia mechanics, and attempt to link this with current neurophysiological evidence related to spontaneous SB. Based on this we present an empirically derived theoretical framework, which proposes that SB is the result of a dysfunctional action selection system that may reflect dysregulation of excitatory (direct) and inhibitory (indirect and hyperdirect) pathways as well as alterations in mechanisms of behavioural switching. This approach also suggests behaviours that specifically become stereotypic may reflect inbuilt low selection threshold behavioural sequences associated with early development and the species-specific ethogram or, low threshold behavioural sequences that are the result of stress-induced dopamine exposure at the time of performance.

  3. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  4. Hereditary haemochromatosis: a case of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia associated with a parkinsonian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.E.; Jensen, L.N.; Krabbe, K

    1995-01-01

    . A patient is reported with hereditary haemochromatosis and a syndrome of dementia, dysarthria, a slowly progressive gait disturbance, imbalance, muscle weakness, rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, ataxia, and dyssynergia. The findings on MRI of a large signal decrease in the basal ganglia, consistent...

  5. Homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia: Is regeneration a recapitulation of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Neurons of the peripheral nervous system are able to regenerate their peripheral axons after injury, leading to complete recovery of sensory and motor function. The sciatic nerve crush model is frequently used to study peripheral nerve regeneration. Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)

  6. Restricted varicella-zoster virus transcription in human trigeminal ganglia obtained soon after death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); A. Choe (Alexander); M.A. Nagel (Maria ); D. Gilden (Don); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.J. Cohrs (Randall ); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe analyzed the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) transcriptome in 43 latently infected human trigeminal ganglia (TG) with postmortem intervals (PMIs) ranging from 3.7 to 24 h. Multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed no VZV transcripts with a PMI of <9 h. Real-time PCR indicated

  7. Synergy as a new and sensitive marker of basal ganglia dysfunction: A study of asymptomatic welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Lee, Eun-Young; Jo, Hang Jin; Du, Guangwei; Park, Jaebum; Flynn, Michael R; Kong, Lan; Latash, Mark L; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Multi-digit synergies, a recently developed, theory-based method to quantify stability of motor action, are shown to reflect basal ganglia dysfunction associated with parkinsonian syndromes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that multi-digit synergies may capture early and subclinical basal ganglia dysfunction. We chose asymptomatic welders to test the hypothesis because the basal ganglia are known to be most susceptible to neurotoxicity caused by welding-related metal accumulation (such as manganese and iron). Twenty right-handed welders and 13 matched controls were invited to perform single- and multi-finger pressing tasks using the fingers of the right or left hand. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Grooved Pegboard scores were used to gauge gross and fine motor dysfunction, respectively. High-resolution (3T) T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1 mapping, susceptibility, and diffusion tensor MRIs were obtained to reflect manganese, iron accumulation, and microstructural changes in basal ganglia. The synergy index stabilizing total force and anticipatory synergy adjustments were computed, compared between groups, and correlated with estimates of basal ganglia manganese [the pallidal index, R1 (1/T1)], iron [R2* (1/T2*)], and microstructural changes [fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity]. There were no significant differences in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total or motor subscale) or Grooved Pegboard test scores between welders and controls. The synergy index during steady-state accurate force production was decreased significantly in the left hand of welders compared to controls (p=0.004) but did not reach statistical significance in the right hand (p=0.16). Anticipatory synergy adjustments, however, were not significantly different between groups. Among welders, higher synergy indices in the left hand were associated significantly with higher fractional anisotropy values in the left globus pallidus (R=0.731, p<0.001) but not with the

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies...... and also some NPY immunoreactive fibers, whereas they were devoid of somatostatin immunoreactivity. Nerve ligation experiments indicated that the ganglia are intrinsic to the stomach....

  9. Basal ganglia germinoma in children with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozelame, Rodrigo V.; Shroff, Manohar; Wood, Bradley; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Drake, James M.; Hawkins, Cynthia; Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Germinoma is the most common and least-malignant intracranial germ cell tumor, usually found in the midline. Germinoma that arises in the basal ganglia, called ectopic germinoma, is a rare and well-documented entity representing 5% to 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The association of cerebral and/or brain stem atrophy with basal ganglia germinoma on CT and MRI is found in 33% of the cases. To review the literature and describe the CT and MRI findings of basal ganglia germinoma in children, known as ectopic germinoma, with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy. Three brain CT and six brain MRI studies performed in four children at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were male (case 1, 14 years; case 2, 13 years; case 3, 9 years; case 4, 13 years), with pathologically proved germinoma arising in the basal ganglia, and associated ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy on the first imaging study. It is important to note that three of these children presented with cognitive decline, psychosis and slowly progressive hemiparesis as their indication for imaging. Imaging results on initial scans were varied. In all patients, the initial study showed ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy, representing Wallerian degeneration. All patients who underwent CT imaging presented with a hyperdense or calcified lesion in the basal ganglia on unenhanced scans. Only one of these lesions had a mass effect on the surrounding structures. In one of these patients a large, complex, heterogeneous mass appeared 15 months later. Initial MR showed focal or diffusely increased T2 signal in two cases and heterogeneous signal in the other two. (orig.)

  10. Mineral composition of and the relationships between them of human basal ganglia in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi; Ke, Lining; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Sinthubua, Apichat; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements and the relationships among them were investigated by direct chemical analysis in three basal ganglia regions in very old age individuals and age- and gender-related differences were assessed. After ordinary dissections at Nara Medical University were finished, the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus belonging to the basal ganglia were removed from the identical cerebra of the subjects who consisted of 22 men and 23 women, ranging in age from 70 to 101 years (average age = 83.3 ± 7.5 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the Ca, P, and Mg contents increased significantly in the putamen with aging and the Mg content increased significantly in the globus pallidus with aging, but no elements increased significantly in the caudate nucleus with aging. Regarding the relationships among elements in the basal ganglia, extremely significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, and Mg contents in the putamen. These results suggested that slight calcification occurred in the putamen in very old age. With regard to seven elements of Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, it was examined whether there were significant correlations among the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. It was found that there were extremely significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia in the P content. Likewise, with regard to the Fe content, there were extremely or very significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia. Regarding the gender difference in elements, it was found that the Ca content of the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in women than in men.

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R. Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01, whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01. Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively. The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex

  12. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.

  13. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Miller

    Full Text Available Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p = 0.01 and right globus pallidus (p = 0.02. Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2 = 0.49, p = 0.001, general fatigue (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.01 and reduced activity (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.02 as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.

  14. [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED uptake mimicking lymph node metastasis in coeliac ganglia: an important pitfall in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, Thomas; Vogg, Andreas; Heinzel, Alexander; Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pufe, Thomas [RWTH University Aachen, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aachen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Anatomy I, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-24

    To determine the frequency of seemingly pathological retroperitoneal uptake in the location of the coeliac ganglia in patients undergoing [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED PET/CT. The study included 85 men with prostate cancer referred for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED PET/CT. The PET/CT scans were evaluated for the local finding in the prostate and the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases and coeliac ganglia. The corresponding standardized uptake values (SUV) were determined. SUVmax to background uptake (gluteal muscle SUVmean) ratios were calculated for the ganglia and lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the ganglia. In 76 of the 85 patients (89.4 %) at least one ganglion with tracer uptake was found. For the ganglia, SUVmax and SUVmax to background SUVmean ratios were 2.97 ± 0.88 and 7.98 ± 2.84 (range 1.57-6.38 and 2.83-30.6), respectively, and 82.8 % of all ganglia showed an uptake ratio of >5.0. For lymph node metastases, SUVmax and SUVmax to background SUVmean ratios were 8.5 ± 7.0 and 23.31 ± 22.23 (range 2.06-35.9 and 5.25-115.8), respectively. In 35 patients (41.2 %), no lymph node metastases were found but tracer uptake was seen in the ganglia. Immunohistochemistry confirmed strong PSMA expression in the ganglia. Coeliac ganglia show a relevant [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED uptake in most patients and may mimic lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  15. Interaction between the 5-HT system and the basal ganglia: Functional implication and therapeutic perspective in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiguelez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT has a multifaceted function in the modulation of information processing through the activation of multiple receptor families, including G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4-7 and ligand-gated ion channels (5-HT3. The largest population of serotonergic neurons is located in the midbrain, specifically in the raphe nuclei. Although the medial and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN share common projecting areas, in the basal ganglia (BG nuclei serotonergic innervations come mainly from the DRN. The BG are a highly organized network of subcortical nuclei composed of the striatum (caudate and putamen, subthalamic nucleus (STN, internal and external globus pallidus (or entopeduncular nucleus in rodents, GPi/EP and GPe and substantia nigra (pars compacta, SNc, and pars reticulata, SNr. The BG are part of the cortico-BG-thalamic circuits, which play a role in many functions like motor control, emotion, and cognition and are critically involved in diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This review provides an overview of serotonergic modulation of the BG at the functional level and a discussion of how this interaction may be relevant to treating Parkinson’s disease and the motor complications induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  16. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Koenig

    Full Text Available The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  17. Regulation of Nav1.7: A Conserved SCN9A Natural Antisense Transcript Expressed in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Werdehausen, Robert; Linley, John E; Habib, Abdella M; Vernon, Jeffrey; Lolignier, Stephane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Zhao, Jing; Okorokov, Andrei L; Woods, C Geoffrey; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    The Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, encoded by SCN9A, is critical for human pain perception yet the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this gene are still incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel natural antisense transcript (NAT) for SCN9A that is conserved in humans and mice. The NAT has a similar tissue expression pattern to the sense gene and is alternatively spliced within dorsal root ganglia. The human and mouse NATs exist in cis with the sense gene in a tail-to-tail orientation and both share sequences that are complementary to the terminal exon of SCN9A/Scn9a. Overexpression analyses of the human NAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK293A) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines show that it can function to downregulate Nav1.7 mRNA, protein levels and currents. The NAT may play an important role in regulating human pain thresholds and is a potential candidate gene for individuals with chronic pain disorders that map to the SCN9A locus, such as Inherited Primary Erythromelalgia, Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder and Painful Small Fibre Neuropathy, but who do not contain mutations in the sense gene. Our results strongly suggest the SCN9A NAT as a prime candidate for new therapies based upon augmentation of existing antisense RNAs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions in man.

  18. Amnesia Associated with Bilateral Hippocampal and Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in Anoxia with Stimulant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Marc W.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Marshalek, Patrick J.; Suter, Blair C.; Miller, Liv E.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 55-year-old man with ischemic lesions of the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral basal ganglia following a myocardial infarction during an episode of multiple drug use with subsequent anoxia requiring resuscitation. He presented for a neuropsychological evaluation with an anterograde amnesia for both explicit and procedural memory. There are two main points to this case, the unique aspects of the bilateral multifocal lesions and the functional, cognitive impact of these lesions. We hypothesize that his rare focal bilateral lesions of both the hippocampus and basal ganglia are a result of anoxia acting in synergy with his stimulant drug use (cocaine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine). Second, his unique lesions produced an explicit and implicit/procedural anterograde amnesia. PMID:28228745

  19. RNA Sequencing of Trigeminal Ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after Glyceryl Trinitrate Infusion with Relevance to Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Pedersen, Sara; Maretty, Lasse; Ramachandran, Roshni;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate...... transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. METHODS: Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed...... a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. RESULTS: 15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down...

  20. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  1. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neuropathological Effect of Tributyltin on the Cerebral Ganglia of the Land Snail, Eobania vermiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Soffar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the neuropathological effect of Tributyltin (TBT on the neurons of the cerebral ganglia in the land snail E. vermiculata. Sublethal dose (1/5 LD50 was used and the experiments lasted for 4 weeks. Light-and electron microscopical examination of treated animals revealed severe histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the cerebral ganglia. These alterations included hyperchromatic, pyknotic or highly shrunken nuclei, extreme indentation of plasma membrane, atrophy of the perikarya of some neurons, margination of nucleoli, fragmentation or dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, damage of mitochondria and vacuolation and destruction of cytoplasm. In addition, degenerated synaptic vesicles and increased number of autophagosomes and myelin figures were frequently observed.

  3. Distribution of intravascularly injected lanthanum ions in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, D M

    1984-12-01

    Intravascular injection of lanthanum revealed that tight junctions of capillaries in sympathetic ganglia are impermeable to small ions and thus behave like capillaries of the blood-brain barrier. The failure of lanthanum to accumulate in the extracellular space suggests that fenestrated capillaries are not as ion-permeable as use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by some authors has indicated. A possible toxic action associated with high concentrations of HRP may be responsible for the high permeability of this substance. Testing with lanthanum demonstrated that sympathetic ganglia possess anatomic features that provide a hematic barrier. The blood-ganglion barrier resembles, but has not yet been demonstrated to be as absolute as the blood-brain barrier.

  4. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  5. Asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation and basal ganglia calcification in a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Kun-Soo; Weon, Young Cheol

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions.

  6. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with parkinsonism and symmetric hyperintense basal ganglia on T1 weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Sita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal high signal in the globus pallidus on T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain has been well described in patients with chronic liver disease. It may be related to liver dysfunction or portal-systemic shunting. We report a case of extra hepatic portal vein obstruction with portal hypertension and esophageal varices that presented with extra pyramidal features. T1 weighted MRI brain scans showed increased symmetrical signal intensities in the basal ganglia. Normal hepatic function in this patient emphasizes the role of portal- systemic communications in the development of these hyperintensities, which may be due to deposition of paramagnetic substances like manganese in the basal ganglia.

  7. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made....... Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  8. Bilateral basal ganglia and unilateral cortical involvement in a diabetic uremic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang Hyo; Seok, Jung Im; Lee, Dong Kuck; An, Gee Sung

    2009-06-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with uremic encephalopathy who presented with dysarthria, dysphagia, hypophonia, and drowsiness. The patient's radiologic findings were rather unusual in that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal findings involving the basal ganglia bilaterally and frontal cortex unilaterally. After intensified hemodialysis, her symptoms and follow-up brain MRI showed marked improvement. We postulated that the underlying mechanism of uremic encephalopathy based on diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

  9. Shape of the basal ganglia in preadolescent children is associated with cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-10-01

    Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that "bigger is better" may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen was significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures was performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive measure

  10. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  11. Ketamine-induced oscillations in the motor circuit of the rat basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Nicolás

    Full Text Available Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the cortex and basal ganglia. This activity may play a role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases like schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Ketamine administration has been shown to cause an increase in gamma activity in cortical and subcortical structures, and an increase in 150 Hz oscillations in the nucleus accumbens in healthy rats, together with hyperlocomotion.We recorded local field potentials from motor cortex, caudate-putamen (CPU, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr and subthalamic nucleus (STN in 20 awake rats before and after the administration of ketamine at three different subanesthetic doses (10, 25 and 50 mg/Kg, and saline as control condition. Motor behavior was semiautomatically quantified by custom-made software specifically developed for this setting.Ketamine induced coherent oscillations in low gamma (~ 50 Hz, high gamma (~ 80 Hz and high frequency (HFO, ~ 150 Hz bands, with different behavior in the four structures studied. While oscillatory activity at these three peaks was widespread across all structures, interactions showed a different pattern for each frequency band. Imaginary coherence at 150 Hz was maximum between motor cortex and the different basal ganglia nuclei, while low gamma coherence connected motor cortex with CPU and high gamma coherence was more constrained to the basal ganglia nuclei. Power at three bands correlated with the motor activity of the animal, but only coherence values in the HFO and high gamma range correlated with movement. Interactions in the low gamma band did not show a direct relationship to movement.These results suggest that the motor effects of ketamine administration may be primarily mediated by the induction of coherent widespread high-frequency activity in the motor circuit of the basal ganglia, together with a frequency

  12. Migration and maturation pattern of fetal enteric ganglia: A study of 16 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the migration and developmental pattern of ganglion cells in fetuses aged 9-21 weeks, and to document whether the migration was occurring circumferentially equally in the entire axis or if there were discrepancies in different portions at the same level. Settings and Design: The hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung′s disease mainly revolves around two schools. One is the single gradient migration of ganglia and the other is a dual gradient migration theory. Understanding the embryological development of enteric ganglia is necessary to study the pathogenesis of intestinal innervation disorders. Materials and Methods: We studied the development of intestinal ganglia in fetuses aged 9-21 weeks. Serial longitudinal sections from the colon were studied, the first one including the squamo-columnar junction, for the presence and the nature of ganglion cells with Hematoxylin and Eosin, and neurone-specific enolase immunostaining. Transverse sections from proximal gut were studied in a similar fashion. Thus, we evaluated the migration pattern as well as the nature of ganglia in the fetuses. We also measured the length of distal aganglionic segment in these growing fetuses. Results: We noted that ganglion cells appear first in the myenteric plexus followed by deep and superficial submucous plexus. We also found evidences in favor of dual migration theory, and the distal aganglionic segment varies around the circumference of the rectal wall. Conclusions: We got evidences in support of a dual migration pattern of intestinal ganglion cells. The level of distal aganglionic segments when measured from squamo-columnar junction varied with the age of gestation and the length was incongruous. The description of distal aganglionic segment may help surgeons while taking biopsies or during operative procedures.

  13. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handal Anabella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG, and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

  14. Basal ganglia modulation of thalamocortical relay in Parkinson’s disease and dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin eGuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson’s disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on the information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson’s disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson’s disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia maybe involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.

  15. Basal ganglia modulation of thalamocortical relay in Parkinson's disease and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.

  16. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. II Dynamics of parkinsonian oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S J; Gray, R T; Drysdale, P M; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    Neuronal correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) include a shift to lower frequencies in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and enhanced synchronized oscillations at 3-7 and 7-30 Hz in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. This study describes the dynamics of a recent physiologically based mean-field model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system, and shows how it accounts for many key electrophysiological correlates of PD. Its detailed functional connectivity comprises partially segregated direct and indirect pathways through two populations of striatal neurons, a hyperdirect pathway involving a corticosubthalamic projection, thalamostriatal feedback, and local inhibition in striatum and external pallidum (GPe). In a companion paper, realistic steady-state firing rates were obtained for the healthy state, and after dopamine loss modeled by weaker direct and stronger indirect pathways, reduced intrapallidal inhibition, lower firing thresholds of the GPe and subthalamic nucleus (STN), a stronger projection from striatum to GPe, and weaker cortical interactions. Here it is shown that oscillations around 5 and 20 Hz can arise with a strong indirect pathway, which also causes increased synchronization throughout the basal ganglia. Furthermore, increased theta power with progressive nigrostriatal degeneration is correlated with reduced alpha power and peak frequency, in agreement with empirical results. Unlike the hyperdirect pathway, the indirect pathway sustains oscillations with phase relationships that coincide with those found experimentally. Alterations in the responses of basal ganglia to transient stimuli accord with experimental observations. Reduced cortical gains due to both nigrostriatal and mesocortical dopamine loss lead to slower changes in cortical activity and may be related to bradykinesia. Finally, increased EEG power found in some studies may be partly explained by a lower effective GPe firing threshold, reduced GPe-GPe inhibition, and/or weaker

  17. The contribution of synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia to the processing of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil'kis, I G

    2007-10-01

    A mechanism for the involvement of the basal ganglia in the processing of visual information, based on dopamine-dependent modulation of the efficiency of synaptic transmission in interconnected parallel associative and limbic cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuits, is proposed. Each circuit consists of a visual or prefrontal area of the cortex connected with the thalamic nucleus and the corresponding areas in different nuclei of the basal ganglia. The circulation of activity in these circuits is supported by the recurrent arrival of information in the thalamus and cortex. Dopamine released in response to a visual stimulus modulates the efficiencies of "strong" and "weak" corticostriatal inputs in different directions, and the subsequent reorganization of activity in the circuit leads to disinhibition (inhibition) of the activity of those cortical neurons which are "strongly" ("weakly") excited by the visual stimulus simultaneously with dopaminergic cells. The pattern in each cortical area is the neuronal reflection of the properties of the visual stimulus processed by this area. Excitation of dopaminergic cells by the visual stimulus via the superior colliculi requires parallel activation of the disinhibitory input to the superior colliculi via the thalamus and the "direct" pathway" in the basal ganglia. The prefrontal cortex, excited by the visual stimulus via the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, mediates the descending influence on the activity of dopaminergic cells, simultaneously controlling dopamine release in different areas of the striatum and thus facilitating the mutual selection of neural reflections of the individual properties of the visual stimulus and their binding into an integral image.

  18. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Dennison, Christina S.; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J.; Roark, Aubrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accomp...

  19. Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgrave, P; Vautrelle, N; Reynolds, J N J

    2011-12-15

    Multifunctional agents with limited motor resources must decide what actions will best ensure their survival. Moreover, given that in an unpredictable world things don't always work out, considerable advantage is to be gained by learning from experience - instrumental behaviour that maximises reward and minimises punishment. In this review we will argue that the re-entrant looped architecture of the basal ganglia represents biological solutions to these fundamental behavioural problems of selection and reinforcement. A potential solution to the selection problem is provided for by selective disinhibition within the parallel loop architecture that connects the basal ganglia with external neural structures. The relay points within these loops permit the signals of a particular channel to be modified by external influences. In part, these influences have the capacity to modify overall selections so that the probability of re-selecting reinforced behaviours in the future is altered. This is the basic process of instrumental learning, which we suggest decomposes into two sub-problems for the agent: (i) learning which external events it causes to happen and learning precisely what it is doing that is causal; and (ii) having determined agency and discovered novel action-outcome routines, how best to exploit this knowledge to maximise future reward acquisitions. Considerations of connectional architecture and signal timing suggest that the short-latency, sensory-evoked dopamine response, which can modulate the re-entrant loop structure within the basal ganglia, is ideally suited to reinforce the determination of agency and the discovery of novel actions. Alternatively, recent studies showing that presence or absence of reward can selectively modulate the magnitude of signals in structures providing input signals to the basal ganglia, offer an alternative mechanism for biasing selection within the re-entrant loop architecture. We suggest that this mechanism may be better

  20. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography

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    Demetrio eMilardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders.

  1. A neural mass model of basal ganglia nuclei simulates pathological beta rhythm in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Li, Huiyan; Deng, Bin; Fietkiewicz, Chris; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2016-12-01

    An increase in beta oscillations within the basal ganglia nuclei has been shown to be associated with movement disorder, such as Parkinson's disease. The motor cortex and an excitatory-inhibitory neuronal network composed of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external globus pallidus (GPe) are thought to play an important role in the generation of these oscillations. In this paper, we propose a neuron mass model of the basal ganglia on the population level that reproduces the Parkinsonian oscillations in a reciprocal excitatory-inhibitory network. Moreover, it is shown that the generation and frequency of these pathological beta oscillations are varied by the coupling strength and the intrinsic characteristics of the basal ganglia. Simulation results reveal that increase of the coupling strength induces the generation of the beta oscillation, as well as enhances the oscillation frequency. However, for the intrinsic properties of each nucleus in the excitatory-inhibitory network, the STN primarily influences the generation of the beta oscillation while the GPe mainly determines its frequency. Interestingly, describing function analysis applied on this model theoretically explains the mechanism of pathological beta oscillations.

  2. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions in patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jordan Y Z; Yong, Tuck Y; Sebben, Ruben; Khoo, Eewin; Disney, Alex P S

    2008-02-01

    Acute movement disorder associated with reversible bilateral basal ganglia lesions is an increasingly recognized syndrome in patients with end-stage renal disease, especially in the setting of concurrent diabetes mellitus. We report an elderly man with end-stage diabetic nephropathy treated by daily automated peritoneal dialysis who developed subacute symptoms of gait disturbance, dysarthria, dysphagia and lethargy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia lesions. Repeat imaging 3 weeks later showed that these lesions had regressed spontaneously. However, his neurological symptoms improved slowly. These findings were similar to 23 other cases in the literature. Review of these cases shows that clinical features were predominantly bradykinesia, gait disturbance and concurrent metabolic acidosis (observed in 90% of cases). The pathogenesis of this condition has not been clearly defined, but uraemia may be an aggravating factor in predisposed patients, particularly in the presence of diabetic microvascular disease. There is no specific treatment for this condition; supportive measures are the mainstay of management. In the majority of patients, neurological improvement lags behind regression of basal ganglia lesions seen with neuroimaging, and the long-term outcome is variable.

  3. Dissociable neural systems for timing: evidence from subjects with basal ganglia lesions.

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    H Branch Coslett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural basis of timing remains poorly understood. Although controversy persists, many lines of evidence, including studies in animals, functional imaging studies in humans and lesion studies in humans and animals suggest that the basal ganglia are important for temporal processing [1]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report data from a wide range of timing tasks from two subjects with disabling neurologic deficits caused by bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia. Both subjects perform well on tasks assessing time estimation, reproduction and production tasks. Additionally, one subject performed normally on psychophysical tasks requiring the comparison of time intervals ranging from milliseconds to seconds; the second subject performed abnormally on the psychophysical task with a 300ms standard but did well with 600ms, 2000ms and 8000ms standards. Both subjects performed poorly on an isochronous rhythm production task on which they are required to maintain rhythmic tapping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As studies of subjects with brain lesions permit strong inferences regarding the necessity of brain structures, these data demonstrate that the basal ganglia are not crucial for many sub- or supra-second timing operations in humans but are needed for the timing procedures that underlie the production of movements. This dissociation suggests that distinct and dissociable processes may be employed to measure time intervals. Inconsistencies in findings regarding the neural basis of timing may reflect the availability of multiple temporal processing routines that are flexibly implemented in response to task demands.

  4. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

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    Luisa Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage.

  5. Solubilization of nerve growth factor receptors of rabbit superior cervical ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S P; Cuatrecasas, P; Snyder, S H

    1976-09-25

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors of rabbit superior cervical ganglia can be solubilized by treatment with detergents and readily assayed in the soluble state. Triton X-100 and deoxycholate reduce specific binding of NGF to ganglia membranes. In membranes treated with Triton X-100 (0.5 to 2.0%) the reduction in NGF binding by membranes is accompanied by a corresponding increase in binding in the supernatant fluid. NGF binding in soluble preparations can be rapidly assayed by precipitating NGF bound to receptors with polyethylene glycol under conditions in which unbound NGF is not precipitated. NGF binding to soluble preparations is saturable whether evaluated by the binding of 125I-NGF or by diluting 125I-NGF with native NGF. Using both techniques, the dissociation constant for NGF binding to soluble receptors is about 0.2 nM, the same as its dissociation constant from receptor sites in intact membranes. NGF binding to soluble receptors displays a high degree of peptide specificity, similar to receptor sites in intact membranes of superior cervical ganglia. A method of labeling NGF with 125I-3(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester is described which leads to binding properties that are superior to those obtained with previously described 125I-NGF preparations.

  6. Evidence for altered basal ganglia-brainstem connections in cervical dystonia.

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    Anne J Blood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF WRIST GANGLIA BY TRANSFIXATION TECHNIQUE: OUR EXPERIENCE IN A RURAL TEACHING INSTITUTION

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    Sharma Man

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ganglion is one of the commonly seen lesions in minor surgical practice. Treatment of wrist ganglia includes simple reassurance, watchful waiting, non-operative aspiration, injection, surgical excision and even sometimes advanced endoscopic excision. Although treatment is not often necessary, many patients seeking consultation ask for some form of definitive treatment. High incidence of recurrence is seen with cyst aspiration/injection or after surgical excision. Recurrence is the common problem, irrespective of the treatment modality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluates results of a modified minimally invasive surgical technique used for the management of ganglia of the wrist. Thirty six wrist ganglia have been treated by using the transfixation technique. RESULTS: The successful results for the procedure were seen in 94.44% patients. Consequent to the procedure, an average of 2days off work were lost. Recurrence in the 2 year follow-up was seen in two patients. DISCUSSION: On comparing with other modalities this method is minimally invasive, cost-effective, less time consuming, low rate of recurrence and at the same time can be carried out under local anesthesia as a day case procedure and even not requiring any specific instrument and further this technique can be easily learned.

  8. Acute Chorea Characterized by Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in a Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy

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    İbrahim DOĞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions associated with uremia presents with parkinsonism, altered mental status, and chorea in association with specific imaging findings in the basal ganglia. It is an uncommon syndrome seen generally in patients with diabetes mellitus and renal failure. We report a male patient with diabetes mellitus who received hemodialysis treatment 3 days a week for 5 years and suffered from choreic movements developed suddenly and associated with bilateral basal ganglia lesions. In the brain magnetic resonance (MR imaging, isointense was detected in sequence T1 in the bilateral basal ganglions and hyperintense lesion was determined in T2 and FLAIR sequences. The patient was administered daily hemodialysis and neuroleptic treatment. After intensified hemodialysis, his symptoms and follow-up brain MR imaging showed marked improvement. The underlying mechanism of such lesions may be associated with metabolic, as well as vascular factors. Acute choreic movements may be seen in patients with diabetic nephropathy and intensification of hemodialysis treatment along with blood glucose regulation may provide improvement in this syndrome.

  9. Anatomical study of the roots of cranial parasympathetic ganglia: a contribution to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasova, Kvetuse; Sulla, Igor J; Bolekova, Adriana; Sulla, Igor; Kluchova, Darina

    2013-05-01

    A major key to increasing the safety of cranial surgery is a thorough understanding of anatomy. The anatomy of the head is of fundamental interest to dental and medical students early in their studies. Clinically, it is mostly relevant to surgeons who are performing interventions and reconstruction in the maxillofacial region, skull base, and the orbit. However, the level of appropriate anatomical knowledge necessary for general and special medical and surgical practice is still under discussion. This study maps the significant areas and structures of the head that are not normally accessible during dissection courses because of time and difficulties involved in the preparation. The detailed photodocumentation enriched by diagrams provides a view of structures until now only partially documented. Three parasympathetic ganglia are located in hardly accessible areas of the head - inside the orbit, infratemporal fossa, and in the pterygopalatine fossa. No detailed photographs have been found in current anatomical textbooks and atlases in relation to the morphology of fibers (roots) connected to the ciliary, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia. Therefore, this study focused on the detailed display of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic roots of ganglia to provide relevant photodocumentation and an improvement in human anatomy teaching. This study also confirms that cadaver dissection provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of anatomy and clinical medicine into the early clinical training of undergraduate dental and medical students. We believe this article, because of the details mentioned above, will be beneficial not only for the future anatomical undergraduate but also for postgraduate education.

  10. Early imaging findings in germ cell tumors arising from the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-One; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Hae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Woman' s University Mokdong Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Sun Kyoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chungnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is difficult to diagnosis early stage germ cell tumors originating in the basal ganglia, but early recognition is important for better outcome. To evaluate serial MR images of basal ganglia germ cell tumors, with emphasis on the features of early stage tumors. We retrospectively reviewed serial MR images of 15 tumors in 14 children and young adults. We categorized MR images of the tumors as follows: type I, ill-defined patchy lesions (<3 cm) without cyst; type II, small mass lesions (<3 cm) with cyst; and type III, large lesions (≥3 cm) with cyst. We also assessed temporal changes of the MR images. On the initial images, 8 of 11 (73%) type I tumors progressed to types II or III, and 3 of 4 (75%) type II tumors progressed to type III. The remaining 4 tumors did not change in type. All type II tumors (5/5, 100%) that changed from type I had a few tiny cysts. Intratumoral hemorrhage was observed even in the type I tumor. Ipsilateral hemiatrophy was observed in most of the tumors (13/15, 87%) on initial MR images. As tumors grew, cystic changes, intratumoral hemorrhage, and ipsilateral hemiatrophy became more apparent. Early stage basal ganglia germ cell tumors appear as ill-defined small patchy hyperintense lesions without cysts on T2-weighted images, are frequently associated with ipsilateral hemiatrophy, and sometimes show microhemorrhage. Tumors develop tiny cysts at a relatively early stage. (orig.)

  11. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodal, Hans P; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music.

  12. Mutations Inactivating Herpes Simplex Virus 1 MicroRNA miR-H2 Do Not Detectably Increase ICP0 Gene Expression in Infected Cultured Cells or Mouse Trigeminal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dongli; Pesola, Jean M; Li, Gang; McCarron, Seamus; Coen, Donald M

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) latency entails the repression of productive ("lytic") gene expression. An attractive hypothesis to explain some of this repression involves inhibition of the expression of ICP0, a lytic gene activator, by a viral microRNA, miR-H2, which is completely complementary to ICP0 mRNA. To test this hypothesis, we engineered mutations that disrupt miR-H2 without affecting ICP0 in HSV-1. The mutant virus exhibited drastically reduced expression of miR-H2 but showed wild-type levels of infectious virus production and no increase in ICP0 expression in lytically infected cells, which is consistent with the weak expression of miR-H2 relative to the level of ICP0 mRNA in that setting. Following corneal inoculation of mice, the mutant was not significantly different from wild-type virus in terms of infectious virus production in the trigeminal ganglia during acute infection, mouse mortality, or the rate of reactivation from explanted latently infected ganglia. Critically, the mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type virus for the expression of ICP0 and other lytic genes in acutely and latently infected mouse trigeminal ganglia. The latter result may be related to miR-H2 being less effective in inhibiting ICP0 expression in transfection assays than a host microRNA, miR-138, which has previously been shown to inhibit lytic gene expression in infected ganglia by targeting ICP0 mRNA. Additionally, transfected miR-138 reduced lytic gene expression in infected cells more effectively than miR-H2. While this study provides little support for the hypothesis that miR-H2 promotes latency by inhibiting ICP0 expression, the possibility remains that miR-H2 might target other genes during latency.

  13. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark Klitgaard; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H

    2015-01-01

    in the ganglia of the transgenic mice was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the receptor protein, and double labeling colocalized mRFP and the FFAR3-protein in the same neurons. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on extracts from the ganglia...... but also directly by modifying physiological reflexes integrating the peripheral nervous system and the gastro-intestinal tract....

  14. A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ga...

  15. TNFα levels and macrophages expression reflect an inflammatory potential of trigeminal ganglia in a mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine.

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    Alessia Franceschini

    Full Text Available Latent changes in trigeminal ganglion structure and function resembling inflammatory conditions may predispose to acute attacks of migraine pain. Here, we investigated whether, in trigeminal sensory ganglia, cytokines such as TNFα might contribute to a local inflammatory phenotype of a transgenic knock-in (KI mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1. To this end, macrophage occurrence and cytokine expression in trigeminal ganglia were compared between wild type (WT and R192Q mutant Ca(V2.1 Ca(2+ channel (R192Q KI mice, a genetic model of FHM-1. Cellular and molecular characterization was performed using a combination of confocal immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays. With respect to WT, R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia were enriched in activated macrophages as suggested by their morphology and immunoreactivity to the markers Iba1, CD11b, and ED1. R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia constitutively expressed higher mRNA levels of IL1β, IL6, IL10 and TNFα cytokines and the MCP-1 chemokine. Consistent with the report that TNFα is a major factor to sensitize trigeminal ganglia, we observed that, following an inflammatory reaction evoked by LPS injection, TNFα expression and macrophage occurrence were significantly higher in R192Q KI ganglia with respect to WT ganglia. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglia, the complex cellular and molecular environment could support a new tissue phenotype compatible with a neuroinflammatory profile. We propose that, in FHM patients, this condition might contribute to trigeminal pain pathophysiology through release of soluble mediators, including TNFα, that may modulate the crosstalk between sensory neurons and resident glia, underlying the process of neuronal sensitisation.

  16. Kv3-like potassium channels are required for sustained high-frequency firing in basal ganglia output neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shengyuan; Matta, Shannon G; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The GABA projection neurons in the substantial nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are key output neurons of the basal ganglia motor control circuit. These neurons fire sustained high-frequency, short-duration spikes that provide a tonic inhibition to their targets and are critical to movement control. We hypothesized that a robust voltage-activated K(+) conductance that activates quickly and resists inactivation is essential to the remarkable fast-spiking capability in these neurons. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis on laser capture-microdissected nigral neurons indicated that mRNAs for Kv3.1 and Kv3.4, two key subunits for forming high activation threshold, fast-activating, slow-inactivating, 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive, fast delayed rectifier (I(DR-fast)) type Kv channels, are more abundant in fast-spiking SNr GABA neurons than in slow-spiking nigral dopamine neurons. Nucleated patch clamp recordings showed that SNr GABA neurons have a strong Kv3-like I(DR-fast) current sensitive to 1 mM TEA that activates quickly at depolarized membrane potentials and is resistant to inactivation. I(DR-fast) is smaller in nigral dopamine neurons. Pharmacological blockade of I(DR-fast) by 1 mM TEA impaired the high-frequency firing capability in SNr GABA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that Kv3-like channels mediating fast-activating, inactivation-resistant I(DR-fast) current are critical to the sustained high-frequency firing in SNr GABA projection neurons and hence movement control.

  17. BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jorge Adad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.

  18. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT

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    Ryu, Won Gee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin; Lee, Jong Doo; Cheon, Keun Ah [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Dae Yoon [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun [School of Medicine, Gachon Univ., Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been known as psychiatric disorder in childhood associated with dopamine dysregulation. In present study, we investigated changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) density of the basal ganglias using I-123 N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl) -2-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorphenyl) tropane (I-123 IPT) SPECT in children with ADHD before and after methylphenidate treatment. Nine drug-naive children with ADHD and seven normal children were included in the study. We performed brain SPECT two hours after the intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and made both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratios in the basal ganglia. All children with ADHD reperformed (123I)IPT SPECT after treatment with methylphenidate (0.7mg/kg/d) during about 8 weeks. SPECT data reconstructed for the assessment of specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia were compared between before and after treatment methyphenidate. We investigated correlation between the change of ADHD symptom severity assessed with ADHD rating scale-IV and specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of basal ganglia. Children with ADHD had a significantly greater specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia comparing to normal children (Right : z = 2.057, p = 0.041 ; Left : z = 2.096, p = 0.032). Under treatment with methylphenidate in all children with ADHD, specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both ganglia decreased significantly greater than before treatment with methylphenidate (Right : t = 3.239, p = 0.018 ; Left : t = 3.133, p 0.020). However, no significant correlation between the change of ADHD symptom severity scores and specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia were found. These findings support the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in children with ADHD.

  19. Dopamine transporter density of basal ganglia assessed with [{sup 123}I]IPT SPET in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan-Hyung; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Lee, Hong-Shick [Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 146-92 Dogokdong, 135-720, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Koo, Min-Seong [Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Kangwon (Korea); Ryu, Young-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Doo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine, as well as serotonin, is associated with the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, many studies have been performed on brain regions associated with dopamine in patients with OCD. In the present study, we investigated the DAT density of the basal ganglia using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane ([{sup 123}I]IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and evaluated the activity of the presynaptic dopamine function in patients with OCD. Fifteen patients with OCD and 19 normal control adults were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 h after the intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific dopamine transporter (DAT) binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of OCD symptoms assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Compared with normal control adults, patients with OCD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the right basal ganglia and a tendency towards an increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the left basal ganglia. No significant correlation was found between the total scores on the Y-BOCS and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. These findings suggest that the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of the basal ganglia in patients with OCD could be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. (orig.)

  20. Dopamine Transporter Density of the Basal Ganglia Assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, W. K.; Ryu, Y. H.; Yoon, M. J.; Kim, C. H.; Chun, K. A.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, D. Y. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Inhwa, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, T. H. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine as well as serotonin is associated with the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, many studies about brain regions associated with dopamine in OCD have been performed. In the present study, we investigated the DAT density of the basal ganglia using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl) - 2beta - carbomethoxy - 3beta - (4 - chloropheny1) tropane (I-123 IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in patients with OCD and evaluated the activity of the presynaptic dopamine function in patients with OCD. Fifteen patients with OCD and nineteen normal control adults were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 hours after the intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of OCD symptoms assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Patients with OCD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in right basal ganglia compared with normal control adults and an increased tendency in the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in left basal ganglia. No significant correlation was found between the total scores of the Y-BOCS and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia. Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of the basal ganglia in patients with OCD plays an important role in fronto-subcortical circuit well-known as the pathophysiological mechanism of OCD.

  1. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory ganglia after capsaicin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin Y; Korzina, Marina B; Porseva, Valentina V

    2015-08-27

    To gain a better understanding of the neuroplasticity of afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from vehicle-treated and capsaicin-treated female Wistar rats at different ages (10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, and two-month-old). The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons decreased after capsaicin treatment in all studied ganglia in first 20 days of life, from 55.4% to 36.9% in the Th2 DRG, from 54.6% to 26.1% in the L4 DRG and from 37.1% to 15.0% in the NG. However, in the NG, the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons increased after day 20, from 11.8% to 23.9%. In the sensory ganglia of all studied rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons bound isolectin B4. Approximately 90% of the sensory nNOS-IR neurons bound to IB4 in the DRG and approximately 80% in the NG in capsaicin-treated and vehicle-treated rats. In 10-day-old rats, a large number of nNOS-IR neurons also expressed TrkA, and the proportion of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) neurons was larger in the capsaicin-treated rats compared with the vehicle-treated animals. During development, the percentage of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) cells decreased in the first month of life in both groups. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of sensory neuron development.

  2. Increased basal ganglia binding of (18) F-AV-1451 in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruben; Schain, Martin; Nilsson, Christer; Strandberg, Olof; Olsson, Tomas; Hägerström, Douglas; Jögi, Jonas; Borroni, Edilio; Schöll, Michael; Honer, Michael; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is difficult to diagnose accurately. The recently developed tau PET tracers may improve the diagnostic work-up of PSP. Regional tau accumulation was studied using (18) F-AV-1451 PET in 11 patients with PSP and 11 age-matched healthy controls in the Swedish BioFinder study. (18) F-AV-1451 standard uptake volume ratios were significantly higher in the basal ganglia in PSP patients when compared with controls (globus pallidus 1.75 vs 1.50; putamen 1.51 vs 1.35). Retention in the basal ganglia was correlated with age in both groups (r = .43-.78, P AV-1451 retention was observed in the cerebral cortex or white matter of either PSP patients or controls, and autoradiography did not reveal any specific binding of AV-1451 to PSP tau aggregates. We found higher (18) F-AV-1451 retention in the basal ganglia of PSP patients when compared with healthy elderly controls, but also increases with age in both controls and patients. As a result of the overlap in retention between diagnostic groups and the age-dependent increase present also in controls, (18) F-AV-1451 PET might not reliably distinguish individual patients with PSP from controls. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether (18) F-AV-1451 PET might be useful as a progression marker in clinical PSP trials. © The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodal, Hans P.; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music. PMID:28400717

  4. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong Yuan; Xiangyan Liu; Qiuping Tang; Yunlong Deng

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after sur-gery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is stil unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether in-terleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical no-ciception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n=32) and sham surgery (n=8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group re-ceived anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L 3-5 ) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on smal-and medium-sized neurons (diameter40μm) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by inci-sion surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to me-chanical stimulus in the hind paw fol owing incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by in-cision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws.

  5. Gap junctional communication between the satellite cells of rat dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, E; Wang, H J; Asai, Y; Tamaki, D; Amano, K; Mabuchi, Y; Herbert, D C; Soji, T

    2001-06-01

    Many studies have described the ultrastructure of the dorsal root ganglia in various embryonic and adult animals, but in spite of the efforts of many investigators the functional role of the satellite cells in this tissue is not clearly understood. In this study, we discuss the function of this cell type based on the concept of cell-to-cell interaction through gap junctions. Five male 60 day-old Wistar strain rats were used. All animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital and perfused with glutaraldehyde fixative, then the dorsal root ganglia in levels L4, L5 and L6 were taken from each rat. After postosmication, the specimens were prepared for observation by transmission electron microscopy. All nerve cells were completely surrounded by satellite cell cytoplasmic expansions. The boundaries between adjacent nerve cells and satellite cells were complicated due to the presence of perikaryal projections of nerve cells. Gap junctions which showed the typical trilamellar structure of plasma membranes were found mainly between satellite cell processes belonging to the same nerve cell. On the other hand, some gap junctions were found between the satellite cell projections belonging to different nerve cells. The size of the gap junctions ranged from 300 to 400 nm. No gap junctions were associated with the plasma membrane of any nerve cell. In conclusion, only satellite cells can share free transcellular exchange of cytoplasmic molecules such as ions, amino acids, sugars and several second messengers including cAMP and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate by way of gap junctions in dorsal root ganglia.

  6. Prox1 identifies proliferating neuroblasts and nascent neurons during neurogenesis in sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Julia; Hennchen, Melanie; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Neurogenesis in embryonic sympathetic ganglia involves neuroblasts that resume proliferation following neuronal differentiation. As cell cycle exit is not associated with neuronal differentiation, the identity of proliferating neuroblasts is incompletely understood. Here, we use sympathetic ganglia of chick embryos to define the timing of neurogenesis and neuroblast identity focusing on the expression and function of the transcription factor Prox1. We show that a large fraction of neuroblasts has initially withdrawn from the cell cycle at embryonic day 3 (E3), which is reflected by a high proportion of p27(+)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts (63%) and low numbers of EdU(+)/Islet1(+) cells (12%). The proportion of proliferating Islet1(+) neuroblasts, identified by EdU pulse labeling and by the absence of the postmitotic marker p27 increases to reach maximal levels at E5, when virtually all neuroblasts are in the cell cycle (95%). Subsequently, the proportion of EdU-labeled and p27(-) neuroblasts is reduced to reach low levels at E11. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is restricted to the neuronal lineage, that is, Sox10(+)/Phox2b(+) neuron progenitors, proliferating p27(-)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts and nascent neurons but is rapidly lost in postmitotic neurons. In vitro and in vivo knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate effects of Prox1 in the support of neuroblast proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results define the neurogenesis period in the chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia including an initial cell cycle withdrawal and identify Prox1 as a marker and regulator of proliferating sympathetic neuroblasts.

  7. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of the basal ganglia in childhood: a semiquantitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.W.M. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiol. and Organ Imaging; Wang, Z.J.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Zimmermann, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St. and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhao, H. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berry, G.T.; Kaplan, P.; Gibson, J. [Division of Metabolism, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kaplan, B.S. [Division of Nephrology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Proton MR spectra of the basal ganglia were obtained from 28 patients, 24 male and 14 female, median age 16.3 months (5 weeks to 31 years). They included 17 patients with normal MRI of the basal ganglia without metabolic disturbance (control group) and 11 patients with various metabolic diseases: one case each of high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease, Galloway-Mowat syndrome, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and Wilson disease and two cases of Alagille syndrome and methylmalonic acidemia with abnormal MRI of the basal ganglia or blood or urine analysis (abnormal group). The MR spectrum was measured by using STEAM. The MR-visible water content of the region of interest was obtained. Levels of myoinositol, choline, creatine and N -acetylaspartate were measured using a semiquantitative approach, with absolute reference calibration. In the control group, there was a gradual drop of water content over the first year of life; N -acetylaspartate, creatine and myoinositol levels showed no significant change with age, in contrast to the occipital, parietal and cerebellar regions. Choline showed a gradual decrease for the first 2 years of life and then remained fairly constant. In the abnormal group the water content was not significantly different. N -Acetylaspartate was decreased in patients with high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease and one case of methylmalonic acidemia. Decreased creatine was also found in Leigh disease, and decreased choline in Galloway-Mowat syndrome and Wilson disease. Myoinositol was elevated in the patient with abnormally high serum sodium, and decreased in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 35 refs.

  8. Models of basal ganglia and cerebellum for sensorimotor integration and predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Marwan A.; Huang, Jerry; Coenen, Olivier J. D.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a sensorimotor architecture integrating computational models of a cerebellum and a basal ganglia and operating on a microrobot. The computational models enable a microrobot to learn to track a moving object and anticipate future positions using a CCD camera. The architecture features pre-processing modules for coordinate transformation and instantaneous orientation extraction. Learning of motor control is implemented using predictive Hebbian reinforcement-learning algorithm in the basal ganglia model. Learning of sensory predictions makes use of a combination of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) adaptation rules within the cerebellum model. The basal ganglia model uses the visual inputs to develop sensorimotor mapping for motor control, while the cerebellum module uses robot orientation and world- coordinate transformed inputs to predict the location of the moving object in a robot centered coordinate system. We propose several hypotheses about the functional role of cell populations in the cerebellum and argue that mossy fiber projections to the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) could play a coordinate transformation role and act as gain fields. We propose that such transformation could be learnt early in the brain development stages and could be guided by the activity of the climbing fibers. Proprioceptor mossy fibers projecting to the DCN and providing robot orientation with respect to a reference system could be involved in this case. Other mossy fibers carrying visual sensory input provide visual patterns to the granule cells. The combined activities of the granule and the Purkinje cells store spatial representations of the target patterns. The combinations of mossy and Purkinje projections to the DCN provide a prediction of the location of the moving target taking into consideration the robot orientation. Results of lesion simulations based on our model show degradations similar to those reported in cerebellar lesion

  9. Re-evaluation of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia in normal and Parkinsonian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R; Hazrati, L N; Herrero, M T; Vila, M; Hassani, O K; Mouroux, M; Ruberg, M; Asensi, H; Agid, Y; Féger, J; Obeso, J A; Parent, A; Hirsch, E C

    1997-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a functional and anatomical model of basal ganglia organization was proposed in order to explain the clinical syndrome of Parkinson's disease. According to this model, the pathological overactivity observed in the subthalamic nucleus and the output station of the basal ganglia plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the motor signs of Parkinson's disease. The hyperactivity of subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism is viewed as a direct consequence of a pathological hypoactivity of the external segment of the pallidum. This article reviews recent data from different experimental approaches that challenge the established model of basal ganglia organization by reinterpreting the functional interaction between the external segment of the pallidum and the subthalamic nucleus in both the normal and pathological state. Indeed, recent neurobiochemical studies have rather unexpectedly shown that the GABAergic and metabolic activities of the external pallidum are not decreased in human and non-human primates with Parkinsonism. This absence of any decrease in activity might be explained by the functionally antagonistic influences of the striatal and subthalamic afferences within the external pallidum, as suggested by several anatomical studies. In addition, there are clues from electrophysiological studies to suggest that the hyperactivity found in the subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism may not depend solely on the level of activity in the external pallidum. In such a framework, the hyperactivity of the subthalamic neurons would have to be explained, at least in part, by other sources of excitation or disinhibition. However, any explanation for the origin of the subthalamic overactivity in Parkinsonism remains speculative.

  10. Automatic evaluation of speech rhythm instability and acceleration in dysarthrias associated with basal ganglia dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eRusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Speech rhythm abnormalities are commonly present in patients with different neurodegenerative disorders. These alterations are hypothesized to be a consequence of disruption to the basal ganglia circuitry involving dysfunction of motor planning, programming and execution, which can be detected by a syllable repetition paradigm. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to design a robust signal processing technique that allows the automatic detection of spectrally-distinctive nuclei of syllable vocalizations and to determine speech features that represent rhythm instability and acceleration. A further aim was to elucidate specific patterns of dysrhythmia across various neurodegenerative disorders that share disruption of basal ganglia function. Speech samples based on repetition of the syllable /pa/ at a self-determined steady pace were acquired from 109 subjects, including 22 with Parkinson's disease (PD, 11 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 9 multiple system atrophy (MSA, 24 ephedrone-induced parkinsonism (EP, 20 Huntington's disease (HD, and 23 healthy controls. Subsequently, an algorithm for the automatic detection of syllables as well as features representing rhythm instability and rhythm acceleration were designed. The proposed detection algorithm was able to correctly identify syllables and remove erroneous detections due to excessive inspiration and nonspeech sounds with a very high accuracy of 99.6%. Instability of vocal pace performance was observed in PSP, MSA, EP and HD groups. Significantly increased pace acceleration was observed only in the PD group. Although not significant, a tendency for pace acceleration was observed also in the PSP and MSA groups. Our findings underline the crucial role of the basal ganglia in the execution and maintenance of automatic speech motor sequences. We envisage the current approach to become the first step towards the development of acoustic technologies allowing automated assessment of rhythm

  11. Hyperintense basal ganglia lesions on T1-weighted MR images in asymptomatic patients with hepatic dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Cila, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Dincer, F.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    Cranial MRI findings in four patients who had hepatic dysfunction, including one with sole hepatic form of Wilson`s disease, were reported. The MR examinations revealed bilateral, symmetric hyperintensity in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei and mesencephalon on T1-weighted images with no corresponding abnormality on T2-weighted sequences. The basal ganglia were normal on CT examinations in all patients. None of the patients had the clinical findings of hepatic encephalopathy. The MR findings in our patients did not correlate with the degree or duration of hepatic dysfunction. (orig.)

  12. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. Modulation of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia by treadmill exercise of stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Spasojevic, Natasa; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2012-03-01

    The sympatho-adrenal system represents one of the main systems involved in the response to stressful events because its stress-induced activation results in an increased release of catecholamines. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenal system, adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia being two components of this system. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20-min treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, using TaqMan RT-PCR assay. Chronic psychosocial stress decreased gene expression of the examined enzymes in the adrenal medulla and treadmill exercise did not lead to further modulation of the corresponding gene expression. On the other hand, chronic psychosocial stress produced a significant increase of TH (about 51%) and DBH (about 103%) gene expression in stellate ganglia, while treadmill exercise decreased gene expression of these enzymes to control levels in psychosocially stressed rats. Our data indicate that treadmill exercise leads to a decreased gene transcription of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia and attenuation of cardiac noradrenaline production in stressful situations. Reduction of catecholamine synthesis in stellate ganglia may be linked to the beneficial effects of treadmill exercise on cardiovascular system in stressed animals.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence of P2X2 receptor expression in the neurons of intracardiac and paratracheal ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bei; NI Xin; HAN Hong; BURNSTOCK Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of P2X receptors on rat intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons. Methods: For preparation of intracardiac neurons, hearts were excised, the atria were separated and the medial region containing intracardiac ganglia was isolated and cut into pieces. For preparation of paratracheal neurons, the tracheas were removed and the superficial membranous layer containing paratracheal ganglia was rapidly isolated. Intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons were dissociated after digestion by collagenase and trypsin. Whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to identify the pharmacological properties of P2X receptors in cultured neurons. Results:Neurons from these two ganglia responded to ATP with a rapidly activating, sustained inward current. Αβ-meATP failed to evoke any responses in paratracheal ganglion neurons while a few of intracardiac ganglion neurons responded to αβ-meATP with a tiny sustained inward current. ADP and UTP had no effect on intracardiac neurons. Lowering pH potentiated ATP responses in neurons from these two ganglia whereas increasing pH inhibited ATP responses. Co-application of Zn2+ potentiated ATP responses in intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons. Conclusion: The receptor subtypes involved in intracardiac and paratracheal ganglia appear to be homomeric P2X2, while heteromeric P2X2/3 could not be completely excluded from intracardiac neurons.

  15. "Off-Target" (18)F-AV-1451 Binding in the Basal Ganglia Correlates with Age-Related Iron Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Yong; Cho, Hanna; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2017-08-03

    Backgrounds: "Off-target" binding in the basal ganglia is commonly observed in the (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the elderly. We sought to investigate the relationship between this phenomenon in the basal ganglia and iron accumulation using iron-sensitive R2(*) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods: 59 healthy controls and 61 patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (AD/MCI) underwent (18)F-AV-1451 PET and R2(*) MR imaging studies. A correlation analysis was performed for age, (18)F-AV-1451 binding, and R2(*) values. Results: There was an age-related increase in both (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia and R2(*) values in the putamen in both the controls and AD/MCI patients. (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia increased with R2(*) values. Conclusion: "Off-target" (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia is associated with the age-related increases in iron accumulation. Postmortem studies are required to further investigate the nature of this association. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  16. Longitudinal Assessment of Motor Recovery of Contralateral Hand after Basal Ganglia Infarction Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional fMRI to study the brain activation during active finger movements at different time points during the recovery phase following basal ganglia infarction. Four hemiplegic patients with basal ganglia infarction were serially evaluated at different time points spanning the acute and chronic phase using fMRI. To evaluate motor recovery, the patients were asked to perform functional tasks arranged in a block design manner with their hand. On follow-up (chronic phase, three patients achieved significant recovery of motor function of affected limbs. Activation of bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC was observed in two of these patients, while activation of cerebellum was observed in all patients. No remarkable recovery of motor function was noted in one patient with left basal ganglia infarction. In this patient, the activation domain was located in SMC of both sides in acute phase and in ipsilateral SMC in chronic phase. Contralateral SMC appears to be involved in the functional rehabilitation following basal ganglia infarction. The cerebellum may act as an intermediary during functional recovery following basal ganglia infarction. The activation domain associated with active finger movement may be bilateral in acute phase; one patient was ipsilateral in the chronic stage.

  17. Hypertrophy of neurons within cardiac ganglia in human, canine, and rat heart failure: the potential role of nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S; Nee, Lisa M; Wurster, Robert D

    2013-08-19

    Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm(2); Phypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia.

  18. Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobricić, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Janković, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kostić, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novaković, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, João R. M.; Sobrido, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

  19. Effects of Extracellular ATP on Survival of Sensory Neurons in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ATP was added to the cultured sensory neurons obtained from the dorsal root ganglia of the neonatal rats and PBS was added to serve as control. MTT assays were conducted to evaluate the survival and activity of the cultured neurons. And the silicone regenerative chamber was used after the sciatic nerve incision of the mature SD rat. 1 mmol/L ATP was injected into the left chamber and 0.09 % natrium chloride was injected into the right chamber as controls. The changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the corresponding dorsal root ganglia were measured histochemically and image analysis was also performed 4 days after the sciatic nerve injury. The results showed that extracellular ATP could enhance the survival of the neurons and the number of NOS positive neurons were significantly different between the ATP and control groups (P<0.05). It was suggested that extracellular ATP had neurotrophic effect on neurons survival and could inhibit the NOS activity of the sensory neurons after the peripheral nerve incision, hence exerting the protective effect on the neurons, which was valuable for nerve regeneration after nerve injury.

  20. Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with Basal Ganglia Calcification of Unknown Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Baker, Matthew C.; Finch, NiCole A.; Nicholson, Alexandra; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Ross, Owen A.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Three causal genes for Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) have been identified. Most recently, mutations in PDGFRB, encoding a member of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family type β, and PDGFB, encoding PDGF-B, the specific ligand of PDGFRβ, were found implicating the PDGF-B/PDGFRβ pathway in abnormal brain calcification. In this study we aimed to identify and study mutations in PDGFRB and PDGFB in a series of 26 patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank with moderate to severe basal ganglia calcification (BCG) of unknown etiology. No mutations in PDGFB were found. However, we identified one mutation in PDGFRB, p.R695C located in the tyrosine kinase domain, in one BGC patient. We further studied the function of p.R695C mutant PDGFRβ and two previously reported mutants, p.L658P and p.R987W PDGFRβ in cell culture. We show that, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, the p.L658P mutation completely suppresses PDGFRβ autophosphorylation whereas the p.R695C mutation results in partial loss of autophosphorylation. For the p.R987W mutation, our data suggest a different mechanism involving reduced protein levels. These genetic and functional studies provide the first insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PDGFRB mutations and provide further support for a pathogenic role of PDGFRB mutations in BGC. PMID:24796542

  1. Segregation of acetylcholine and GABA in the rat superior cervical ganglia: functional correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eElinos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons have the capability to segregate their neurotransmitters (NTs and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons; furthermore, in culture, these neurons can even segregate classical transmitters. In vivo sympathetic neurons employ acetylcholine (ACh and other classical NTs such as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA. Herein, we explore whether these neurons in vivo segregate these classical NTs in the superior cervical ganglia of the rat. We determined the topographical distribution of GABAergic varicosities, somatic GABAA receptor, as well as the regional distribution of the segregation of ACh and GABA. We evaluated possible regional differences in efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission, in the sensitivity of GABAA receptor to GABA and to the competitive antagonist picrotoxin (PTX. We found that sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vivo do segregate ACh and GABA. GABAergic varicosities and GABAA receptor expression showed a rostro-caudal gradient along ganglia; in contrast, segregation exhibited a caudo-rostral gradient. These uneven regional distributions in expression of GABA, GABAA receptors, and level segregation correlate with stronger synaptic transmission found in the caudal region. Accordingly, GABAA receptors of rostral region show larger sensitivity to GABA and PTX. These results suggest the presence of different types of GABAA receptors in each region that result in a different regional levels of endogenous GABA inhibition. Finally, we discuss a possible correlation of these different levels of GABA modulation and the function of the target organs innervated by rostral and caudal ganglionic neurons.

  2. The "olfactostriatum" of snakes: a basal ganglia vomeronasal structure in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Lanuza, Enrique; Halpern, Mimi

    2005-09-15

    The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes situated ventromedially to the nucleus accumbens proper. It receives a major vomeronasal input from the nucleus sphericus, the primary target of accessory olfactory bulb efferents. Recently, the ophidian olfactostriatum has been characterized on the basis of chemoarchitecture (distribution of serotonin, neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase) and hodology (afferent and efferent connections). In contrast to the nucleus accumbens proper, the olfactostriatum is densely immunoreactive for serotonin and neuropeptide Y and sparsely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase. The nucleus accumbens proper and the olfactostriatum share most afferent connections except those originating in the nucleus sphericus, which are exclusively directed to the olfactostriatum. Similarly, the nucleus accumbens proper and the olfactostriatum show a similar pattern of efferent connections including those going to the ventral pallidum, although the olfactostriatum alone projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as some amygdaloid nuclei. On the basis of its chemoarchitecture, the olfactostriatum resembles the mammalian ventral pallidum (but also the shell of the nucleus accumbens). Its connections, however, suggests that the olfactostriatum could be a specialized portion of the shell of nucleus accumbens extended more ventromedially than previously believed and devoted to processing vomeronasal information. Comparative data suggest that a similar structure is present in the basal ganglia of amphibians and mammals.

  3. RNA Sequencing of Trigeminal Ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after Glyceryl Trinitrate Infusion with Relevance to Migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hougaard Pedersen

    Full Text Available Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia.Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time.15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down-regulation in the 90-minute period after infusion. The GSANOVA analysis demonstrate enrichment of pathways pointing towards an increase in immune response, signal transduction, and neuroplasticity in response to GTN-infusion. Future functional in-depth studies of these mechanisms are expected to increase our understanding of migraine pathogenesis.

  4. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  5. MRI pattern of infarcts in basal ganglia region in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, P.P.; Kalita, J.; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, Lucknow (India); Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical sciences, Department of Radiology, Lucknow (India)

    2009-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of infarct in basal ganglia region in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and ischemic strokes and its sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of these disorders. Patients with TBM and ischemic strokes in basal ganglia region were retrospectively evaluated from our tuberculous meningitis and ischemic stroke registry. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were grouped into anterior (caudate, genu, anterior limb of internal capsule, anteromedial thalamus) and posterior (lentiform nuclei, posterior limb of internal capsule, posterolateral thalamus). The sensitivity and specificity of these patterns in diagnosing TBM and ischemic stroke were evaluated. There were 24 patients in each group. Infarct in TBM was purely anterior in eight patients and in ischemic stroke purely posterior in 18 patients. The frequency of caudate infarct was significantly higher in TBM compared to ischemic stroke (37.5% vs 8.3%). In TBM patients, purely posterior infarcts were present in seven patients; three had associated risk factors of ischemic stroke. The sensitivity of pure anterior infarct in the diagnosis of TBM was 33%, specificity 91.66%. For ischemic stroke, the sensitivity of posterior infarct was 75% and specificity 70.83%. TBM patients having infarcts in posterior region should be looked for associated risk factors of ischemic stroke. (orig.)

  6. Phosphodiesterase 10A Inhibition Improves Cortico-Basal Ganglia Function in Huntington's Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Vahri; Zhong, Sheng; Lin, Hai; Xu, WenJin; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Steidl, Esther; Gleyzes, Melanie; Wadel, Kristian; Buisson, Bruno; Padovan-Neto, Fernando E; Chakroborty, Shreaya; Ward, Karen M; Harms, John F; Beltran, Jose; Kwan, Mei; Ghavami, Afshin; Häggkvist, Jenny; Tóth, Miklós; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea; Schaab, Christoph; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Elschenbroich, Sarah; Lehtimäki, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Taneli; Park, Larry; Rosinski, James; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Lavery, Daniel; West, Anthony R; Schmidt, Christopher J; Zaleska, Margaret M; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2016-12-21

    Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms are driven to a large extent by dysfunction of the basal ganglia circuitry. HD patients exhibit reduced striatal phoshodiesterase 10 (PDE10) levels. Using HD mouse models that exhibit reduced PDE10, we demonstrate the benefit of pharmacologic PDE10 inhibition to acutely correct basal ganglia circuitry deficits. PDE10 inhibition restored corticostriatal input and boosted cortically driven indirect pathway activity. Cyclic nucleotide signaling is impaired in HD models, and PDE10 loss may represent a homeostatic adaptation to maintain signaling. Elevation of both cAMP and cGMP by PDE10 inhibition was required for rescue. Phosphoproteomic profiling of striatum in response to PDE10 inhibition highlighted plausible neural substrates responsible for the improvement. Early chronic PDE10 inhibition in Q175 mice showed improvements beyond those seen with acute administration after symptom onset, including partial reversal of striatal deregulated transcripts and the prevention of the emergence of HD neurophysiological deficits. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RNA Sequencing of Trigeminal Ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after Glyceryl Trinitrate Infusion with Relevance to Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard Pedersen, Sara; Maretty, Lasse; Ramachandran, Roshni; Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Yakimov, Victor; Elgaard-Christensen, Rikke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Krogh, Anders; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. Methods Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. Results 15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down-regulation in the 90-minute period after infusion. The GSANOVA analysis demonstrate enrichment of pathways pointing towards an increase in immune response, signal transduction, and neuroplasticity in response to GTN-infusion. Future functional in-depth studies of these mechanisms are expected to increase our understanding of migraine pathogenesis. PMID:27213950

  8. Basal ganglia neuronal activity during scanning eye movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sieger

    Full Text Available The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinsońs disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control.

  9. Excessive synchronization of basal ganglia neurons at 20 Hz slows movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung Chu; Litvak, Vladimir; Gilbertson, Thomas; Kühn, Andrea; Lu, Chin Song; Lee, Shih Tseng; Tsai, Chon Haw; Tisch, Stephen; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Brown, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Excessive synchronization of neuronal activity at around 20 Hz is a common finding in the basal ganglia of patients with untreated Parkinson's disease (PD). Correlative evidence suggests, but does not prove, that this spontaneous activity may contribute to slowness of movement in this condition. Here we investigate whether externally imposed synchronization through direct stimulation of the region of the subthalamic nucleus at 20 Hz can slow motor performance in a simple unimanual tapping task and whether this effect is frequency selective. Tapping rates were recorded on 42 sides in 22 patients with PD after overnight withdrawal of medication. Tapping was performed without stimulation and during bilateral stimulation at 20 Hz, 50 Hz and 130 Hz. We found that tapping rates were slowed by 8.2+/-3.2% (p=0.014) during 20-Hz stimulation in subjects with relatively preserved baseline function in the task. This effect was frequency selective. The current data provide proof of the principle that excessive beta synchrony within the basal ganglia-cortical loop may contribute to the slowing of movements in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Role of Estrogens in the Size of Neuronal Somata of Paravaginal Ganglia in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aragón, Laura G.; García-Villamar, Verónica; Carrasco-Ruiz, María de los Ángeles; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia; Ortega, Arturo; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the role of estrogens in modulating the size of neuronal somata of paravaginal ganglia. Rabbits were allocated into control (C), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX treated with estradiol benzoate (OVX + EB) groups to evaluate the neuronal soma area; total serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels; the percentage of immunoreactive (ir) neurons anti-aromatase, anti-estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ) and anti-androgen receptor (AR); the intensity of the immunostaining anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the GDNF family receptor alpha type 1 (GFRα1); and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs) per neuron. There was a decrease in the neuronal soma size for the OVX group, which was associated with low T, high percentages of aromatase-ir and neuritic AR-ir neurons, and a strong immunostaining anti-GDNF and anti-GFRα1. The decrease in the neuronal soma size was prevented by the EB treatment that increased the E2 without affecting the T levels. Moreover, there was a high percentage of neuritic AR-ir neurons, a strong GDNF immunostaining in the SGC, and an increase in the SGCs per neuron. Present findings show that estrogens modulate the soma size of neurons of the paravaginal ganglia, likely involving the participation of the SGC. PMID:28316975

  11. Neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain of the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Timm; Harzsch, Steffen; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain in the water flea Daphnia magna by use of classical neuroanatomical techniques such as semi-thin sectioning and neuronal backfilling, as well as immunohistochemical markers for synapsins, various neuropeptides and the neurotransmitter histamine. We provide structural details of distinct neuropiles, tracts and commissures, many of which were previously undescribed. We analyse morphological details of most neuron types, which allow for unravelling the connectivities between various substructural parts of the optic ganglia and the central brain and of ascending and descending connections with the ventral nerve cord. We identify 5 allatostatin-A-like, 13 FMRFamide-like and 5 tachykinin-like neuropeptidergic neuron types and 6 histamine-immunoreactive neuron types. In addition, novel aspects of several known pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons are re-examined. We analyse primary and putative secondary olfactory pathways and neuronal elements of the water flea central complex, which displays both insect- and decapod crustacean-like features, such as the protocerebral bridge, central body and lateral accessory lobes. Phylogenetic aspects based upon structural comparisons are discussed as well as functional implications envisaging more specific future analyses of ecotoxicological and endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals.

  12. Role of Estrogens in the Size of Neuronal Somata of Paravaginal Ganglia in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Hernández-Aragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the role of estrogens in modulating the size of neuronal somata of paravaginal ganglia. Rabbits were allocated into control (C, ovariectomized (OVX, and OVX treated with estradiol benzoate (OVX + EB groups to evaluate the neuronal soma area; total serum estradiol (E2 and testosterone (T levels; the percentage of immunoreactive (ir neurons anti-aromatase, anti-estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and anti-androgen receptor (AR; the intensity of the immunostaining anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and the GDNF family receptor alpha type 1 (GFRα1; and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs per neuron. There was a decrease in the neuronal soma size for the OVX group, which was associated with low T, high percentages of aromatase-ir and neuritic AR-ir neurons, and a strong immunostaining anti-GDNF and anti-GFRα1. The decrease in the neuronal soma size was prevented by the EB treatment that increased the E2 without affecting the T levels. Moreover, there was a high percentage of neuritic AR-ir neurons, a strong GDNF immunostaining in the SGC, and an increase in the SGCs per neuron. Present findings show that estrogens modulate the soma size of neurons of the paravaginal ganglia, likely involving the participation of the SGC.

  13. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  14. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  15. Cysteinyl leukotrienes mediate the response of submucosal ganglia from rat colon to bradykinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Matthias; Diener, Martin

    2012-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to find out the mechanism by which the inflammatory mediator, bradykinin, induces an increase of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in enteric neurons. For this purpose, ganglia in the isolated submucosa from rat colon were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, fura-2, and were exposed to bradykinin (2·10(-8)mol/l). Under control conditions, the kinin evoked a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Preincubation with quinacrine or arachidonyltrifluoromethylketone (AACOCF(3)), i.e. blockers of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), prevented the raise of [Ca(2+)](i). This inhibition was mimicked by 5,8,11,14-eicosatetrayonic acid (ETYA), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases as well as lipoxygenases, and by BWA4C, a selective inhibitor of lipoxygenases, whereas indomethacin was ineffective, suggesting the mediation of the kinin response by a lipoxygenase metabolite. Indeed, a leukotriene, leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)), mimicked the effect of bradykinin. The LTD(4) receptor blocker, MK-571, inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by LTD(4) and by bradykinin. Consequently, bradykinin receptors in submucosal ganglia from rat colon are coupled to a stimulation of phospholipase A(2), the release of arachidonic acid and the production of LTD(4), which seems to be finally responsible for the change in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration.

  16. Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

  17. Highly efficient method for gene delivery in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5 to 16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60 – 80% and low toxicity (> 60% survival were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF. Moreover, 3-50 times fewer cells are needed (6x104 compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures.

  18. Nerve growth factor receptor from rabbit sympathetic ganglia membranes. Relationship between subforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchalakos, R N; Bradshaw, R A

    1986-12-05

    The receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) was purified from Triton X-100 extracts of sympathetic ganglia membranes by affinity chromatography on NGF-Sepharose. Elution of purified receptor was accomplished at pH 5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the purified iodinated receptor showed three major bands at Mr = 126,000, Mr = 105,000, and Mr = 81,000. Affinity labeling of the purified receptor using 125I-NGF and the photoreactive agent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-p-azidobenzoate resulted in two major cross-linked complexes corresponding to Mr = 135,000 and Mr = 110,000. This labeling pattern is similar to that observed with sympathetic ganglia membranes (Massague, J., Guillette, B. J., Czech, M. P., Morgan, C. J., and Bradshaw, R. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9419-9424) and indicates that these two forms do not arise from the cross-linking procedure. Reaction of the photoaffinity labeled NGF receptors with increasing amounts of trypsin resulted in a progressive decrease in the high molecular weight complex with a concomitant increase in the low molecular weight form. When the larger complex was isolated by electroelution from a sodium dodecyl sulfate gel and treated with trypsin, a species corresponding to Mr = 100,000 was generated. These observations are best explained by a precursor-product relationship for the two NGF receptor species of sympathetic neurons.

  19. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity.

  20. Neurite outgrowth in cultured mouse pelvic ganglia - Effects of neurotrophins and bladder tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Mari; Zhu, Baoyi; Swärd, Karl; Uvelius, Bengt

    2017-07-01

    Neurotrophic factors regulate survival and growth of neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated via both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons located in the major pelvic ganglion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the sprouting rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites from the female mouse ganglion. The pelvic ganglion was dissected out and attached to a petri dish and cultured in vitro. All three factors (BDNF, NT-3 and NGF) stimulated neurite outgrowth of both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites although BDNF and NT-3 had a higher stimulatory effect on parasympathetic ganglion cells. The neurotrophin receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC were all expressed in neurons of the ganglia. Co-culture of ganglia with urinary bladder tissue, but not diaphragm tissue, increased the sprouting rate of neurites. Active forms of BDNF and NT-3 were detected in urinary bladder tissue using western blotting whereas tissue from the diaphragm expressed NGF. Neurite outgrowth from the pelvic ganglion was inhibited by a TrkB receptor antagonist. We therefore suggest that the urinary bladder releases trophic factors, including BDNF and NT-3, which regulate neurite outgrowth via activation of neuronal Trk-receptors. These findings could influence future strategies for developing pharmaceuticals to improve re-innervation due to bladder pathologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Harrison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1–9]. In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model, the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days and maintenance (14 days phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve” sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551.

  2. Stem cells from wildtype and Friedreich's ataxia mice present similar neuroprotective properties in dorsal root ganglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jones

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common susceptibility to oxidative stress, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson Disease, Huntington Disease and Friedreich's ataxia. In a previous work, we proved that stem cell-conditioned medium increased the survival of cells isolated from Friedreich's ataxia patients, when submitted to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to confirm this same effect in dorsal root ganglia cells isolated from YG8 mice, a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia. In this disorder, the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are the first to degenerate. Also, in this work we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from YG8 mice, in order to compare them with their wildtype counterpart. To this end, dorsal root ganglia primary cultures isolated from YG8 mice were exposed to oxidative stress and cultured with conditioned medium from either wildtype or YG8 stem cells. As a result, the conditioned medium increased the survival of the dorsal root ganglia cells. This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the various neuronal cell types present in the dorsal root ganglia. No differences were observed in the stem cells isolated from wildtype and YG8 mice. The results presented confirm the possibility that autologous stem cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic approach in protecting dorsal root ganglia neurons of Friedreich's ataxia patients.

  3. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  5. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications ... a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an intensive care ...

  6. Archetypal Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  7. Modulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Neuropeptide Y, Glutamate, and Substance P in Ganglia and Brain Areas Involved in Cardiovascular Control after Chronic Exposure to Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merari F. R. Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that nicotine instantly interacts with central and peripheral nervous systems promoting cardiovascular effects after tobacco smoking, we evaluated the modulation of glutamate, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and substance P (SP in nodose/petrosal and superior cervical ganglia, as well as TH and NPY in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR after 8 weeks of nicotine exposure. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization data demonstrated increased expression of TH in brain and ganglia related to blood pressure control, preferentially in SHR, after nicotine exposure. The alkaloid also increased NPY immunoreactivity in ganglia, NTS, and PVN of SHR, in spite of decreasing its receptor (NPY1R binding in NTS of both strains. Nicotine increased SP and glutamate in ganglia. In summary, nicotine positively modulated the studied variables in ganglia while its central effects were mainly constrained to SHR.

  8. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  9. Limb apraxia in patients with damage confined to the left basal ganglia and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Renzi, E; Faglioni, P; Scarpa, M; Crisi, G

    1986-01-01

    Limb apraxia was investigated with standardised tests in 14 patients whose CT scan provided evidence of a vascular lesion confined to the left basal ganglia, or the thalamus, or both, and not involving the cortex or adjacent white matter. Five patients were severely impaired in imitating movements and pantomiming object use. Four of them also performed poorly when tested with real objects. In two patients the lesion was primarily thalamic and in three the lesion was primarily in the lenticular nucleus and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patients without apraxia generally had smaller injuries, but there were exceptions. Apraxia is currently conceived of as due to damage of cortical areas and their cortico-cortical connections, but the present data suggest that the model should be enlarged to include the deep nuclei and the pathways running through them. Images PMID:3760891

  10. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  11. [Peculiarities of the structural-functional organization of motor neuropil of dragonfly thoracic ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, S I; Sviderskiĭ, V L; Gorelkin, V S

    2012-01-01

    The work considers the structural-functional relations existing in the motor neuropil of thoracic ganglia of dragonflies - the animals able to perform very complex and fast maneuvers in the flight. The motor neuropil in dragonflies is shown to be more differentiated than in the lees mobile insects, while motor nuclei in neuropil are more clearly outlined and closer to each other. There are revealed dendrites of motoneurons of pedal muscles (the middle nucleus), which are running into the anterior and posterior nuclei that contain dendrites of motoneurons of wing muscles. A possible role of such approaching is discussed for close functional interaction of wing and foot muscles, which is necessary to dragonflies during flight at their catching of large insects with aid of legs. Peculiarities are considered in structural organization of motoneurons of wing muscles dragonflies and locusts, which indicate the greater functional possibilities peculiar to motoneurons of the dragonflies motor apparatus.

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of neuropeptide Y, serotonin, substance P and β-endorphin in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haihui; Wang, Guizhong; Jin, Zhuxing; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing

    2006-12-01

    By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and β-Endorphin (β-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia. NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum, and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum. β-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.

  13. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced.

  14. Untangling Basal Ganglia Network Dynamics and Function: Role of Dopamine Depletion and Inhibition Investigated in a Spiking Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mikael; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model. Simulation experiments predict that both local inhibition in striatum and the existence of an indirect pathway are important for basal ganglia to function properly over a large range of cortical drives. The dopamine depletion-induced increase of AMPA efficacy in corticostriatal synapses to medium spiny neurons (MSNs) with dopamine receptor D2 synapses (CTX-MSN D2) and the reduction of MSN lateral connectivity (MSN-MSN) were found to contribute significantly to the enhanced synchrony and oscillations seen in PD. Additionally, reversing the dopamine depletion-induced changes to CTX-MSN D1, CTX-MSN D2, TA-MSN, and MSN-MSN couplings could improve or restore basal ganglia action selection ability. In summary, we found multiple changes of parameters for synaptic efficacy and neural excitability that could improve action selection ability and at the same time reduce oscillations. Identification of such targets could potentially generate ideas for treatments of PD and increase our understanding of the relation between network dynamics and network function.

  15. Bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, and frontal and parietal lobes of a patient with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Selman Vefa; Tiker, Filiz; Cengiz, Nurcan [Adana Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Baskent University Medical Faculty, Seyhan-Adana (Turkey); Barutcu, Ozlem [Fatih University Medical Faculty, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    Previous authors have described a specific syndrome of coeliac disease, bilateral cerebral calcifications and epileptic seizures. We report a 4-year-old boy with coeliac disease who had bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and frontal and parietal lobes, but did not exhibit epileptic seizures. (orig.)

  16. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  17. Encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia in children. A reappraisal of Fahr's syndrome with respect to 14 new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Dulac, O; Bouloche, J; Echenne, B; Lebon, P; Motte, J; Robain, O; Santini, J J

    1989-02-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are described under the heading of "Fahr's syndrome". The clinical pattern is variable and the syndrome may be sporadic or familial. This study describes a personal series of 14 cases of encephalopathy with calcification of the basal ganglia and reviews the literature cases. A four-group classification is proposed. The first group includes encephalopathy, microcephaly, dwarfism, retinal degeneration or optic atrophy, symmetrical patchy demyelination with calcifications and probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Some cases have an early onset, a rapid evolution. Others have a later onset, longer course and retinal degeneration. In the second group, the children suffer from a congenital encephalopathy or a cerebral palsy without clear deterioration, without short stature, ocular impairment or persistent CSF abnormalities. This group has not been reported in the literature. The cases do not seem to be genetic. The precise cause in unknown but a sporadic non progressive anoxo-ischemic, or viral prenatal disease is suggested. In the third group, the association of encephalopathy, microcephaly, and persistent CSF lymphocytosis, has a high recurrence rate. The pathogenesis is still a matter of dispute. The fourth group is characterized by autosomal dominant calcifications of the basal ganglia with or without neurological abnormalities. Finally calcium metabolism disorders and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy may be associated with calcifications of the basal ganglia.

  18. Radiological imaging features of the basal ganglia that may predict progression to hemicraniectomy in large territory middle cerebral artery infarct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Asim Z.; Edasery, David; Sakai, Osamu; Mustafa Qureshi, M. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Holsapple, James [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Nguyen, Thanh [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Predicting which patients are at risk for hemicraniectomy can be helpful for triage and can help preserve neurologic function if detected early. We evaluated basal ganglia imaging predictors for early hemicraniectomy in patients with large territory anterior circulation infarct. This retrospective study evaluated patients with ischemic infarct admitted from January 2005 to July 2011. Patients with malignant cerebral edema refractory to medical therapy or with herniating signs such as depressed level of consciousness, anisocoria, and contralateral leg weakness were triaged to hemicraniectomy. Admission images were reviewed for presence of caudate, lentiform nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus), or basal ganglia (caudate + lentiform nucleus) infarction. Thirty-one patients with large territory MCA infarct, 10 (32%), underwent hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the caudate nucleus (9/10 vs 6/21, p = 0.002) or basal ganglia (5/10 vs 2/21, p = 0.02) predicted progression to hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the lentiform nucleus only did not predict progression to hemicraniectomy. Sensitivity for patients who did and did not have hemicraniectomy were 50% (5/10) and 90.5% (19/21). For caudate nucleus and caudate plus lentiform nucleus infarcts, the crude- and age-adjusted odds of progression to hemicraniectomy were 9.5 (1.4-64.3) and 6.6 (0.78-55.4), respectively. Infarction of the caudate nucleus or basal ganglia correlated with patients progressing to hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the lentiform nucleus alone did not. (orig.)

  19. Efferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Lanuza, Enrique; Halpern, Mimi

    2005-05-01

    The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes that receives substantial vomeronasal afferents through projections from the nucleus sphericus. In a preceding article, the olfactostriatum of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) was characterized on the basis of chemoarchitecture (distribution of serotonin, neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase) and pattern of afferent connections [Martinez-Marcos, A., Ubeda-Banon, I., Lanuza, E., Halpern, M., 2005. Chemoarchitecture and afferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 29, 49-69]. In the present study, its efferent connections have been investigated. The olfactostriatum projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, septal complex, ventral pallidum, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in the nucleus accumbens proper, a structure closely associated with the olfactostriatum, result in a similar pattern of efferent connections with the exception of those reaching the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data, therefore, help to characterize the olfactostriatum, an apparently specialized area of the nucleus accumbens. Double labeling experiments after tracer injections in the nucleus sphericus and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus demonstrate a pathway between these two structures through the olfactostriatum. Injections in the olfactostriatum and in the medial amygdala show parallel projections to the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the

  20. Clinical studies of the calcification of the basal ganglia as disclosed by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Node, Yoji; Nakazawa, Shozo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1983-04-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine of the 12,645 patients (1.0%) were found to have attenuating changes suggesting calcification of the basal ganglia. Thirty-seven of those patients were male and 92 were female. The calcification was bilateral and grossly symmetric in 108 of these patients (83.7%), while it was unilateral in 21 (16.3%). In the unilaterally located cases, 15 were on the left side and 6 were on the right side. In 128 of these patients (99.2%), calcification was located in the globus pallidus. Only one patient, whose diagnosis was hypoparathyroidism, had calcification in both the globus pallidus and the head of the caudate nucleus. The patients' ages ranged from 10 to 85 years (mean, 58), but 88.4% of the patients were more than 40 years old at the time of the CT scanning. The attenuation values of the lesions varied from 35 to 375 EMI units (mean, 55.7). Skull radiographs were performed in 120 of the 129 patients. Calcification was detected in only one patient, a 76-year-old woman, whose diagnosis was myasthenia gravis. The clinical diagnoses of the 129 patients were as follows: 37, headache; 22, cerebrovascular diseases (19, occlusive cerebrovascular diseases); 20, vertigo and/or tinnitus; 12, psychiatric disorders; 5, Parkinson's Syndrome; 2, hypopara thyroidism; 2, Fahr's disease; 2, familial basal ganglia calcification; 2, epilepsy, and 25, miscellaneous (including carcinoma, brain tumor, and trauma). Nervous system abnormalities were observed in 41 of the 129 patients (31.2%). Mental signs, such as disturbance of recent memory, mental retardation, and dementia, were noted in 14 patients. Movement disorders were noted in 13 patients. Other nervous-system abnormalities were sensory disturbances (5 patients) and seizures (4 patients). Abnormal EEG activities were noted in 9 patients; three patients showed epileptic activity, and six had a pathologically slow rhythm.

  1. Distinct neurogenomic states in basal ganglia subregions relate differently to singing behavior in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Hilliard

    Full Text Available Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP, our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain

  2. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-03-24

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy.

  3. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  4. Creation of computerized 3D MRI-integrated atlases of the human basal ganglia and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas F. Sadikot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain imaging and neurosurgery in subcortical areas often requires visualization of brain nuclei beyond the resolution of current Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI methods. We present techniques used to create: 1 a lower resolution 3D atlas, based on the Schaltenbrand and Wahren print atlas, which was integrated into a stereotactic neurosurgery planning and visualization platform (VIPER; and 2 a higher resolution 3D atlas derived from a single set of manually segmented histological slices containing nuclei of the basal ganglia, thalamus, basal forebrain and medial temporal lobe. Both atlases were integrated to a canonical MRI (Colin27 from a young male participant by manually identifying homologous landmarks. The lower resolution atlas was then warped to fit the MRI based on the identified landmarks. A pseudo-MRI representation of the high-resolution atlas was created, and a nonlinear transformation was calculated in order to match the atlas to the template MRI. The atlas can then be warped to match the anatomy of Parkinson’s disease surgical candidates by using 3D automated nonlinear deformation methods. By way of functional validation of the atlas, the location of the sensory thalamus was correlated with stereotactic intraoperative physiological data. The position of subthalamic electrode positions in patients with Parkinson’s disease was also evaluated in the atlas-integrated MRI space. Finally, probabilistic maps of subthalamic stimulation electrodes were developed, in order to allow group analysis of the location of contacts associated with the best motor outcomes. We have therefore developed, and are continuing to validate, a high-resolution computerized MRI-integrated 3D histological atlas, which is useful in functional neurosurgery, and for functional and anatomical studies of the human basal ganglia, thalamus and basal forebrain.

  5. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF PARVALBUMIN, CALBINDIN-D28 AND CALRETININ IMMUNOREACTIVE NEURO NS AND FIBERS IN THE MONKEY BASAL GANGLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 张巧俊

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cellular localization of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) in the monkey basal ganglia.Methods Immunocytochemica l technique was used to detect PV,CB and CR immunoreactivity in the basal gangl ia. Results In the striatum, CB labeled medium-sized spin y projection neurons whereas PV and CR marked two separate classes of aspiny int erneurons. The striatal matrix compartment was markedly enriched with CB while s triatal patches displayed a CR-rich neuropil. In the pallidum, virtually all ne u rons contained PV but none express CB. CR occured only in a small subpopulation of large and small pallidal neurons. In the subthalamic nucleus, there existed a multitude of PV-positive cells and fibers but the number of CR and CB-positiv e neuronal elements was small. In the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area co mplex, CB and CR occured principally in dopaminergic neurons of the dorsal tier of the pars compacta and in those of the ventral tegmental area. PV was strickly confined to the GABAergic neurons of the pars reticular and lateralis. CB-rich fibers abounded in the pars reticular and lateralis, while CR-positive axons we re confined to the pars compacta. Conclusion CB and PV were di stributed accordin g to a strikingly complementary pattern in primate basal ganglia, and the use of CB and PV immunocytochemistry may be considered as an excellent tool to define dist inct chemoarchitectonic and functional domains within the complex organization o f the basal ganglia. CR was less ubiquitous but occured in small basal ganglia c omponents where it labeled distinct subsets of neurons. Such highly specific pat terns of distribution indicate that CB, PV and CR may work in synery within prim ate basal ganglia.

  7. Different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in stomach and esophagus identified by anterograde tracing from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick J; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Brookes, Simon; Hibberd, Tim

    2016-10-15

    In visceral organs of mammals, most noxious (painful) stimuli as well as innocuous stimuli are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). One of the major unresolved questions is the location, morphology, and neurochemistry of the nerve endings of spinal afferents that actually detect these stimuli in the viscera. In the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, there have been many anterograde tracing studies of vagal afferent endings, but none on spinal afferent endings. Recently, we developed a technique that now provides selective labeling of only spinal afferents. We used this approach to identify spinal afferent nerve endings in the upper GI tract of mice. Animals were anesthetized, and injections of dextran-amine were made into thoracic DRGs (T8-T12). Seven days post surgery, mice were euthanized, and the stomach and esophagus were removed, fixed, and stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Spinal afferent axons were identified that ramified extensively through many rows of myenteric ganglia and formed nerve endings in discrete anatomical layers. Most commonly, intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs) were identified in myenteric ganglia of the stomach and varicose simple-type endings in the circular muscle and mucosa. Less commonly, nerve endings were identified in internodal strands, blood vessels, submucosal ganglia, and longitudinal muscle. In the esophagus, only IGVEs were identified in myenteric ganglia. No intraganglionic lamellar endings (IGLEs) were identified in the stomach or esophagus. We present the first identification of spinal afferent endings in the upper GI tract. Eight distinct types of spinal afferent endings were identified in the stomach, and most of them were CGRP immunoreactive. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3064-3083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  9. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  10. Treatment of painful neuroma by intraneural injection of adriblastine combined with neuroma resection or neurolysis%阿霉素神经干注射联合神经瘤切除或松解治疗痛性神经瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 罗鹏波; 虞庆; 刘靖波; 张高孟; 顾玉东

    2008-01-01

    目的 介绍一种治疗痛性神经瘤的新方法和初步临床疗效.方法 2002年~2006年,应用阿霉素神经干注射联合神经瘤切除或松解治疗痛性神经瘤患者9例.其中8例切除残端神经瘤后.将神经近端置于正常的软组织内;1例连续性神经瘤仅做神经松解.所有病例均在神经瘤切除或松解后,根据神经干粗细的不同分别用1%的阿霉素0.3~1.0 ml作近端神经干注射.结果 经过24~60个月的临床随访,7例残端神经瘤患者的疼痛明显缓解,1例疼痛减轻,1例无效(仅做神经松解),手术优良率为77.8%.结论 阿霉素神经干注射联合神经瘤切除能有效缓解残端神经痛.%Objective To introduce a novel method to treat painful neuroma and evaluate the preliminary clinical outcomes.Methods From 2002 to 2006,9 patients with painful neuromas were treated.The surgical technique included neuroma resection and embedding of the proximal nerve end into adjacent normal soft tissue in 8 patients and neurolysis in 1 patient.According to the size of the nerve,0.3 to 1.0 ml of 1% adriblastine was injected into the proximal nerve stump.Results The mean follow-up was 34 months (range,24 to 60 months).Seven of the 9 patients experienced complete and permanent pain relief.Some mild degree of pain returned in 1 patient.Postoperative pain level was not changed for the patient who underwent neurolysis and intraneural adriblastinc injection.The overall effective rate was 77.8%.Conclusion Stump pain caused by painful neuroma can be effectively treated by neuroma resection and intraneural adriblastine injection

  11. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  12. Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken

  13. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory and sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, P M; Emanuilov, A I; Madalieva, L V; Moiseev, K Y; Bulibin, A V; Korzina, M B; Porseva, V V; Korobkin, A A; Smirnova, V P

    2014-01-03

    Neurochemical features in sympathetic and afferent neurons are subject to change during development. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a developmental role in the nervous system. To better understand the neuroplasticity of sympathetic and afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the sympathetic para- and prevertebral, nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from female Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, and 3-year-old). nNOS-positive neurons were revealed in all sensory ganglia but not in sympathetic ones from birth onward. The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased during first 10 days of life from 41.3 to 57.6 in Th2 DRG, from 40.9 to 59.1 in L4 DRG and from 31.6 to 38.5 in NG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons did not change in the NG later during development and senescence. However, in Th2 and L4 DRG the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons was high in animals between 10 and 30days of life and decreased up to the second month of life. In 2-month-old rats, the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was 52.9 in Th2 DRG and 51.3 in L4 DRG. We did not find statistically significant differences in the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons between Th2 and L4 DRG and between young and aged rats. In NG and DRG of 10-day-old and older rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons binds isolectin B4. In newborn animals, only 41.3%, 45.3% and 28.4% of nNOS neuron profiles bind to IB4 in Th2, L4 DRG and NG, respectively. In 10-day-old and older rats, the number of sensory nNOS-IR neurons binding IB4 reached more than 90% in DRG and more than 80% in NG. Only a small number of nNOS-positive cells showed immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament 200, calretinin. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of the development of

  14. Injury-induced gp130 cytokine signaling in peripheral ganglia is reduced in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Jon P; Filous, Angela R; DeFrancesco, Alicia; Lindborg, Jane A; Malhotra, Nisha A; Wilson, Gina N; Zhou, Bowen; Crish, Samuel D; Zigmond, Richard E

    2017-10-01

    Neuropathy is a major diabetic complication. While the mechanism of this neuropathy is not well understood, it is believed to result in part from deficient nerve regeneration. Work from our laboratory established that gp130 family of cytokines are induced in animals after axonal injury and are involved in the induction of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and in the conditioning lesion response. Here, we examine whether a reduction of cytokine signaling occurs in diabetes. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to destroy pancreatic β cells, leading to chronic hyperglycemia. Mice were injected with either low doses of STZ (5×60mg/kg) or a single high dose (1×200mg/kg) and examined after three or one month, respectively. Both low and high dose STZ treatment resulted in sustained hyperglycemia and functional deficits associated with the presence of both sensory and autonomic neuropathy. Diabetic mice displayed significantly reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density and sudomotor function. Furthermore, low and high dose diabetic mice showed significantly reduced tactile touch sensation measured with Von Frey monofilaments. To look at the regenerative and injury-induced responses in diabetic mice, neurons in both superior cervical ganglia (SCG) and the 4th and 5th lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were unilaterally axotomized. Both high and low dose diabetic mice displayed significantly less axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve, when measured in vivo, 48h after crush injury. Significantly reduced induction of two gp130 cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6, occurred in diabetic animals in SCG 6h after injury compared to controls. Injury-induced expression of interleukin-6 was also found to be significantly reduced in the DRG at 6h after injury in low and high dose diabetic mice. These effects were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a downstream effector of the gp130 signaling pathway

  15. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  16. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  17. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiter, Beatrice; Pigato, Giorgio; Perugi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr's syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed. PMID:27213069

  18. Time-course of coherence in the human basal ganglia during voluntary movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakoub, Omid; Neagu, Bogdan; Udupa, Kaviraja; Tsang, Eric; Chen, Robert; Popovic, Milos R.; Wong, Willy

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in characterizing how brain networks interact and communicate with each other during voluntary movements. We recorded electrical activities from the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex during voluntary wrist movements. Seven patients with dystonia and six patients with Parkinson’s disease underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. Local field potentials from the DBS electrodes and scalp EEG from the electrodes placed over the motor cortices were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated movements. The coherence calculated between the motor cortex and STN or GPi was found to be coupled to its power in both the beta and the gamma bands. The association of coherence with power suggests that a coupling in neural activity between the basal ganglia and the motor cortex is required for the execution of voluntary movements. Finally, we propose a mathematical model involving coupled neural oscillators which provides a possible explanation for how inter-regional coupling takes place. PMID:27725721

  19. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG. Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1, and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40 that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration.

  20. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  1. Effects of visual and auditory feedback on sensorimotor circuits in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, Janey; Yu, Hong; Wasson, Pooja; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E

    2008-06-01

    Previous work using visual feedback has identified two distinct sensorimotor circuits in the basal ganglia (BG): one that scaled with the duration of force and one that scaled with the rate of change of force. The present study compared functional MRI signal changes in the BG during a grip force task using either visual or auditory feedback to determine whether the BG nuclei process auditory and visual feedback similarly. We confirmed the same two sensorimotor circuits in the BG. Activation in the striatum and external globus pallidus (GPe) scaled linearly with the duration of force under visual and auditory feedback conditions, with similar slopes and intercepts across feedback type. The pattern of signal change for the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) was nonlinear and parameters of the exponential function were altered by feedback type. Specifically, GPi and STN activation decreased exponentially with the rate of change of force. The rate constant and asymptote of the exponential functions for GPi and STN were greater during auditory than visual feedback. In a comparison of the BOLD signal between BG regions, GPe had the highest percentage of variance accounted for and this effect was preserved for both feedback types. These new findings suggest that neuronal activity of specific BG nuclei is affected by whether the feedback is derived from visual or auditory inputs. Also, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the GPe has a high level of information convergence from other BG nuclei, which is preserved across different sensory feedback modalities.

  2. Long-term enhancement (LTE) of postsynaptic potentials following neural conditioning, in mammalian sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libet, B; Mochida, S

    1988-11-15

    Orthodromic, preganglionic conditioning stimulation can consistently induce long-term enhancement (LTE) (greater than 3 h) of the muscarinically mediated slow excitatory postsynaptic potential and the slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential. This was shown for superior cervical ganglia of rabbit and rat. Effective conditioning stimuli are in a physiologically observed range (3/s for 7 min, 5/s for 4 min, 10/s for 2 min, 20/s for 1 min). LTE was producible both homosynaptically and heterosynaptically. LTE can thus be associative, with conditioning synaptic input in one line inducing long-term changes in postsynaptic responses to another (heterosynaptic) input. The dopamine antagonist butaclamol depressed LTE, particularly that following the initial postconditioning period of 30 min. Adrenergic antagonists had no effect. This pharmacological evidence, coupled with the heterosynaptic induction of LTE, supports the view that neurally induced LTE may be at least partly mediated by endogenous dopamine. Another non-cholinergic but non-adrenergic transmitter (possibly a peptide) might contribute to the LTE seen in the initial 30 min postconditioning. The present, orthodromically induced LTE is clearly different from the long-term potentiation widely studied in hippocampus, etc., in the modes of induction and synaptic mediation.

  3. Subclinical visuospatial impairment in Parkinson's disease: the role of basal ganglia and limbic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eCaproni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception deficits are a recurrent manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently, structural abnormalities of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical regions, implicated in visual stimuli analysis, have been observed in PD patients with cognitive decline and visual hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salient aspects of visual perception in cognitively unimpaired PD patients. METHODS: Eleven right-handed non-demented right-sided onset PD patients without visuospatial impairment or hallucinations and eleven healthy controls were studied with fMRI while performing a specific visuoperceptual/visuospatial paradigm that allowed to highlight the specific process underlying visuospatial judgment. RESULTS: Significant changes in both cortical areas and subcortical regions involved in visual stimuli processing were observed. In particular, PD patients showed a reduced activation for the right insula, left putamen, bilateral caudate and right hippocampus, as well as an over-activation of the right dorso-lateral prefrontal and of the posterior parietal cortices, particularly in the right hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both loss of efficiency and compensatory mechanisms occur in PD patients, providing further insight into the pathophysiological role of the functional alterations of basal ganglia and limbic structures in the impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions observed in PD.

  4. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons of Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Mouse

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    Hamid Reza Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used.Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours.Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.

  5. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-associated PDGFRB mutations impair the receptor signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Florence A; Velghe, Amélie I; Stevens, Monique; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) bind to two related receptor tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by the PDGFRA and PDGFRB genes. Recently, heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been described in patients diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC or Fahr disease), a rare inherited neurological disorder. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these mutations had a positive or negative impact on the PDGFRB activity. We first showed that the E1071V mutant behaved like wild-type PDGFRB and may represent a polymorphism unrelated to IBGC. In contrast, the L658P mutant had no kinase activity and failed to activate any of the pathways normally stimulated by PDGF. The R987W mutant activated Akt and MAP kinases but did not induce the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) after PDGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ was also decreased. Finally, we showed that the R987W mutant was more rapidly degraded upon PDGF binding compared to wild-type PDGFRB. In conclusion, PDGFRB mutations associated with IBGC impair the receptor signalling. PDGFRB loss of function in IBGC is consistent with recently described inactivating mutations in the PDGF-B ligand. These results raise concerns about the long-term safety of PDGF receptor inhibition by drugs such as imatinib. PMID:25292412

  6. Cost-efficient FPGA implementation of basal ganglia and their Parkinsonian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangming; Wang, Jiang; Li, Shunan; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Li, Huiyan

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, which are responsible for cognition and other functions. Developing a brain-machine interface (BMI) demands a suitable solution for the real-time implementation of a portable BG. In this study, we used a digital hardware implementation of a BG network containing 256 modified Izhikevich neurons and 2048 synapses to reliably reproduce the biological characteristics of BG on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. We also highlighted the role of Parkinsonian analysis by considering neural dynamics in the design of the hardware-based architecture. Thus, we developed a multi-precision architecture based on a precise analysis using the FPGA-based platform with fixed-point arithmetic. The proposed embedding BG network can be applied to intelligent agents and neurorobotics, as well as in BMI projects with clinical applications. Although we only characterized the BG network with Izhikevich models, the proposed approach can also be extended to more complex neuron models and other types of functional networks.

  7. Distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the porcine urinary bladder trigone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Pidsudko

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the porcine intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (IG-UBT demonstrated using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone during laparotomy performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Ten-microm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin (SOM, galanin (GAL, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, Leu5-enkephalin (LENK and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. IG-UBT neurons formed characteristic clusters (from a few to tens neuronal cells found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed four main populations of IG-UBT neurons: SOM- (ca. 35%, SP- (ca. 32%, ChAT- and NPY- immunoreactive (-IR (ca. 23% as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 6%. This study has demonstrated a relatively large population of differently coded IG-UBT neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.

  8. Technical integration of hippocampus, basal ganglia and physical models for spatial navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Fox

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational neuroscience is increasingly moving beyond modeling individual neurons or neural systems to consider the integration of multiple models, often constructed by different research groups. We report on our preliminary technical integration of recent hippocampal formation, basal ganglia and physical environment models, together with visualisation tools, as a case study in the use of Python across the modelling tool-chain. We do not present new modeling results here. The architecture incorporates leaky-integrator and rate-coded neurons, a 3D environment with collision detection and tactile sensors, 3D graphics and 2D plots. We found Python to be a flexible platform, offering a significant reduction in development time, without a corresponding significant increase in execution time. We illustrate this by implementing a part of the model in various alternative languages and coding styles, and comparing their execution times. For very large scale system integration, communication with other languages and parallel execution may be required, which we demonstrate using the BRAHMS framework's Python bindings.

  9. Chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract activity via a sacral dorsal root ganglia interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Abeer; Ross, Shani E.; Sperry, Zachariah J.; Ouyang, Aileen; Stephan, Christopher; Jiman, Ahmad A.; Bruns, Tim M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Our goal is to develop an interface that integrates chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract (LUT) activity with stimulation of peripheral pathways. Approach. Penetrating microelectrodes were implanted in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult male felines. Peripheral electrodes were placed on or in the pudendal nerve, bladder neck and near the external urethral sphincter. Supra-pubic bladder catheters were implanted for saline infusion and pressure monitoring. Electrode and catheter leads were enclosed in an external housing on the back. Neural signals from microelectrodes and bladder pressure of sedated or awake-behaving felines were recorded under various test conditions in weekly sessions. Electrodes were also stimulated to drive activity. Main results. LUT single- and multi-unit activity was recorded for 4-11 weeks in four felines. As many as 18 unique bladder pressure single-units were identified in each experiment. Some channels consistently recorded bladder afferent activity for up to 41 d, and we tracked individual single-units for up to 23 d continuously. Distension-evoked and stimulation-driven (DRG and pudendal) bladder emptying was observed, during which LUT sensory activity was recorded. Significance. This chronic implant animal model allows for behavioral studies of LUT neurophysiology and will allow for continued development of a closed-loop neuroprosthesis for bladder control.

  10. Postembryonic neuronal addition in Zebrafish dorsal root ganglia is regulated by Notch signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Hillary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sensory neurons and glia of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG arise from neural crest cells in the developing vertebrate embryo. In mouse and chick, DRG formation is completed during embryogenesis. In contrast, zebrafish continue to add neurons and glia to the DRG into adulthood, long after neural crest migration is complete. The molecular and cellular regulation of late DRG growth in the zebrafish remains to be characterized. Results In the present study, we use transgenic zebrafish lines to examine neuronal addition during postembryonic DRG growth. Neuronal addition is continuous over the period of larval development. Fate-mapping experiments support the hypothesis that new neurons are added from a population of resident, neural crest-derived progenitor cells. Conditional inhibition of Notch signaling was used to assess the role of this signaling pathway in neuronal addition. An increase in the number of DRG neurons is seen when Notch signaling is inhibited during both early and late larval development. Conclusions Postembryonic growth of the zebrafish DRG comes about, in part, by addition of new neurons from a resident progenitor population, a process regulated by Notch signaling.

  11. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings.

  12. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 ± 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

  13. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héricé, Charlotte; Khalil, Radwa; Moftah, Marie; Boraud, Thomas; Guthrie, Martin; Garenne, André

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used these properties to develop and extend a connectionist model at a spiking neuron level based on a previous rate model approach. This model is demonstrated on decision-making tasks that have been studied in primates and the electrophysiology interpreted to show that the decision is made in two steps. To model this, we have used two parallel loops, each of which performs decision-making based on interactions between positive and negative feedback pathways. This model is able to perform two-level decision-making as in primates. We show here that, before learning, synaptic noise is sufficient to drive the decision-making process and that, after learning, the decision is based on the choice that has proven most likely to be rewarded. The model is then submitted to lesion tests, reversal learning and extinction protocols. We show that, under these conditions, it behaves in a consistent manner and provides predictions in accordance with observed experimental data.

  14. The high rate of prevalence of CT-detected basal ganglia calcification in neuropsychiatric (CNS) brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A M; Muhtaseb, S A; Reddy, R R; Senthilselvan, A; Al-Mudallal, D S; Marafie, A A

    1987-12-01

    Of 65 cases presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations of brucellosis (CNS-brucellosis), 9(13.8%) had CT-detected basal ganglia calcification (BGC). Of these, 5 had meningitis and 4 had psychiatric manifestations as presenting features. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made by the finding of consistent history and physical findings and the presence of significantly elevated antibody titres and/or positive culture in the blood and/or CSF. In all the cases, BGC was in the form of punctate hyperdense non-enhancing shadows with average density 44.5-58.4 and maximum density 49-64HU. The calcification was unilateral in 3 cases, bilateral and symmetrical in 4 and bilateral but asymmetrical in 2. None of the cases had other predisposing conditions to BGC and in one of the cases did specific anti-brucella treatment effect a detectable change in the BGC. The finding of CT-detected BGC in patients coming from areas endemic for brucellosis should alert physicians to the possibility of underlying brucellar infection.

  15. Reduced basal ganglia function when elderly switch between coordinated movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Van Impe, Annouchka; De Vos, Jeroen; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2010-10-01

    Structural and neurochemical changes in frontostriatal circuits are thought to underlie age-related behavioral deficits on cognitive tasks. Here, we test the hypothesis that age-related motor switching deficits are associated with reduced basal ganglia (BG) function. Right-handed volunteers (15 Old, and 15 Young) made spatially and temporally coupled bimanual circular motions during event-related FMRI. A visual cue signaled the right hand to Switch or Continue its circling direction. Switching from mirror symmetric to asymmetric (SW»ASYMM) took longer and resulted in more contralateral (left-) hand disruptions than vice versa. These effects were more pronounced in the elderly, showing that the ability to suppress and flexibly adapt motor behavior (agility) declines with age. For both groups, switching activated the BG and a typical network for task-set implementation, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, SMA-proper) and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. A region of interest analysis revealed significantly reduced SW»ASYMM activation in bilateral subthalamic nucleus and right globus pallidus, only in the elderly. Age-related behavioral deficits may be related to inefficient recruitment of cortico-BG loops to suppress undesired movements. The elderly may use an alternative strategy to select the required movement pattern as indicated by increased activation of prefrontal cortex.

  16. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia as studied by dual-probe microdialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William T. E-mail: woconn@iveagh.ucd.ie

    1998-11-01

    Dual probe microdialysis was employed in intact rat brain to investigate the effect of intrastriatal perfusion with selective dopamine D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} receptor agonists and with c-fos antisense oligonucleotide on (a) local GABA release in the striatum; (b) the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is the output site of the strionigral GABA pathway; and (c) the external segment of the globus pallidus, which is the output site of the striopallidal GABA pathway. The data provide functional in vivo evidence for a selective dopamine D{sub 1} receptor-mediated activation of the direct strionigral GABA pathway and a selective dopamine D{sub 2} receptor inhibition of the indirect striopallidal GABA pathway and provides a neuronal substrate for parallel processing in the basal ganglia regulation of motor function. Taken together, these findings offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dopamine-linked disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia.

  17. Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neuronal Cultures: a tool for drug discovery for peripheral neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Giorgia; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathies affect many people worldwide and are caused by or associated with a wide range of conditions, both genetic and acquired. Current therapies are directed at symptomatic control because no effective regenerative treatment exists. Primary challenge is that mechanisms that lead to distal axonal degeneration, a common feature of all peripheral neuropathies, are largely unknown. Objective/Methods To address the role and specific characteristics of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neuron culture system as a useful model in evaluating the pathogenic mechanisms of peripheral neuropathies and examination and validation of potential therapeutic compounds. A thorough review of the recent literature was completed and select examples of the use of DRG neurons in different peripheral neuropathy models were chosen to highlight the utility of these cultures. Conclusion Many useful models of different peripheral neuropathies have been developed using DRG neuronal culture and potential therapeutic targets have been examined, but so far none of the potential therapeutic compounds have succeeded in clinical trials. In recent years, focus has changed to evaluation of axon degeneration as the primary outcome measure advocating a drug development strategy starting with phenotypic drug screening, followed by validation in primary complex co-cultures and animal models. PMID:20657751

  18. Unusual progression of herpes simplex encephalitis with basal ganglia and extensive white matter involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Manabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year old male with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE showing unusual progression and magnetic resonance (MR findings. The initial neurological manifestation of intractable focal seizure with low-grade fever persisted for three days, and rapidly coma, myoclonic status, and respiratory failure with high-grade fever emerged thereafter. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for HSV-1 DNA. In the early stage, MR images (MRI were normal. On subsequent MR diffusion-weighted (DW and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images, high-intensity areas first appeared in the left frontal cortex, which was purely extra-temporal involvement, and extended into the basal ganglia, then the white matter, which are relatively spared in HSE. Antiviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy did not suppress the progression of HSE, and finally severe cerebral edema developed into cerebral herniation, which required emergency decompressive craniectomy. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the white matter detected perivascular infiltration and destruction of basic structure, which confirmed non specific inflammatory change without obvious edema or demyelination. The present case shows both MR and pathological findings in the white matter in the acute stage of HSE.

  19. Histone acetylation inhibitors promote axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could reinvigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families, the histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the histone acetyl transferases (HATs), acting in opposition. Whereas acetylated histones in the nucleus are associated with upregulation of growth-promoting genes, deacetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. This study investigates the effects of HAT and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and shows that inhibition of HATs by anacardic acid or CPTH2 improves axon outgrowth, whereas inhibition of HDACs by TSA or tubacin inhibits axon growth. Anacardic acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan border. Histone acetylation but not tubulin acetylation level was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor tubacin. Although the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. Determining the mechanistic basis will require future studies, but this study shows that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The role of dorsal root ganglia activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Frost, Emma E; Begum, Farhana; Vora, Parvez; Au, Kelvin; Gong, Yuewen; MacNeil, Brian; Pillai, Prakash; Namaka, Mike

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by focal destruction of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of the disease are unknown. Many studies have shown that MS is predominantly an autoimmune disease with an inflammatory phase followed by a demyelinating phase. Recent studies alongside current treatment strategies, including glatiramer acetate, have revealed a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MS. However, the exact role of BDNF is not fully understood. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in adolescent female Lewis rats to identify the role of BDNF in disease progression. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were harvested for protein and gene expression analysis every 3 days post-disease induction (pdi) up to 15 days. We show significant increases in BDNF protein and gene expression in the DRG of EAE animals at 12 dpi, which correlates with peak neurological disability. BDNF protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly increased at 12 dpi, and maintained at 15 dpi. However, there was no significant change in mRNA levels. We show evidence for the anterograde transport of BDNF protein from the DRG to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Increased levels of BDNF within the DRG and spinal cord in EAE may facilitate myelin repair and neuroprotection in the CNS. The anterograde transport of DRG-derived BDNF to the spinal cord may have potential implications in facilitating central myelin repair and neuroprotection.

  1. Localization of P2X7 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xuegong; JIANG Ling; XIANG Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor mRNA and proteins in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The co-localization of P2X7 receptor with four cytochemical markers, the neurofilament protein NF200, S100, substance P and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding glyco-conjugates, were also examined. It was found that P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (P2X7R-IR) was present mostly in large- and medium-sized DRG neurons (62 %±9 % and 36 %±6 % respectively in all P2X7R-IR neurons). All the P2X7R-IR neurons were also NF200 and S100 immunopositive. However, in a small number of NF200 or S100 immunopositive neurons no P2X7R-IR was detectable. All the IB4-positive or substance P-immunopositive neurons had no P2X7R-IR. These results demonstrate that P2X7 receptors are expressed in a large subpopulation of DRG neurons and they may play a role in the transduction of specific peripheral sensory signals.

  2. [The morphofunctional state of the neurons in the nodose ganglia of the normal vagus nerves and in experimental myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V V; Uglova, M V

    1991-03-01

    Basing on a complex approach with the use of general morphological and morphometrical methods, a morphofunctional characteristics of the nodose ganglia neurons of the nervus vagus has been presented in 203 dogs, both normal and at an experimental myocardial infarction. The neurons in question react to the myocardial infarction with a complex of changes in the intracellular structure parameters and their chemical markers. Their manifestation degree is higher and lasts longer, when the myocardial infarction happens at day time.

  3. Cellular distribution of the histamine H3 receptor in the basal ganglia : functional modulation of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission

    OpenAIRE

    González Sepúlveda, Marta; Rosell Vilar, Santi; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Castillo Ruiz, Mª del Mar; Mignon, Virginie; Moreno Delgado, David; Vignes, Michel; Díaz, Jorge; Sabrià i Pau, Josefa; Ortiz de Pablo, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Basal ganglia. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Vol. 3 Núm. 2 (Jul. 2013) Histamine H3 receptors (H3R) are widely expressed in the ...

  4. Vitamin D Receptor and Enzyme Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Adult Female Rats: Modulation by Ovarian Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Tague, Sarah E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found prefe...

  5. Where neuroscience and dynamic system theory meet autonomous robotics: A contracting basal ganglia model for action selection.

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, B.; Tabareau, N.; Pham, Q. C.; Berthoz, A.; Slotine, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Action selection, the problem of choosing what to do next, is central to any autonomous agent architecture. We use here a multi-disciplinary approach at the convergence of neuroscience, dynamical system theory and autonomous robotics, in order to propose an efficient action selection mechanism based on a new model of the basal ganglia. We first describe new developments of contraction theory regarding locally projected dynamical systems. We exploit these results to design a stable computation...

  6. [A case of subacute parkinsonism presenting as bilateral basal ganglia legions by MRI in diabetic uremic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiko; Shibata, Koichi; Funaki, Takenori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ito, Eiichi; Otsuka, Kuniaki

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was admitted because he had developed tremulous movement in both upper and lower limbs and gait disturbance over the course of 3 months. He had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis almost 1 year earlier due to end-stage diabetic nephropathy. A neurological examination revealed a mild disturbance of his consciousness, asterixis in the upper limbs, bilateral extensor plantar responses and parkinsonism, which were characterized by bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity, and bilaterally tremors at rest. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swollen bilateral basal ganglia legions, which appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The patient was treated for metabolic acidosis and continued hemodialysis three times a week; however, the parkinsonism remained 1 year later. Follow-up MRI revealed decreased swelling of the basal ganglia, and the pattern of diffusion-weighted images and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map indicated vasogenic and cytotoxic edema in bilateral globus pallidus. The case was diagnosed as encephalopathy due to diabetic uremic syndrome, initially characterized by Wang et al. (2003). Only 17 cases with parkinsonism have been reported. Diabetic uremic syndrome is characterized by acute or subacute onset consciousness disturbance and movement disorders such as parkinsonism, chorea and the other extrapyramidal signs to various degrees related to bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia.

  7. Tailored keyhole surgery for basal ganglia cavernous malformation with preoperative three-dimensional pyramidal tracts assessment and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Quan; Geng Xu; Fan Zhao; Wei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Accurately mapping the pyramidal tracts preoperatively and intraoperatively is the primary concern when operating on cavernous malformations (CMS) in the basal ganglia.We have conducted new methods for preoperative planning and have tailored lesion resection to prevent the damage of pyramidal tracts.Patients and methods:Eleven patients harboring cavernous malformations in basal ganglia were treated surgically from April 2008 to January 2015.Surgical planning was based on three-dimensional diffusion tensor pyramidal tractography and Virtual Reality system.Intraoperative detecting of pyramidal tracts with subcortical stimulation mapping and motor evoked potential monitoring were performed.The extent of resection and postoperative neurological function were assessed in each case.Results:Total removal of the cavernous malformations were achieved in each case.Four of the total eleven cases presented temporary neurological deficits,including one occurrence of hemiparesis and three occurrences of hemianesthesia.No permanent neurological deficit was developed in this series of cases.Conclusion:Three-dimensional diffusion tensor pyramidal tractography is quite helpful for preoperative planning of basal ganglia cavernous malformations,especially in choosing a suitable surgical approach.Intraoperative detection of pyramidal tracts with subcortical stimulation mapping and motor evoked potential monitoring play important roles in preventing damage to pyramidal tracts during lesion resection.

  8. [Experimental research on substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia in rats with lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Lin, Xun; Pang, Jian; Kong, Ling-jun; Zhan, Hong-sheng; Cheng, Ying-wu; Shi, Yin-yu

    2015-01-01

    To detect the effects of lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng on the substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia in rat models. A hundred and twenty SPF level SD male rats with the weight of 350 to 450 g were randomly divided into rotary fixation group (RF group), simple fixation group (SF group) and sham-operation group (Sham group). The external link fixation system was implanted into the L4-L6 of rats in RF group and SF group; and in RF group, that the L5 spinous process was rotated to the right resulted in L4, L5, L6 spinous process not collinear; in SF group, the external link fixation system was simply implanted and not rotated. The rats of Sham group were not implanted the external link fixation system and only open and suture. The substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia were detected at 1, 4, 8, 12 weeks after operation. Substance P content of hypothalamus in RF group and SF group was lower than Sham group at 1, 4, 8 weeks after operation (Phypothalamus among three groups at 12 weeks after operation (P>0.05). Lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng can inhibit the analgesic activity of substance P in hypothalamus and promote the synthesis and transmission of substance P in dorsal root ganglia, so as to cause or aggravate the pain.

  9. Early L-dopa, but not pramipexole, restores basal ganglia activity in partially 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Giralt, A; Obeso, J A; Schapira, A H

    2014-04-01

    The most appropriate time for the initiation of dopaminergic symptomatic therapy in Parkinson's disease remains debatable. It has been suggested that early correction of basal ganglia pathophysiological abnormalities may have long-term beneficial effects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early and delayed actions of L-dopa and pramipexole, using a delayed-start protocol of treatment. The effects of early and delayed administration of these drugs on motor response, development of dyskinesias, neurogenesis and molecular markers in basal ganglia were studied in rats with a unilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Ten days after lesioning, rats received treatment with: a) L-dopa methyl ester (25mg/kg with 6.25mg/kg of benserazide, i.p., twice a day); b) pramipexole (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day) or c) saline for 4weeks. Four weeks after treatment initiation, rats from the saline group were distributed in three groups that then received the following treatments: d) L-dopa, e) pramipexole or f) saline, for 4weeks more. Three animals in each treatment arm received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections (200mg/kg) 3days before starting treatment. When compared with delayed-start L-dopa, early-start L-dopa treatment induced a lower rotational response (ppramipexole, early-start pramipexole induced a higher rotational response (ppramipexole treatments. Our data support a possible restoration of basal ganglia physiological mechanisms by early-start L-dopa therapy.

  10. 腹腔神经节的多层螺旋CT表现%Multi-Detector CT Findings of Celiac Ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 张龙江; 路莉; 卢光明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the multi-detector CT findings of celiac ganglia. Materials and Methods Abdominal non-enhanced and enhanced multi-detector CT data of 133 subjects with normal findings were retrospectively reviewed. The location, morphologic feature, and size of the celiac ganglia were recorded and measured. Results Left celiac ganglia were showed in 124 subjects, not showed in 9 subjects, while right celiac ganglia were showed in 115 subjects and not showed in 18 subjects. There were no statistical difference for the display of celiac ganglia between left and right side (93. 2% vs 86. 5% , x2 = 3. 339, P = 0. 068 ) . Celiac ganglia were identified at the level between the origins of celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. The left ganglia was located between the left adrenal gland and diaphragm, and the right were identified posteromedial to the inferior vena cava and the inside of the right adrenal gland. They were thread-like (74. 5% , 178/239) or lobulated (25. 5% , 61/239). The mean long-axis dimensions of the left and right were (26. 1 ± 12.3) mm, (29. 5 ± 9. 2 ) mm, the left celiac ganglia were smaller than the right (t = - 4. 208,P < 0.001) . The mean short-axis dimensions of the left and right ganglia were (4. 1 ±1.0) mm, (3.1±0. 9) mm,the left celiac ganglia were larger than the right (t = 13. 635, P <0. 001). Conclusion Multi-detector CT can show the location, size, morphologic feature of the celiac ganglia. The left celiac ganglia had higher display rate than right but without statistical difference.%目的 探讨腹腔神经节多层螺旋CT(MDCT)的表现.资料与方法 回顾分析133例上腹部CT平扫和增强扫描无异常患者的CT资料,记录和测量腹腔神经节的位置、形态及大小.结果 左侧腹腔神经节124例显示,9例显示不清;右侧115例显示,18例显示不清,两侧显示率的差异无统计学意义(左侧,93.2%;右侧,86.5%;x2=3.339,P=0.068).双侧腹腔神经节位于腹腔干

  11. A movable microelectrode array for chronic basal ganglia single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording in freely behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ting; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhangya; Wu, Xiyue; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Shizhong

    2014-09-01

    The basal ganglia-cortical circuits are important for information process to brain function. However, chronic recording of single-unit activities in the basal ganglia nucleus has not yet been well established. We present a movable bundled microwire array for chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording. The electrode assembly contains a screw-advanced microdrive and a microwire array. The array consists of a steel guide tube, five recording wires and one referenced wire which form the shape of a guiding hand, and one screw electrode for cortico-recording. The electrode can acquire stable cortex oscillation-driven STN firing units in rats under different behaving conditions for 8 weeks. We achieved satisfying signal-to-noise ratio, portions of cells retaining viability, and spike waveform similarities across the recording sections. Using this method, we investigated neural correlations of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in different behaving conditions. This method will become a powerful tool for multi-region recording to study normal statements or movement disorders.

  12. Basal ganglia disorders associated with imbalances in the striatal striosome and matrix compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Crittenden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles and input-output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include 1 those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, 2 those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and 3 those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input-output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in

  13. Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine eBosch-Bouju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor thalamus (Mthal is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG. The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarises anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily driven by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new super-integrator theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum, which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs

  14. Aggrecan-based extracellular matrix is an integral part of the human basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G; Morawski, M; Arendt, T

    2008-01-24

    The extracellular matrix is known to be involved in neuronal communication and the regulation of plastic changes, and also considered to protect neurons and synapses against damage. The goal of this study was to investigate how major extracellular matrix components (aggrecan, link protein, hyaluronan) constitute the pathways of the nigral system in the human basal ganglia circuit affected by neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Here we show that aggrecan- and link protein-related components form clear regional distribution patterns, whereas hyaluronan is widely distributed in gray and white matter. Two predominant phenotypes of the aggrecan-based matrix can be discriminated: (1) perineuronal nets (PNs) and (2) axonal coats (ACs) encapsulating preterminal fibers and synaptic boutons. Clearly contoured PNs are associated with GABAergic projection neurons in the external and internal division of the globus pallidus, the lateral and reticular part of the substantia nigra, as well as subpopulations of striatal and thalamic inhibitory interneurons. Dopaminergic nigral neurons are devoid of PNs but are contacted to a different extent by matrix-coated boutons forming subnucleus-specific patterns. A very dense network of ACs is characteristic especially of the posterior lateral cell groups of the compact substantia nigra (nigrosome 1). In the subthalamic nucleus and the lateral thalamic nuclei numerous AC-associated axons were attached to principal neurons devoid of PNs. We conclude from the region-specific patterns that the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix is adapted to the fast processing of sensorimotor activities which are the therapeutic target of surgery and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Functional Relevance of Different Basal Ganglia Pathways Investigated in a Spiking Model with Reward Dependent Plasticity

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    Pierre Berthet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain enables animals to behaviourally adapt in order to survive in a complex and dynamic environment, but how reward-oriented behaviours are achieved and computed by its underlying neural circuitry is an open question. To address this concern, we have developed a spiking model of the basal ganglia (BG that learns to dis-inhibit the action leading to a reward despite ongoing changes in the reward schedule. The architecture of the network features the two pathways commonly described in BG, the direct (denoted D1 and the indirect (denoted D2 pathway, as well as a loop involving striatum and the dopaminergic system. The activity of these dopaminergic neurons conveys the reward prediction error (RPE, which determines the magnitude of synaptic plasticity within the different pathways. All plastic connections implement a versatile four-factor learning rule derived from Bayesian inference that depends upon pre- and postsynaptic activity, receptor type and dopamine level. Synaptic weight updates occur in the D1 or D2 pathways depending on the sign of the RPE, and an efference copy informs upstream nuclei about the action selected. We demonstrate successful performance of the system in a multiple-choice learning task with a transiently changing reward schedule. We simulate lesioning of the various pathways and show that a condition without the D2 pathway fares worse than one without D1. Additionally, we simulate the degeneration observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD by decreasing the number of dopaminergic neurons during learning. The results suggest that the D1 pathway impairment in PD might have been overlooked. Furthermore, an analysis of the alterations in the synaptic weights shows that using the absolute reward value instead of the RPE leads to a larger change in D1.

  16. Validation of decision-making models and analysis of decision variables in the rat basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2009-08-05

    Reinforcement learning theory plays a key role in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of choice behavior in animals and humans. Especially, intermediate variables of learning models estimated from behavioral data, such as the expectation of reward for each candidate choice (action value), have been used in searches for the neural correlates of computational elements in learning and decision making. The aims of the present study are as follows: (1) to test which computational model best captures the choice learning process in animals and (2) to elucidate how action values are represented in different parts of the corticobasal ganglia circuit. We compared different behavioral learning algorithms to predict the choice sequences generated by rats during a free-choice task and analyzed associated neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP). The major findings of this study were as follows: (1) modified versions of an action-value learning model captured a variety of choice strategies of rats, including win-stay-lose-switch and persevering behavior, and predicted rats' choice sequences better than the best multistep Markov model; and (2) information about action values and future actions was coded in both the NAc and VP, but was less dominant than information about trial types, selected actions, and reward outcome. The results of our model-based analysis suggest that the primary role of the NAc and VP is to monitor information important for updating choice behaviors. Information represented in the NAc and VP might contribute to a choice mechanism that is situated elsewhere.

  17. Nerves projecting from the intrinsic cardiac ganglia of the pulmonary veins modulate sinoatrial node pacemaker function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzoso, Manuel; Rysevaite, Kristina; Milstein, Michelle L.; Calvo, Conrado J.; Kean, Adam C.; Atienza, Felipe; Pauza, Dainius H.; Jalife, José; Noujaim, Sami F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary vein ganglia (PVG) are targets for atrial fibrillation ablation. However, the functional relevance of PVG to the normal heart rhythm remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether PVG can modulate sinoatrial node (SAN) function. Methods and results Forty-nine C57BL and seven Connexin40+/EGFP mice were studied. We used tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and choline-acetyltransferase immunofluorescence labelling to characterize adrenergic and cholinergic neural elements. PVG projected postganglionic nerves to the SAN, which entered the SAN as an extensive, mesh-like neural network. PVG neurones were adrenergic, cholinergic, and biphenotypic. Histochemical characterization of two human embryonic hearts showed similarities between mouse and human neuroanatomy: direct neural communications between PVG and SAN. In Langendorff perfused mouse hearts, PVG were stimulated using 200–2000 ms trains of pulses (300 μs, 400 µA, 200 Hz). PVG stimulation caused an initial heart rate (HR) slowing (36 ± 9%) followed by acceleration. PVG stimulation in the presence of propranolol caused HR slowing (43 ± 13%) that was sustained over 20 beats. PVG stimulation with atropine progressively increased HR. Time-course effects were enhanced with 1000 and 2000 ms trains (P < 0.05 vs. 200 ms). In optical mapping, PVG stimulation shifted the origin of SAN discharges. In five paroxysmal AF patients undergoing pulmonary vein ablation, application of radiofrequency energy to the PVG area during sinus rhythm produced a decrease in HR similar to that observed in isolated mouse hearts. Conclusion PVG have functional and anatomical biphenotypic characteristics. They can have significant effects on the electrophysiological control of the SAN. PMID:23559611

  18. Integration of cortical and pallidal inputs in the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus of singing birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Farries, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia-recipient thalamus receives inhibitory inputs from the pallidum and excitatory inputs from cortex, but it is unclear how these inputs interact during behavior. We recorded simultaneously from thalamic neurons and their putative synaptically connected pallidal inputs in singing zebra finches. We find, first, that each pallidal spike produces an extremely brief (∼5 ms) pulse of inhibition that completely suppresses thalamic spiking. As a result, thalamic spikes are entrained to pallidal spikes with submillisecond precision. Second, we find that the number of thalamic spikes that discharge within a single pallidal interspike interval (ISI) depends linearly on the duration of that interval but does not depend on pallidal activity prior to the interval. In a detailed biophysical model, our results were not easily explained by the postinhibitory “rebound” mechanism previously observed in anesthetized birds and in brain slices, nor could most of our data be characterized as “gating” of excitatory transmission by inhibitory pallidal input. Instead, we propose a novel “entrainment” mechanism of pallidothalamic transmission that highlights the importance of an excitatory conductance that drives spiking, interacting with brief pulses of pallidal inhibition. Building on our recent finding that cortical inputs can drive syllable-locked rate modulations in thalamic neurons during singing, we report here that excitatory inputs affect thalamic spiking in two ways: by shortening the latency of a thalamic spike after a pallidal spike and by increasing thalamic firing rates within individual pallidal ISIs. We present a unifying biophysical model that can reproduce all known modes of pallidothalamic transmission—rebound, gating, and entrainment—depending on the amount of excitation the thalamic neuron receives. PMID:22673333

  19. Neuronal activity (c-Fos delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hong eQiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave EEG but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine (NMDA receptor antagonist and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist. Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN input to internal globus pallidus (GPi and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe, and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders.

  20. Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurek Seyfi C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%, high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day. He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated.

  1. The Effects of Cues on Neurons in the Basal Ganglia in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi V. Sarma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues open a unique window to the understanding of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These cues can temporarily but dramatically improve PD motor symptoms. Although details are unclear, cues are believed to suppress pathological basal ganglia (BG activity through activation of corticostriatal pathways. In this study, we investigated human BG neurophysiology under different cued conditions. We evaluated bursting, 10-30Hz oscillations (OSCs, and directional tuning (DT dynamics in the subthalamic nucleus activity while 7 patients executed a two-step motor task. In the first step (predicted +cue, the patient moved to a target when prompted by a visual go cue that appeared 100% of the time. Here, the timing of the cue is predictable and the cue serves an external trigger to execute a motor plan. In the second step, the cue appeared randomly 50% of the time, and the patient had to move to the same target as in the first step. When it appeared (unpredicted +cue, the motor plan was to be triggered by the cue, but its timing was not predictable. When the cue failed to appear (unpredicted -cue, the motor plan was triggered by the absence of the visual cue. We found that during predicted +cue and unpredicted -cue trials, OSCs significantly decreased and DT significantly increased above baseline, though these modulations occurred an average of 640 milliseconds later in unpredicted -cue trials. Movement and reaction times were comparable in these trials. During unpredicted +cue trials, OSCs and DT failed to modulate though bursting significantly decreased after movement. Correspondingly, movement performance deteriorated. These findings suggest that during motor planning either a predictably timed external cue or an internally generated cue (generated by the absence of a cue trigger the execution of a motor plan in premotor cortex, whose increased activation then suppresses pathological activity in STN through direct pathways, leading to motor facilitation in

  2. The function of basal ganglia in integrating information to perform an action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko eNagano-Saito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are thought to be involved in the integration of multiple sources of information, and their dysfunction can lead to disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD patients show motor and cognitive dysfunction with specific impairments in the internal generation of motor actions and executive deficits, respectively. The role of the BG, then, would be to integrate information from several sources in order to make a decision on a resulting action adequate for the required task. Reanalyzing the data set from our previous study (Martinu et al., 2012, we investigated this hypothesis by applying a graph theory method to a series of fMRI data during the performance of self-initiated (SI finger movement tasks obtained in healthy volunteers (HV and early stage PD patients. Dorsally, connectivity strength between the medial prefrontal areas (mPFC and cortical regions including the primary motor area (M1, the extrastriate visual cortex, and the associative cortex, was reduced in the PD patients. The connectivity strengths were positively correlated to activity in the striatum in both groups. Ventrally, all connectivity between the striatum, the thalamus, and the extrastriate visual cortex decreased in strength in the PD, as did the connectivity between the striatum and the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC. Individual response time was negatively correlated to connectivity strength between the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC and the striatum and positively correlated to connectivity between the VLPFC and the striatum in the HV. These results indicate that the BG, with the mPFC and thalamus, are involved in integrating multiple sources of information from areas such as DLPFC, and VLPFC, connecting to M1, thereby determining a network that leads to the adequate decision and performance of the resulting action.

  3. The basal ganglia matching tools package for striatal uptake semi-quantification: description and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvini, Piero [University and INFN, Department of Physics, Genoa (Italy); Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Inguglia, Fabrizio [University of Genoa, Department of Informatics and Information Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Mignone, Alessandro; Guerra, Ugo P. [Ospedali Riuniti, Nuclear Medicine Division, Bergamo (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    To design a novel algorithm (BasGan) for automatic segmentation of striatal {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT. The BasGan algorithm is based on a high-definition, three-dimensional (3D) striatal template, derived from Talairach's atlas. A blurred template, obtained by convolving the former with a 3D Gaussian kernel (FWHM = 10 mm), approximates striatal activity distribution. The algorithm performs translations and scale transformation on the bicommissural aligned image to set the striatal templates with standard size in an appropriate initial position. An optimization protocol automatically performs fine adjustments in the positioning of blurred templates to best match the radioactive counts, and locates an occipital ROI for background evaluation. Partial volume effect correction is included in the process of uptake computation of caudate, putamen and background. Experimental validation was carried out by means of six acquisitions of an anthropomorphic striatal phantom. The BasGan software was applied to a first set of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) versus patients affected by essential tremor. A highly significant correlation was achieved between true binding potential and measured {sup 123}I activity from the phantom. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower in all basal ganglia in the PD group versus controls with both BasGan and a conventional ROI method used for comparison, but particularly with the former. Correlations with the motor UPDRS score were far more significant with the BasGan. The novel BasGan algorithm automatically performs the 3D segmentation of striata. Because co-registered MRI is not needed, it can be used by all nuclear medicine departments, since it is freely available on the Web. (orig.)

  4. Basal ganglia cerebral microbleeds and global cognitive function: the Kashima Scan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Yusuke; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriguchi, Makoto; Nishihara, Masashi; Hara, Megumi; Nanri, Yusuke; Horikawa, Etsuo; Nishiyama, Masanori; Werring, David J; Hara, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    We previously showed that global cognitive function was associated with deep or infratentorial (D/I) cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in a Japanese healthy cohort. We continually recruited participates and performed further investigation to focus on the impact of different distributions of D/I CMBs on gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging on global cognitive function. A total of 1392 subjects including subjects without CMBs (n = 1335), with D/I CMBs limited to the basal ganglia (BG; BG group, n = 33), thalamus (thalamus group, n = 14), and infratentorial area (infratentorial group, n = 10) were included in analyses. Subjects with strictly lobar CMBs (n = 43) were excluded, but subjects in the BG, thalamus, and infratentorial groups could also have lobar CMBs. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was administered to determine global cognitive function; scores less than 27 or more than 1.5 standard deviations (SDs) below the age-education-related mean were regarded as impaired. In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, hypertension and severe white matter hyperintensities were associated with the BG group and the thalamus group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis of the association between D/I CMBs classification and impaired MMSE score, only the BG group consistently displayed associations with both MMSE score less than 27 (odds ratio [OR], 5.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-17.09) and MMSE score more than 1.5 SDs below the age-education-related mean (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.24-8.99). In the BG group, adjusted mean scores of total MMSE and "attention and calculation" were lower compared with subjects without CMBs. In our study of D/I CMBs, only BG CMBs have strong association with global cognitive function. This association was independent of CMBs in other location. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  6. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  7. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical...

  8. Quantum Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Keimer, Bernhard; Sachdev, Subir

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the basic theoretical ideas of quantum criticality, and of their connection to numerous experiments on correlated electron compounds. A shortened, modified, and edited version appeared in Physics Today. This arxiv version has additional citations to the literature.

  9. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of traumatic basal ganglia hematomas: A retrospective analysis of 40 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jialiang Li; Chunjiang Yu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognostic characteristics in patients with traumatic basal ganglia hematomas (TBGH).METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data was performed in 40 patients with TBGH who were selected from 1 250 patients with closed brain injury, who admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery of Shangqiu First People's Hospital from January 1990 to January 2004. The pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and signs, results of radiological examination, treatment and prognostic characteristics were analyzed. The patients all had definite history of brain injury, manifested by neurological functional disturbance to different extent after brain injury, and basal ganglia hemorrhage was identified by CT after brain injury, and hemorrhagic volume were more than or equal to 2 mL. Totally 34 males and 6 females were enrolled, aged 16-72 years and 28 cases of them were younger than 40 years old. The prognosis of the patients was evaluated with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 6 months after injury, and GOS scoring standard was 1-5 points (1 for dead; 2 for vegetative survival, long-term coma, manifestations of decorticate rigidity or decerebrate rigidity; 3 for severely disabled, should be look after by others; 4 for moderately disabled, be able in self-care; 5 for good recovery, adults can work and study).RESULTS: The enrolled cases accounted for 3.20% of the 1250 patients with closed brain injury admitted at the same period. ① The causes of injury included traffic accident in 36 cases, fall in 2 cases, and assault in 2 cases. ② At admission, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores were as follow: 13-15 scores (mild) in 10 cases,9-12 scores (moderate)in 20 cases, and 3-8 scores (severe) in 10 cases. Hemiplegia presented in 37 cases,aphasia in 20 cases, conscious disturbance in 10 cases, unilateral mydriasis in 6 cases, and decerebrate rigidity in 2 cases. ③ TBGH was detected by CT within

  10. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  11. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  12. Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Luc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS. Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in animal models of trigeminal sensitization. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated glial cell activation in the trigeminal-spinal system following injection of the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA into the temporomandibular joint, which generates inflammatory pain and trigeminal hypersensitivity. Results CFA-injected animals showed ipsilateral mechanical allodynia and temporomandibular joint edema, accompanied in the trigeminal ganglion by a strong increase in the number of GFAP-positive satellite glial cells encircling neurons and by the activation of resident macrophages. Seventy-two hours after CFA injection, activated microglial cells were observed in the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and in the cervical dorsal horn, with a significant up-regulation of Iba1 immunoreactivity, but no signs of reactive astrogliosis were detected in the same areas. Since the purinergic system has been implicated in the activation of microglial cells during neuropathic pain, we have also evaluated the expression of the microglial-specific P2Y12 receptor subtype. No upregulation of this receptor was detected following induction of TMJ inflammation, suggesting that any possible role of P2Y12 in this paradigm of inflammatory pain does not involve changes in receptor expression. Conclusions Our data indicate that specific glial cell populations become activated in both the trigeminal ganglia and the CNS following induction of temporomandibular joint inflammation, and suggest that they might represent innovative targets for controlling pain during trigeminal nerve sensitization.

  13. Proton MR spectroscopic imaging of basal ganglia and thalamus in neurofibromatosis type 1: correlation with T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Charlotte; Barantin, Laurent [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tours (France); Chabernaud, Camille [CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Tours (France); Bertrand, Philippe [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Radiology, Tours (France); Sembely, Catherine; Sirinelli, Dominique [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Tours (France); Castelnau, Pierre [CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Tours (France); CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Tours (France); Neurologie Pediatrique and INSERM U930, Hopital d' Enfants Gatien de Clocheville, Tours cedex 09 (France); Cottier, Jean-Philippe [CHRU and Tours University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tours (France); CHRU and Tours University et INSERM U930, Tours (France)

    2011-02-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is frequently associated with hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images called ''unidentified bright objects'' (UBO). To better characterize the functional significance of UBO, we investigate the basal ganglia and thalamus using spectroscopic imaging in children with NF1 and compare the results to anomalies observed on T2-weighted images. Magnetic resonance (MR) data of 25 children with NF1 were analyzed. On the basis of T2-weighted images analysis, two groups were identified: one with normal MR imaging (UBO- group; n = 10) and one with UBO (UBO+ group; n = 15). Within the UBO+ group, a subpopulation of patients (n = 5) only had lesions of the basal ganglia. We analyzed herein seven regions of interest (ROIs) for each side: caudate nucleus, capsulo-lenticular region, lateral and posterior thalamus, thalamus (lateral and posterior voxels combined), putamen, and striatum. For each ROI, a spectrum of the metabolites and their ratio was obtained. Patients with abnormalities on T2-weighted images had significantly lower NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/mI ratios in the lateral right thalamus compared with patients with normal T2. These abnormal spectroscopic findings were not observed in capsulo-lenticular regions that had UBO but in the thalamus region that was devoid of UBO. Multivoxel spectroscopic imaging using short-time echo showed spectroscopic abnormalities in the right thalamus of NF1 patients harboring UBO, which were mainly located in the basal ganglia. This finding could reflect the anatomical and functional interactions of these regions. (orig.)

  14. Localization of connexins in neurons and glia cells of the Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia by immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Raso, M; Junquera, C; Lahoz, J M; Maestú, C; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Pérez-Castejón, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of cells expressing connexin 26 (Cx26) in the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal and left and right pleural ganglia of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. Altogether we have found approximately 452 immunoreactive neurons which represent the 4.7% of the total neurons counted. The stained large neurons (measured diameter 55-140 microm) occurred mostly on the peripheral surface of the ganglia while the small immunostained cells (5-25 microm diameter) were observed in groups near the neuropil. The number of large neurons giving positive Cx26-like immunostaining was small in comparison with that for medium (30-50 microm diameter) and small sized cells. The expression of Cx26 was also observed in the processes of glia cells localized among neurons somata and in the neuropil showing that the antiserum recognized epitopes in both protoplasmic and fibrous glia cells of Helix aspersa. The neuropils of all ganglia showed fibers densely immunostained. While we have observed a good specificity for Cx26-antiserum in neurons, a lack of reaction for Cx43 antiserum was observed in neurons and glia cells. The reaction for enolase antiserum in neurons was light and non-specific and a lack of reaction in glia cells and processes for GFAP antiserum was observed. Although the percentage of positive neurons for Cx26 antiserum was low is suggested that in normal physiological conditions or under stimulation the expression of connexin could be increased. The observed results can be considered of interest in the interpretation of Helix aspersa elemental two neuron networks synchronizing activity, observed under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

  15. Mu opioid receptor-effector coupling and trafficking in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, W M; Wei, W; Xie, C-W; Chiu, K; Kieffer, B L; Evans, C J; Maidment, N T

    2006-10-13

    Morphine induces profound analgesic tolerance in vivo despite inducing little internalization of the mu opioid receptor (muOR). Previously proposed explanations suggest that this lack of internalization could either lead to prolonged signaling and associated compensatory changes in downstream signaling systems, or that the receptor is unable to recycle and resensitize and so loses efficacy, either mechanism resulting in tolerance. We therefore examined, in cultured neurons, the relationship between muOR internalization and desensitization in response to two agonists, D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly5-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine. In addition, we studied the chimeric mu/delta opioid receptor (mu/ partial differentialOR) which could affect internalization and desensitization in neurons. Dorsal root ganglia neurons from muOR knockout mice were transduced with an adenovirus expressing either receptor and their respective internalization, desensitization and trafficking profiles determined. Both receptors desensitized equally, measured by Ca2+ current inhibition, during the first 5 min of agonist exposure to DAMGO or morphine treatment, although the mu/partial differentialOR desensitized more extensively. Such rapid desensitization was unrelated to internalization as DAMGO, but not morphine, internalized both receptors after 20 min. In response to DAMGO the mu/partial differentialOR internalized more rapidly than the muOR and was trafficked through Rab4-positive endosomes and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1-labeled lysosomes whereas the muOR was trafficked through Rab4 and Rab11-positive endosomes. Chronic desensitization of the Ca2+ current response, after 24 h of morphine or DAMGO incubation, was seen in the DAMGO, but not morphine-treated, muOR-expressing cells. Such persistence of signaling after chronic morphine treatment suggests that compensation of downstream signaling systems, rather than loss of efficacy due to poor receptor recycling, is a more likely

  16. Chronic recruitment of primary afferent neurons by microstimulation in the feline dorsal root ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Lee E.; Ayers, Christopher A.; Ciollaro, Mattia; Ventura, Valérie; Weber, Douglas J.; Gaunt, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. This study describes results of primary afferent neural microstimulation experiments using microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of four cats. The goal was to test the stability and selectivity of these microelectrode arrays as a potential interface for restoration of somatosensory feedback after damage to the nervous system such as amputation. Approach. A five-contact nerve-cuff electrode implanted on the sciatic nerve was used to record the antidromic compound action potential response to DRG microstimulation (2-15 µA biphasic pulses, 200 µs cathodal pulse width), and the threshold for eliciting a response was tracked over time. Recorded responses were segregated based on conduction velocity to determine thresholds for recruiting Group I and Group II/Aβ primary afferent fibers. Main results. Thresholds were initially low (5.1 ± 2.3 µA for Group I and 6.3 ± 2.0 µA for Group II/Aβ) and increased over time. Additionally the number of electrodes with thresholds less than or equal to 15 µA decreased over time. Approximately 12% of tested electrodes continued to elicit responses at 15 µA up to 26 weeks after implantation. Higher stimulation intensities (up to 30 µA) were tested in one cat at 23 weeks post-implantation yielding responses on over 20 additional electrodes. Within the first six weeks after implantation, approximately equal numbers of electrodes elicited only Group I or Group II/Aβ responses at threshold, but the relative proportion of Group II/Aβ responses decreased over time. Significance. These results suggest that it is possible to activate Group I or Group II/Aβ primary afferent fibers in isolation with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in the DRG, and that those responses can be elicited up to 26 weeks after implantation, although it may be difficult to achieve a consistent response day-to-day with currently available electrode technology. The DRG are compelling targets

  17. Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sadasivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH is a psychostimulant that exerts its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT and the norepinephrine transporter (NET, resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. Clinically, methylphenidate is prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; although lately, there has been an increased incidence of its use in individuals not meeting the criteria for these disorders. MPH has also been misused as a "cognitive enhancer" and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of MPH in mice at either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (∼20% in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc following chronic administration of 10 mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the SNpc. Additionally, exposure to either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN of mice exposed to 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2, and th in the substantia nigra (SN were observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10 mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum, although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10 mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice at doses spanning the therapeutic range in humans, especially at

  18. Intrinsic cardiac ganglia and acetylcholine are important in the mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, J M J; Burke, N; Davidson, S M; Yellon, D M

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system in the mechanism of classical myocardial ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 35-min regional ischaemia and 60-min reperfusion. IPC was induced as three cycles of 5-min global ischaemia-reperfusion, and provided significant reduction in infarct size (IS/AAR = 14 ± 2% vs control IS/AAR = 48 ± 3%, p IPC protection (IS/AAR = 37 ± 7%, p IPC). Moreover, the muscarinic antagonist, atropine (100 nM), also abrogated IPC-mediated protection (IS/AAR = 40 ± 3%, p IPC). This indicates that intrinsic cardiac ganglia remain intact in the Langendorff preparation and are important in the mechanism of IPC. In a second group of experiments, coronary effluent collected following IPC, from ex vivo perfused rat hearts, provided significant cardioprotection when perfused through a naïve isolated rat heart prior to induction of regional ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) (IS/ARR = 19 ± 2, p IPC induces protection via an intrinsic neuronal mechanism (IS/AAR = 46 ± 5%, p IPC effluent). In addition, a large release in ACh was observed in coronary effluent was observed following IPC (IPCeff = 0.36 ± 0.03 μM vs C eff = 0.04 ± 0.04 μM, n = 4, p IPC effluent was not able to significantly protect isolated cardiomyocytes from simulated ischaemia-reperfusion injury (cell death = 45 ± 6%, p = 0.09 vs control effluent). In conclusion, IPC involves activation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, leading to release of ACh in the ventricles and induction of protection via activation of muscarinic receptors.

  19. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ectopic neuronal discharge after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X J; Hu, S J; Greenquist, K W; Zhang, J M; LaMotte, R H

    1999-12-01

    Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) was produced in adult rats by implanting a stainless steel rod unilaterally into the intervertebral foramen, one rod at L(4) and another at L(5). Two additional groups of rats received either a sham surgery or an acute injury consisting of a transient compression of the ganglion. Withdrawal of the hindpaw was used as evidence of a nocifensive response to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the plantar surface. In addition, extracellular electrophysiological recordings of spontaneous discharges were obtained from dorsal root fibers of formerly compressed ganglia using an in vitro nerve-DRG-dorsal root preparation. The mean threshold force of punctate indentation and the mean threshold temperature of heating required to elicit a 50% incidence of foot withdrawal ipsilateral to the CCD were significantly lower than preoperative values throughout the 35 days of postoperative testing. The number of foot withdrawals ipsilateral to the CCD during a 20-min contact with a temperature-controlled floor was significantly increased over preoperative values throughout postoperative testing when the floor was 4 degrees C (hyperalgesia) and, to a lesser extent, when it was 30 degrees C (spontaneous pain). Stroking the foot with a cotton wisp never elicited a reflex withdrawal before surgery but did so in most rats tested ipsilateral to the CCD during the first 2 postoperative weeks. In contrast, the CCD produced no changes in responses to mechanical or thermal stimuli on the contralateral foot. The sham operation and acute injury produced no change in behavior other than slight, mechanical hyperalgesia for approximately 1 day, ipsilateral to the acute injury. Ectopic spontaneous discharges generated within the chronically compressed ganglion and, occurring in the absence of blood-borne chemicals and without an intact sympathetic nervous system, were recorded from neurons with intact, conducting, myelinated or unmyelinated

  20. Auditory tuning for spatial cues in the barn owl basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Y E; Knudsen, E I

    1994-07-01

    1. The basal ganglia are known to contribute to spatially guided behavior. In this study, we investigated the auditory response properties of neurons in the barn owl paleostriatum augmentum (PA), the homologue of the mammalian striatum. The data suggest that the barn owl PA is specialized to process spatial cues and, like the mammalian striatum, is involved in spatial behavior. 2. Single- and multiunit sites were recorded extracellularly in ketamine-anesthetized owls. Spatial receptive fields were measured with a free-field sound source, and tuning for frequency and interaural differences in timing (ITD) and level (ILD) was assessed using digitally synthesized dichotic stimuli. 3. Spatial receptive fields measured at nine multiunit sites were tuned to restricted regions of space: tuning widths at half-maximum response averaged 22 +/- 9.6 degrees (mean +/- SD) in azimuth and 54 +/- 22 degrees in elevation. 4. PA sites responded strongly to broadband sounds. When frequency tuning could be measured (n = 145/201 sites), tuning was broad, averaging 2.7 kHz at half-maximum response, and tended to be centered near the high end of the owl's audible range. The mean best frequency was 6.2 kHz. 5. All PA sites (n = 201) were selective for both ITD and ILD. ITD tuning curves typically exhibited a single, large "primary" peak and often smaller, "secondary" peaks at ITDs ipsilateral and/or contralateral to the primary peak. Three indices quantified the selectivity of PA sites for ITD. The first index, which was the percent difference between the minimum and maximum response as a function of ITD, averaged 100 +/- 29%. The second index, which represented the size of the largest secondary peak relative to that of the primary peak, averaged 49 +/- 23%. The third index, which was the width of the primary ITD peak at half-maximum response, averaged only 66 +/- 35 microseconds. 6. The majority (96%; n = 192/201) of PA sites were tuned to a single "best" value of ILD. The widths of ILD

  1. In vivo basal ganglia volumetry through application of NURBS models to MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Vitetta, Anton Giulio [University of Messina, Department of Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, Messina (Italy); Tomasello, Francesco; Lucerna, Sebastiano [University of Messina, Department of Neurosurgery, Messina (Italy); Bramanti, Placido; Bella, Paolo di [University of Messina, Study and Treatment Centre for Long-Stay Neurological Patients, Section of Neuroradiology, Messina (Italy); Parenti, Anna [University of Padua, Department of Diagnostic Sciences and Special Therapy, Section of Neuroradiology, Padua (Italy); Porzionato, Andrea; Caro, Raffaele de [University of Padua, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Section of Anatomy, Padua (Italy); Macchi, Veronica [University of Padua, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Section of Anatomy, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Diagnostic Sciences and Special Therapy, Section of Neuroradiology, Padua (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    Volumetry of basal ganglia (BG) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a sensitive marker in differential diagnosis of BG disorders. The non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces are mathematical representations of three-dimensional structures which have recently been applied in volumetric studies. In this study, a volumetric evaluation of BG based on NURBS was performed in 35 right-handed volunteers. We aimed to compare and validate this technique with respect to manual MRI volumetry and evaluate possible side differences between these structures. Intra- and interobserver biases less than 1.5% demonstrated the method's stability. The mean percentage differences between NURBS and manual methods were less than 1% for all the structures considered; however, the internal segments of the globus pallidus showed a mean percentage difference of about 1.7%. Rightward asymmetry was found for the caudate nucleus (mean{+-}SD 3.20{+-}0.20 cm{sup 3} vs. 3.10{+-}0.19 cm{sup 3}, P<0.001) for both its head (1.44{+-}0.10 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.41{+-}0.09 cm{sup 3}, P<0.01) and its body/tail (1.73{+-}0.11 cm{sup 3} and 1.68{+-}0.12 cm{sup 3}, P<0.01), and for the globus pallidus (1.23{+-}0.08 cm{sup 3} and 1.18{+-}0.09 cm{sup 3}, P<0.001) for both the internal (0.33{+-}0.05 cm{sup 3} vs. 0.31{+-}0.05 cm{sup 3}, P<0.01) and external (0.90{+-}0.05 cm{sup 3} vs. 0.86{+-}0.05 cm{sup 3}, P<0.001) segments. No volumetric side differences were found for the putamen (3.43{+-}0.14 cm{sup 3} vs. 3.39{+-}0.17 cm{sup 3}, P>0.05). The rightward asymmetry of the BG may be ascribed to the predominant use of the right hand. In conclusion, NURBS is an accurate and reliable method for quantitative volumetry of nervous structures. It offers the advantage of giving a three-dimensional representation of the structures examined. (orig.)

  2. Antagonism of ionotropic glutamate receptors attenuates chemical ischemia-induced injury in rat primary cultured myenteric ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Carpanese

    Full Text Available Alterations of the enteric glutamatergic transmission may underlay changes in the function of myenteric neurons following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R contributing to impairment of gastrointestinal motility occurring in these pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether glutamate receptors of the NMDA and AMPA/kainate type are involved in myenteric neuron cell damage induced by I/R. Primary cultured rat myenteric ganglia were exposed to sodium azide and glucose deprivation (in vitro chemical ischemia. After 6 days of culture, immunoreactivity for NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors subunits, GluN(1 and GluA(1-3, GluK(1-3 respectively, was found in myenteric neurons. In myenteric cultured ganglia, in normal metabolic conditions, -AP5, an NMDA antagonist, decreased myenteric neuron number and viability, determined by calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 assay, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, measured with hydroxyphenyl fluorescein. CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist exerted an opposite action on the same parameters. The total number and viability of myenteric neurons significantly decreased after I/R. In these conditions, the number of neurons staining for GluN1 and GluA(1-3 subunits remained unchanged, while, the number of GluK(1-3-immunopositive neurons increased. After I/R, -AP5 and CNQX, concentration-dependently increased myenteric neuron number and significantly increased the number of living neurons. Both -AP5 and CNQX (100-500 µM decreased I/R-induced increase of ROS levels in myenteric ganglia. On the whole, the present data provide evidence that, under normal metabolic conditions, the enteric glutamatergic system exerts a dualistic effect on cultured myenteric ganglia, either by improving or reducing neuron survival via NMDA or AMPA/kainate receptor activation, respectively. However, blockade of both receptor pathways may exert a protective role on myenteric neurons following and I

  3. Whole exome sequencing reveals compound heterozygous mutations in SLC19A3 causing biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Sremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD is a rare metabolic condition caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. BTBGD presents with encephalopathy and significant disease progression when not treated with biotin and/or thiamine. We present a patient of Mexican and European ancestry diagnosed with BTBGD found to have compound heterozygous frameshift mutations, one novel. Our report adds to the genotype-phenotype correlation, highlighting the clinical importance of considering SLC19A3 gene defects as part of the differential diagnosis for Leigh syndrome.

  4. The preplacodal region: an ectodermal domain with multipotential progenitors that contribute to sense organs and cranial sensory ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The otic primordium belongs to a group of related structures, the sensory placodes that contribute to the paired sense organs - ear, eye and olfactory epithelium - and to the distal parts of the cranial sensory ganglia. Recent evidence suggests that despite their diversity, all placodes share a common developmental origin and a common molecular mechanism which initiates their formation. At the base of placode induction lies the specification of a unique "placode field", termed the preplacodal region and acquisition of this "preplacodal state" is required for ectodermal cells to undergo otic development. Here I review the molecular mechanisms that sequentially subdivide the ectoderm to give rise to the placode territory.

  5. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto; Alvarez-Leon Edith; Fragoso Jose-Manuel; Vargas Angelica; Martinez Aline; Vallejo Maite; Martinez-Lavin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM); and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7) act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expre...

  6. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to Examine Critical Issues Underlying the Planned Rebuilding at the World Trade Center Site. 178 HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012 Manhattan...Hotel Market Overview (Mineola, NY: HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012, http://www.hvs.com/Content/3268.pdf. 179 “Key Office Properties,” accessed...premier real estate, luxury shopping, world class hotels, destination dining, and tourism , into an area that produces cumulative consumer spending of

  7. [Critical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  8. Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

  9. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  10. Microsurgical management of deep ruptured arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Aurelia Mihaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Deep AVMs are more difficult to operate compared with other supratentorial locations due to the long working corridor through the brain, location in eloquent areas and vicinity with brain critical structures.

  11. Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia assessed with [{sup 123}I]IPT SPET in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Keun-Ah; Kim, Young-Kee; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Chan-Hyung [Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 146-92 Dogokdong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul, 135-720 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder in childhood that is known to be associated with dopamine dysregulation. In this study, we investigated dopamine transporter (DAT) density in children with ADHD using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane ([{sup 123}I]IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and postulated that an alteration in DAT density in the basal ganglia is responsible for dopaminergic dysfunction in children with ADHD. Nine drug-naive children with ADHD and six normal children were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 h after the intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD assessed with ADHD rating scale-IV and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. Drug-naive children with ADHD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia compared with normal children. However, no significant correlation was found between the severity scores of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. Our findings support the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in children with ADHD. (orig.)

  12. Cholinergic neurons of the pelvic autonomic ganglia and uterus of the female rat: distribution of axons and presence of muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papka, R E; Traurig, H H; Schemann, M; Collins, J; Copelin, T; Wilson, K

    1999-05-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) stimulates contraction of the uterus and dilates the uterine arterial supply. Uterine cholinergic nerves arise from the paracervical ganglia and were, in the past, characterized based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. However, the histochemical reaction for acetylcholinesterase provides only indirect evidence of acetylcholine location and is a nonspecific marker for cholinergic nerves. The present study: (1) reevaluated cholinergic neurons of the paracervical ganglia, (2) examined the cholinergic innervation of the uterus by using retrograde axonal tracing and antibodies against molecules specific to cholinergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and (3) examined muscarinic receptors in the paracervical ganglia using autoradiography and a radiolabeled agonist. Most ganglionic neurons were choline acetyltransferase- and vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive and were apposed by choline acetyltransferase/vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive terminals. Retrograde tracing showed that some cholinergic neurons projected axons to the uterus. These nerves formed moderately dense plexuses in the myometrium, cervical smooth muscle and microarterial system of the uterine horns and cervix. Finally, the paracervical ganglia contain muscarinic receptors. These results clearly reveal the cholinergic innervation of the uterus and cervix, a source of these nerves, and demonstrate the muscarinic receptor content of the paracervical ganglia. Cholinergic nerves could play significant roles in the control of uterine myometrium and vasculature.

  13. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease on magnetic resonance imaging: are flow voids in the basal ganglia an essential criterion for definitive diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Sugino, Toshiya; Ohtaki, Shunya; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Flow voids in the basal ganglia cannot always be recognized on magnetic resonance imaging, even in patients with typical moyamoya disease. In this report, flow voids in the basal ganglia and cisternal flow voids of the sylvian valley were evaluated in patients with moyamoya disease, and their diagnostic value was verified. A total of 41 consecutive patients with moyamoya disease were included in this analysis. The number of flow voids in the basal ganglia and the sylvian valley were counted on each side by 3 observers. Then the numbers of flow voids were compared between the patients with moyamoya disease and controls. The patients with moyamoya disease had a significantly higher mean number of flow voids in the basal ganglia and the sylvian valley (P moyamoya disease. Comparative analysis using the area under the receiver operating curve indicated that the evaluation of flow voids in the sylvian valley was significantly superior method to that in the basal ganglia (P moyamoya disease was 6. Based on these findings, we recommend a definitive diagnosis of moyamoya disease should include assessment for abnormal vessels around the terminal portions of the internal carotid arteries.

  14. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Beatrice Roiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr’s syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed.

  15. [Case of painful muscle spasm induced by thoracic vertebral fracture: successful treatment with lumbar sympathetic ganglia block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Jun-ichi; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 70-year-old man, who developed painful involuntary muscle contraction of the left leg after the lumbar discectomy, which exacerbated after a vertebral fracture of Th12. This involuntary movement was accompanied with the abnormal position of left leg simulating triple flexion response, and was induced by active or passive movement of his left knee and foot joints. Several drugs including benzodiazepines and dantrolene were ineffective, although treatment with baclofen or carbamazepine was effective. These findings suggest that hyperexcitability of the anterior horn cells following the disturbance of spinal inhibitory interneurons was involved. Electophysiological studies suggested the disturbance of left lumber nerve roots. The spinal root blocks from L3 to S1 were performed, after which the painful involuntary muscle spasm was resolved. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia block was also effective; suggesting that abnormal afferent neuronal input to spinal cord was caused by the nerve root trauma which triggered the formation of secondary abnormal network in the spine. Lumbar sympathetic ganglia block should be recommended to a therapeutic option for the refractory painful muscle spasm of the leg.

  16. Effects of castration on the immunoreactivity to NGF, BDNF and their receptors in the pelvic ganglia of the male rat

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    C Squillacioti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and are members of the neurotrophin family, a family of neurotrophic factors that also includes neurotrophin (NT 3 and NT4/5. Neurotrophins have essential roles in the survival, development and differentiation of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophins exert their effects by binding to corresponding receptors which are formed by the tyrosine protein kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and the low affinity neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR. In the present study, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis, we have investigated immunoreactivity to BDNF, NGF, TrkB, p75NTR and TrkA in the pelvic ganglia of normal and castrated rats. Neurons of the pelvic ganglia expressed both these neurotrophins and their receptors. After castration the immunoreactivity persisted. However, the number of BDNF- and p75NTR–IR cells statistically significant decreased after castration. These results suggest that castration modulates the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in pelvic autonomic neurons.

  17. ASIC2 is present in human mechanosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and in mechanoreceptors of the glabrous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, R; Alonso, P; Viña, E; Vázquez, G; Gago, A; Feito, J; Pérez-Moltó, F J; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A

    2015-03-01

    Mechanosensory neurons lead to the central nervous system touch, vibration and pressure sensation. They project to the periphery and form different kinds of mechanoreceptors. The manner in which they sense mechanical signals is still not fully understood, but electrophysiological experiments have suggested that this may occur through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), especially ASIC2, may function as mechanosensors or are required for mechanosensation, and they are expressed in both mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors. Here, we have used double immunohistochemistry for ASIC2 together with neuronal and glial markers associated with laser confocal microscopy and image analysis, to investigate the distribution of ASIC2 in human lumbar dorsal root ganglia, as well as in mechanoreceptors of the hand and foot glabrous skin. In lumbar dorsal root ganglia, ASIC2 immunoreactive neurons were almost all intermediate or large sized (mean diameter ≥20-70 µm), and no ASIC2 was detected in the satellite glial. ASIC2-positive axons were observed in Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles, all of them regarded as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Moreover, a variable percent of Meissner (8 %) and Pacinian corpuscles (27 %) also displayed ASIC2 immunoreactivity in the Schwann-related cells. These results demonstrate the distribution of ASIC2 in the human cutaneous mechanosensory system and suggest the involvement of ASIC2 in mechanosensation.

  18. Involvement of dopamine loss in extrastriatal basal ganglia nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease

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    Abdelhamid eBenazzouz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder characterized by the manifestation of motor symptoms, such as akinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are classically attributed to the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc, which results in a marked dopamine depletion in the striatum. It is well established that dopamine neurons in the SNc innervate not only the striatum, which is the main target, but also other basal ganglia nuclei including the two segments of globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus. The role of dopamine and its depletion in the striatum is well known, however, the role of dopamine depletion in the pallidal complex and the subthalamic nucleus in the genesis of their abnormal neuronal activity and in parkinsonian motor deficits is still not clearly determined. Based on recent experimental data from animal models of Parkinson's disease in rodents and non-human primates and also from parkinsonian patients, this review summarizes current knowledge on the role of dopamine in the modulation of basal ganglia neuronal activity and also the role of dopamine depletion in these nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Acupuncture inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in the basal ganglia of rats with cerebral hemorrhage

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    Wei Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch pathway activation maintains neural stem cells in a proliferating state and increases nerve repair capacity. To date, studies have rarely focused on changes or damage to signal transduction pathways during cerebral hemorrhage. Here, we examined the effect of acupuncture in a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage. We examined four groups: in the control group, rats received no treatment. In the model group, cerebral hemorrhage models were established by infusing non-heparinized blood into the brain. In the acupuncture group, modeled rats had Baihui (DU20 and Qubin (GB7 acupoints treated once a day for 30 minutes. In the DAPT group, modeled rats had 0.15 μg/mL DAPT solution (10 mL infused into the brain. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that acupuncture effectively inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in rat basal ganglia. These inhibitory effects were identical to DAPT, a Notch signaling pathway inhibitor. Our results suggest that acupuncture has a neuroprotective effect on cerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting Notch-Hes signaling pathway transduction in rat basal ganglia after cerebral hemorrhage.

  20. Diverse sources of reward value signals in the basal ganglia nuclei transmitted to the lateral habenula in the monkey

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    Simon eHong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in motivational decision making. Neurons in the primate LHb signal negative ‘reward prediction errors’ and inhibit midbrain dopamine (DA neurons. These negative reward prediction error signals in the LHb are, at least partly, provided by a distinct group of neurons in the border region of the globus pallidus internal segment (GPb. However, it is still unclear whether other basal ganglia nuclei provide the LHb with reward signals, either through the GPb or through different circuits. As a first step to answer this question, we electrically stimulated various parts of the basal ganglia and monitored the neural activity in the LHb in the awake monkey. First, we found that low intensity stimulations in the GPb and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi evoked a short latency (5 ms excitatory response in LHb neurons. Second, LHb neurons were inhibited by stimulations in the ventral pallidum (VP. These results suggest that reward-related signals are transmitted to the LHb mainly through excitatory connections from the GPb and inhibitory connections from the VP. Finally, excitations or inhibitions are induced in LHb neurons from diverse but patchy regions in the striatum. These effects have considerably longer latencies, suggesting that they may be mediated by the GPb or the VP. The patchy nature of the stimulation effect raises the possibility that the striosomes are the source of reward-related signals transmitted to the LHb.

  1. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  2. Anatomical location of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in urogenital tissues, peripheral ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord of the rat

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    Vera Pedro L

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF may be involved in bladder inflammation. Therefore, the location of MIF was determined immunohistochemically in the bladder, prostate, major pelvic ganglia, sympathetic chain, the L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG and the lumbosacral spinal cord of the rat. Results In the pelvic organs, MIF immunostaining was prominent in the epithelia. MIF was widely present in neurons in the MPG and the sympathetic chain. Some of those neurons also co-localized tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. In the DRGs, some of the neurons that stained for MIF also stained for Substance P. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, MIF immunostaining was observed in the white mater, the dorsal horn, the intermediolateral region and in the area around the central canal. Many cells were intensely stained for MIF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP suggesting they were glial cells. However, some cells in the lumbosacral dorsal horn were MIF positive, GFAP negative cells suggestive of neurons. Conclusions Therefore, MIF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is localized to pelvic organs and also in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous tissues that innervate those organs. Changes in MIF's expression at the end organ and at peripheral and central nervous system sites suggest that MIF is involved in pelvic viscera inflammation and may act at several levels to promote inflammatory changes.

  3. Incomplete and inaccurate vocal imitation after knockdown of FoxP2 in songbird basal ganglia nucleus Area X.

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    Sebastian Haesler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD, a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2.

  4. Delta-mediated cross-frequency coupling organizes oscillatory activity across the rat cortico-basal ganglia network

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    Jon eLópez-Azcárate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain's ability to integrate different behavioral and cognitive processes relies on its capacity to generate neural oscillations in a cooperative and coordinated manner. Cross-frequency coupling (CFC has recently been proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in organizing brain activity. Here we investigated the phase-to-amplitude CFC (PA-CFC patterns of the oscillatory activity in the cortico-basal ganglia network of healthy, freely moving rats. Within-structure analysis detected consistent PA-CFC patterns in the four regions analyzed, with the phase of delta waves modulating the amplitude of activity in the gamma (low-gamma ~50 Hz; high-gamma ~80 Hz and high frequency ranges (high frequency oscillations HFO, ~150 Hz. Between-structure analysis revealed that the phase of delta waves parses the occurrence of transient episodes of coherence in the gamma and high frequency bands across the entire network, providing temporal windows of coherence between different structures. Significantly, this specific spatio-temporal organization was affected by the action of dopaminergic drugs. Taken together, our findings suggest that delta-mediated PA-CFC plays a key role in the organization of local and distant activities in the rat cortico-basal ganglia network by fine-tuning the timing of synchronization events across different structures.

  5. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Weng; Luyi Wu; Yuan Lu; Lidong Wang; Linying Tan; Ming Dong; Yuhu Xin

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia.

  6. Effect of Time Delay after Necropsy on Analysis of Simian Varicella-Zoster Virus Expression in Latently Infected Ganglia of Rhesus Macaques ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Ravi; Traina-Dorge, Vicki; Wellish, Mary; Deharo, Eileen; Golive, Anjani; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Gilden, Don

    2010-01-01

    Studies of varicella-zoster virus gene expression during latency require the acquisition of human ganglia at autopsy. Concerns have been raised that the virus might reactivate immediately after death. Because features of varicella-zoster virus latency are similar in primate and human ganglia, we examined virus gene expression in tissues either processed immediately or kept at 4°C for 30 h before necropsy of two monkeys inoculated with simian varicella-zoster virus and euthanized 117 days later. Virus transcription and the detection of open reading frame (ORF) 63 protein in the cytoplasm of neurons were comparable. Thus, a 30-h delay after death did not affect varicella-zoster virus expression in latently infected ganglia. PMID:20861271

  7. Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 participating in the regulation of differentiation plasticity of nerve regeneration in the basal ganglia after ischemic stroke

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    LI Pan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background It is accepted that cerebral ischemia induces neurogenesis and neural stem cells (NSCs differentiation in non-neurogenic regions (especially in the basal ganglia. However, the mechanisms possibly involved in modulating the differentiation plasticity of NSCs are still let to known. This study aims to investigate the possible epigenetic mechanisms involved in the differentiation process of NSCs after ischemic stroke. Methods Western blotting analysis was used to detect the protein levels of methyl CpG-binding protien 2 (MeCP2 and phosphorylated MeCP2 (pMeCP2 in the ischemic basal ganglia of rat model at 3 d following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the cellular distribution of MeCP2 and pMeCP2, the cellular colocalization of pMeCP2 with NSCs marker nestin and neuronal marker microtubule?associated protein 2 (MAP-2 in the ischemic basal ganglia of rat brains. Results 1 MeCP2 was phosphorylated in the basal ganglia after ischemic stroke, forming pMeCP2. MeCP2 positive cell number was decreased in the ischemic basal ganglia (t = 12.239, P = 0.000, while pMeCP2 positive cell number was increased in the ischemic basal ganglia (t = 5.808, P = 0.000. 2 Ischemic stroke induced a reduction of MeCP2 levels in the nucleus (t = 14.949, P = 0.000 and an elevation of pMeCP2 levels in the cytoplasm (t = 5.026, P = 0.001. 3 MeCP2 phosphorylation mediated the translocation of MeCP2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. 4 pMeCP2 was colocalized with NSCs marker protein nestin in the ischemic basal ganglia at 3 d after MCAO; pMeCP2 was colocalized with the neuronal marker MAP-2 in the ischemic basal ganglia at 1 week after MCAO. Conclusion Ischemic stroke-induced MeCP2 phosphorylation was able to alter the spatial distribution of MeCP2, transferring it from nucleus to cytoplasm and affecting its biological functions. This study further improved our awareness of brain neurogenesis in adult animals

  8. A SCN9A gene-encoded dorsal root ganglia sodium channel polymorphism associated with severe fibromyalgia

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    Vargas-Alarcon Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM; and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7 act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expressed in the DRG pain-sensing neurons and sympathetic ganglia neurons. Several SCN9A sodium channelopathies have been recognized as the cause of rare painful dysautonomic syndromes such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder and primary erythromelalgia. The aim of this study was to search for an association between fibromyalgia and several SCN9A sodium channels gene polymorphisms. Methods We studied 73 Mexican women suffering from FM and 48 age-matched women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. Genomic DNA from whole blood containing EDTA was extracted by standard techniques. The following SCN9A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays: rs4371369; rs4387806; rs4453709; rs4597545; rs6746030; rs6754031; rs7607967; rs12620053; rs12994338; and rs13017637. Results The frequency of the rs6754031 polymorphism was significantly different in both groups (P = 0.036 mostly due to an absence of the GG genotype in controls. Interestingly; patients with this rs6754031 GG genotype had higher FIQ scores (median = 80; percentile 25/75 = 69/88 than patients with the GT genotype (median = 63; percentile 25/75 = 58/73; P = 0.002 and the TT genotype (median = 71; percentile 25/75 = 64/77; P = 0.001. Conclusion In this ethnic group; a disabling form of FM is associated to a particular SCN9A sodium channel gene variant. These preliminary results raise the possibility that

  9. Alteration of P2X3 expression in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Zhou; Lesi Xie; Qiben Wang; Qingping Yu; Xiaofu Liu; Qiumei Liu; Wei Peng; Zhicheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expressions of P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after different peripheral nerve injuries are diverse. It indicates the different roles of P2X3 in different models-caused neuropathologic pains.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of P2X3 in corresponding DRG after sciatic nerve ligation in rats.DESIGN: Controlled observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Morphology, Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College; Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five healthy adult SD rats of clean grade an d either gender, weighing (200±20) g,were involved. According to the random digits table, the involved rats were randomized into 3 groups:normal group (n =5), sham-operated group (n =5) and experimental group (n =25). The experimental group were subdivided into 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days groups according to different surviving time after operation, 5 rats at each time point. Polyclonal rabbit anti-P2X3 antibody (ABCAM company); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Zhongshanjingqiao Biotechnical Co., Ltd., Beijing); Motic fluorescence microscope (Motic, Germany).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology,Xiangya Medical College, Central South University from June to December 2006. ① Rats of experimental group were created into models by ligation of right sciatic nerve according to the method of Seltzer et al. Left sciatic nerve was used as self-control. As for rats in the sham-operated group, ligation of sciatic nerve was omitted, but other procedures were the same as those in the experimental group. Rats of normal group were untouched. ② Rats of the normal group and sham-operated group survived for 14 days separately, and those of experimental group survived for corresponding time. After being deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of over-dose sodium pentobarbital, the rats of experimental group were transcardially

  10. Development and degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the absence of the HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Miehe, Michaela; Stolt, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10 is essential for the development of various neural crest derived lineages including glia and neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Within the PNS the most striking defect is the complete absence of glial differentiation whereas neurogen......Abstract The HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10 is essential for the development of various neural crest derived lineages including glia and neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Within the PNS the most striking defect is the complete absence of glial differentiation whereas...... neurogenesis seemed initially normal. A degeneration of motoneurons and sensory neurons occurred later in development. The mechanism that leads to the dramatic effects on the neural crest derived cell lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), however, has not been examined up to now. Here, we provide...

  11. Electro-acupuncture stimulation acts on the basal ganglia output pathway to ameliorate motor impairment in Parkinsonian model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jun; Li, Bo; Sun, Zuo-Li; Yu, Fen; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2010-04-01

    The role of electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been well studied. In a rat hemiparkinsonian model induced by unilateral transection of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), EA stimulation improved motor impairment in a frequency-dependent manner. Whereas EA stimulation at a low frequency (2 Hz) had no effect, EA stimulation at a high frequency (100 Hz) significantly improved motor coordination. However, neither low nor high EA stimulation could significantly enhance dopamine levels in the striatum. EA stimulation at 100 Hz normalized the MFB lesion-induced increase in midbrain GABA content, but it had no effect on GABA content in the globus pallidus. These results suggest that high-frequency EA stimulation improves motor impairment in MFB-lesioned rats by increasing GABAergic inhibition in the output structure of the basal ganglia.

  12. Where neuroscience and dynamic system theory meet autonomous robotics: a contracting basal ganglia model for action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, B; Tabareau, N; Pham, Q C; Berthoz, A; Slotine, J-J

    2008-05-01

    Action selection, the problem of choosing what to do next, is central to any autonomous agent architecture. We use here a multi-disciplinary approach at the convergence of neuroscience, dynamical system theory and autonomous robotics, in order to propose an efficient action selection mechanism based on a new model of the basal ganglia. We first describe new developments of contraction theory regarding locally projected dynamical systems. We exploit these results to design a stable computational model of the cortico-baso-thalamo-cortical loops. Based on recent anatomical data, we include usually neglected neural projections, which participate in performing accurate selection. Finally, the efficiency of this model as an autonomous robot action selection mechanism is assessed in a standard survival task. The model exhibits valuable dithering avoidance and energy-saving properties, when compared with a simple if-then-else decision rule.

  13. Resolving basal ganglia calcification in hereditary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia due to a novel TRMP6 gene mutation

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    Abdelhadi M Habeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH is a rare condi-tion caused by mutations in the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 6 (TRMP6 gene. Patients usually present during early infancy with symptomatic hypocalcemia; however, intracranial calcification has not been previously reported in HSH. We report on a three-month-old Saudi girl who presented with hypocalcemic convulsions and was initially treated as nutritional rickets. However, further biochemical analysis of blood and urine were suggestive of HSH. This diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis, which identified a novel homozygous frame shift mutation (ins 2999T of the TRMP6 gene. A computed tomography brain scan, done around the time of diagnosis, identified bilateral basal ganglia calcification (BGC. Her serum calcium and the BGC improved with magnesium replacement. BGC can be added as a new feature of HSH and the case highlights the importance of measuring serum Mg in patients with hypocalcemic convulsions, particularly in children of consanguineous parents.

  14. Changes in total cell numbers of the basal ganglia in patients with multiple system atrophy - A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Ullerup, Birgitte H; Sunay, Fatma B

    2014-01-01

    Total numbers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the basal ganglia and red nucleus were estimated in brains from 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 11 age- and gender-matched control subjects with unbiased stereological methods. Compared to the control...... subjects, the MSA patients had a substantially lower number of neurons in the substantia nigra (p=0.001), putamen (p=0.001), and globus pallidus (p....04) and globus pallidus (p=0.01). In the MSA brains the total number of astrocytes was significantly higher in the putamen (p=0.04) and caudate nucleus (p=0.01). In all examined regions a higher number of microglia were found in the MSA brains with the greatest difference observed in the otherwise unaffected red...

  15. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia in sciatic nerve injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changma Fu; Zongsheng Yin; Defu Yu; Zuhua Yang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, have been shown to be involved in pain transmission and repair of sciatic nerve injury. A model of sciatic nerve defect was prepared by dissecting the sciatic nerve at the middle, left femur in female Sprague Dawley rats. The two ends of the nerve were encased in a silica gel tube. L5 dorsal root ganglia were harvested 7, 14 and 28 days post sciatic nerve injury for immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that substance P and cal-citonin gene-related peptide expression increased significantly in dorsal root ganglion of rats with sci-atic nerve injury. This increase peaked at 7 days, declined at 14 days, and reduced to normal levels by 28 days post injury. The findings indicate that the neuropeptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, mainly increased in the early stages after sciatic nerve injury.

  16. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  17. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  18. Loss of function of Slc20a2 associated with familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification in humans causes brain calcifications in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina; Daa Schrøder, Henrik; Kildall Hejbøl, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Deleterious mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), were recently linked to FIBGC in almost 50 % of the families...

  19. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  20. Effective connectivity reveals important roles for both the hyperdirect (fronto-subthalamic) and indirect (fronto-striatal-pallidal) fronto-basal ganglia pathways during response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, S.; Waldorp, L.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Scholte, H.S.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Forstmann, B.U.

    2011-01-01

    Fronto-basal ganglia pathways play a crucial role in voluntary action control, including the ability to inhibit motor responses. Response inhibition might be mediated via a fast hyperdirect pathway connecting the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA) with t

  1. Immunocytochemical localization of neuropeptide Y,serotonin, substance P and β-endorphin in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; WANG Guizhong; JIN Zhuxing; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing

    2006-01-01

    s By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P(SP) and β-Endorphin (β-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia.NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum,and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum.β-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.

  2. Dynamic stereotypic responses of basal ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate

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    Anan eMoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson‟s disease (PD; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia during high frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, basal ganglia output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial

  3. Quantitative Autoradiographic Study on Receptor Regulation in the Basal Ganglia in Rat Model of Levodopa-induced Motor Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan XU; Zhentao ZHANG; Kairong QIN; Stella M.Papa; Xuebing CAO

    2009-01-01

    In order to study neurotransmitter receptor regulation in the basal ganglia involved in the functional changes underlying levodopa-induced motor complications,quantitative autoradiography was used to observe receptor bindings of dopamine D1 and D2,N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA),amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and amino butyric acid (GABA) in the basal ganglia of rats that had unilateral nigrostriatal lesions and had been chronically treated with levodopa until motor complications developed.The rats were randomly assigned to three groups:normal,denervated and treatment-complicated groups.The results showed that response duration to levodopa became progressively shorter and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) score was progressively increased during the course of levodopa treatment.Chronic treatment augmented DI receptors more than denervation,and reduced D2 receptors that were also increased by dopamine denervation.Striatal NMDA receptors were substantially up-regulated in the treatment-complicated group.Levodopa treatment did not change receptors of nigral AMPA,pailidai GABA,and subthalamic GABA,which remained the same as that in denervation group.However,chronic treatment reversed the increase ofnigral GABA receptors caused by the lesion.It was concluded that a shortening of response duration and AIM mimicked levodopa-induced motor complications of Parkinson's patients.These data suggested that up-regulation of dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors in the striatum leads to an imbalance of stimulation through the striatal output pathways,which is associated with levodopa-induced motor complications.

  4. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. I Firing rates in healthy and parkinsonian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S J; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    Parkinsonism leads to various electrophysiological changes in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system (BGTCS), often including elevated discharge rates of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the output nuclei, and reduced activity of the globus pallidus external (GPe) segment. These rate changes have been explained qualitatively in terms of the direct/indirect pathway model, involving projections of distinct striatal populations to the output nuclei and GPe. Although these populations partly overlap, evidence suggests dopamine depletion differentially affects cortico-striato-pallidal connection strengths to the two pallidal segments. Dopamine loss may also decrease the striatal signal-to-noise ratio, reducing both corticostriatal coupling and striatal firing thresholds. Additionally, nigrostriatal degeneration may cause secondary changes including weakened lateral inhibition in the GPe, and mesocortical dopamine loss may decrease intracortical excitation and especially inhibition. Here a mean-field model of the BGTCS is presented with structure and parameter estimates closely based on physiology and anatomy. Changes in model rates due to the possible effects of dopamine loss listed above are compared with experiment. Our results suggest that a stronger indirect pathway, possibly combined with a weakened direct pathway, is compatible with empirical evidence. However, altered corticostriatal connection strengths are probably not solely responsible for substantially increased STN activity often found. A lower STN firing threshold, weaker intracortical inhibition, and stronger striato-GPe inhibition help explain the relatively large increase in STN rate. Reduced GPe-GPe inhibition and a lower GPe firing threshold can account for the comparatively small decrease in GPe rate frequently observed. Changes in cortex, GPe, and STN help normalize the cortical rate, also in accord with experiments. The model integrates the basal ganglia into a unified framework along with an

  5. Brain-gut interactions between central vagal activation and abdominal surgery to influence gastric myenteric ganglia Fos expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miampamba, Marcel; Million, Mulugeta; Taché, Yvette

    2011-05-01

    We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed by a laparotomy and a 1-min cecal palpation, or no surgery and were euthanized 90 min later. Longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus whole-mount preparations of gastric corpus and antrum were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos alone or double labeled with protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the non surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a 17 fold increase in Fos-expression in both gastric antrum and corpus myenteric neurons compared to saline injected rats. PGP 9.5 ascertained the neuronal identity of myenteric cells expressing Fos. In the abdominal surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a significant increase in Fos-expression in both the corpus and antrum myenteric ganglia compared with ic saline injected rats which has no Fos in the gastric myenteric ganglia. However, the response was reduced by 73-78% compared with that induced by ic RX 77368 without surgery. Abundant VAChT positive nerve fibers were present around Fos positive neurons. These results indicate a bidirectional interaction between central vagal stimulation of gastric myenteric neurons and abdominal surgery. The modulation of gastric vagus-myenteric neuron activity could play an important role in the recovery phase of postoperative gastric ileus.

  6. Mechanism of Parkinsonian Neuronal Oscillations in the Primate Basal Ganglia: Some Considerations Based on Our Recent Work

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    Atsushi eNambu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia contribute to the manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. In this article, we would like to summarize our recent work on the mechanism underlying abnormal oscillations in the parkinsonian state and discuss its significance in pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. We recorded neuronal activity in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Systemic administration of L-DOPA alleviated parkinsonian motor signs and decreased abnormal neuronal oscillations (8-15 Hz in the internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus (STN. Inactivation of the STN by muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist injection also ameliorated parkinsonian signs and suppressed GPi oscillations. Blockade of glutamatergic inputs to the STN by local microinjection of a mixture of 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3- dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist suppressed neuronal oscillations in the STN. The STN oscillations were further attenuated by the blockade of GABAergic neurotransmission from the GPe to the STN by muscimol inactivation of the GPe. These results suggest that cortical glutamatergic inputs to the STN and reciprocal GPe-STN interconnections are both important for the generation and amplification of the oscillatory activity of GPe and STN neurons in the dopamine-depleted state. The oscillatory activity in the STN is subsequently transmitted to the GPi and may contribute to manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms.

  7. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB(1) receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluny, N L; Baraboi, E D; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G; Richard, D; Dockray, G J; Sharkey, K A

    2013-12-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by the orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB1) receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in the nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. © 2013.

  8. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PUTTING THE CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradford C. Mason...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In the context of national critical infrastructure security and resilience doctrine

  9. Altered effective connectivity network of the basal ganglia in low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state fMRI study with Granger causality analysis.

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    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basal ganglia often show abnormal metabolism and intracranial hemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE. Little is known about how the basal ganglia affect other brain system and is affected by other brain regions in HE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity network associated with the basal ganglia is disturbed in HE patients by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty five low-grade HE patients and thirty five age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The effective connectivity networks associated with the globus pallidus, the primarily affected region within basal ganglia in HE, were characterized by using the Granger causality analysis and compared between HE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the abnormal effective connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels and neuropsychological performances of all HE patients. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with low-grade HE demonstrated mutually decreased influence between the globus pallidus and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cuneus, bi-directionally increased influence between the globus pallidus and the precuneus, and either decreased or increased influence from and to the globus pallidus in many other frontal, temporal, parietal gyri, and cerebellum. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that the blood ammonia levels in HE patients negatively correlated with effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and positively correlated with that from the globus pallidus to precuneus; and the number connectivity test scores in patients negatively correlated with the effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and from superior frontal gyrus to globus pallidus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low-grade HE patients had disrupted effective

  10. Involvement of the pelvic plexus and the suprarenal ganglia in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervation of the cervix and the uterus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, R; Prud'homme, M J; Vaudry, H; Rousseau, J P

    1997-12-03

    The involvement of the pelvic plexus and suprarenal ganglia in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervation of the genital tract was studied in the female rat by means of denervation experiments and retrograde tracing studies. Removal of the paracervical ganglia caused a significant decrease of the NPY-immunoreactive nerve density and NPY concentration in the lower part of the genital tract: cervix, uterine body and lower part of the uterine horn. The decrease in NPY concentration in these three regions was more pronounced after lesion of the pelvic plexus. Lesion of the ovarian nerve plexus caused a depletion in the NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibres and a decrease in NPY concentration in the upper part of the uterine horn. Pelvic nerve section, inferior mesenteric ganglia excision and superior ovarian nerve section had no effect on the NPY innervation in the genital tract. Injection of fluorogold into the cervix and lower part of the uterus combined with immunohistochemistry revealed that 87.5% of labelled neurons in the pelvic plexus were NPY-immunoreactive. Following injection of fluorogold into the upper part of the uterus, 92% of labelled neurons in the suprarenal ganglia were NPY-immunoreactive. Treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine revealed that the NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibres were non-noradrenergic in the cervix, but were noradrenergic in the upper part of the uterus. In the uterine body and lower part of the uterine horn, both noradrenergic and non-noradrenergic NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed. These data demonstrate the major contribution of pelvic plexus neurons in the non-noradrenergic NPY innervation of the lower part of the genital tract, and the involvement of the suprarenal ganglia in the noradrenergic NPY innervation of the upper part of the uterus via the ovarian nerve plexus.

  11. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavřínová, A; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J

    2016-07-18

    Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in hypertension development. The available results on mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. One of the possible causes might be the use of various reference genes as internal controls. In the present study, we searched for suitable reference genes in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression between these two strains. The mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in adrenal medulla and superior cervical ganglia of 4-week-old or 24-week-old SHR and WKY rats. We evaluated 12 reference genes by three software tools (Normfinder, BestKeeper, geNorm) and compared them for the standardization of mRNA expression. Combination of reference genes Hprt1 and Ywhaz in adrenal medulla and Gapdh and 18S in sympathetic ganglia were chosen as the best ones. 18S was found as applicable reference gene in both tissues. We found many alterations in expression of catecholaminergic system genes in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR. The usage of the most or the least stable reference gene as internal control changed results moderately in sympathetic ganglia but seriously in adrenal medulla. For example, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene was underexpressed in adrenal medulla of adult SHR using the appropriate reference gene but unchanged after the standardization to the least stable reference gene. Our results indicate the importance of appropriate internal control. The suitability of reference genes should be checked again in the case of change in experimental conditions.

  12. Temporal changes of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the basal ganglia as a possible structure-specific plasticity process in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

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    Gabriela P Chaves-Kirsten

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in several neurobiological processes, including neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. The CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, the circuitry that is mostly affected in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Some studies show variation of CB1 expression in basal ganglia in different animal models of PD, however the results are quite controversial, due to the differences in the procedures employed to induce the parkinsonism and the periods analyzed after the lesion. The present study evaluated the CB1 expression in four basal ganglia structures, namely striatum, external globus pallidus (EGP, internal globus pallidus (IGP and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr of rats 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 days after unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections, that causes retrograde dopaminergic degeneration. We also investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, parvalbumin, calbindin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD expression to verify the status of dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. We observed a structure-specific modulation of CB1 expression at different periods after lesions. In general, there were no changes in the striatum, decreased CB1 in IGP and SNpr and increased CB1 in EGP, but this increase was not sustained over time. No changes in GAD and parvalbumin expression were observed in basal ganglia, whereas TH levels were decreased and the calbindin increased in striatum in short periods after lesion. We believe that the structure-specific variation of CB1 in basal ganglia in the 6-hydroxydopamine PD model could be related to a compensatory process involving the GABAergic transmission, which is impaired due to the lack of dopamine. Our data, therefore, suggest that the changes of CB1 and calbindin expression may represent a plasticity process in this PD model.

  13. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Gláucia M. Freitas-Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05, except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05. No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de células nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e

  14. Transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e os gânglios da base Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the basal ganglia

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    Eurípedes Constantino Miguel Filho

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno obsessivo compulsivo (TOC, caracterizado por obsessões e compulsões, foi descrito com frequência aumentada em várias doenças que acometem primariamente of gânglios da base sugerindo que estas estruturas também estivessem acometidas no TOC. Os gânglios da base, que no passado se acreditava estarem implicados apenas no comportamento motor, são, na verdade, importantes em inúmeras outras funções psíquicas como o processamento de vivências cognitivas. Estudos recentes utilizando imagem de ressonância magnética mostraram tendência a diminuição do núcleo caudado em pacientes com TOC. De forma coerente, estudos com neuroimagem funcional, sugerem a implicação de um circuito cerebral envolvendo o córtex órbito-frontal, o giro cíngulo, o núcleo caudado e o tálamo na patofisiologia do TOC. Entre as diversas hipóteses formuladas a partir desses achados, especula-se que um déficit no funcionamento do núcleo caudado levaria a uma filtragem inadequada de preocupações que então estimulariam o córtex órbito-frontal a desencadear ações adaptativas: as compulsões.Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, characterized by obsessions and compulsions, was described as more frequent in patients with primary lesions of the basal ganglia suggesting that these brain structures may be also altered in OCD. The basal ganglia, that were considered important only for the motor control, are known now as crucial for many other mental functions as processing of cognitive experience. Recent studies using magnetic resonance image have found a tendency for smaller caudate nucleus in patients with OCD. Consistently, studies using functional neuroimaging suggest implication of a neurocircuit that includes the orbitalfrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and thalamus in the pathophysiology of OCD. Among several hypotheses formulated to explain these findings, some authors speculated that a deficit of the caudate nucleus

  15. Modulation of connexin 36 expression in basal ganglia and motor cortex in rat model of Parkinson's disease

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    CHEN Xian-wen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the expression of connexin 36 (Cx36 in the striatum and motor cortex of rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD in order to explore whether gap junction is involved in the pathogenesis of the cortex-basal ganglia circuit disturbances in PD. Methods Hemi-parkinsonian rat model was produced by stereotaxically injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to right medial forebrain bundle (MFB. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the expression changes of Cx36 in the striatum and motor cortex. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to analyze the expression of Cx36 in enkephalin (ENK positive medium spiny neurons and Parvalbumin (PV positive interneurons in the striatum. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed Cx36 expression was elevated in the right striatum as well as right motor cortex of PD group compared with normal control group (t = 2.474, P = 0.048; t = 2.614, P = 0.040. Double immunofluorescence labeling staining revealed that ENK-positive striatum neurons were elevated (t = 3.987, P = 0.007 and Cx36 expression was increased in ENK-positive striatum neurons (t = 3.271, P = 0.017 in PD group compared with normal control group. While PV-positive interneurons decreased (t = 2.777, P = 0.032 and Cx36 expression was down-regulated in PV-positive interneurons (t = 2.624, P = 0.039 compared with the normal control group. Western blotting indicated that the 6-OHDA lesion induced a significant upregulation of Cx36 to (119.31 ± 8.92% in comparison with the normal group [(104.05 ± 3.82%] in right striatum (t = 3.516, P = 0.024. In right motor cortex Cx36 increased to (138.20 ± 17.88% , induced a significant upregulation of Cx36 in the right motor cortex in comparison with the normal control group [(105.27 ± 2.82%; t = 4.068, P = 0.015]. Conclusion The Cx36 expression was generally increased in the striatum and motor cortex of PD rat model, with upregulation in ENK-positive striatum

  16. IL-1β stimulates COX-2 dependent PGE₂ synthesis and CGRP release in rat trigeminal ganglia cells.

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    Lars Neeb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pro-inflammatory cytokines like Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine and inflammatory pain. The trigeminal ganglion and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP are crucial components in the pathophysiology of primary headaches. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonists, which reduce CGRP release, and cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors can abort trigeminally mediated pain. However, the cellular source of COX and the interplay between COX and CGRP within the trigeminal ganglion have not been clearly identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1. We used primary cultured rat trigeminal ganglia cells to assess whether IL-1β can induce the expression of COX-2 and which cells express COX-2. Stimulation with IL-1β caused a dose and time dependent induction of COX-2 but not COX-1 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of COX-2 protein in neuronal and glial cells. 2. Functional significance was demonstrated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2 release 4 hours after stimulation with IL-1β, which could be aborted by a selective COX-2 (parecoxib and a non-selective COX-inhibitor (indomethacin. 3. Induction of CGRP release, indicating functional neuronal activation, was seen 1 hour after PGE(2 and 24 hours after IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemistry showed trigeminal neurons as the source of CGRP. IL-1β induced CGRP release was blocked by parecoxib and indomethacin, but the 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan had no effect. CONCLUSION: We identified a COX-2 dependent pathway of cytokine induced CGRP release in trigeminal ganglia neurons that is not affected by 5-HT1B/D receptor activation. Activation of neuronal and glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion by IL-β leads to an elevated expression of COX-2 in these cells. Newly synthesized PGE(2 (by COX-2 in turn activates trigeminal neurons to release CGRP. These findings support a glia-neuron interaction in the trigeminal ganglion and demonstrate a sequential link between COX-2

  17. The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia

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    Chen Jia-Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs, and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we used Wnt1-Cre to conditionally inactivate the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of activation signals from all Notch receptors, in NCCs and their derived cells. Deletion of Rbpj caused the up-regulation of NeuroD1 and precocious neurogenesis in DRG early development but led to an eventual deficit of sensory neurons at later stages, due to reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell death. In addition, gliogenesis was delayed initially, but a near-complete loss of glia was observed finally in Rbpj-deficient DRG. Furthermore, we found P75 and Sox10, which are normally expressed exclusively in neuronal and glial progenitors of the DRG after the NCCs have completed their migration, were co-expressed in many cells of the DRG of Rbpj conditional knock-out mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that Rbpj-mediated canonical Notch signaling inhibits DRG neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulating NeuroD1 expression, and is required for DRG gliogenesis in vivo.

  18. Gene networks activated by specific patterns of action potentials in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Philip R.; Cohen, Jonathan E.; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Fields, R. Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks underlie the long-term changes in cell specification, growth of synaptic connections, and adaptation that occur throughout neonatal and postnatal life. Here we show that the transcriptional response in neurons is exquisitely sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential firing patterns. Neurons were electrically stimulated with the same number of action potentials, but with different inter-burst intervals. We found that these subtle alterations in the timing of action potential firing differentially regulates hundreds of genes, across many functional categories, through the activation or repression of distinct transcriptional networks. Our results demonstrate that the transcriptional response in neurons to environmental stimuli, coded in the pattern of action potential firing, can be very sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential delivery rather than the intensity of stimulation or the total number of action potentials delivered. These data identify temporal kinetics of action potential firing as critical components regulating intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression in neurons to extracellular cues during early development and throughout life. PMID:28256583

  19. Usefulness of computed tomography in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Multiple low density lesions in the basal ganglia and corona radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Tatsuo; Ito, Naoki; Hirayama, Keizo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-11-01

    In 2 cases of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, we found multiple round low density lesions in the basal ganglia and corona radiata by CT scan. Both cases were treated successfully with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. Pathologically, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis usually shows two types of lesions: one being gelatinous and the other granulomatous. The former is a cystic lesion which mainly invades the cerebral cortex, dentate nucleus and basal ganglia; the latter is a granuloma as a result of histological reaction common to any of fungal organism. In granulomatous lesions, CT scan usually shows a high density or ring enhancement by contrast medium. In our 2 cases, CT scan showed multiple low density spots with no enhancement. We thought that they might represent gelatinous lesions. We stressed the importance of checking serial CT scans for the diagnosis of chronic meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology.

  20. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational...... and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role...... in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We...

  1. Controlled release of 6-aminonicotinamide from aligned, electrospun fibers alters astrocyte metabolism and dorsal root ganglia neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2011-08-01

    Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, activated astrocytes form a glial scar that inhibits the migration of axons ultimately leading to regeneration failure. Biomaterials developed for CNS repair can provide local delivery of therapeutics and/or guidance mechanisms to encourage cell migration into damaged regions of the brain or spinal cord. Electrospun fibers are a promising type of biomaterial for CNS injury since these fibers can direct cellular and axonal migration while slowly delivering therapy to the injury site. In this study, it was hypothesized that inclusion of an anti-metabolite, 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), within poly-l-lactic acid electrospun fibers could attenuate astrocyte metabolic activity while still directing axonal outgrowth. Electrospinning parameters were varied to produce highly aligned electrospun fibers that contained 10% or 20% (w/w) 6AN. 6AN release from the fiber substrates occurred continuously over 2 weeks. Astrocytes placed onto drug-releasing fibers were less active than those cultured on scaffolds without 6AN. Dorsal root ganglia placed onto control and drug-releasing scaffolds were able to direct neurites along the aligned fibers. However, neurite outgrowth was stunted by fibers that contained 20% 6AN. These results show that 6AN release from aligned, electrospun fibers can decrease astrocyte activity while still directing axonal outgrowth.

  2. Infarct of the Right Basal Ganglia in a Male Spinal Cord Injury Patient: Adverse Effect of Autonomic Dysreflexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysreflexia is a clinical emergency that occurs in individuals with spinal cord injury at level T-6 and above. We present a 58-year-old male patient with paraplegia who developed a severe, recurrent, throbbing headache during the night, which was relieved by emptying the urinary bladder by intermittent catheterisation. As this person continued to get episodes of severe headache for more than 6 months, computed tomography (CT of the brain was performed. CT revealed an infarct measuring 1.2 cm in the right basal ganglia. In order to control involuntary detrusor contractions, the patient was prescribed propiverine hydrochloride 15 mg four times a day. The alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drug doxazosin was used to reduce the severity of autonomic dysreflexia. Following 4 weeks of treatment with propiverine and doxazosin, the headache subsided completely. We learned from this case that bladder spasms in individuals with spinal cord injury can lead to severe, recurrent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia that, in turn, can predispose to vascular complications in the brain. Therefore, it is important to take appropriate steps to control bladder spasms and thereby prevent recurrent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia. Intermittent catheterisations along with an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drug (doxazosin and an antimuscarinic drug (propiverine hydrochloride helped this individual to control autonomic dysreflexia, triggered by bladder spasms during the night.

  3. FGF and BMP derived from dorsal root ganglia regulate blastema induction in limb regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki; Nishimoto, Yurie; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration. To gather experimental evidence, the technical difficulties involved in the usage of axolotls had to be overcome. We achieved this by modifying the electroporation method. When Fgf8-AcGFP or Bmp7-AcGFP was electroporated into the axolotl dorsal root ganglia (DRG), GFP signals were detectable in the regenerating limb region. This suggested that Fgf8 and Bmp7 synthesized in neural cells in the DRG were delivered to the limbs through the long axons. Further knockdown experiments with double-stranded RNA interference resulted in impaired limb regeneration ability. These results strongly suggest that Fgf and Bmp are the major neural inputs that control the organ regeneration ability.

  4. Tang-Luo-Ning Improves Mitochondrial Antioxidase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Diabetic Rats: A Proteomics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Gong, Yanbin; Zhou, Hui; Xie, Peifeng; Guan, Song; Yi, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    Tang-luo-ning (TLN) is a traditional Chinese herbal recipe for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In this study, we investigated mitochondrial protein profiles in a diabetic rat model and explored the potential protective effect of TLN. Diabetic rats were established by injection of streptozocin (STZ) and divided into model, alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and TLN groups. Mitochondrial proteins were isolated from dorsal root ganglia and proteomic analysis was used to quantify the differentially expressed proteins. Tang-luo-ning mitigated STZ-induced diabetic symptoms and blood glucose level, including response time to cold or hot stimulation and nerve conductive velocity. As compared to the normal, there were 388 differentially expressed proteins in the TLN group, 445 in ALA group, and 451 in model group. As compared to the model group, there were 275 differential proteins in TLN group and 251 in ALA group. As compared to model group, mitochondrial complex III was significantly decreased, while glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase were increased in TLN group. When compared with ALA group, the mitochondrial complex III was increased, and mitochondrial complex IV was decreased in TLN group. Together, TLN should have a strong antioxidative activity, which appears to be modulated through regulation of respiratory complexes and antioxidases. PMID:28133612

  5. Effect of Human Genetic Variability on Gene Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglia and Association with Pain Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Parisien

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRG relay sensory information to the brain, giving rise to the perception of pain, disorders of which are prevalent and burdensome. Here, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs in a collection of human DRGs. DRG eQTLs were enriched within untranslated regions of coding genes of low abundance, with some overlapping with other brain regions and blood cell cis-eQTLs. We confirm functionality of identified eQTLs through their significant enrichment within open chromatin and highly deleterious SNPs, particularly at the exon level, suggesting substantial contribution of eQTLs to alternative splicing regulation. We illustrate pain-related genetic association results explained by DRG eQTLs, with the strongest evidence for contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA locus, confirmed using a mouse inflammatory pain model. Finally, we show that DRG eQTLs are found among hits in numerous genome-wide association studies, suggesting that this dataset will help address pain components of non-pain disorders.

  6. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  7. Abnormal cortical-basal ganglia network in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A voxel-wise network efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinping; Li, Hong; Li, Chong; Yao, Jen-Chih; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Hu, Qingmao; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Jiuquan

    2017-08-30

    Evidence suggests that dysfunctional cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) network plays important roles in the motor symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, little effort has been made to investigate the functional abnormalities of CBG network in ALS. Here, we constructed voxel-wise CBG networks using the resting-state fMRI data of 20 patients with ALS and 21 normal controls, and characterized the differences of their efficiency parameters between the two groups. Compared to normal controls, patients with ALS exhibited decreased nodal efficiency in the right thalamus (THA), the left caudate (CAU) and the right precentral gyrus (preCG), and increased nodal efficiency in the left preCG. In the patient group, we observed a significant negative correlation between the nodal efficiency of the right preCG and disease progression rate. These results demonstrate that both ineffective information transfer and compensatory mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the motor dysfunctions in patients with ALS. In summary, the present study provides a novel perspective on pathophysiological explanation for the motor symptoms in patients with ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of NR2B subunit palmitoylation at the spinal level after chronic dorsal root ganglia compression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tianjiao; Cui, Yin; Shi, Han; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2014-11-01

    The NR2B subunit (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit) regulates the source of pain, and it participates in the formation of central sensitization. Palmitoylation was shown to be involved in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor internalization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NR2B subunit palmitoylation in a chronic dorsal root ganglia compression (CCD) rat model. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency were used to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after a CCD operation and an intrathecal injection of the inhibitor of palmitoylation (2-bromopalmitate [2-BP]). The acyl-biotinyl exchange method, Western blotting, and coimmunoprecipitation were used to investigate the effects of pain processing and the expression of levels of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation at the spinal level. CCD rats had long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, leading to upregulation of the level of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation at the spinal level. An intrathecal treatment with 2-BP on day 14 after CCD surgery markedly improved pain behaviors and downregulated the expression of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation. These data suggest that upregulated NR2B palmitoylation in CCD-induced neuropathic pain and intrathecal injection of 2-BP could reduce pain behaviors and NR2B phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that spinal NR2B palmitoylation is an important component of CCD-induced neuropathic pain, and it might be a potential target for chronic pain therapy.

  9. Hypernasality associated with basal ganglia dysfunction: evidence from Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Novotný

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although increased nasality can originate from basal ganglia dysfunction, data regarding hypernasality in Parkinson’s disease (PD and Huntington’s disease (HD are very sparse. The aim of the current study was to analyze acoustic and perceptual correlates of velopharyngeal seal closure in 37 PD and 37 HD participants in comparison to 37 healthy control speakers. Methods Acoustical analysis was based on sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ and perceptual analysis was based on monologue. Perceptual analysis was performed by 10 raters using The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment ’98. Acoustic parameters related to changes in a 1/3-octave band centered on 1 kHz were proposed to reflect nasality level and behavior through utterance. Results Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% of HD and 22% of control speakers. Based on acoustic analyses, 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of control speakers showed an increased occurrence of hypernasality. In addition, 78% of HD patients demonstrated a high occurrence of intermittent hypernasality. Further results indicated relationships between the acoustic parameter representing fluctuation of nasality and perceptual assessment (r = 0.51, p < 0.001 as well as the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale chorea composite subscore (r = 0.42, p = 0.01. Conclusions In conclusion the acoustic assessment showed that abnormal nasality was not a common feature of PD, whereas patients with HD manifested intermittent hypernasality associated with chorea.

  10. Allatotropic activity in the suboesophageal ganglia and corpora cardiaca of the adult male loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, R; Chen, S J

    2000-02-01

    Allatotropic activity was found in the methanolic extract of the suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) and the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the Mythimna loreyi virgin males. No allatotropic activity was observed in the extract of brain or corpora allata (CA). Although CA can be activated by the SOG and CC extract, respectively, CC extract inhibited the response to the SOG extract. A significant in vitro allatotropic effect was exerted by the SOG and CC extract within 10 and 15 min, respectively, and this effect can be sustained for several hours even after transferring to fresh medium without extracts. The time course pattern of the CA activation ratio in both the SOG and CC extract-treated group is very similar to, but with significantly higher level than, that in the control group, suggesting the existence of an intrinsic pacemaker or an in vitro effect that controls the fluctuation of the CA biosynthetic activity. Synthetic Manduca sexta allatotropin had no significant effect on the M. loreyi CA. The results of treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, and the cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP did not indicate that cAMP might be involved in the allatotropic control of CA. Arch. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Effect of helium-neon laser on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential of neurons in the isolated rat superior cervical ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hua; He, Ping; Mo, Ning

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study is to further measure the effect of 632.8-nm helium-neon laser on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) of postganglionic neurons in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia by means of intracellular recording techniques. The neurons with f-EPSP were irradiated by different power densities (1-5 mW/cm2) laser. Irradiated by the 2-mW/cm2 laser, the amplitude of the f-EPSP could augment (PEPSP could descend and last for 3-8 minutes. But the amplitude of the f-EPSP of neurons irradiated by the 5-mW/cm2 laser could depress for the irradiating periods. The results show that: 1) the variation of the amplitude of f-EPSP caused by laser is power density-dependent and time-dependent; 2) there exist the second-order phases in the interaction of the helium-neon laser with neurons. These findings may provide certain evidence in explanation of the mechanisms of clinical helium-neon laser therapy.

  12. Cajal body number and nucleolar size correlate with the cell body mass in human sensory ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, Maria T; Novell, Mariona; Villagra, Nuria T; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Val-Bernal, J Fernado; Lafarga, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    This paper studies the cell size-dependent organization of the nucleolus and Cajal bodies (CBs) in dissociated human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from autopsy tissue samples of patients without neurological disease. The quantitative analysis of nucleoli with an anti-fibrillarin antibody showed that all neurons have only one nucleolus. However, the nucleolar volume and the number of fibrillar centers per nucleolus significantly increase as a function of cell body size. Immunostaining for coilin demonstrated the presence of numerous CBs in DRG neurons (up to 20 in large size neurons). The number of CBs per neuron correlated positively with the cell body volume. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemical analysis revealed the concentration of coilin, snRNPs, SMN and fibrillarin in CBs of DRG neurons. CBs were frequently associated with the nucleolus, active chromatin domains and PML bodies, but not with telomeres. Our results support the view that the nucleolar volume and number of both fibrillar centers and CBs depend on the cell body mass, a parameter closely related to transcriptional and synaptic activity in mammalian neurons. Moreover, the unusual large number of CBs could facilitate the transfer of RNA processing components from CBs to nucleolar and nucleoplasmic sites of RNA processing.

  13. Effect of helium-neon laser on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential of neurons in the isolated rat superior cervical ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Mo(莫华); Ping He(何萍); Ning Mo(莫宁)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to further measure the effect of 632.8-nm helium-neon laser on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential(f-EPSP)of postganglionic neurons in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia by means of intracellular recording techniques.The neurons with f-EPSP were irradiated by different power densities(1 - 5 mW/cm2)laser.Irradiated by the 2-mW/cm2 laser,the amplitude of the f-EPSP could augment(P < 0.05,paired t test)and even cause action potential at the end of the first 1 - 2 minutes,the f-EPSP could descend and last for 3 - 8 minutes.But the amplitude of the f-EPSP of neurons irradiated by the 5-mW/cm2 laser could depress for the irradiating periods.The results show that:1)the variation of the amplitude of f-EPSP caused by laser is power density-dependent and time-dependent; 2)there exist the second-order phases in the interaction of the helium-neon laser with neurons.These findings may provide certain evidence in explanation of the mechanisms of clinical helium-neon laser therapy.

  14. Detection of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 within basal ganglia output neurons in macaques: changes following experimental parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Salvador; Luquin, Natasha; Rico, Alberto J; Gómez-Bautista, Virginia; Roda, Elvira; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Vázquez, Alfonso; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Labandeira-García, José L; Franco, Rafael; Lanciego, José L

    2015-09-01

    Although type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed abundantly throughout the brain, the presence of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in neurons is still somewhat controversial. Taking advantage of newly designed CB1R and CB2R mRNA riboprobes, we demonstrate by PCR and in situ hybridization that transcripts for both cannabinoid receptors are present within labeled pallidothalamic-projecting neurons of control and MPTP-treated macaques, whereas the expression is markedly reduced in dyskinetic animals. Moreover, an in situ proximity ligation assay was used to qualitatively assess the presence of CB1Rs and CB2Rs, as well as CB1R-CB2R heteromers within basal ganglia output neurons in all animal groups (control, parkinsonian and dyskinetic macaques). A marked reduction in the number of CB1Rs, CB2Rs and CB1R-CB2R heteromers was found in dyskinetic animals, mimicking the observed reduction in CB1R and CB2R mRNA expression levels. The fact that chronic levodopa treatment disrupted CB1R-CB2R heteromeric complexes should be taken into consideration when designing new drugs acting on cannabinoid receptor heteromers.

  15. Hypernasality associated with basal ganglia dysfunction: evidence from Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal; Čmejla, Roman; Růžičková, Hana; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-01-01

    Background Although increased nasality can originate from basal ganglia dysfunction, data regarding hypernasality in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are very sparse. The aim of the current study was to analyze acoustic and perceptual correlates of velopharyngeal seal closure in 37 PD and 37 HD participants in comparison to 37 healthy control speakers. Methods Acoustical analysis was based on sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ and perceptual analysis was based on monologue. Perceptual analysis was performed by 10 raters using The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment ’98. Acoustic parameters related to changes in a 1/3-octave band centered on 1 kHz were proposed to reflect nasality level and behavior through utterance. Results Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% of HD and 22% of control speakers. Based on acoustic analyses, 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of control speakers showed an increased occurrence of hypernasality. In addition, 78% of HD patients demonstrated a high occurrence of intermittent hypernasality. Further results indicated relationships between the acoustic parameter representing fluctuation of nasality and perceptual assessment (r = 0.51, p Huntington Disease Rating Scale chorea composite subscore (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion the acoustic assessment showed that abnormal nasality was not a common feature of PD, whereas patients with HD manifested intermittent hypernasality associated with chorea. PMID:27703866

  16. Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins are differentially expressed in murine dorsal root ganglia: modulation by peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Zhao, Jiu-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Dan; Zheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Fang; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yi, Xi-Nan

    2012-04-01

    The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) play an important role in neurite outgrowth and axon guidance; however, little is known about its role in nerve regeneration after injury. Here, we studied the expression of srGAPs in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection (SNT) using morphometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicated that srGAP1 and srGAP3, but not srGAP2, were expressed in normal adult DRG. Following unilateral SNT, elevated mRNA and protein levels of srGAP1 and srGAP3 were detected in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral L(3-4) DRGs from day 3 to day 14. Immunohistochemical results showed that srGAP1 and srGAP3 were largely expressed in subpopulations of DRG neurons in naïve DRGs. However, after SNT, srGAP3 in neurons was significantly increased in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral DRGs, which peaked at day 7 to day 14. Interestingly, DRG neurons with strong srGAP3 labeling also coexpressed Robo2 after peripheral nerve injury. These results suggest that srGAPs are differentially expressed in murine DRG and srGAP3 are the predominant form. Moreover, srGAP3 may participate in Slit-Robo signaling in response to peripheral nerve injury or the course of nerve regeneration.

  17. Electrophysiological studies of upregulated P2X7 receptors in rat superior cervical ganglia after myocardial ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanjun; Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Changshui; Liu, Jun; Li, Guodong; Li, Guilin; Gao, Yun; Lin, Hong; Tu, Guihua; Peng, Haiying; Qiu, Shuyi; Fan, Bo; Zhu, Qicheng; Yu, Shicheng; Zheng, Chaoran; Liang, Shangdong

    2013-09-01

    Myocardial ischemic injury activates cardiac sympathetic afferent fibers and elicits a sympathoexcitatory reflex by exciting sympathetic efferent action, with resultant augmentation of myocardial oxygen consumption, leading to a vicious cycle of exaggerating myocardial ischemia. P2X7 receptor participates in the neuronal functions and the neurological disorders. This study examined the role of P2X7 receptor of superior cervical ganglia (SCG) in sympathoexcitatory reflex. Our results showed that the expression of P2X7 receptor at both mRNA and protein in SCG was increased after myocardial ischemic injury. P2X7 receptor agonists at the same concentration activated much larger amplitudes of the currents in the SCG neurons of myocardial ischemic rats than those in control rats. P2X7 receptor antagonist (brilliant blue G, BBG) significantly inhibited P2X7 receptor agonist-activated currents in the SCG neurons. Excessive phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 upon the activation of P2X7 receptor might be a mechanism mediating the signal transduction after myocardial ischemic injury. Therefore, the sensitized P2X7 receptor in SCG was involved in the nociceptive transmission of sympathoexcitatory reflex induced by myocardial ischemic injury.

  18. Competitive inhibition of the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rocuronium on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in the rat superior cervical ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Zhang, Jinmin; Qiu, Haibo; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Liqun; Wu, Feixiang; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.

  19. The Relationship of Hematoma Size and Mortality in Non-Traumatic Intra-Cerebral Hemorrhages in Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ahmadi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Among all of the neurologic diseases in adult life, the cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most common and important ones. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH in basal ganglia (BG is one of the common and major types of CVD. The relations between clot size and mortality rate, in different parts of the brain, has been addressed by several researchers. It is unclear whether such a relationship is in BG. Therefore this study was designed to find a formula that predicts outcome of hemorrhage based on clot size in BG.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-comparative study that was carried out prospectively, conducted on all 63 patients who admitted to the hospital during one year, with definite diagnosis of ICH in BG. After urgent CT scanning, the size of hematoma was determined by scan images. Routine treatment was uniform for all patients. Focal signs and consciousness state were assessed in the first and last days of admission. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square and T- test. Results: 33% of patients died. Hematoma size in 70% of them was larger than 5cm and in other 30% smaller. None of the hematoma with less than 4cm size was fatal. In patients with clots of 5cm or larger, the mortality was 100%. Conclusion: The results indicated that, there was meaningful relationship between hematoma size and mortality, in BG hemorrhages. So the clot size can be used as a factor in predicting hemorrhage outcome in BG.

  20. Novel SLC19A3 Promoter Deletion and Allelic Silencing in Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Flønes

    Full Text Available Biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease is a severe, but potentially treatable disorder caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. Although the disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, patients with typical phenotypes carrying single heterozygous mutations have been reported. This makes the diagnosis uncertain and may delay treatment.In two siblings with early-onset encephalopathy dystonia and epilepsy, whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel single heterozygous SLC19A3 mutation (c.337T>C. Although Sanger-sequencing and copy-number analysis revealed no other aberrations, RNA-sequencing in brain tissue suggested the second allele was silenced. Whole-genome sequencing resolved the genetic defect by revealing a novel 45,049 bp deletion in the 5'-UTR region of the gene abolishing the promoter. High dose thiamine and biotin therapy was started in the surviving sibling who remains stable. In another patient two novel compound heterozygous SLC19A3 mutations were found. He improved substantially on thiamine and biotin therapy.We show that large genomic deletions occur in the regulatory region of SLC19A3 and should be considered in genetic testing. Moreover, our study highlights the power of whole-genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool for rare genetic disorders across a wide spectrum of mutations including non-coding large genomic rearrangements.

  1. An ensemble of regulatory elements controls Runx3 spatiotemporal expression in subsets of dorsal root ganglia proprioceptive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Elena; Weissmann, Sarit; Salzberg, Yehuda; Orlovsky, Kira; Negreanu, Varda; Tsoory, Michael; Raanan, Calanit; Feldmesser, Ester; Bernstein, Yael; Wolstein, Orit; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram

    2016-12-01

    The Runx3 transcription factor is essential for development and diversification of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) TrkC sensory neurons. In Runx3-deficient mice, developing TrkC neurons fail to extend central and peripheral afferents, leading to cell death and disruption of the stretch reflex circuit, resulting in severe limb ataxia. Despite its central role, the mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal expression specificities of Runx3 in TrkC neurons were largely unknown. Here we first defined the genomic transcription unit encompassing regulatory elements (REs) that mediate the tissue-specific expression of Runx3. Using transgenic mice expressing BAC reporters spanning the Runx3 locus, we discovered three REs-dubbed R1, R2, and R3-that cross-talk with promoter-2 (P2) to drive TrkC neuron-specific Runx3 transcription. Deletion of single or multiple elements either in the BAC transgenics or by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous ablation established the REs' ability to promote and/or repress Runx3 expression in developing sensory neurons. Our analysis reveals that an intricate combinatorial interplay among the three REs governs Runx3 expression in distinct subtypes of TrkC neurons while concomitantly extinguishing its expression in non-TrkC neurons. These findings provide insights into the mechanism regulating cell type-specific expression and subtype diversification of TrkC neurons in developing DRGs. © 2016 Appel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  3. Bee Venom Alleviates Motor Deficits and Modulates the Transfer of Cortical Information through the Basal Ganglia in Rat Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Nicolas; Deltheil, Thierry; Melon, Christophe; Degos, Bertrand; Mourre, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a neuroprotective action of bee venom on nigral dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we examined whether bee venom also displays a symptomatic action by acting on the pathological functioning of the basal ganglia in rat PD models. Bee venom effects were assessed by combining motor behavior analyses and in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, basal ganglia output structure) in pharmacological (neuroleptic treatment) and lesional (unilateral intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine injection) PD models. In the hemi-parkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model, subchronic bee venom treatment significantly alleviates contralateral forelimb akinesia and apomorphine-induced rotations. Moreover, a single injection of bee venom reverses haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a pharmacological model reminiscent of parkinsonian akinetic deficit. This effect is mimicked by apamin, a blocker of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels, and blocked by CyPPA, a positive modulator of these channels, suggesting the involvement of SK channels in the bee venom antiparkinsonian action. In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (basal ganglia output structure) showed no significant effect of BV on the mean neuronal discharge frequency or pathological bursting activity. In contrast, analyses of the neuronal responses evoked by motor cortex stimulation show that bee venom reverses the 6-OHDA- and neuroleptic-induced biases in the influence exerted by the direct inhibitory and indirect excitatory striatonigral circuits. These data provide the first evidence for a beneficial action of bee venom on the pathological functioning of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying motor PD symptoms with potential relevance to the symptomatic treatment of this disease. PMID:26571268

  4. Prediction of a neuropeptidome for the eyestalk ganglia of the lobster Homarus americanus using a tissue-specific de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Pascual, Micah G; Yu, Andy; Lameyer, Tess J; Stanhope, Meredith E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2017-03-01

    In silico transcriptome mining is a powerful tool for crustacean peptidome prediction. Using homology-based BLAST searches and a simple bioinformatics workflow, large peptidomes have recently been predicted for a variety of crustaceans, including the lobster, Homarus americanus. Interestingly, no in silico studies have been conducted on the eyestalk ganglia (lamina ganglionaris, medulla externa, medulla interna and medulla terminalis) of the lobster, although the eyestalk is the location of a major neuroendocrine complex, i.e., the X-organ-sinus gland system. Here, an H. americanus eyestalk ganglia-specific transcriptome was produced using the de novo assembler Trinity. This transcriptome was generated from 130,973,220 Illumina reads and consists of 147,542 unique contigs. Eighty-nine neuropeptide-encoding transcripts were identified from this dataset, allowing for the deduction of 62 distinct pre/preprohormones. Two hundred sixty-two neuropeptides were predicted from this set of precursors; the peptides include members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, elevenin, FMRFamide-like peptide, glycoprotein hormone α2, glycoprotein hormone β5, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin, tachykinin-related peptide and trissin families. The predicted peptides expand the H. americanus eyestalk ganglia neuropeptidome approximately 7-fold, and include 78 peptides new to the lobster. The transcriptome and predicted neuropeptidome described here provide new resources for investigating peptidergic

  5. Sprouting from chicken embryo dorsal root ganglia induced by nerve growth factor is specifically inhibited by affinity-purified antiganglioside antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M; Spirman, N

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of gangliosides in processes related to nerve regeneration and sprouting has been demonstrated recently. The type of interaction by which gangliosides may influence neuronal sprouting was investigated in the present work. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-GM1 antibodies were found to block the sprouting from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chicken embryo induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Only a moderately inhibitory effect was produced by antibodies directed to GM2, suggesting a ...

  6. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in intrinsic cardiac ganglia of socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation induced a significant increase in resting heart rate and reduction in heart rate variability. Dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system is implicated in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. Previous evidence suggests that cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic neurons. Thus, immunohistochemical expression of catecholaminesynthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 were analyzed, as well as the effects of social isolation stress on mRNA and protein levels of this enzyme and transporter in the intrinsic cardiac nervous system of adult rats. Our results indicate that cardiac ganglion neurons express TH and VMAT2 immunoreactivity. Chronic isolated stress of rats caused a decrease in TH mRNA and VMAT2 mRNA in the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia. No significant alterations in the protein levels of TH and VMAT2 were observed in these neurons. These data indicate that the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia express TH as well as VMAT2 but that social isolation stress does not change their protein levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173044

  8. Analysis of Grey Matter in Thalamus and Basal Ganglia Based on EEG α3/α2 Frequency Ratio Reveals Specific Changes in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide V Moretti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GM (grey matter changes of thalamus and basal ganglia have been demonstrated to be involved in AD (Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the increase of a specific EEG (electroencephalogram marker, α3/α2, have been associated with AD-converters subjects with MCI (mild cognitive impairment. To study the association of prognostic EEG markers with specific GM changes of thalamus and basal ganglia in subjects with MCI to detect biomarkers (morpho-physiological early predictive of AD and non-AD dementia. Seventy-four adult subjects with MCI underwent EEG recording and high-resolution 3D MRI (three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. The α3/α2 ratio was computed for each subject. Three groups were obtained according to increasing tertile values of α3/α2 ratio. GM density differences between groups were investigated using a VBM (voxel-based morphometry technique. Subjects with higher α3/α2 ratios when compared with subjects with lower and middle α3/α2 ratios showed minor atrophy in the ventral stream of basal ganglia (head of caudate nuclei and accumbens nuclei bilaterally and of the pulvinar nuclei in the thalamus; The integrated analysis of EEG and morpho-structural markers could be useful in the comprehension of anatomo-physiological underpinning of the MCI entity.

  9. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  10. Criticality Analysis of GTPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asis Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the study of criticality analysis of components of Gas Turbine Power Plant Systems (GTPPS and the failures occurring in the plant. Failure mode and effect and criticality analysis (FMECA is carried out to estimate the criticality number for different components and failure modes. In addition the failure effects, higher effects and end effectsare incorporated in the final FMECA sheet. The criticality resultscompensating provision will highlight possible ways to tackle thefailures economically. The findings in this Paper are (1 criticality index of the components (2 Critical failures (3 compensating provision of critical failure.

  11. MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidaemia (PA results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to

  12. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  13. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  14. Critical Approaches to Critical Pedagogy in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollios, George; Liambas, Anastassios

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial review of the presentations and uses of critical pedagogy in Greek educational literature since the mid-1980s. These have appeared in the form of three books and an edited volume (translated in Greek), all written by American critical educators, as well as in texts produced by Greek educators who have either written the…

  15. Extradural en-plaque spinal meningioma with intraneural invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Jayshree; Drzymalski, Dan Michael; Lidov, Hart; Tuli, Sagun

    2012-01-01

    Extradural spinal meningiomas are rare. Our understanding of purely extradural spinal meningiomas is incomplete because most reports rarely differentiate purely extradural meningiomas from extradural meningiomas with an intradural component. Occasionally, reports have described involvement of the adjacent nerve root, but there has never been a description of an extradural meningioma that actually infiltrates the nerve root. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive lower extremity weakness and numbness below T3 during the span of 4 months with imaging evidence of an extradural lesion compressing the cord from T4 through T6. Surgical resection revealed an extradural mass extending through the foramen at T5-6 and encompassing the cord and T5 root on the left. Pathologically, the lesion was a World Health Organization grade I meningioma with nerve root invasion and a concerning elevated mindbomb homolog 1 (MIB-1) of 9.4%. Purely extradural meningiomas are rare, and our case is one of the first to describe a patient with an extradural meningioma that actually infiltrates the nerve root. Extradural spinal meningiomas are usually not adherent to the dura, but only appear to be adherent or invade (as in our patient) the adjacent nerve root. They are easily mistaken preoperatively and grossly intraoperatively for malignant metastatic tumors and can change the proposed surgical treatment. The long-term prognosis remains uncertain, but our patient's last follow-up suggests a favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eMorita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE, the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the 'DA=RPE' hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase towards the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the 'DA=RPE' hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such

  17. Thalamic haemorrhage vs internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage: clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Eroles Luis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. Methods Forty-seven patients with thalamic haemorrhage were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 17 years. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The region of the intracranial haemorrhage was identified on computerized tomographic (CT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Results Thalamic haemorrhage accounted for 1.4% of all cases of stroke (n = 3420 and 13% of intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 364. Hypertension (53.2%, vascular malformations (6.4%, haematological conditions (4.3% and anticoagulation (2.1% were the main causes of thalamic haemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 9. Sensory deficit, speech disturbances and lacunar syndrome were significantly associated with thalamic haemorrhage, whereas altered consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 39.56, intraventricular involvement (OR = 24.74 and age (OR = 1.23, were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One in 8 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage had a thalamic hematoma. Altered consciousness, intraventricular extension of the hematoma and advanced age were determinants of a poor early outcome.

  18. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  19. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Kato, Ayaka

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE), the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the "DA=RPE" hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision-making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase toward the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the "DA=RPE" hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such flexible reward learning.

  20. Effect of Levodopa Chronic Administration on Behavioral Changes and Fos Expression in Basal Ganglia in Rat Model of PD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 孙圣刚; 曹学兵

    2003-01-01

    To study behavioral character and changes of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia of ratmodel of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of Parkin-son disease (PD) was treated with levodopa/benserazide twice daily for 4 weeks and the behaviorobserved on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. The animals were sacri-ficed and immunohistochemical technique was used to measure the changes of Fos expression in thecaudate putamen (CPU), globus pallidus (GP) and sensorimotor area of cerebral cortex 2 h afterthe last treatment. The results showed that pulsatile treatment with a subthreshold dose of levodo-pa gradually induced abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), including stereotypy (limb dyskine-sia, axial dystonia and masticatory dyskinesia) towards the side contralateral to the dopamine-den-ervated striatum and increased contraversive rotation. The motor pattern of each subtype was highlystereotypic across individual rats, and the proportion of each subtype was not consistent among in-dividual rats. Fos positive nuclei in the CPU and GP were increased by levodopa acute administra-tion, and more remarkably in the CPU, but not in the cerebral cortex. After repeated levodopatreatment, Fos positive nuclei were reduced remarkably in the CPU, but were increased in the GPand cerebral cortex. It was concluded that the neural mechanisms underlying levodopa induced AIMin rat model of PD was very similar to those seen in levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD pa-tients and MPTP-lesioned monkeys, and increased striatopallidal neuronal activity might be involvedin occurrence of LID.

  1. Vitamin D receptor and enzyme expression in dorsal root ganglia of adult female rats: modulation by ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Sarah E; Smith, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency impacts sensory processes including pain and proprioception, but little is known regarding vitamin D signaling in adult sensory neurons. We analyzed female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for vitamin receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24. Western blots and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of these proteins in sensory neurons. Nuclear VDR immunoreactivity was present within nearly all neurons, while cytoplasmic VDR was found preferentially in unmyelinated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons, colocalizing with CYP27B1 and CYP24. These data suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D3 may affect sensory neurons through nuclear or extranuclear signaling pathways. In addition, local vitamin D metabolite concentrations in unmyelinated sensory neurons may be controlled through expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24. Because vitamin D deficiency appears to exacerbate some peri-menopausal pain syndromes, we assessed the effect of ovariectomy on vitamin D-related proteins. Two weeks following ovariectomy, total VDR expression in DRG dropped significantly, owing to a slight decrease in the percentage of total neurons expressing nuclear VDR and a large drop in unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons expressing cytoplasmic VDR. Total CYP27B1 expression dropped significantly, predominantly due to decreased expression within unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons. CYP24 expression remained unchanged. Therefore, unmyelinated CGRP-positive neurons appear to have a distinct vitamin D phenotype with hormonally-regulated ligand and receptor levels. These findings imply that vitamin D signaling may play a specialized role in a neural cell population that is primarily nociceptive.

  2. Functional expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells of rat dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Han, Ping; Faltynek, Connie R; Jarvis, Michael F; Shieh, Char-Chang

    2005-08-02

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-sensitive ligand-gated cation channel, expressed predominantly in cells with immune origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that P2X7 may play an important role in pain signaling. In the present study, the expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells and neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia was characterized using patch clamp, pharmacological and confocal microscopy approaches. In small diameter DRG neurons, 100 microM 2', 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) evoked an inward current, which was inhibited completely by 1 microM A-317491, a potent and selective P2X3 receptor antagonist. In contrast, BzATP evoked concentration-dependent increases in inward currents in non-neuronal DRG cells with an EC50 value of 26 +/- 0.14 microM, which were resistant to the blockade by A-317491. The activity to evoke cationic currents by P2X receptor agonists in non-neuronal cells showed a rank order of BzATP > ATP > alpha,beta-meATP. Pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-,2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) and Mg2+ produced concentration-dependent inhibition of BzATP-evoked currents in non-neuronal cells. Confocal microscopy revealed positive immunoreactivity of anti-P2X7 receptor antibodies on non-neuronal cells. No anti-P2X7 immunoreactivity was observed on DRG neurons. Further electrophysiological studies showed that prolonged agonist activation of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells did not lead to cytolytic pore formation. Taken together, the present study demonstrated functional expression of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal but not in small diameter neurons from rat DRG. Modulation of P2X7 receptors in non-neuronal cells might have impact on peripheral sensory transduction under normal and pathological states.

  3. A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for a tumor in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Koichi; Tomura, Noriaki; Kato, Koki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watarai, Jiro; Sasajima, Toshio; Mizoi, Kazuo [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-10-01

    A patient with Moyamoya-like vessels after radiation therapy for treatment of a tumor in the basal ganglia is reported. He was diagnosed as Down syndrome at birth. He had a tumor in the left basal ganglionic region at 12 years of the age. The tumor increased in size at age 14. He underwent cerebral angiography, which did not show a stenosis nor occlusion of the internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, nor the middle cerebral artery. He received radiation therapy with a total dose of 56 Gy. He presented a dressing apraxia at age 19. MRI showed cerebral infarction in the left temporo-occipital region. Right internal carotid angiography revealed a severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the right side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Left internal carotid angiography also showed a stenosis of the internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery as well as a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery on the left side. Moyamoya-like vessels were seen in the basal ganglionic region. Leptomeningeal anastomose and transdural anastomose were bilaterally seen. These arterial occlusion and stenotic phenomenon corresponded to a previous radiation field. These Moyamoya-like vessels with arterial stenosis and occlusion were thought to be due to radiation-induced vasculopathy, because a previous cerebral angiography showed a normal caliber of cerebral arteries. This patient showed that patients with radiation therapy in their early childhood should be carefully observed considering the possibility of the phenomenon. (author)

  4. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006, repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006. In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary?To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behaviour through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behaviour resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioural

  5. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-01-01

    From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes...

  6. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    OpenAIRE

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-01-01

    From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretica...

  7. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  8. Interface localization near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent $\

  9. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  10. Critical dynamics near QCD critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Minami, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the critical dynamics near the QCD critical point. Near the critical point, the relevant modes for the critical dynamics are identified as the hydrodynamic modes. Thus, we first study the linear dynamics of them by the relativistic hydrodynamics. We show that the thermal diffusion mode is the most relevant mode, whereas the sound mode is suppressed around the critical point. We also find that the Landau equation, which is believed to be an acausal hydrodynamic equation, has no problem to describe slowly varying fluctuations. Moreover, we find that the Israel-Stewart equation, which is a causal one, gives the same result as the Landau equation gives in the long-wavelength region. Next, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrodynamic modes by the nonlinear Langevin equation and the dynamic renormalization group (RG). In the vicinity of the critical point, the usual hydrodynamics breaks down by large fluctuations. Thus, we must consider the nonlinear Langevin equation. We construct t...

  11. Toward critical bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension impl