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Sample records for intranasal operative treatment

  1. Intranasal clobazam delivery in the treatment of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Kiruba; Manisha, Lalan; Kumar, Babbar Anil; Ankur, Kaul; Kumar, Mishra Anil; Ambikanandan, Misra

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and characterize clobazam mucoadhesive microemulsion (CZMME) to assess brain drug uptake and protection against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice. Clobazam microemulsion (CZME) and CZMME were prepared by titration method and characterized. Brain uptake and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from drug concentration in mice brain versus time plots following intranasal administration of radiolabeled CZME and CZMME, intravenous and intranasal administration of radiolabeled clobazam solution. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of rabbit brain following intranasal administration was performed. Formulations were investigated for the onset of seizures in PTZ-challenged mice. Brain targeting efficiency and direct nose-to-brain transport percentage for mucoadhesive microemulsion suggested an improved brain uptake following intranasal administration. The findings were supported by gamma scintigraphy images. Delay in onset of PTZ-induced seizures with CZMME compared with positive control and placebo-treated groups confirmed the improved brain uptake. However, extensive animal studies followed by clinical trials are necessary to develop a product suitable for emergencies of acute seizures in status epilepticus and patients suffering from drug tolerance and hepatic impairment on long-term use in treatment of epilepsy, schizophrenia, and anxiety.

  2. Intranasal delivery of antiepileptic medications for treatment of seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermeling, Daniel P

    2009-04-01

    Acute isolated seizure, repetitive or recurrent seizures, and status epilepticus are all deemed medical emergencies. Mortality and worse neurologic outcome are directly associated with the duration of seizure activity. A number of recent reviews have described consensus statements regarding the pharmacologic treatment protocols for seizures when patients are in pre-hospital, institutional, and home-bound settings. Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, diazepam, midazolam, and clonazepam are considered to be medications of first choice. The rapidity by which a medication can be delivered to the systemic circulation and then to the brain plays a significant role in reducing the time needed to treat seizures and reduce opportunity for damage to the CNS. Speed of delivery, particularly outside of the hospital, is enhanced when transmucosal routes of delivery are used in place of an intravenous injection. Intranasal transmucosal delivery of benzodiazepines is useful in reducing time to drug administration and cessation of seizures in the pre-hospital setting, when actively seizing patients arrive in the emergency room, and at home where caregivers treat their dependents. This review summarizes factors to consider when choosing a benzodiazepine for intranasal administration, including formulation and device considerations, pharmacology and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles. A review of the most relevant clinical studies in epilepsy patients will provide context for the relative success of this technique with a number of benzodiazepines and relatively less sophisticated nasal preparations. Neuropeptides delivered intranasally, crossing the blood-brain barrier via the olfactory system, may increase the availability of medications for treatment of epilepsy. Consequently, there remains a significant unmet medical need to serve the pharamcotherapeutic requirements of epilepsy patients through commercial development and marketing of intranasal antiepileptic products.

  3. [Effectiveness of intranasal salmon calcitonin treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaliani, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical efficacy of intranasal salmon calcitonin (Miacalcic, Novartis pharma) treatment in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. 30 women of the main group with established postmenopausal osteoporosis(T-score salmon calcitonin: 200 IU daily for 2 months with subsequent pause of 2 months (3 cycles), 12 months in total. Age matched control group was formed by 25 postmenopausal women with similar clinical status. SOS (speed of sound) of cortical bone was measured in the middle of the tibia by ultrasound densitometer--Sound Scan Compact (Myriad-Israel). Patients of both groups received 500 mg Ca and 200 IU vit.D3 (CaD3 Nycomed) two times daily in the same regimen (two months treatment--two months pause). Our results showed that intranasal treatment with 200 IU daily effectively influence the back pain, reduces bone turnover and significantly increases cortical BMD. Significant changes were not observed in patients of the control group, who received only CaD3 Nycomed, that showed that Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is more effective for prevention of bone lose in postmenopausal women, rather for treatment of established osteoporosis.

  4. Intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain damage : long-term cognitive and sensorimotor improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donega, Vanessa; van Velthoven, Cindy T J; Nijboer, Cora H; van Bel, Frank; Kas, Martien J H; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic wi

  5. Intranasal fentanyl in the treatment of acute pain--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Mathiesen, O; Trautner, S

    2012-01-01

    demonstrated some analgesic effect of IN fentanyl following myringotomy, no analgesic effect following voiding cystourethrography, and finally, no significant analgesic difference after long bone fractures, in burns patients, and in post-operative pain relief when compared to IV morphine, oral morphine, or IV......Due to its non-invasive mode of administration, intranasal (IN) application of drugs may be a valuable alternative to non-invasive pain management. With characteristics that appear to be ideal for IN application, IN fentanyl may have a place in the out-of-hospital treatment and the paediatric....... No significant analgesic differences between IN fentanyl and intravenous (IV) fentanyl were demonstrated in treatment of acute and post-operative pain. Significant analgesic effect of IN fentanyl was demonstrated in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. In the paediatric population, results...

  6. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  7. Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    study pharmacist in an effort to finalize the logistics related to ordering and preparing study medication , and delivery of the intranasal device...completeness of the data and reduce human error . All study staff, including a new clinical psychologist and two recently hired research coordinators...Multisymptom Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Julia Golier CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Bronx Veterans Medical Research

  8. Comparison of desmopressin (DDAVP tablet and intranasal spray in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Bagher Larijani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmoperssin is the drug of choice for treatment of central diabetes insipidus and most commonly it is used as intranasal spray. In this study, efficacy and side effects of oral desmopressin was compared with the intranasal spray. This study was before -after clinical trial on 14 outpatients (9 F, 5 M, age 14 -50 Y with central diabetes insipidus who had been treated with intranasal spray of desmopressin previously. Weight, pulse rate and blood pressure (sitting -standing, biochemical profile, serum electrolytes, 24h urine volume, specific gravity of urine and LFT was measured before and after 1 month study. Starting dose for each patient was one oral tablet of DDAVP (0.1 mg per 8 hours. Paired Samples T-Test was used for data analysis. No clinically significant changes were found as regard to weight, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, electrolyte and urinalysis. Single reported adverse effect was headache (43% in tablet group and dyspnea (7% in spray group. Both dosage forms were able to control diurnal polyuria and nocturnal polyuria. The antidiuretic dose - equivalence ratio for intranasal to oral desmopressin was 1: 18. Spray was superior in terms of rapid onset of action and duration of antidiuretic action in 100% and 78% of cases (not significant, respectively. Tablets were more available and much more easily consumed as reported by patients, in 86% (P=0.0006. Treatment with tablets offers a good alternative to the intranasal route, especially in patients with chronic rhinitis or common cold and similar conditions.

  9. Intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain damage: long-term cognitive and sensorimotor improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Donega

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic window and dose response relationships. Furthermore, the appearance of MSCs at the lesion site in relation to the therapeutic window was examined. Nine-day-old mice were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia. MSCs were administered intranasally at 3, 10 or 17 days after hypoxia-ischemia (HI. Motor, cognitive and histological outcome was investigated. PKH-26 labeled cells were used to localize MSCs in the brain. We identified 0.5 × 10(6 MSCs as the minimal effective dose with a therapeutic window of at least 10 days but less than 17 days post-HI. A single dose was sufficient for a marked beneficial effect. MSCs reach the lesion site within 24 h when given 3 or 10 days after injury. However, no MSCs were detected in the lesion when administered 17 days following HI. We also show for the first time that intranasal MSC treatment after HI improves cognitive function. Improvement of sensorimotor function and histological outcome was maintained until at least 9 weeks post-HI. The capacity of MSCs to reach the lesion site within 24 h after intranasal administration at 10 days but not at 17 days post-HI indicates a therapeutic window of at least 10 days. Our data strongly indicate that intranasal MSC treatment may become a promising non-invasive therapeutic tool to effectively reduce neonatal encephalopathy.

  10. Development and evaluation of brain targeted intranasal alginate nanoparticles for treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of Venlafaxine loaded alginate nanoparticles (VLF AG-NPs) for treatment of depression via intranasal (i.n.) nose to brain delivery route. The VLF AG-NPs were prepared and optimized on the basis of various physio-chemical characteristics. Pharmacodynamic studies of the VLF AG-NPs for antidepressant activity were carried in-vivo by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test on albino Wistar rats. VLF AG-NPsi.n. treatment significantly improved the behavioural analysis parameters i.e. swimming, climbing, and immobility in comparison to the VLF solutioni.n. and VLF tabletoral. The intranasal VLF AG-NPs also improved locomotor activity when compared with VLF solutioni.n. and VLF tabletoral. Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy studies were performed on isolated organs of rats after intravenous and intranasal administrations of Rodamine-123 loaded alginate nanoparticles to determine its efficacy for nose to brain delivery and also for its qualitative distribution to other organs. Brain uptake and pharmacokinetic studies were performed by determination of VLF concentration in blood and brain respectively for VLF AG-NPsi.n., VLF solutioni.n. and VLF solutioni.v. The greater brain/blood ratios for VLF AG-NPsi.n. in comparison to VLF solutioni.n. and VLF solutioni.v. respectively at 30 min are indicative of superiority of alginate nanoparticles for direct nose to brain transport of VLF. Thus, VLF AG-NPsi.n. delivered greater VLF to the brain in comparison to VLF solution which indicates that VLF AG-NPs could be a promising approach for the treatment of depression.

  11. Prevalence of sinusitis and efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid treatment on asthmatic symptoms in asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis: a pilot study.

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    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Noguchi, Shingo; Nishida, Chinatsu; Oda, Keishi; Akata, Kentarou; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence of sinusitis on sinus computed tomography (CT) in asthmatic patients and efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid treatment on asthmatic symptoms in asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis on sinus CT is unclear. Sinus CT of asthmatic patients were evaluated using the Lund-Mackay system (LMS). Intranasal corticosteroid treatment (mometasone furoate) was newly added to symptomatic asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis treated without intranasal corticosteroids, and the findings of the Asthma Control Test (ACT), Asthma Control Questionnaire in 5 items (ACQ5), spirometry, and sinus CT were evaluated before and 3 months after additional intranasal corticosteroid treatment. In a total of 160 asthmatic patients, rhinosinusitis and maxillary, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal sinusitis were observed in 75.0%, 70.0%, 53.1%, 33.1%, and 28.8%, respectively. Nasal symptoms and rhinophonia were observed in 81.9% and 72.5%, respectively, and patients with nasal symptoms and those with rhinophonia both showed significantly higher LMS scores in each sinus. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) was observed in 66.9%, and these patients had significantly more severe asthma than the patients without CRS. In patients with CRS, patients with rhinophonia showed significantly higher LMS scores than those without rhinophonia. ACT, ACQ5, and the value of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) all significantly improved 3 months after the additive intranasal corticosteroid treatment in 24 patients, despite the fact that their LMS scores remained unchanged. Additive intranasal corticosteroid treatment may be an effective treatment option for symptomatic asthmatic patients with rhinosinusitis. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Intranasal insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Hvidberg, A;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic control and safety parameters (hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosa physiology), 31 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for 1 month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin at meals for another month in an open, crossover...... randomized trial. During both treatment periods the patients were treated with intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime. Six of the patients were withdrawn from the study during intranasal insulin therapy due to metabolic dysregulation. Serum insulin concentrations increased more rapidly and decreased more...... quickly during intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin administration. Metabolic control deteriorated, as assessed by haemoglobin A1c concentrations, slightly but significantly after intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin therapy. The bioavailability of intranasally applied insulin...

  13. Treatment with intranasal iloprost reduces disease manifestations in a murine model of previously established COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Naura, Amarjit S; Ibba, Salome V; Davis, Christian J; Okpechi, Samuel C; Happel, Kyle I; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Shellito, Judd; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary endothelial prostacyclin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of treatment with a prostacyclin analog in animal models of previously established COPD is unknown. We evaluated the short- and long-term effect of iloprost on inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of COPD. Nineteen mice were exposed to LPS/elastase, followed by either three doses of intranasal iloprost or saline. In the long-term treatment experiment, 18 mice were exposed to LPS/elastase and then received 6 wk of iloprost or were left untreated as controls. In the short-term experiment, iloprost did not change AHR but significantly reduced serum IL-5 and IFN-γ. Long-term treatment with iloprost for both 2 and 6 wk significantly improved AHR. After 6 wk of iloprost, there was a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) neutrophils, serum IL-1β (30.0 ± 9.2 vs. 64.8 ± 7.4 pg/ml, P = 0.045), IL-2 (36.5 ± 10.6 vs. 83.8 ± 0.4 pg/ml, P = 0.01), IL-10 (75.7 ± 9.3 vs. 96.5 ± 3.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02), and nitrite (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 30.5 ± 10.7 μmol, P = 0.01). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the lung homogenate was also significantly reduced after iloprost treatment (P = 0.02), and SMA thickness was reduced in the small and medium blood vessels after iloprost (P iloprost significantly reduced systemic inflammation in an LPS/elastase COPD model. Long-term iloprost treatment also reduced AHR, serum nitrite, SMA, and BALF neutrophilia. These data encourage future investigations of prostanoid therapy as a novel treatment for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the Australian population: burden of disease and attitudes to intranasal corticosteroid treatment.

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    Katelaris, Constance H; Sacks, Raymond; Theron, Paul N

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) is a global health problem causing significant morbidity and has a major impact on quality of life (QOL) and health expenditure. Despite the widespread prevalence, the overall health impact of AR/C may be underappreciated. The results of a survey designed to capture the burden of allergic rhinitis within the Asia-Pacific region have been published recently. Of particular note when evaluating treatment in this region was the fact that despite the value of intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) use, only a small percentage of patients used them. Whether this same trend is present within the population of Australian sufferers is unknown. This study examines the burden of AR/C and explores use of, and attitudes, to INCS sprays in the Australian population. Three hundred three completed interviews from adults and children who had physician-diagnosed AR/C and who were symptomatic or had received treatment in the previous 12 months were analyzed for QOL measures and attitudes to INCS use. Most patients surveyed had received their diagnosis from a general practitioner (GP), and in most cases, a GP provided the majority of ongoing medical care. Only 8% of respondents had consulted a relevant specialist. Diagnostic tests had not been performed in 55% of respondents. The major symptoms causing most distress were nasal congestion and ocular symptoms. The burden of AR/C was considerable; 42% described significant work or school interference because of symptoms, one-third reporting moderate-to-extreme interference with sleep. Despite the significant impact on QOL reported by this sample, 17% had never used INCS and 27% had not used them in the previous 12 months. Respondents' knowledge about INCSs was poor. AR/C is a common disease associated with significant morbidity and impairment of QOL. Improvement in diagnosis, management, and patient education is needed.

  15. Intranasal LH-RH treatment of cryptorchidism. A clinical trial and 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Mauritzen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of intranasal LH-RH on cryptorchidism was investigated in 45 prepubertal boys with 68 undescended testes. A daily dose of 1.2 mg LH-RH was given for 4 weeks. A total of 16 testes (24%) descended. Follow-up examination 5 years later showed that relapse had occurred in two cases. Fifty-t...

  16. Neuroticism modulates the effects of intranasal vasopressin treatment on the neural response to positive and negative social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; DeMarco, Ashley C; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K

    2015-07-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait associated with proneness to feel negative affect. Here we ask how Neuroticism influences the neural response to positive and negative social interactions and how Neuroticism modulates the effect of intranasal oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on the neural response to social interactions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 male participants were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. On a different day, subjects completed the NEO personality inventory to measure Neuroticism. Neuroticism was positively correlated with the neural response to negative social interactions in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and with the neural response to positive social interactions in the insula, indicating that Neuroticism modulates neuropsychological processing of both negative and positive social interactions. Neuroticism did not modulate the effect of intranasal OT treatment on the neural response to either positive or negative social interactions. On the other hand, AVP treatment significantly interacted with Neuroticism to modulate the BOLD response to both positive and negative social interactions. Specifically, AVP increased anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal lobe responses to negative social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. AVP also increased the insula response to positive social interactions to a greater extent in participants scoring high rather than low on Neuroticism. These results imply that AVP may increase emotion regulation in response to negative social interactions and the salience of positive social interactions to a greater extent in individuals high compared to low in Neuroticism. The current findings urge caution against uniform clinical application of nonapeptides

  17. Intranasal Delivery of Camptothecin-Loaded Tat-Modified Nanomicells for Treatment of Intracranial Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Takashima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG/poly(e-caprolactone (PCL amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG-PCL-Tat didn’t show any cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations (2 mmol/mL. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles significantly prolonged the median survival of rats. These results indicate that intranasal delivery of anti-cancer drugs with cell penetrating peptide-modified nanomicelles might be an effective therapy for brain tumors.

  18. Awake, long-term intranasal insulin treatment does not affect object memory, odor discrimination, or reversal learning in mice.

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    Bell, Genevieve A; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2017-05-15

    Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm. Herein, we investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic insulin IND. Adult, male C57BL6/J mice were intranasally treated with 5μg/μl of insulin twice daily for 30 and 60days. Metabolic assessment indicated no change in body weight, caloric intake, or energy expenditure following chronic insulin IND, but an increase in the frequency of meal bouts selectively in the dark cycle. Unlike acute insulin IND, which has been shown to cause enhanced performance in odor habituation/dishabituation and two-odor discrimination tasks in mice, chronic insulin IND did not enhance olfactometry-based odorant discrimination or olfactory reversal learning. In an object memory recognition task, insulin IND-treated mice did not perform differently than controls, regardless of task duration. Biochemical analyses of the olfactory bulb revealed a modest 1.3 fold increase in IR kinase phosphorylation but no significant increase in Kv1.3 phosphorylation. Substrate phosphorylation of IR kinase downstream effectors (MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling) proved to be highly variable. These data indicate that chronic administration of insulin IND in mice fails to enhance olfactory ability, object memory recognition, or a majority of systems physiology metabolic factors - as reported to

  19. Intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in the treatment of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial

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    Anagnostou Evdokia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no effective medications for the treatment of social cognition/function deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and adult intervention literature in this area is sparse. Emerging data from animal models and genetic association studies as well as early, single-dose intervention studies suggest that the oxytocin system may be a potential therapeutic target for social cognition/function deficits in ASD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the safety/therapeutic effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in adults with ASD, with respect to the two core symptom domains of social cognition/functioning and repetitive behaviors. Methods This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in 19 adults with ASD (16 males; 33.20 ± 13.29 years. Subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in the morning and afternoon for 6 weeks. Measures of social function/cognition (the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy and repetitive behaviors (Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised were administered. Secondary measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale, Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – compulsion subscale and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotional/social subscales. Full-information maximum-likelihood parameter estimates were obtained and tested using mixed-effects regression analyses. Results Although no significant changes were detected in the primary outcome measures after correcting for baseline differences, results suggested improvements after 6 weeks in measures of social cognition (Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test, p = 0.002, d = 1.2, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotion, p = 0.031, d = 0.84, both secondary measures. Oxytocin was well tolerated and no serious adverse

  20. Intranasal complications in women with osteoporosis under treatment with nasal calcitonin spray: case reports and review of the literature.

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    Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Gennadiou, Dimosthenis; Sidiras, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    To describe the nasal side effects of postmenopausal women suffering from osteoporosis and being treated with intranasal calcitonine (InC). Two women who presented with nasal complaints, were diagnosed as having nasal septum perforation and septum-concha inferior synechiae respectively. Both were receiving treatment with InC for postmenopausal osteoporosis. A medline search for similar side effects of InC revealed a range of nasal symptoms and several factors that could induce these symptoms. Exclusion of other causative conditions leads us to attribute the nasal findings to the use of InC. The literature mentions mild and usually reversible side effects from use of InC. Substances included in the calcitonine spray (preservatives, accelerators of absorption), the development of antibodies against the hormone and possible implication of coexisting diseases or medications to the provocation of nasal side effects, are discussed. Intranasal administration of calcitonine is an established therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases. The side effects from its use are commonly local, mild and transient, but there is not sufficient information on how this process begins. An ENT examination before and during therapy with InC would be beneficial to patients for the recognition and prevention of serious side effects.

  1. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  2. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  3. The Effect of Alendronate and Intranasal Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density in Men with Idiopathic Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD in men with idiopathic osteoporosis. After performing a detailed clinical and laboratory assessment in order to eliminate secondary factors that can lead to osteoporosis, fifty-two men with idiopathic osteoporosis were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 patients in the first group received intranasal salmon calcitonin at a dosage of 200 IU/ day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. Twenty-four patients in the second group used 10 mg alendronate/day and 1000 mg calcium/day. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. At the end of the treatment, alendronate produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p0.05. When the groups were compared with each other, a significant increase in lumbar BMD was obtained in favor of alendronate treatment (p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of idiopathic male osteoporosis.

  4. Novel operative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Early Treatment with Intranasal Neostigmine Reduces Mortality in a Mouse Model of Naja naja (Indian Cobra Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Lewin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Most snakebite deaths occur prior to hospital arrival; yet inexpensive, effective, and easy to administer out-of-hospital treatments do not exist. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be therapeutic in neurotoxic envenomations when administered intravenously, but nasally delivered drugs could facilitate prehospital therapy for these patients. We tested the feasibility of this idea in experimentally envenomed mice. Methods. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of Naja naja venom 2.5 to 10 times the estimated LD50 and then received 5 μL neostigmine (0.5 mg/mL or 5 μL normal saline by nasal administration. Animals were observed up to 12 hours and survivors were euthanized. Results. 100% of control mice died. Untreated mice injected with 2.5× LD50 Naja naja died at average 193 minutes after injection, while 10 of 15 (67% of treated mice survived and were behaviorally normal by 6 hours (P<0.02. In the 5× LD50 group, survival was prolonged from 45 minutes to 196 minutes (P=0.01 and for 10× LD50 mice, survival increased from 30 to 175 minutes (P<0.02. Conclusion. This pilot suggests that intranasal drugs can improve survival and is the first direct demonstration that such an approach is plausible, suggesting means by which treatment could be initiated before reaching the hospital. Further investigation of this approach to neurotoxic and other types of envenomation is warranted.

  6. Intranasal insulin therapy: the clinical realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, Sten; Hvidberg, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic control and safety parameters (hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosa physiology), 31 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for 1 month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin at meals for another month in an open, crossover...... randomized trial. During both treatment periods the patients were treated with intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime. Six of the patients were withdrawn from the study during intranasal insulin therapy due to metabolic dysregulation. Serum insulin concentrations increased more rapidly and decreased more...... quickly during intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin administration. Metabolic control deteriorated, as assessed by haemoglobin A1c concentrations, slightly but significantly after intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin therapy. The bioavailability of intranasally applied insulin...

  7. Increase in PAS-induced neuroplasticity after a treatment course of intranasal ketamine for depression. Report of three cases from a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Verònica; Nikolin, Stevan; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Alonzo, Angelo; Somogyi, Andrew A; Loo, Colleen K

    2017-02-01

    Animal studies suggest that neural plasticity may play a role in the antidepressant effects of a single ketamine dose. However, the potential effects of repeated ketamine treatments on human neuroplasticity are unknown. This pilot RCT study measured plasticity-induced changes before and after a ketamine course, in three treatment-resistant depressed subjects, who were randomized to receive 8 intranasal treatments of 100mg ketamine or 4.5mg midazolam. Mood ratings were performed by a trained blinded rater at baseline and 24h-48h after the ketamine course, using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Neuroplasticity was assessed in the motor cortex using a paired associative stimulation (PAS) paradigm at baseline and 24h-48h after the treatment course. No changes in current psychotropic medication or dosage were permitted for 4weeks prior to trial entry and throughout the trial. The subject receiving ketamine, but not those receiving midazolam, presented a marked increase in neural plasticity after the treatment course. However, mood changes were not associated with changes in neural plasticity. Pilot study with small sample size. Concomitant antidepressant medications taken. Plasticity was tested in the motor cortex only, thus the generalizability of these findings to other brain areas cannot be assumed. These results suggest that a course of intranasal ketamine may enhance synaptic plasticity in subjects with depression, but this was not associated with antidepressant effects. Further research on this topic is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment for intranasal synechiae by CO2 laser under endoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunhai; Yin, Shankai

    2005-07-01

    Endonasal low intensity laser therapy (ELILT) began in China in 1998. Now in China it is widely applied to treat hyperlipidemia and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, poststroke depression, intractable headache, ache in head or face, cerebral thrombosis, acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, migraine, brain lesion and mild cognitive impairment. There are four pathways mediating EILILT, Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells. Two unhealth acupoints of Yangming channal inside nose might mediate the one as is low intensity laser acupuncture. Unbalance autonomic nervous systems might be modulated. Blood cells might mediate the one as is intravascular low intensity laser therapy. These three pathways are integrated in ELILT so that serum amyloid β protein, malformation rate of erythrocyte, CCK-8, the level of viscosity at lower shear rates and hematocrit, or serum lipid might decrease, and melanin production/SOD activity or β endorphin might increase after ELILT treatment. These results indicate ELILT might work, but it need to be verified by randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  9. Operative Time, Airway Management, Need for Blood Transfusions, and In-Hospital Stay for Bimaxillary, Intranasal, and Osseous Genioplasty Surgery: Current Clinical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, Jeffrey C; Choi, Elbert; Chavda, Anish

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess operative time, perioperative airway management, early postoperative cardiopulmonary health, need for blood transfusion, and in-hospital stay associated with simultaneous bimaxillary, intranasal, and osseous genioplasty surgery. The authors executed a retrospective cohort study derived from patients treated by 1 surgeon at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. The sample consisted of a consecutive series of patients with symptomatic chronic obstructed nasal breathing and a dentofacial deformity (DFD). All underwent at least a Le Fort I osteotomy, sagittal ramus osteotomies, septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. For each patient, the design of the osteotomies and the fixation techniques were consistent. The outcome variables included need for blood transfusion, operating time, success of nasotracheal intubation, time and place of extubation, early postoperative cardiopulmonary health, length of in-hospital stay, and need for readmission after surgery. For the 166 patients studied, the average age was 25 years (range, 13 to 65 yr; 87 female patients [52%]). The primary patterns of presenting DFD included long face (43 of 166, 26%), maxillary deficiency (41 of 166, 25%), asymmetric mandibular excess (37 of 166, 22%), short face (28 of 166, 17%), and mandibular deficiency (15 of 166, 9%). Forty-two patients (25%) were confirmed to have symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea. The open wound operating time averaged 2 hours 59 minutes (standard deviation, 32 minutes). Only 3 of the 166 patients (1.8%) received blood transfusions. All patients underwent successful nasotracheal intubation. Ninety-six percent of patients were extubated in the operating room and the remaining 4% were extubated in the recovery room. No patients required reintubation or tracheostomy. One hundred thirty-seven patients (83%) were discharged after a 1- or 2-night in-hospital stay. Twenty-five (15%) required a 3-night stay

  10. Intranasal glukagon til behandling af hypoglykaemi. En fremtidig behandlingsmulighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstens, S; Andersen, I; Gustafsson, Ida

    1994-01-01

    or glucose administered intravenously by a physician. These are however not optimal treatments. Obtaining intravenous access requires a medical doctor and glucagon injection is not always properly done by family members. Glucagon administered intranasally has been proven to raise blood glucose levels...... in volunteers. The effect of intranasal glucagon on blood glucose is similar to that seen after intramuscular administration for the first 15 minutes following administration. However, intranasal glucagon seems more physiological in that is stabilizes blood glucose concentrations at nearfasting levels, whereas...... glucagon given intramuscularly tends to give hyperglycaemia. Intranasal glucagon is easy to administer, and can thus prevent serious hypoglycaemic crises and thereby make diabetics and their families more secure....

  11. Intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain with lactoferrin-modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for Parkinson’s disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi CC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chenchen Bi,1,* Aiping Wang,1,* Yongchao Chu,1 Sha Liu,1 Hongjie Mu,1 Wanhui Liu,1 Zimei Wu,1 Kaoxiang Sun,1 Youxin Li1,2 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University, Ministry of Education, 2State Key Laboratory of Long-Acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Shandong Luye Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd., Yantai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sustainable and safe delivery of brain-targeted drugs is highly important for successful therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD. This study was designed to formulate biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs, which were surface-modified with lactoferrin (Lf, for efficient intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain for the treatment of PD. Rotigotine NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation, and the effect of various independent process variables on the resulting properties of NPs was investigated by a Box–Behnken experimental design. The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the NPs and Lf-NPs were characterized, and the release kinetics suggested that both NPs and Lf-NPs provided continuous, slow release of rotigotine for 48 h. Neither rotigotine NPs nor Lf-NPs reduced the viability of 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells; in contrast, free rotigotine was cytotoxic. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake studies demonstrated that accumulation of Lf-NPs was greater than that of NPs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. Following intranasal administration, brain delivery of rotigotine was much more effective with Lf-NPs than with NPs. The brain distribution of rotigotine was heterogeneous, with a higher concentration in the striatum, the primary region affected in PD. This strongly suggested that Lf-NPs enable the targeted delivery of

  12. Intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain with lactoferrin-modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for Parkinson’s disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chenchen; Wang, Aiping; Chu, Yongchao; Liu, Sha; Mu, Hongjie; Liu, Wanhui; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable and safe delivery of brain-targeted drugs is highly important for successful therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study was designed to formulate biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which were surface-modified with lactoferrin (Lf), for efficient intranasal delivery of rotigotine to the brain for the treatment of PD. Rotigotine NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation, and the effect of various independent process variables on the resulting properties of NPs was investigated by a Box–Behnken experimental design. The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the NPs and Lf-NPs were characterized, and the release kinetics suggested that both NPs and Lf-NPs provided continuous, slow release of rotigotine for 48 h. Neither rotigotine NPs nor Lf-NPs reduced the viability of 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells; in contrast, free rotigotine was cytotoxic. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake studies demonstrated that accumulation of Lf-NPs was greater than that of NPs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. Following intranasal administration, brain delivery of rotigotine was much more effective with Lf-NPs than with NPs. The brain distribution of rotigotine was heterogeneous, with a higher concentration in the striatum, the primary region affected in PD. This strongly suggested that Lf-NPs enable the targeted delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Lf-NPs have potential as a carrier for nose-to-brain delivery of rotigotine for the treatment of PD. PMID:27994458

  13. CD36 upregulation mediated by intranasal LV-NRF2 treatment mitigates hypoxia-induced progression of Alzheimer's-like pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Wang, Zhan-You; Xie, Jing-Wei; Cai, Jian-Hui; Wang, Tao; Xu, Ye; Wang, Xu; An, Li

    2014-12-01

    There is extensive evidence that oxidative stress induces cellular dysfunction in the brain and plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Hypoxia increases factors involved in oxidative stress injury and contributes to the onset and progression of AD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a major component regulating antioxidant response, is attenuated in the AD brain. Importantly, NRF2 directly regulates the alternative first exons of CD36, an important participant in oxidative and inflammatory processes. To explore the effects of hypoxia-induced deterioration of AD-like pathogenesis and investigate the correlation between hypoxia-induced NRF2 signal alterations and CD36 expression, we examined the NRF2 signaling, CD36, and oxidative stress events in hypoxia-treated APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice brain. We observed that hypoxia treatment increased oxidative stress, exacerbated inflammation, and aggravated learning defects in aged APP/PS1 mice. Microglia from hypoxia-treated mice brain exhibited marked reduction in CD36 expression and inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) degradation. Accordingly, hypoxia treatment caused a decrease in transactivation of NRF2 target genes in the aging mouse brain. Intranasal administration with a lentiviral vector encoding human NRF2 increased CD36 expression, ameliorated the weak antioxidant response triggered by hypoxia, diminished Aβ deposition, and improved spatial memory defects. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that NRF2 intranasal treatment-induced increases of CD36 could enhance Aβ clearance in AD transgenic mouse. These results suggest that targeting NRF2-mediated CD36 expression might provide a beneficial intervention for cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in AD progression.

  14. Increased Secretion of Endogenous GH after Treatment with an Intranasal GH-releasing Peptide-2 Spray Does Not Promote Growth in Short Children with GH Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Yokoya, Susumu; Nishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether treatment with an intranasal GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 spray, which acts as a potent GH secretagogue that stimulates endogenous GH secretion, promotes growth in patients with GH deficiency (GHD). This study involved 126 prepubertal short children (81 males, 45 females) with a height SD score of -2 SD or less, who had been diagnosed as having GHD based on GH stimulation tests, and in whom the serum GH concentrations increased up to 9 ng/ml after preliminary administration of an intranasal GHRP-2 spray. The subjects included in this study were divided into 3 groups by use of a double-blind method; that is 44 were placed into the placebo group (P group: 30 males, 14 females), 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 low dose group (L group: 25 males, 16 females), and 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 high dose group (H group: 26 males, 15 females). Those with a body wt of less than 20 kg were administered a placebo (P group), 50 μg of GHRP-2 (L group) or 100 μg of GHRP-2 (H group), and those with a body wt of 20 kg or more were administered a placebo (P group), 100 µg of GHRP-2 (L group) or 200 µg of GHRP-2 (H group) twice daily (morning and evening) for 48 continuous wk. Age and height SD scores at baseline were not significantly different among the three groups: 7.5 yr old and -2.26 SD in the P group, 7.3 yr old and -2.38 SD in the L group, and 7.5 yr old and -2.27 SD in the H group. Of the 126 subjects, 44, 40 and 40 subjects in the P, L and H groups, respectively, completed the 48 continuous wk of treatment. The changes in the mean height SD scores (mean growth rate) after 48 wk of treatment in the P, L and H groups were 0.07 SD, 0.03 SD, and 0.02 SD, respectively, and thus no significant differences was observed among the 3 groups. Also no significant changes in blood IGF-I levels at baseline or after 48 wk of treatment were observed among the 3 groups. This study revealed that in patients with GHD, an increase in endogenous GH secretion as a

  15. Effect of Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroid and Oral Antihistamine on Cytokine Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Sensitive to Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine. PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively. After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10. Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10. This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  16. Intranasal Poly-IC treatment exacerbates tuberculosis in mice through the pulmonary recruitment of a pathogen-permissive monocyte/macrophage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Lis R V; Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Antonio; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Roffê, Ester; Cheever, Allen W; Bafica, Andre; Salazar, Andres M; Feng, Carl G; Sher, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Type I IFN has been demonstrated to have major regulatory effects on the outcome of bacterial infections. To assess the effects of exogenously induced type I IFN on the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we treated pathogen-exposed mice intranasally with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid condensed with poly-l-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC), an agent designed to stimulate prolonged, high-level production of type I IFN. Drug-treated, M. tuberculosis-infected WT mice, but not mice lacking IFN-alphabeta receptor 1 (IFNalphabetaR; also known as IFNAR1), displayed marked elevations in lung bacillary loads, accompanied by widespread pulmonary necrosis without detectable impairment of Th1 effector function. Importantly, lungs from Poly-ICLC-treated M. tuberculosis-infected mice exhibited a striking increase in CD11b+F4/80+Gr1int cells that displayed decreased MHC II expression and enhanced bacterial levels relative to the same subset of cells purified from infected, untreated controls. Moreover, both the Poly-ICLC-triggered pulmonary recruitment of the CD11b+F4/80+Gr1int population and the accompanying exacerbation of infection correlated with type I IFN-induced upregulation of the chemokine-encoding gene Ccl2 and were dependent on host expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2. The above findings suggest that Poly-ICLC treatment can detrimentally affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection, by promoting the accumulation of a permissive myeloid population in the lung. In addition, these data suggest that agents that stimulate type I IFN should be used with caution in patients exposed to this pathogen.

  17. Implementation of Intranasal Midazolam for Prolonged Seizures in a Child Neurology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Currently, evidence supports the use of intranasal midazolam as an effective, and in many cases, preferable treatment option for prolonged seizures in children. Despite this knowledge, intranasal midazolam is not routinely found as a standard of care. The goal of this project was to implement the use of intranasal midazolam as a rescue medication for prolonged seizures within a child neurology practice and, in doing so, create a model for implementation that would be replicable for other practice sites. This project focused on the development of a process to make intranasal midazolam available as a treatment option and then the creation of an educational intervention for providers within a child neurology practice. Provider surveys analyzed provider attitudes toward intranasal midazolam and its frequency of use. Because of this project, a dramatic increase in the prescribing of intranasal midazolam was observed within a child neurology practice.

  18. [Operative treatment of chronic pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhyĭ, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O; Elastal, R Z

    2008-09-01

    Basing on the literature data and own experience, grounded on results of follow-up on 2000 patients, suffering an acute pleuritis and performance of more than 200 operative interventions--pleurectomy, the clinic-radiological classification of chronic pleuritis, mostly answering the practical health care necessities, was proposed by the authors.

  19. Operative treatment of Brodie's abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, E C; Singer, L

    1991-01-01

    This manuscript deals with a unique operative management of unilateral Brodie's abscess in a 16-year-old male. Brodie's abscess is a common finding in childhood osteomyelitis. A review of the radiographic appearance, clinical presentation, and surgical management is presented.

  20. [Operative treatment of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermann, B

    1999-07-08

    The majority of diabetic foot ulcers are the results of repetitive pressure that exceeds the threshold of soft-tissue tolerance, leading to mechanical destruction of the tissue. Progression of plantar ulcers can rapidly lead to osteomyelitis that may result in loss of the foot through amputation. In order to prevent such a disaster, surgical treatment should be taken into consideration when conservative treatment remains without success. The goal of surgical treatment of an infected ulcer is debridement of the soft-tissue and removal of the underlying pressure by careful bone resection or correction of a deformity by arthrodesis. Various authors have recently reported successful surgical reconstruction of neuroarthropathic foot deformity and instability. Apparently arthrodesis is a viable alternative to amputation for patients with unstable deformity or recurrent ulceration. Proper preoperative evaluation is mandatory. The indications are not well defined yet.

  1. Neurosurgical complications after intranasal ethmoidectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Toselli, R M; dePapp, A; Harbaugh, R E; Saunders, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Intranasal ethmoidectomy is a common otolaryngological procedure. Despite the potential for serious intracranial complications, there is a paucity of reports describing the neurosurgical complications of the procedure. Two patients with intracranial complications of intranasal ethmoidectomy, and the relevant medical literature, are reviewed. The anatomy of the ethmoid air cells and their relation to the intracranial cavity are described. The importance of definitive, emergent repair with atte...

  2. The use of Midazolam as an Intranasal Sedative in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Anwen

    2016-01-01

    The administration of midazolam intranasally exploits the unique structure of the nasopharynx thus ensuring rapid delivery to the systemic circulation (The Nose - Brain Pathway). The absorption of midazolam nasally is influenced by the volume and concentration of midazolam, its physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the nasal mucosa. Delivering midazolam intranasally is non-titratable. The level of conscious sedation may be equivalent to that achieved by intravenous routes but is approached in a less controlled manner. Randomised Control trials using intranasal sedation in children have shown the technique to be safe and effective in secondary care for dental procedures at concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg. A combined technique of intranasal midazolam (to facilitate cannulation) and intravenous midazolam is used for adults with moderate to severe learning disabilities. This has revolutionised dental treatment for this group of patients as treatment under General Anaesthesia (GA) may be avoided. Intranasal delivery of midazolam is emerging as a significant tool in our dental armamentarium for the treatment of anxious children, phobic adult patients and patients with learning disabilities.

  3. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  4. 21 CFR 874.4780 - Intranasal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... An intranasal splint is intended to minimize bleeding and edema and to prevent adhesions between the septum and the nasal cavity. It is placed in the nasal cavity after surgery or trauma. The intranasal...

  5. ENHANCED BIOAVAILABILITY OF DRUGS VIA INTRANASAL DRUG DELIVEY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kumar Brajesh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present investigation is to explain the enhancement of bioavailability of drug through intranasal drug delivery system. Intranasal Therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. Recently, it has been shown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. This has been attributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled with avoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. Intranasal microemulsion, gels, nanoparticles, liposome and microspheres have gained increased interest in recent years as a delivery system for protein and peptides through the nasal route. Thus this review focuses on nasal drug delivery, nasal drug absorption mechanisms, various mechanisms for increasing the bioavailability of drug, and their applications in drug delivery.

  6. Glucose recovery after intranasal glucagon during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Djurup, R; Hilsted, J

    1994-01-01

    concentrations 15 min after intranasal and i.m. administration of glucagon differed marginally. However, after 5 min the glucose appearance rate, as well as the incremental values for plasma glucose, were significantly higher for the i.m. glucagon treatment. The mean time taken for incremental plasma glucose...... to exceed 3 mmol.l-1 was significantly shorter for i.m. glucagon. The mean plasma glucagon level increased faster after i.m. glucagon than after intranasal glucagon, and the levels remained higher throughout the study period. We conclude that glucose recovery was significantly better after i...

  7. Fluticasone furoate: A new intranasal corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal corticosteroids are recommended as one of the first-line therapies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR, especially when associated with nasal congestion and recurrent symptoms. Fluticasone furoate is a novel enhanced-affinity glucocorticoid for the treatment of AR approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2007 and recently introduced in India. Fluticasone furoate nasal spray is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal and perennial AR in patients aged two years and older. This review summarizes the clinical data on fluticasone furoate nasal spray and discusses its role in the management of AR. Important attributes of fluticasone furoate include low systemic bioavailability (<0.5%, 24-h symptom relief with once-daily dosing, comprehensive coverage of both nasal and ocular symptoms, safety and tolerability with daily use, and availability in a side-actuated device that makes medication delivery simple and consistent. With these properties, fluticasone furoate nasal spray has the potential to enhance patient satisfaction and compliance, thus making it a good choice amongst available intranasal steroids.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) was evaluated using data collected in Phase II IND protocols. We reported earlier statistically significant gender differences in PK parameters of INSCOP at a dose level of 0.4 mg. To identify covariates that influence PK parameters of INSCOP, we examined population covariates of INSCOP PK model for 0.4 mg dose. Methods: Plasma scopolamine concentrations versus time data were collected from 20 normal healthy human subjects (11 male/9 female) after a 0.4 mg dose. Phoenix NLME was employed for PK analysis of these data using gender, body weight and age as covariates for model selection. Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL). Statistical significance for base model building and individual covariate analysis was set at P less than 0.05{delta(-2LL)=3.84}. Results: A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order elimination best described INSCOP concentration ]time profiles. Inclusion of gender, body weight and age as covariates individually significantly reduced -2LL by the cut-off value of 3.84(P less than 0.05) when tested against the base model. After the forward stepwise selection and backward elimination steps, gender was selected to add to the final model which had significant influence on absorption rate constant (ka) and the volume of distribution (V) of INSCOP. Conclusion: A population pharmacokinetic model for INSCOP has been identified and gender was a significant contributing covariate for the final model. The volume of distribution and Ka were significantly higher in males than in females which confirm gender-dependent pharmacokinetics of scopolamine after administration of a 0.4 mg dose.

  9. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849

  10. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, Maha A

    2016-09-01

    To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol, and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry.  Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its' onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Intranasal midazolam, ketamine, and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications.

  11. Intranasal Oxytocin: Myths and Delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Gareth; Ludwig, Mike

    2016-02-01

    Despite widespread reports that intranasal application of oxytocin has a variety of behavioral effects, very little of the huge amounts applied intranasally appears to reach the cerebrospinal fluid. However, peripheral concentrations are increased to supraphysiologic levels, with likely effects on diverse targets including the gastrointestinal tract, heart, and reproductive tract. The wish to believe in the effectiveness of intranasal oxytocin appears to be widespread and needs to be guarded against with scepticism and rigor. Preregistering trials, declaring primary and secondary outcomes in advance, specifying the statistical methods to be applied, and making all data openly available should minimize problems of publication bias and questionable post hoc analyses. Effects of intranasal oxytocin also need proper dose-response studies, and such studies need to include control subjects for peripheral effects, by administering oxytocin peripherally and by blocking peripheral actions with antagonists. Reports in the literature of oxytocin measurements include many that have been made with discredited methodology. Claims that peripheral measurements of oxytocin reflect central release are questionable at best.

  12. Intranasal corticosteroids compared with oral antihistamines in allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Berg, Nanna; Darling, Peter; Bolvig, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intranasal corticosteroids (INS) (corticosteroid nasal sprays) and oral antihistamines (OA) are two of the most common treatments for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews on this topic including trials published after 2007. Objective...

  13. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Mann

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with either placebo, antigen alone, CSN adjuvanted antigen, or TM-CSN adjuvanted antigen. Homologous and intra-subtypic antibody cross-reacting responses were assessed. Ferrets were inoculated intratracheally (all treatments or intranasally (CSN adjuvanted and placebo treatments only with clade 1 HPAI A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus 28 days after the second vaccination and subsequently monitored for morbidity and mortality outcomes. Clinical signs were assessed and nasal as well as throat swabs were taken daily for virology. Samples of lung tissue, nasal turbinates, brain, and olfactory bulb were analysed for the presence of virus and examined for histolopathological findings. In contrast to animals vaccinated with antigen alone, the CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccines induced high levels of antibodies, protected ferrets from death, reduced viral replication and abrogated disease after intratracheal challenge, and in the case of CSN after intranasal challenge. In particular, the TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccine was highly effective at eliciting protective immunity from intratracheal challenge; serologically, protective titres were demonstrable after one vaccination. The 2-dose schedule with TM-CSN vaccine also induced cross-reactive antibodies to clade 2.1 and 2.2 H5N1 viruses. Furthermore ferrets immunised with TM-CSN had no detectable virus in the respiratory tract or brain, whereas there were signs of virus in the throat and lungs, albeit at significantly reduced levels, in CSN vaccinated animals. This study demonstrated for the first time that CSN and in particular TM-CSN adjuvanted intranasal vaccines have the potential to protect against significant

  14. Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, Anca; Yaphe, John

    2013-12-02

    Acute sinusitis is a common reason for primary care visits. It causes significant symptoms and often results in time off work and school. We examined whether intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are effective in relieving symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults and children. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, MEDLINE (January 1966 to May week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to May 2013) and bibliographies of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing INCS treatment to placebo or no intervention in adults and children with acute sinusitis. Acute sinusitis was defined by clinical diagnosis and confirmed by radiological evidence or by nasal endoscopy. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with either resolution or improvement of symptoms. Secondary outcomes were any adverse events that required discontinuation of treatment, drop-outs before the end of the study, rates of relapse, complications and return to school or work. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed trial quality and resolved discrepancies by consensus. No new trials were found for inclusion in this update. Four studies involving 1943 participants with acute sinusitis met our inclusion criteria. The trials were well-designed and double-blind and studied INCS versus placebo or no intervention for 15 or 21 days. The rates of loss to follow-up were 7%, 11%, 41% and 10%. When we combined the results from the three trials included in the meta-analysis, participants receiving INCS were more likely to experience resolution or improvement in symptoms than those receiving placebo (73% versus 66.4%; risk ratio (RR) 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.18). Higher doses of INCS had a stronger effect on improvement of symptoms or complete relief: for mometasone furoate 400 µg versus 200 µg (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.18 versus RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.11). No significant adverse events were reported and there was no significant difference in the drop-out and

  15. Intranasal delivery of obidoxime to the brain prevents mortality and CNS damage from organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Arun, Peethambaran; Appu, Abhilash P; Vijayakumar, Nivetha; Figueiredo, Taíza H; Braga, Maria F M; Baskota, Sudikshya; Olsen, Cara H; Farkas, Natalia; Dagata, John; Frey, William H; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2016-03-01

    Intranasal delivery is an emerging method for bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB) and targeting therapeutics to the CNS. Oximes are used to counteract the effects of organophosphate poisoning, but they do not readily cross the BBB. Therefore, they cannot effectively counteract the central neuropathologies caused by cholinergic over-activation when administered peripherally. For these reasons we examined intranasal administration of oximes in an animal model of severe organophosphate poisoning to determine their effectiveness in reducing mortality and seizure-induced neuronal degeneration. Using the paraoxon model of organophosphate poisoning, we administered the standard treatment (intramuscular pralidoxime plus atropine sulphate) to all animals and then compared the effectiveness of intranasal application of obidoxime (OBD) to saline in the control groups. Intranasally administered OBD was effective in partially reducing paraoxon-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the brain and substantially reduced seizure severity and duration. Further, intranasal OBD completely prevented mortality, which was 41% in the animals given standard treatment plus intranasal saline. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed extensive neuronal degeneration in the surviving saline-treated animals 24h after paraoxon administration, whereas no detectable degenerating neurons were observed in any of the animals given intranasal OBD 30min before or 5min after paraoxon administration. These findings demonstrate that intranasally administered oximes bypass the BBB more effectively than those administered peripherally and provide an effective method for protecting the brain from organophosphates. The addition of intranasally administered oximes to the current treatment regimen for organophosphate poisoning would improve efficacy, reducing both brain damage and mortality.

  16. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    AlSarheed, Maha A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were art...

  17. Comparison of intranasal hypertonic dead sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordray, Scott; Harjo, Jim B; Miner, Linda

    2005-07-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are well known to be efficacious in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Nasal irrigation with saline, including hypertonic saline, has long been recommended for the treatment of sinonasal disease, and it has been shown to have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa. Until now, no study of the clinical efficacy of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline as a monotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis has been reported. We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in 15 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Results were based on a 7-day regimen. Based on Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores, clinically and statistically significant (p Dead Sea saline solution can be an effective alternative in mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis, particularly with respect to nasal and eye symptoms. The hypertonicity of the Dead Sea solution may have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa by improving mucociliary clearance. In addition, the dominant cation in the Dead Sea solution--magnesium--probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the nasal mucosa and on the systemic immune response.

  18. Intranasal Tooth - An Ectopic Eruption of Mesiodens in Nasal Cavity: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Guru Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intranasal tooth (INT is an ectopic tooth erupting into the nasal cavity. It is a rare clinical entity. Ectopic and supernumerary teeth may be present in many regions of maxillofacial skeleton. Ectopic teeth maybe supernumerary, deciduous or permanent. The clinical manifestations of intranasal tooth are quite variable and they may cause a variety of symptoms and complications. Their clinical and radiographic presentations are classical, posing little challenge to the diagnostician. The identification of such teeth can be important since they have potential to cause considerable morbidity. Here, we describe a case of intranasal tooth along with possible etiopathogenesis, clinical and radiographic features, differential diagnosis, potential complications and treatment modalities.

  19. [BETA-ADRENERGIC REGULATION OF THE ADENYLYL CYCLASE SIGNALING SYSTEM IN MYOCARDIUM AND BRAIN OF RATS WITH OBESITY AND TYPES 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM INTRANASAL INSULIN TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Sharova, T S; Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2015-01-01

    The stimulating effect of norepinephrine, isoproterenol and selective β-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) agonists BRL 37344 and CL 316.243 on the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) in the brain and myocardium of young and mature rats (disease induction at 2 and 4 months, respectively) with experimental obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and the influence of long-term treatment of animals with intranasal insulin (I-I) were studied. The AC stimulatory effects of β-agonist isoproterenol in animals with obesity and DM2 was shown to be practically unchanged. The respective effects of norepinephrine on the AC activity were attenuated in the brain of young and mature rats and in the myocardium if mature rats, and the I-I treatment led to their partial recovery. In the brain and myocardium of mature rats with obesity and DM2, the enhancement of the AC stimulatory effects of β3-AR agonists was observed, white in young rats the influence of the same pathological conditions was lacking. The I-I treatment decreased the AC stimulatory effects of β3-agonists to their levels in the control. Since functional disruption of the adrenergic agonist-sensitive ACSS can lead to metabolic syndrome and DM2, the recovery of this system by the I-I treatment offers one of the ways to correct these diseases and their complications in the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  20. The Effect of Long-Term Intranasal Serotonin Treatment on Metabolic Parameters and Hormonal Signaling in Rats with High-Fat Diet/Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira V. Derkach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 was carried out using regulators of the brain signaling systems. In DM2 the level of the brain serotonin is reduced. So far, the effect of the increase of the brain serotonin level on DM2-induced metabolic and hormonal abnormalities has been studied scarcely. The present work was undertaken with the aim of filling this gap. DM2 was induced in male rats by 150-day high-fat diet and the treatment with low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg on the 70th day of experiment. From the 90th day, diabetic rats received for two months intranasal serotonin (IS at a daily dose of 20 μg/rat. The IS treatment of diabetic rats decreased the body weight, and improved glucose tolerance, insulin-induced glucose utilization, and lipid metabolism. Besides, it restored hormonal regulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC activity in the hypothalamus and normalized AC stimulation by β-adrenergic agonists in the myocardium. In nondiabetic rats the same treatment induced metabolic and hormonal alterations, some of which were similar to those in DM2 but expressed to a lesser extent. In conclusion, the elevation of the brain serotonin level may be regarded as an effective approach to treat DM2 and its complications.

  1. Intranasal insulin therapy: the clinical realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, Sten; Hvidberg, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic control and safety parameters (hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosa physiology), 31 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for 1 month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin at meals for another month in an open, crossover...... was low, since intranasal insulin doses were approximately 20 times higher than subcutaneous doses. The frequency of hypoglycaemia was similar during intranasal and subcutaneous insulin therapy, and nasal mucosa physiology was unaffected after intranasal insulin. We conclude that due to low...

  2. Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) delivery has been used to non-invasively manipulate mammalian cooperative behavior. Such manipulations can potentially provide insight into both shared and species-specific mechanisms underlying cooperation. Vampire bats are remarkable for their high rates of allogrooming and the presence of regurgitated food sharing among adults. We administered intranasal OT to highly familiar captive vampire bats of varying relatedness to test for an effect on allogrooming and food sharing. We found that intranasal OT did not have a detectable effect on food-sharing occurrence, but it did increase the size of regurgitated food donations when controlling for dyad and amount of allogrooming. Intranasal OT in females increased the amount of allogrooming per partner and across all partners per trial, but not the number of partners. We also found that the peak effect of OT treatments occurred 30-50min after administration, which is consistent with the reported latency for intranasal OT to affect relevant brain areas in rats and mice. Our results suggest that intranasal OT is a potential tool for influencing dyadic cooperative investments, but measuring prior social relationships may be necessary to interpret the results of hormonal manipulations of cooperative behavior and it may be difficult to alter partner choice in vampire bats using intranasal OT alone.

  3. Buccal midazolam spray as an alternative to intranasal route for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Mittal, Meenu; Bansal, Kalpana; Chaudhuri, Payal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptance of midazolam spray through buccal route as compared to intranasal route and compare the efficacy of the drug through both the routes. 30 patients aged 2-8 years with Grade I or II Frankl's Behaviour Rating Scale were selected who required similar treatment under local anesthesia on two teeth. Midazolam spray was administered randomly through buccal or intranasal routes for the two appointments. Scoring was done for the acceptance of drug and Houpt's score was recorded for the behaviour of patients during the treatment. Acceptance of drug through buccal route was significantly better than the intranasal route (p 0.05). Midazolam spray can be effectively used through the buccal mucosa in children who give poor compliance with the intranasal administration.

  4. Intranasal delivery of ciprofloxacin to rats: A topical approach using a thermoreversible in situ gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Oliveira, Paula; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2017-01-15

    Intranasal administration of antibiotics is an alternative and attractive delivery approach in the treatment of local infections such as chronic rhinosinusitis. This topical route has the advantage of delivering high drug concentrations directly to the site of infection when trying to eradicate the highly resistant bacterial biofilms. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin following intranasal and intravenous administrations to rats in plasma, olfactory bulb and nasal mucosa of two different nasal regions. For intranasal administration a thermoreversible in situ gel was used to increase drug residence time in nasal cavity. Ciprofloxacin concentration time-profile in nasal mucosa of the studied anterior region (at naso- and maxilloturbinates level) was markedly higher after intranasal administration (0.24mg/kg) than that following intravenous administration (10mg/kg), while in nasal mucosa of the more posterior region (at ethmoidal turbinates level) ciprofloxacin concentrations were found to be higher after intranasal administration when the different dose administered by both routes is taken into account. A plateau in ciprofloxacin concentration was observed in nasal mucosa of both studied regions after intranasal administration, suggesting a slow delivery of the drug over a period of time using the nasal gel formulation. In plasma and olfactory bulb, concentration of ciprofloxacin was residual after intranasal administration, which demonstrates this is a safe administration route by preventing systemic and particularly central nervous system adverse effects. Dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin exposure to nasal mucosa revealed higher values after intranasal delivery not only in the anterior region but also in the posterior nasal region. In conclusion, topical intranasal administration appears to be advantageous for delivering ciprofloxacin to the biophase, with negligible systemic

  5. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  6. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelser, Andries; Müller, Douw G; du Plessis, Jeanetta; du Preez, Jan L; Goosen, Colleen

    2002-09-01

    The intranasal route of administration provides a potential useful way of administering a range of systemic drugs. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach for the treatment of nausea and vomiting, doxylamine succinate was studied in rats for the pharmacokinetics (AUC, C(max), t(max)) following intranasal, oral and intravenous administrations. Subjects (six male Sprague-Dawley rats per time interval for each route of administration) received 2-mg doses of doxylamine succinate orally and I-mg doses intranasally and intravenously, respectively. The various formulations were formulated in isotonic saline (0.9% w/v) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. Doxylamine succinate concentrations in plasma were determined with a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay and a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Intranasal and oral bioavailabilities were determined from AUC values relative to those after intravenous dosing. Intranasal bioavailability was greater than that of oral doxylamine succinate (70.8 vs 24.7%). The intranasal and oral routes of administration differed significantly from the intravenous route of administration. Peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 887.6 ng/ml (S.D. 74.4), 281.4 ng/ml (S.D. 24.6) and 1296.4 ng/ml (S.D. 388.9) for the intranasal, oral and intravenous routes, respectively. The time to achieve C(max) for the intranasal route (t(max)=0.5 h) was faster than for the oral route (t(max)=1.5 h), but no statistically significant differences between the C(max) values were found using 95% confidence intervals. The results of this study show that doxylamine succinate is rapidly and effectively absorbed from the nasal mucosa.

  8. The rostral migratory stream plays a key role in intranasal delivery of drugs into the CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Scranton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood brain barrier (BBB is impermeable to most drugs, impeding the establishment of novel neuroprotective therapies and strategies for many neurological diseases. Intranasal administration offers an alternative path for efficient drug delivery into the CNS. So far, the anatomical structures discussed to be involved in the transport of intranasally administered drugs into the CNS include the trigeminal nerve, olfactory nerve and the rostral migratory stream (RMS, but the relative contributions are debated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study we demonstrate that surgical transection, and the resulting structural disruption of the RMS, in mice effectively obstructs the uptake of intranasally administered radioligands into the CNS. Furthermore, using a fluorescent cell tracer, we demonstrate that intranasal administration in mice allows agents to be distributed throughout the entire brain, including olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of the vital role the RMS has in the CNS delivery of intranasally administered agents. The identification of the RMS as the major access path for intranasally administered drugs into the CNS may contribute to the development of treatments that are tailored for efficient transport within this structure. Research into the RMS needs to continue to elucidate its limitations, capabilities, mechanisms of transport and potential hazards before we are able to advance this technique into human research.

  9. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  10. 孟鲁司特联合鼻内激素治疗儿童腺样体肥大的临床观察%Clinical efficacy of combined treatment with montelukast and intranasal steroid for chronic adenoid hypertrophy in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 刘大波; 刘少峰; 仇书要

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To observe the clinical efficacy of combined treatment with montelukast and intranasal steroid for chronic adenoid hypertrophy in children. Methods 47 children with chronic adenoid hypertrophy were selected and ran-domly divided into drug combination group (n=23) treated with montelukast combined with intranasal steroids for two months and control group (n=24) treated with intranasal steroids only for two months. Clinical efficacy was compared between two groups by clinical score and the result of fibronasopharyngoscopy. Results The clinical scores were 0 (0, 1.0) and 0(0, 0) at 2 weeks and 2 months after treatment in combination group, and 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) and 0 (0, 1.0) in control group. There were sig-nificant differences between two groups (Z=2.404, P<0.05;Z=2.069, P<0.05). Conclusions The clinical efficacy of combined treatment with Montelukast and intranasal steroid is better than that of treatment with intranasal steroid only in children with chronic adenoid hypertrophy.%  目的观察孟鲁司特联合鼻内激素治疗儿童腺样体肥大的短期疗效。方法选取腺样体肥大患儿47例,随机分成2组。联合用药组23例,采用孟鲁司特与鼻内激素联合治疗;对照组24例,单用鼻内激素治疗;连续治疗2个月。根据纤维鼻咽镜检查和改进的Bitar临床评分方法比较两组疗效。结果联合用药组治疗2周和2个月的临床评分分别为0(0,1.0);0(0,0),优于对照组的临床评分1.0(1.0,1.0);0(0,1.0),差异具有统计学意义(Z=2.404、2.069,P均<0.05)。结论孟鲁司特联合鼻内激素治疗腺样体肥大的疗效优于单纯使用鼻内激素。

  11. Comparison of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for intranasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in children posted for elective surgery: a double-blind, randomised study. Deepak Singlaa* , Gunjan ... Intranasal midazolam as premedication in preschool children was first studied by Wilton ... Material and methods. This double-blind equally ...

  12. OPERATIVE TREATMENT FOR DEGENERATIVE LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo K. Fokter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS is a common cause of low back and leg pain in the elderly. Conservative treatment seldom results in sustained improvement.Methods. Fifty-six patients (33 women, 23 men older than 50 years (mean 67 years, range 51 to 82 years and with no prior low back surgery were treated from 1993 to 1999 for clinical and radiologic evidence of DLSS. The goal of this study was to describe the results of decompressive laminectomy with or without fusion in terms of reoperation, severity of back pain, leg pain and patient satisfaction. Answers to Swiss spinal stenosis questionnaires completed before surgery and one to five years afterwards were evaluated. Seven patients (12.5% with degenerative spondylolisthesis, scoliosis and/or more radical facetectomies received fusion.Results. Of the 56 patients in the original cohort, two were deceased and two had undergone reoperation by follow-up. Forty-eight patients answered questionnaires. Average duration of follow-up was 2.5 years. More than 70 percent of the respondents had no or only mild back or buttock pain at follow-up and more than 60 percent were able to walk more than 500 m. Added fusion reduced the incidence of low back pain and pain frequency, and increased walking distance (ANOVA.Conclusions. Eighty-one percent of patients were satisfied with the results of surgery and 87.5% would choose to have the operation again if they had the choice. Decompressive laminectomy for DLSS yields best results if instrumented fusion is included in the procedure.

  13. [Conservative or operative treatment for chondropathia patellae?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R; Rau, R

    1980-04-01

    Results of the conservative and operative therapy in chondropathia patellae are reported. A high percentage of freedom from symptoms was achieved by physiotherapeutic measures and intra-articular Arteparon-injections.

  14. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  15. Intranasal Rapamycin Rescues Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus are potent activators of the immune system and cause toxic shock in humans. Currently there is no effective treatment except for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins administered shortly after SEB exposure. Intranasal SEB induces long-lasting lung injury which requires prolonged drug treatment. We investigated the effects of rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug used to prevent graft rejection, by intranasal administration in a lethal mouse model of SEB-induced shock. The results show that intranasal rapamycin alone delivered as late as 17 h after SEB protected 100% of mice from lethal shock. Additionally, rapamycin diminished the weight loss and temperature fluctuations elicited by SEB. Intranasal rapamycin attenuated lung MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNγ by 70%, 30%, 64%, and 68% respectively. Furthermore, short courses (three doses of rapamycin were sufficient to block SEB-induced shock. Intranasal rapamycin represents a novel use of an immunosuppressant targeting directly to site of toxin exposure, reducing dosages needed and allowing a wider therapeutic window.

  16. The operative treatment of chronic calcaneal paratenonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, H; Kvist, M

    1980-08-01

    The conservative management of chronic calcaneal paratenonitis is time-consuming and often unsatisfactory. A new, safe and simple technique is described. The crural fascia on both sides of the tendon is incised and left open, adhesions around the tendon are trimmed away, the strongly hypertrophied portions of the paratenon are removed and mobilisation is begun immediately after operation. Between 1961 and 1978 201 such operations were performed on 182 patients 62 of whom were top-ranking Finnish athletes. Only five patients were not athletes. The results, including early return to full activity, were excellent in 169, good in 25 and poor in seven cases. After operation one of the patients gained an Olympic gold medal; others have attained international prominence.

  17. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formulation (Inscop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Simmons, Rita; Buckey, Jay; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is commonly experienced by astronauts and often requires treatment with medications during early flight days of space missions. Orally administered scopolamine is commonly used by astronauts to prevent SMS. Bioavailability of oral (PO) SMS medications is often low and highly variable. Intranasal (IN) administration of medications achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than from an equivalent PO dose. Methods: To test the safety and reliability of INSCOP, two clinical studies were performed, a dose escalation study and a comparison study administering INSCOP during normal ambulation and head down tilt bedrest. Efficacy was evaluated by testing INSCOP with two, different motion sickness inducing paradigms. Results: Preliminary results indicate that INSCOP demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics and a low side effect profile. In head down tilt bedrest, relative bioavailability of INSCOP was increased for females at both doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg) and for males at the higher dose (0.4 mg) but is reduced at the lower dose (0.2 mg) compared to normal ambulation. INSCOP displays gender specific differences during ABR. One of the treatment efficacy trials conducted at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center demonstrated that INSCOP is efficacious at both doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg) in suppressing motion sickness symptoms as indicated by longer chair ride times with INSCOP administration than with placebo, and efficacy increases with dose. Similar results were seen using another motion sickness simulator, the motion simulator dome, at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, with significantly increased time in the dome in motion-susceptible subjects when using INSCOP compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Higher bioavailability, linear pharmacokinetics, a low incidence of side effects, and a favorable efficacy profile make INSCOP a desirable formulation for prophylactic and rescue treatment of astronauts in space and military personnel on

  19. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  20. INTRANASAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE VS. INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDICATION OF PAEDIATRIC SURGERY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revi N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM Preoperative anxiety is one of the most common problems faced by anyone practising paediatric anaesthesia. Various drugs have been used in various routes to get a calm but cooperative child before induction of anaesthesia. Midazolam and dexmedetomidine have already proved their value in paediatric premedication. This study was conducted to compare the effects of these two drugs given intranasally. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 children falling under the inclusion criteria were assigned to groups of 50 each. They received either intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg (group M or intranasal dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/kg (Group D as premedication. They were compared with regards to the sedation status, anxiety levels and cardiovascular status every 10 minutes, at parental separation and at face mask application. RESULTS The mean sedation score obtained at all-time intervals, at parental separation and more importantly at mask induction were much lower for the midazolam group compared to the dexmedetomidine group. The mean anxiety levels, in general, were lower in the midazolam group, but they attained statistical significance only at 10 minutes and at mask induction. The heart rate measured up to 20 minutes after drug administration did not show much difference between both groups, but at 30 minutes, 40 minutes and at parental separation, heart rate was found to be lower in the dexmedetomidine group. CONCLUSION Intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam are equally effective in providing satisfactory parental separation, but intranasal midazolam produced superior conditions for mask acceptance than intranasal dexmedetomidine.

  1. Intranasal administration of human MSC for ischemic brain injury in the mouse: in vitro and in vivo neuroregenerative functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Donega

    Full Text Available Intranasal treatment with C57BL/6 MSCs reduces lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior in the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI mouse model. In this study, we investigated the potential of human MSCs (hMSCs to treat HI brain injury in the neonatal mouse. Assessing the regenerative capacity of hMSCs is crucial for translation of our knowledge to the clinic. We determined the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vitro and in vivo by intranasal administration 10 d post-HI in neonatal mice. HI was induced in P9 mouse pups. 1×10(6 or 2×10(6 hMSCs were administered intranasally 10 d post-HI. Motor behavior and lesion volume were measured 28 d post-HI. The in vitro capacity of hMSCs to induce differentiation of mouse neural stem cell (mNSC was determined using a transwell co-culture differentiation assay. To determine which chemotactic factors may play a role in mediating migration of MSCs to the lesion, we performed a PCR array on 84 chemotactic factors 10 days following sham-operation, and at 10 and 17 days post-HI. Our results show that 2×10(6 hMSCs decrease lesion volume, improve motor behavior, and reduce scar formation and microglia activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the differentiation assay reflects the neuroregenerative potential of hMSCs in vivo, as hMSCs induce mNSCs to differentiate into neurons in vitro. We also provide evidence that the chemotactic factor CXCL10 may play an important role in hMSC migration to the lesion site. This is suggested by our finding that CXCL10 is significantly upregulated at 10 days following HI, but not at 17 days after HI, a time when MSCs no longer reach the lesion when given intranasally. The results described in this work also tempt us to contemplate hMSCs not only as a potential treatment option for neonatal encephalopathy, but also for a plethora of degenerative and traumatic injuries of the nervous system.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of intranasal-midazolam versus intravenous-diazepam for acute childhood seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakker, Arpita; Shanbag, Preeti

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of acute childhood seizures. A randomized controlled study was conducted in a pediatric emergency department in a tertiary general hospital. Fifty children aged from 1 month to 12 years presenting with acute seizures of at least 10 min duration were enrolled during a 12 month period. Intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and intravenous diazepam (0.3 mg/kg) were administered. The main outcome measures were interval between arrival at hospital and starting treatment and interval between arrival at hospital and cessation of seizures. Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. Overall 18 of 27 seizures were controlled with midazolam and 15 of 23 with diazepam. The mean interval between arrival at hospital and starting treatment was significantly shorter in the midazolam group [3.37 min (SD 2.46)] as compared to the diazepam group [14.13 min (SD 3.39)]. The mean interval between cessation of seizures and arrival at hospital was significantly shorter in the midazolam group [6.67 min (SD 3.12)] as compared to the diazepam group [17.18 min (SD 5.09)]. The mean interval between control of seizures and administration of the drug was shorter in the diazepam group [2.67 min (SD 2.31)] as compared to the midazolam group [3.01 min (SD 2.79)]. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam. Midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam. The overall interval between arrival at hospital and cessation of seizures was shorter with intranasal midazolam than with intravenous diazepam. The intranasal route can be possibly used not only in medical centres, but with appropriate instruction by the parents of children with acute seizures at home.

  3. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Mann (Alex); N. Noulin (Nicolas); A. Catchpole (Andrew); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L. de Waal (Leon); E.J.B. Veldhuis Kroeze (Edwin); M. Hinchcliffe (Michael); A. Smith (Alan); E. Montomoli (Emanuele); S. Piccirella (Simona); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Knight (Alastair); J. Oxford; G. Lapini (Giulia); R. Cox (Ruben); R. Lambkin-Williams (Rob)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN) adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI) intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21

  4. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  5. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Intakhab; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of duloxetine (DLX) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with DLX solution pharmacodynamically following intranasal administration. The study was further conducted to estimate DLX concentration in brain and blood. DLX was administered to albino Wistar rats either intranasally or orally in solution form (DLX solution) or encapsulated in NLC (DLX-NLC). These were evaluated in-vivo for pharmacodynamic studies for depression by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test. Intranasal DLX-NLC treatment exhibited improved behavioural analysis results (swimming, climbing, and immobility) than the DLX solution after 24 h of study. Furthermore, DLX-NLC significantly increased the total swimming and climbing time when compared with control and significantly reduced the immobility period. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated improved locomotor activity when compared with DLX solution. Amount of DLX was quantified in blood and brain after the forced swimming test. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated higher concentration in brain compared with DLX solution. Thus, intranasal DLX-NLC was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  6. Intranasal insulin improves cerebral blood flow, Nrf-2 expression and BDNF in STZ (ICV)-induced memory impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Nath, Chandishwar; Hanif, Kashif; Shukla, Rakesh

    2017-03-15

    Insulin/insulin receptor signaling is involved in cognitive functions. Clinical studies have shown that intranasal insulin administration improves memory functions. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with improvement in memory functions are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of intranasal insulin in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory impairment in rats. Rats were injected with STZ (3mg/kg, ICV) bilaterally twice, on days 1 and 3 and intranasal insulin (2IU/rat/day) was given for 14days. Memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. The biochemical and molecular studies were done in cortex and hippocampus of rat brain. STZ (ICV) administration caused memory impairment along with the reduction of CBF, ATP level, and Nrf-2 expression. Treatment with intranasal insulin significantly improved memory functions as well as restored CBF, ATP content and Nrf-2 expression in STZ injected rats. STZ administration stimulated oxidative-nitrosative stress as evidenced by a significant increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, NO level and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and the decrease in glutathione level; which was normalized by intranasal insulin delivery. STZ-induced cholinergic dysfunction (AChE activity and α7-nAChR expression), and mitochondrial hypofunction was largely prevented by treatment with intranasal insulin. Intranasal insulin delivery successfully restored BDNF level and pCREB expression in STZ injected rats. The study shows the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin against STZ-induced memory impairment, which attributed to improved CBF, cholinergic function, brain energy metabolism, BDNF, Nrf-2 expression and antioxidative action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  8. Benefits of Either Operative or Non-Operative Treatment for Perilunate Dislocation and Fracture Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rivlin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor We read the article by Bagheri et al with great interest (1. We found the study interesting and comprehensive as four groups of patients, including operative and nonoperative in either pure dislocation or fracture dislocation, were compared in terms of Mayo wrist score, Grip strength, range of motion and radiographic parameters. It seems that the results were comparable to studies by Capo, Chou, Laporte, Malovic, Kremer, Forli and Lutz (Table 1 (2-8. In the studies listed above, all the patients were treated by operative fixation and none of them reported any experience with non-operative treatment (2-8. Their operative results are almost similar to Bagheri’s operative results in which they demonstrated better outcomes in terms of motion and Mayo score than the non-operative counterpart. In the current study by Bagheri et al, non-operative treatment is also discussed, which has little literature support so far (1. We wonder what the indications were leading the patient and the surgeon electing nonoperative treatment versus operative intervention. Since the outcomes of non-operative care were comparable to the operative outcomes, weighing the benefits of non surgical management may be an area of further investigation.The authors didn’t describe the operative intervention in detail making comparisons with outer studies difficult. Therefore, we note the need to compare different operative techniques in the literature to figure out which provide the most optimal outcomes and expedite patients’ rehabilitation.

  9. Cilioretinal artery occlusion following intranasal cocaine insufflations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is used to produce a euphoric effect by abusers, who may be unaware of the devastating systemic and ocular side effects of this drug. We describe the first known case of cilioretinal artery occlusion after intranasal cocaine abuse.

  10. Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam in acute childhood seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Madhumita; Kalra, Veena; Gulati, Sheffali

    2006-05-01

    One hundred eighty-eight seizure episodes in 46 children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam with doses of 0.3 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was assessed by drug administration time and seizure cessation time. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were measured before and after 5, 10, and 30 minutes following administration of the drugs in both groups. Mean time from arrival of doctor to drug administration was 68.3 +/- 55.12 seconds in the diazepam group and 50.6 +/- 14.1 seconds in the midazolam group (P = 0.002). Mean time from drug administration to cessation of seizure was significantly less in the midazolam group than the diazepam group (P = 0.005). Mean heart rate and blood pressure did not vary significantly between the two drug groups. However, mean respiratory rate and oxygen saturation differed significantly between the two drug groups at 5, 10, and 30 minutes after drug administration. Intranasal midazolam is preferable to rectal diazepam in the treatment of acute seizures in children. Its administration is easy, it has rapid onset of action, has no significant effect on respiration and oxygen saturation, and is socially acceptable.

  11. Reduction of smoking urges with intranasal insulin: a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidovic, A; Khafaja, M; Brandon, V; Anderson, J; Ray, G; Allan, A M; Burge, M R

    2017-02-28

    Many cigarette smokers express a desire to quit smoking, but ~85% of cessation attempts fail. In our attempt to delineate genetic modulators of smoking persistence, we have earlier shown that a locus within an ~250 kb haplotype block spanning the 5' untranslated region region of insulin-degrading enzyme is associated with serum cotinine levels; the study's measure of smoking quantity. Based on our findings, and coupled with recent preclinical studies showing the importance of multiple neuropeptides in reinstatement of drug use, we formulated intranasal insulin to evaluate its efficacy during acute abstinence from smoking. Our original study was a crossover trial including 19 otherwise healthy smokers who abstained from smoking for 36 h. The morning following their second night of abstinence, in random order, study participants received intranasal insulin (60 IU) or placebo (8.7% sodium chloride). The goal of our second study was to replicate the craving findings from the original trial and expand this research by including additional stress-related measures. Thirty-seven study participants abstained from smoking overnight. The next day, they were administered either intranasal insulin (60 IU) or placebo, following which they participated in the Trier Social Stress Test Task. This was a parallel design study focusing on the standard stress subjective, hormonal and cardiovascular measures. We also evaluated any changes in circulating glucose, insulin and c-peptide (a marker of endogenous insulin). In the original study, intranasal insulin significantly reduced morning nicotine craving (b=3.65, P⩽0.05). Similarly, in the second study, intranasal insulin reduced nicotine cravings over time (b=0.065, P⩽0.05) and the effect lasted through the psychosocial stress period. Intranasal insulin also increased circulating cortisol levels (F=12.78, P⩽0.001). No changes in insulin or c-peptide were detected. A significant treatment × time interaction (P⩽0.05) was

  12. NONOPERATIVE VERSUS OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alfredo Corredor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate clinical and functional results of patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with operatively or nonoperatively. Methods: Patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis treated either nonoperatively or operatively from 2004 to 2014 were selected from databases and a cross-sectional evaluation was performed. Outcome measures included back and leg visual analogue scales (VAS, Fischgrund criteria, Short Form-36 (SF-36 function score, and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Results: 43 patients were evaluated: 20 with nonoperative treatment and 23 with operative treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar without significant differences between groups. Mean follow-up time was 43 months (range 10 - 72 for the nonoperative group and 36 months (range 6-80 for the operative group. Significant statistical difference in favor of operative group were found in back VAS (mean 4 versus 8, p = 0.000, leg VAS (mean 3 versus 6, p = 0.0015, SF-36 function score (mean 77 versus 35, p = 0.000, and ODI (mean 17 versus 46, p = 0.000. On the basis of the Fischgrund criteria, only 10 % of patients reported excellent or good health post nonoperative treatment versus 83% for those treated operatively (p = 0.000. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, we observed that symptomatic patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent operative treatment have superior clinical and functional scores compared to those that underwent nonoperative treatment.

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  15. [Operative treatment of lateral hyperpressure syndrome of the patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, J; Riede, D; Rudolph, F

    1980-04-01

    The lateral hyperpressure syndrome of the patella according to Ficat is characterized as a main cause of chondropathia patellae. Symptoms and course as well as roentgenology of this syndrome are illustrated. The logical method of treatment of this syndrome is the lateral release-operation according to Viernstein and Weigert. With this operation we gained good and very good results in 77 per cent of the 30 operated knee-joints.

  16. Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, S

    2004-01-01

    Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided.

  17. Intranasal Delivery of pGDNF Nanoparticles for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brendan Trevor

    -of-principle study with pCG, a new plasmid was created by Copernicus Therapeutics, Inc. to better mimic their long-lasting pGDNF plasmid while providing both GDNF as well as the reporter function of eGFP. This eGFP-GDNF plasmid was used to monitor expression and cell-types transfected. This expression plasmid, called pUGG, was first characterized in vitro to verify protein expression. Transfection experiments in SHEP-1 neuroblastoma cells, ventral midbrain cultures, and N27 dopaminergic cells all demonstrated that pUGG expressed bioactive eGFP and GDNF. However, cleavage of the two proteins did not occur and the expressed protein emerged as a fusion construct which was not detectable by GDNF-ELISA, although it was detected by GFP-ELISA. The next goal was to determine if pUGG was able to transfect cells in vivo in rat brain. Direct striatal injection of pUGG nanoparticles showed significant eGFP expression at the site of injection both 7 and 14 days post-administration with no difference in eGFP expression between the two time-points. GFP-immunohistochemistry at the striatal injection site revealed expression of eGFP-positive cells as well as evidence of GDNF's bioactivity as indicated by neurite outgrowth. Moving forward, we administered pUGG nanoparticles intranasally to rats and found significant expression seven days later throughout the brain, with highest levels in the forebrain areas (olfactory bulb and frontal cortex). Significant expression was also seen along the rostral-caudal axis of the brain compared with naked pUGG plasmid. The final goal of this work was to examine whether intranasal pGDNF pre-treatment could generate sufficient GDNF to protect SN dopamine neurons after a unilateral 6-hydroxydopmaine (6-OHDA) lesion, a common animal model for PD. Copernicus' pGDNF plasmid was utilized for the neuroprotection experiments to avoid possible confounds due to the GFP fusion produced by pUGG. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunostaining density was used as a marker for dopamine

  18. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  19. Humeral shaft fractures: Retrospective results of non-operative and operative treatment of 186 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); B.J. Punt (Bas); G.R. Roukema (Gert); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Humeral shaft fractures account for 1-3% of all fractures and 20% of the fractures involving the humerus. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcome after operative and non-operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures, by comparing the time to radiological unio

  20. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  1. Intranasal formulations: promising strategy to deliver vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Sakthivel, Priya; Trittel, Stephanie; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of new diseases and the lack of efficient vaccines against numerous non-treatable pathogens require the development of novel vaccination strategies. To date, only a few mucosal vaccines have been approved for humans. This was in part due to i) the use of live attenuated vaccines, which are not suitable for certain groups of individuals, ii) safety concerns derived from implementation in humans of some mucosal vaccines, iii) the poor stability, absorption and immunogenicity of antigens delivered by the mucosal route and iv) the limited number of available technologies to overcome the bottlenecks associated with mucosal antigen delivery. Recent advances make feasible the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines with adequate safety profile. Thus, currently intranasal vaccines represent an attractive and valid alternative to conventional vaccines. The present review is focused on the potentials and limitations of market-approved intranasal vaccines and promising candidates undergoing clinical investigations. Furthermore, emerging strategies to overcome main bottlenecks including efficient breaching of the mucosal barrier and safety concerns by implementation of new adjuvants and delivery systems are discussed. The rational design of intranasal vaccines requires an in-depth understanding of the anatomic, physicochemical and barrier properties of the nasal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms governing the activation of the local innate and adaptive immune system. This would provide the critical knowledge to establish effective approaches to deliver vaccine antigens across the mucosal barrier, supporting the stimulation of a long-lasting protective response at both mucosal and systemic levels. Current developments in the area of adjuvants, nanotechnologies and mucosal immunology, together with the identification of surface receptors that can be exploited for cell targeting and manipulating their physiological properties, will become instrumental

  2. Early experience of radio frequency coblation in the management of intranasal and sinus tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mohammed Iqbal; Mennie, Joanna; Williams, Alun T

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the use of radiofrequency coblation for endoscopic resection of intranasal and sinus tumors. A review was conducted of 15 adult patients with intranasal and or sinus tumors endoscopically treated with radio frequency coblation between November 2008 and November 2010 at St. John's Hospital at Livingston, a tertiary referral center that covers otolaryngology services for the southeast of Scotland. Fifteen patients with intranasal and sinus tumors were treated with transnasal endoscopic resection using radiofrequency coblation. The tumors included inverted papilloma (seven), paraganglioma (one), glomangiopericytoma (one), capillary hemangioma (one), hemangiopericytoma (one), juvenile angiofibroma (one), juvenile ossifying fibroma (one), oncocytic adenoma (one), and transitional cell carcinoma (one). We found that radiofrequency coblation is a useful and safe tool associated with minimal blood loss (<200 mL to 600 mL) in the resection of these tumors, and the average operating time was 1.67 hours. Radio frequency is a rapidly evolving technique and in the future will have an increasing role to play in the endoscopic resection of intranasal and sinus tumors.

  3. Assessment of pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intranasal diazepam relative to rectal gel in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Herbert R; Sperling, Michael R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Bream, Gary; Carrazana, Enrique J

    2014-09-01

    Diazepam rectal gel (RG) is currently the only approved rescue therapy for outpatient management of seizure clusters in the United States. There is an unmet medical need for an alternative rescue therapy for seizure clusters that is effective, and more convenient to administer with a socially acceptable method of delivery. An intranasal diazepam formulation has been developed, and this study evaluates the tolerability and bioavailability of diazepam nasal spray (NS) relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam-RG in healthy adults. Twenty-four healthy adults were enrolled in a phase 1, open-label, 3-period crossover study. Plasma diazepam and metabolite concentrations were measured by serial sampling. Dose proportionality for 5- and 20-mg intranasal doses and the bioavailability of 20mg diazepam-NS relative to 20mg diazepam-RG were assessed by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure parameters (AUC0-∞ and AUC0-24). The mean Cmax values for 20mg diazepam-NS and 20mg diazepam-RG were 378 ± 106 and 328 ± 152 ng/mL, achieved at 1.0 and 1.5h, respectively. Subjects administered intranasal and rectal gel formulations experienced nasal and rectal leakage, respectively. Diazepam absorption following intranasal administration was consistent but 3 subjects with diazepam-RG had low plasma drug levels at the earliest assessment of 5 min, due to poor retention, and were excluded from analysis. Excluding them, the treatment ratios (20mg diazepam-NS:20mg diazepam-RG) and 90% confidence intervals for diazepam Cmax and AUC0-24 were 0.98 (0.85-1.14) and 0.89 (0.80-0.98), respectively, suggesting that the bioavailability was comparable between the two formulations. Dose proportionality was observed between the lowest and highest dose-strengths of intranasal formulation. Both intranasal and rectal treatments were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events. Results suggest that a single-dose of 20mg diazepam-NS is tolerable and comparable in bioavailability

  4. Use of intranasal corticosteroids in adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarya, E U; Bayar Muluk, N; Sakalar, E G; Senturk, M; Aricigil, M; Bafaqeeh, S A; Cingi, C

    2017-05-01

    This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system. Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  5. Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 1: intranasal lorazepam is an acceptable alternative to intravenous lorazepam in the control of acute seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Anna; Cullen, Jayne

    2013-09-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to determine whether intranasal lorazepam was as effective as intravenous lorazepam in the control of seizures in children. Eighteen papers were found using the reported search, of which one was directly relevant and another compared intranasal lorazepam with intramuscular paraldehyde. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses are shown in table 1. It is concluded that intranasal lorazepam appears to be a safe and effective treatment for this condition.

  6. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  7. Direct nose-to-brain delivery of lamotrigine following intranasal administration to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serralheiro, Ana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2015-07-25

    Pharmacoresistance is considered one of the major causes underlying the failure of the anticonvulsant therapy, demanding the development of alternative and more effective therapeutic approaches. Due to the particular anatomical features of the nasal cavity, intranasal administration has been explored as a means of preferential drug delivery to the brain. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine administered by the intranasal route to mice, and to investigate whether a direct transport of the drug from nose to brain could be involved. The high bioavailability achieved for intranasally administered lamotrigine (116.5%) underscored the fact that a substantial fraction of the drug has been absorbed to the systemic circulation. Nonetheless, the heterogeneous biodistribution of lamotrigine in different brain regions, with higher concentration levels attained in the olfactory bulb comparatively to the frontal cortex and the remaining portion of the brain, strongly suggest that lamotrigine was directly transferred to the brain via the olfactory neuronal pathway, circumventing the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it seems that intranasal route can be assumed as a suitable and valuable drug delivery strategy for the chronic treatment of epilepsy, also providing a promising alternative approach for a prospective management of pharmacoresistance.

  8. Comparative Study of Intranasal Midazolam and Intravenous Benzodiazepines in Control of Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Panchal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizures are very common in pediatric patients. As duration of seizures impacts morbidity and mortality to child’s life, control of seizures should be achieved as early as possible, preferably at home. Rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam are available methods for control of seizures and can be learnt by parents. Methods: We assessed safety and efficacy of intranasal midazolam for control of seizures and also compared its effect with other benzodiazepines given by intravenous route. Results: Among 84 patients, success rate of treatment with Midazolam (intranasal was 45.5% and success rate with Benzodiazepines (intravenous was 90%. The difference is statistically significant. In present study, average time recorded to give drug after arrival at hospital in IN Midazolam group was 0.379 min, where as it was 1.598 min in IV Benzodiazepine group. Average time for cessation of seizures after giving drug was 3.001 min in IN Midazolam group, where as it was 1.009 min in IV Benzodiazepine group. Conclusion: Intra-venous route for control of seizures is most effective compare to Inta-nasal Midazolam. However intranasal Midazolam can be use full when IV access is not available at home or during transport of patient to health care centre. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 30-33

  9. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive intranasal mitomycin C and triamcinolone in endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Emmy Y; Cheng, Andy C; Wong, Alex C; Sze, Amy M; Yuen, Hunter K

    2016-02-01

    One of the common causes of failure in dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is mucosal scarring and fibrosis around the ostium. Steroid and mitomycin C (MMC) can potentially reduce scarring by their action on the inflammatory and proliferative phase of wound healing, respectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined usage of adjunctive MMC and intranasal triamcinolone (TA) in endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). This is a retrospective interventional case series. All patients underwent mechanical EE-DCR in two regional hospitals in Hong Kong from January 2005 to December 2006 were included. All received intraoperative MMC application for 5 min and gelfoam soaked with TA onto the ostium. Main outcome measures include the anatomical and functional success rate at follow-up at least 6 months after operation. Other outcomes include complications occurred during and after operation. A total of 73 EE-DCR were performed in 69 patients. Three patients had simultaneous bilateral DCR; one had sequential DCRs for both sides. At the last follow-up, anatomical success was achieved in 68 cases (93 %) and both anatomical with functional success in 67 cases (92 %). No major complication was observed. Minor complications included asymptomatic mucosal adhesion between the nasal septum and lateral nasal wall in one patient and moderate secondary hemorrhage in another. EE-DCR with adjunctive MMC and TA is a safe and successful procedure for the treatment of NLDO.

  10. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luigi Aloe; Patrizia Bianchi; Alberto De Bellis; Marzia Soligo; Maria Luisa Rocco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an in-creased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deifcits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells.

  11. [The trocar hernia after laparoscopic operative interventions. classification, treatment, prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychytaĭlo, M Iu; Bulyk, I I; Zahriĭchuk, M S; Korytko, I P; Homan, A V

    2014-11-01

    Own experience of treatment of patients, suffering trocar hernias, occurred after laparoscopic operative interventions, was analyzed. Classification of trocar hernias was proposed, the main factors of risk and prognostic criteria of a trocar hernias formation were analyzed. The main methods of the trocar hernias correction are adduced.

  12. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  13. Brain delivery of intranasal in situ gel of nanoparticulated polymeric carriers containing antidepressant drug: behavioral and biochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Prakash, Atish; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed for brain delivery of Tramadol HCl (centrally acting synthetic opioid) following intranasal administration for treatment of depression. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method followed by the addition of developed NPs with in the Pluronic and HPMC-based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulation optimized based on the various parameters such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release study. Depression induction was done by forced swim test and evaluated by various behavioral and biochemical parameters. Furthermore, results showed significantly increased in locomotors activity, body weight as compared to control group. It also showed alteration in biochemical parameters such glutathione level and catalase levels significantly increased other than lipid peroxidation and nitrite level was found to be decreased after intranasal administration of formulation. Thus, intranasal TRM HCl NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  14. Factors Associated with Operative Treatment of De Quervain Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Geographic and doctor-to-doctor variations in care are a focus of quality and safety efforts in medicine. This study addresses factors associated with variation in the rate of operative treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy.   Methods: We used a database including all patient encounters at 2 large medical centers, to study the experience of 10 hand surgeons and 1 physiatrist working in a hand surgery office in the treatment of 2,513 patients with de Quervain tendinopathy over a 12-year period. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare surgery rates and time to surgery. Cox multivariable regression analysis was applied to identify factors associated with operative treatment. Results:  One hundred ninety nine (7.9% patients had surgery. The odds of operative treatment were 1.7 times greater after corticosteroid injection and varied more than 10-fold among providers. There was substantial variation in the overall rate of surgery by provider. Corticosteroid injection delayed surgery slightly, but was associated with a higher rate of surgery.  Conclusion:  Providers have substantial influence on treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. The use of decision aids and other methods that help involve the patient in decision-making merit investigation as interventions to help reduce doctor-to-doctor variation.

  15. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  16. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  17. ["Progressive" hypothenar hammer syndrome Indication for operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitscher, D; Müller, L P; Rudig, L; Simiantonaki, N; Arnold, G; Rommens, P M

    2005-12-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is ischemia of the distal ulnar artery caused by injury to the ulnar part of the palmar arch. This disease often involves workers who frequently use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer. The aneurysmatic form of HHS represents an indication for operative treatment; the thrombotic form is treated mainly conservatively. In our opinion, the symptomatic thrombotic form represents an indication for operation if symptoms persist during conservative therapy, particularly if symptoms progress. In fresh embolic occlusions, regional thrombolysis is usually successful. We present here the symptomatic treatment and course in two patients with complaints increasing during conservative therapy. The patients reported progressive Raynaud's phenomenon of the fingers. Angiography confirmed corkscrew-like aneurysmatic configuration of the distal ulnar artery and subsequent embolization of digital arteries. In both cases, we removed the source of the embolism with resection of the involved arterial segment and anastomosis with autologous vein grafts.

  18. [Operative treatment of complicated duodenal and pyloric ulcer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, S O; Korotkyï, V M; Kolosovych, I V; Spitsyn, R Iu; Furmanenko, M F; Kartashov, B T; Martynovych, L D; Krasovs'kyĭ, V O; Butyrin, S O; Zinchenko, I I; Rupitsev, O O; Dzhurko, M G

    2000-11-01

    There were examined 135 patients with perforative ulcer of the gastric terminal portion (GTP) and of duodenum. Performance of duodeno- or gastroduodenoplasty without vagotomy, the correcting therapy conduction in early postoperative period had promoted the normalization of the GTP motor function and the gastric acid output reduction in late follow-up period, trusting the expediency of organ-preserving operation conduction without vagotomy as radical method of the complicated ulcer disease treatment.

  19. Problems of diagnosis and treatment of primary operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Troshenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with genotypic and phenotypic variability. Phenotypic diversity of tumors is directly related to genotypic variations, which can be determined with analyzing gene expression in a comprehensive immunohistochemical study. Today there are many methods of surgical treatment – from minimally invasive to radical, variable according to the number of stages, the volume of reconstructive techniques. Today organ-preserving operations are prefered by surgeons all the world.

  20. A Comparison of Intranasal and Oral Scopolamine for Motion Sickness Prevention in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-18

    were recruited and randomized to one of three treatment groups [intranasal scopolamine gel (IN SCOP ); oral scopolamine (PO SCOP ); or placebo] and...head movements tolerated among groups and pharmacotherapeutics for IN SCOP and PO SCOP were determined by salivary assay. Side-effect profiles for all...cognitive battery, VA, or KSS, p > 0.05. An ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in heart rate over time for IN SCOP and PO SCOP versus placebo at

  1. COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF ORAL AND INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDITATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P SAJEDI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative evaluation and psychological preparation is important before anesthesia. Children are very dependent to their parents, specially before 5 years. Anesthesiologist must administer anxiolytic and sedative drugs before separation from parents as premeditation. The aim of this study is comparison survey on effect of oral midazolam and intranasal midazolam in children 1 to 5 years as premeditation. Methods. In a clinical trial study performed through first half of 1377 at St. Alzahra Center (Isfahan University of Medicine, sixty healthy children in first class of ASA who had non gastrointestinal elective surgery were studied. Group one consisted of thirty children who received intravenous form midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with fruit juice orally 45 to 60 minutes before operation. Group 2 consisted of thirty children who received midazolam (IV form 0.2 mg/kg intranasally 15 minutes before operation. Findings. Anxiety was less in first group during administration of drug. Forty four percent were quiet in this group (P < 0.005. Seventy six percent of children who well accepted the drug, were in the first group (P < 0.005. There was no significant statistical difference between two groups in other aspects of study. Conclusion. Oral administration of midazolam has better acceptance in children than intranasal with less anxiety.

  2. Intranasal telmisartan ameliorates brain pathology in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Cohen, Hagit; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2017-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major circulative system engaged in homeostasis modulation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as its main effector hormone upon binding to its primary receptor, Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R). It is well established that an intrinsic independent brain RAS exists. Abnormal AT1R activation both in the periphery and in the brain probably contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology that is characterized, among others, by brain inflammation. Moreover, treatment with drugs that block AT1R (AT1R blockers, ARBs) ameliorates most of the clinical risk factors leading to AD. Previously we showed that short period of intranasal treatment with telmisartan (a brain penetrating ARB) reduced brain inflammation and ameliorated amyloid burden (a component of Alzheimer's plaques) in AD transgenic mouse model. In the present study, we aimed to examine the long-term effect of intranasally administrated telmisartan on brain inflammation features including microglial activation, astrogliosis, neuronal loss and hippocampus-dependent cognition in five-familial AD mouse model (5XFAD). Five month of intranasal treatment with telmisartan significantly reduced amyloid burden in the cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice as compared with the vehicle-treated 5XFAD group. Similar effects were also observed for CD11b staining, which is a marker for microglial accumulation. Telmisartan also significantly reduced astrogliosis and neuronal loss in the cortex of 5XFAD mice compared with the vehicle-treated group. Improved spatial acquisition of the 5XFAD mice following long-term intranasal administration of telmisartan was also observed. Taken together, our data suggest a significant role for AT1R blockage in mediating neuronal loss and cognitive behavior, possibly through regulation of amyloid burden and glial inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment.

  4. Effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria. METHODS:Twenty-one cases(42 eyeswith muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria were included. After examination of refraction, phoria and fusion function, all cases were given operative treatment to correct esophoria. RESULTS:At 1wk after surgery, clinical symptoms were improved evidently in all cases, such as headache, diplopia and eye swelling. After followed up for 1a, no recrudescence was found. Before surgery, at 1wk and 1a after surgery, esophoria in the distance were 20.3△±6.3△,-3.1△±1.4△,0.7△±1.6△ respectively and esophoria in the near distance were 10.5△±3.1△,-1.3△±0.6△,1.5△±0.8△ respectively. By comparison of esophoria before and after surgery in different stages separately, the differences were statistically(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Esophoria operation may relieve obviously muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria without changing fusion function.

  5. Operation of passive membrane systems for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, P A; Khadem, N; Bérubé, P R

    2017-02-28

    The widespread adoption of submerged hollow fibre ultrafiltration (UF) for drinking water treatment is currently hindered by the complexity and cost of these membrane systems, especially in small/remote communities. Most of the complexity is associated with auxiliary fouling control measures, which include backwashing, air sparging and chemical cleaning. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained operation without fouling control measures is possible, but little is known regarding the conditions under which extended operation can be sustained with minimal to no fouling control measures. The present study investigated the contribution of different auxiliary fouling control measures to the permeability that can be sustained, with the intent of minimizing the mechanical and operational complexity of submerged hollow fiber UF membrane systems while maximizing their throughput capacity. Sustained conditions could be achieved without backwashing, air sparging or chemical cleaning (i.e. passive operation), indicating that these fouling control measures can be eliminated, substantially simplifying the mechanical and operational complexity of submerged hollow fiber UF systems. The adoption of hydrostatic pressure (i.e. gravity) to provide the driving force for permeation further reduced the system complexity. Approximately 50% of the organic material in the raw water was removed during treatment. The sustained passive operation and effective removal of organic material was likely due to the microbial community that established itself on the membrane surface. The permeability that could be sustained was however only approximately 20% of that which can be maintained with fouling control measures. Retaining a small amount of air sparging (i.e. a few minutes daily) and incorporating a daily 1-h relaxation (i.e. permeate flux interruption) period prior to sparging more than doubled the permeability that could be sustained. Neither the approach used to interrupt the permeate

  6. Intranasal oxytocin reduces psychotic symptoms and improves Theory of Mind and social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort A; Gibson, Clare M; Rau, Shane W; Salimi, Kayvon; Smedley, Kelly L; Casey, Robin L; Leserman, Jane; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Penn, David L

    2011-10-01

    Oxytocin has numerous prosocial and antipsychotic-like effects in animals. Prosocial effects of acute intranasal oxytocin administration have also been reported in human subjects. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing the effects of twice daily intranasal oxytocin treatment for 14 days on psychotic symptoms and social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. PANSS scores declined significantly and several social cognition measures improved significantly or nearly significantly in oxytocin (N=11) but not placebo (N=9) recipients. Our results suggest that, in addition to reducing classic psychotic symptoms, oxytocin may diminish certain social cognition deficits that are not improved by current antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Radical operative treatment of perforative gastroduodenal ulcer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostishchev, V K; Evseev, M A; Golovin, R A

    2009-01-01

    Data of 363 patients operated on for perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers were analyzed. Immediate and follow-up results were obtained after simple suture plication, Jadd's ulcer excision combined with stem vagotomy and after distal gastric resection. Predictors of the unfavourable outcome were determined. These are: Mannheim peritonitis index >20, surgical risk of IV-V grade, signs of multiple organ failure and symptomatic character of the ulcer. The comparison of long-term results revealed that patients after suture plication experienced the ulcer recurrence in 78,4% and necessity of further operation occurred in 21,5%. Every third patient after stem vagotomy experienced postvagotomic disorders and ulcer recurrence. Primary gastric resection demonstrated the best long-term results concerning ulcer disease. The algorithm of treatment modalities of the perforative ulcer desease was worked. The algorithm is based on stage-by stage determination of indications and contraindications to gastric resection.

  8. Early intervention with intranasal NPY prevents single prolonged stress-triggered impairments in hypothalamus and ventral hippocampus in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Serova, Lidia I; Arango, Victoria; Sabban, Esther L

    2014-10-01

    Intranasal administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a promising treatment strategy to reduce traumatic stress-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated the potential of intranasal NPY to prevent dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a core neuroendocrine feature of PTSD. Rats were exposed to single prolonged stress (SPS), a PTSD animal model, and infused intranasally with vehicle or NPY immediately after SPS stressors. After 7 days undisturbed, hypothalamus and hippocampus, 2 structures regulating the HPA axis activity, were examined for changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and CRH expression. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone, and hypothalamic CRH mRNA, were significantly higher in the vehicle but not NPY-treated group, compared with unstressed controls. Although total GR levels were not altered in hypothalamus, a significant decrease of GR phosphorylated on Ser232 and increased FK506-binding protein 5 mRNA were observed with the vehicle but not in animals infused with intranasal NPY. In contrast, in the ventral hippocampus, only vehicle-treated animals demonstrated elevated GR protein expression and increased GR phosphorylation on Ser232, specifically in the nuclear fraction. Additionally, SPS-induced increase of CRH mRNA in the ventral hippocampus was accompanied by apparent decrease of CRH peptide particularly in the CA3 subfield, both prevented by NPY. The results show that early intervention with intranasal NPY can prevent traumatic stress-triggered dysregulation of the HPA axis likely by restoring HPA axis proper negative feedback inhibition via GR. Thus, intranasal NPY has a potential as a noninvasive therapy to prevent negative effects of traumatic stress.

  9. Intranasal midazolam compared with intravenous diazepam in patients suffering from acute seizure: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadeh, Mohsen; Sheibani, Kourosh; Hashemieh, Mozhgan; Saneifard, Hedyeh

    2012-03-01

    Acute seizure attack is a stressful experience both for health care personnel and parents. These attacks might cause morbidity and mortality among patients, so reliable methods to control the seizure preferably at home should be developed. This study was performed to measure the time needed to control seizure attacks using intranasal midazolam compared to the common treatment (intravenous diazepam) and to evaluate its probable side effects. This study was conducted as a not blind randomized clinical trial among 60 patients coming to Imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran. The patients were 2 months to 15 years old children coming to our emergency department suffering from an acute seizure episode. Intranasal midazolam was administered 0.2 mg/kg equally dropped in both nostrils for case group and intravenous diazepam was administered 0.3mg/kg via IV line for control group. After both treatments the time needed to control the seizure was registered by the practitioner. Pulse rate and O2 saturation were recorded at patients' entrance and in minutes 5 and 10 after drug administration. The time needed to control seizure using intranasal midazolam (3.16±1.24) was statistically shorter than intravenous diazepam (6.42±2.59) if the time needed to establish IV line in patients treated by intravenous diazepam is taken into account (P<0.001). The readings for O2 saturation or heart rate did not indicate a statistically significant difference between two groups of patients either at entrance or 5 and 10 minutes after drug administration. Considering the shorter time needed to control acute seizure episodes compared to intravenous diazepam and its safety record, intranasal midazolam seems to be a good candidate to replace diazepam, as the drug of choice, in controlling this condition.

  10. INTRANASAL DELIVERY OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR TO PROTECT THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGAINST ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-mei Zhao; Xin-feng Liu; Xiao-wei Mao; Chun-fu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Objective To confirmed reliability and feasibility of intranasal nerve growth factor (NGF) bypassing the blood-brain barrier and its potential neuroprotective effects on acute cerebral ischemia.Methods (1) To assay NGF concentrations in different brain regions after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Rats were randomly divided into intranasal (IN) NGF, intravenous (Ⅳ) NGF, and untreated group (n =4). The concentrations of NGF of different brain regions in the three groups after MCAO were measured by ELISA. (2) To observe neuroprotective action of NGF on focal cerebral ischemic damage. Rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: IN vehicle, IN NGF,Ⅳ vehicle, Ⅳ NGF (n = 8). Treatment was initiated 30 minutes after onset of MCAO and given again 24 hours later. Three neurologic behavioral tests were performed 24 and 48 hours following onset of MCAO. Corrected infarct volumes were determined 48 hours after onset of MCAO.Results The olfactory bulb in IN NGF group obtained the highest concentration (3252 pg/g) of NGF among all regions, followed by the hippocumpus. The NGF concentrations in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus in IN NGF group were markedly higher than that in Ⅳ NGF and control groups. The infarct volume in IN NGF group was markedly reduced by 38.8% compared with IN vehicle group. IN NGF group vestibulum function markedly improved compared with IN vehicle group at 24 and 48 hours after onset of MCAO (P24h = 0.02 and P48h = 0.04, respectively).Conclusion Intranasal NGF could pass through the blood-brain barrier, reach the central nervous system, reduce infarct volume, and improve neurologic function in rats following MCAO. Intranasal delivery of NGF may be a promising treatment for stroke.

  11. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam as premedication for brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A prospective randomized double blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayushi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine results in more successful parental separation and yields a higher sedation level at the time of induction of anesthesia than intranasal midazolam as premedication, with negligible side effects. However, its onset of action is relatively prolonged.

  12. Treatment of ruptured Achilles tendon: Operative or non-operative procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukelj, Fabijan; Bandalovic, Ante; Knezevic, Josip; Pavic, Arsen; Pivalica, Bozen; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of non-operative and surgical procedures in the treatment of ruptured Achilles tendon in athletes (professional and amateur). Ninety professional or amateur athletes with rupture of the Achilles tendon were included in the study between 1998 and 2013. The athletes were aged between 25 and 40 years (mean 34.83±4.65). A total of 30 athletes underwent an open procedure, 30 were treated with a percutaneous method and 30 were treated non-operatively. All operated patients were tested one year after the surgical procedure. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to compare the open and percutaneous methods. The results for the patients who were treated using the percutaneous method were 15% better than those for the patients who underwent the open procedure; the results for the group treated conservatively were 20% better than those for the group treated percutaneously. The percutaneous method was easier technically than the open method. Time spent in hospital was 14.5 times shorter with the percutaneous procedure compared with the open procedure (percutaneous procedure: range 0.5-2 days, mean 0.79±0.36; open procedure: range 10-24 days, mean 11.46±2.70; pAchilles tendon in the group treated with the percutaneous procedure. One patient in the group treated with the open procedure had postoperative infection (4.2%). In the non-surgical (conservatively treated) group, there were three reruptures of the Achilles tendon within one year, and one patient developed adhesions that resulted in loss of function and had to undergo an operation. The percutaneous method is the best method of surgical treatment for Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Midazolam premedication in children: a pilot study comparing intramuscular and intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation.

  14. Optimization of combinational intranasal drug delivery system for the management of migraine by using statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Animesh; Garg, Tarun; Sarma, Ganti S; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Migraine is a chronic disorder characterized by significant headache and various associated symptoms which worsen with exertion. Zolmitriptan approved for use in the acute treatment of migraine and related vascular headaches but are limited by high pain recurrence due to rapid drug elimination. Combinationalformulationof triptans and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may provide a quicker and longer duration of relief from the subsequent pain during the attack. In this study, we formulate a Zolmitriptan (ZT) & ketorolac tromethamine (KT) loaded thermo reversible in-situ mucoadhesive intranasal gel (TMISG) formulation which gels at the nasal mucosal temperature and contains a bioadhesive polymer (Xyloglucan) that lengthens the residence time will enhance the bioavailability of the combinational drugs. This study uses Box-Behnken design for the first time to develop, optimize the TMISG and assess factors affecting the critical quality attributes. Histopathological study of the nasal mucosa suggested that the formulation was safe for nasal administration. The statistical difference in absolute bioavailability between oral and intranasal route suggested that intranasal route had almost 21% increases in bioavailability for ZT and for KT there was 16% increase over oral formulations. Optimized formulation would help mitigate migraine associated symptoms much better over the currently available formulations.

  15. [Targeting the brain through the nose. Effects of intranasally administered insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Y F; Benedict, C; Freiherr, J

    2013-08-01

    The assumption that the human brain is an insulin-independent organ was disproved with the discovery of insulin receptors in the central nervous system in the year 1978. Evidence has been provided for a high density of insulin receptors in brain regions responsible for cognitive memory processes (hippocampus) and for the regulation of appetite (hypothalamus). Accordingly, in animal studies an increased insulin level in the central nervous system leads to an improvement of hippocampal memory function and a decrease of food intake. Similar results were obtained in humans using the method of intranasal administration of insulin. Intranasal insulin reaches the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid via the olfactory epithelium and olfactory nerve fiber bundles leading through the lamina cribrosa to the olfactory bulb. Thus, this method renders the investigation of specific insulin effects in humans possible. The therapeutic potential of an intranasal insulin administration for the treatment of diseases for which an imbalance of the central nervous insulin metabolism is discussed (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity) can only be estimated with the help of further clinical studies.

  16. Intranasal, siRNA Delivery to the Brain by TAT/MGF Tagged PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is characterized by progressive loss of structure and function of neurons. Several therapeutic methods and drugs are available to alleviate the symptoms of these diseases. The currently used delivery strategies such as implantation of catheters, intracarotid infusions, surgeries, and chemotherapies are invasive in nature and pose a greater risk of postsurgical complications, which can have fatal side effects. The current study utilizes a peptide (TAT and MGF tagged PEGylated chitosan nanoparticle formulation for siRNA delivery, administered intranasally, which can bypass the blood brain barrier. The study investigates the optimal dose, duration, biodistribution, and toxicity, of the nanoparticle-siRNA formulation, in-vivo. The results indicate that 0.5 mg/kg of siRNA is delivered successfully to the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum after 4 hrs of post intranasal delivery. The results indicate maximum delivery to the brain in comparison to other tissues with no cellular toxic effects. This study shows the potential of peptide-tagged PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles to be delivered intranasally and target brain tissue for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  17. Midazolam Premedication in Children: A Pilot Study Comparing Intramuscular and Intranasal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation. PMID:16048152

  18. Liposome-based intranasal delivery of lipopeptide vaccine candidates against group A streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Khairunnisa Abdul; Marasini, Nirmal; Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-09-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), an exclusively human pathogen, causes a wide range of diseases ranging from trivial to life threatening. Treatment of infection is often ineffective following entry of bacteria into the bloodstream. To date, there is no vaccine available against GAS. In this study, cationic liposomes encapsulating lipopeptide-based vaccine candidates against GAS have been employed for intranasal vaccine delivery. Cationic liposomes were prepared with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) using the film hydration method. Female Swiss mice were immunized intranasally with the liposomes. In contrast to unmodified peptides, lipopeptides entrapped by liposomes induced both mucosal and systemic immunity, IgA and IgG (IgG1 and IgG2a) production in mice, respectively. High levels of antibody (IgA and IgG) titres were detected even five months post immunization. Thus, the combination of lipopeptides and liposomes generates a very promising delivery system for intranasal vaccines. Group A streptococcus, causing rheumatic heart diseases, kills approximately half a million people annually. There is no vaccine available against the infection. Mucosal immunity is vital in ensuring an individual is protected as this gram positive bacteria initially colonizes at the throat. Herein, we demonstrated that lipopeptides entrapped by liposomes induced both mucosal and systemic immunity. High levels of antibody (IgA and IgG) titres were detected even five months post immunization and lead vaccine candidate was able to induce humoral immune responses even after single immunization. Thus, the combination of lipopeptides and liposomes generates a very promising delivery system for intranasal vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoemulsion-based intranasal drug delivery system of saquinavir mesylate for brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Mahajan, Milind S; Nerkar, Pankaj P; Agrawal, Anshuman

    2014-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunological privileged sanctuary site-providing reservoir for HIV-1 virus. Current anti-HIV drugs, although effective in reducing plasma viral levels, cannot eradicate the virus completely from the body. The low permeability of anti-HIV drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to insufficient delivery. Therefore, developing a novel approaches enhancing the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs are required for the treatment of neuro-AIDS. The aim of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion (NE) for enhanced bioavailability and CNS targeting of saquinavir mesylate (SQVM). SQVM is a protease inhibitor which is a poorly soluble drug widely used as antiretroviral drug, with oral bioavailability is about 4%. The spontaneous emulsification method was used to prepare drug-loaded o/w nanoemulsion, which was characterized by droplet size, zeta potential, pH, drug content. Moreover, ex-vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep nasal mucosa. The optimized NE showed a significant increase in drug permeation rate compared to the plain drug suspension (PDS). Cilia toxicity study on sheep nasal mucosa showed no significant adverse effect of SQVM-loaded NE. Results of in vivo biodistribution studies show higher drug concentration in brain after intranasal administration of NE than intravenous delivered PDS. The higher percentage of drug targeting efficiency (% DTE) and nose-to-brain drug direct transport percentage (% DTP) for optimized NE indicated effective CNS targeting of SQVM via intranasal route. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of the rat brain conclusively demonstrated transport of drug in the CNS at larger extent after intranasal administration as NE.

  20. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Intranasal Midazolam on Nasal Mucosal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, I; Kucur, C; Değer, A; Ital, I; Kasim, Cayci M; Oghan, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of intranasal midazolam on nasal mucosal tissue in rats. Forty healthy rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (n = 8) was the control group, group 2 (n = 8) received intranasal saline, group 3 (n = 8) received intranasal midazolam, group 4 (n = 8) received intraperitoneal saline, and group 5 received intraperitoneal midazolam (n = 8). Midazolam and saline were administered via intraperitoneal and intranasal routes at doses of 200 μg/kg. Nasal septal mucosal stripe tissues were removed at the 6th hour. All materials were evaluated according to Ki67 and p53 staining to evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, respectively, and hemotoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histopathology evaluation. Ki67 values and inflammation in group 3 were statistically higher compared to group 1, group 2, and group 4. P53 values in group 3 were statistically higher compared to group 1. Assessment of subepithelial edema between group 3 and the other groups revealed no statistically significant differences. Assessment of cilia loss between group 3 and group 1, group 2, and group 4 revealed no statistically significant difference. The evaluation of goblet cell loss between group 3 and group 1 revealed a statistically significant difference. Intranasal midazolam had adverse effects on nasal mucosa. However, intranasal midazolam is as safe as systemic midazolam administration with respect to nasal mucosa.

  2. Intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsion of mirtazapine: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal P Thakkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to prepare and characterize mirtazapine microemulsion for intranasal delivery, to determine its brain drug delivery using pharmacokinetic studies, and assess its performance pharmacodynamically for the antidepressant activity. Mirtazapine microemulsion of different compositions were prepared by water titration method and characterized for globule size and zeta potential. Microemulsion with maximum drug solubilization, lowest globule size and lowest zeta potential was considered optimal and taken for further studies with or without addition of chitosan, a mucoadhesive agent. Pharmacokinetics of optimized mirtazapine microemulsion, mucoadhesive microemulsion and mirtazapine solution were studied in brain and blood of male Wistar rats post intranasal and oral administration. Despair Swim test, locomotor activity and plus maze test were carried out in rats in order to compare therapeutic activity of the drug formulation for oral and intranasal route. Brain/blood uptake ratios were found to be highest for mirtazapine mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMME followed by mirtazapine microemulsion (MME post-intranasal administration compared to oral delivery of microemulsion. Significant ( P < 0.05 reduction in assessed pharmacodynamic parameters was observed after intranasal administration of MMME against control group. This investigation demonstrates a more rapid and larger extent of transport of mirtazapine into the brain with intranasal MMME, which may prove useful in treating depression.

  3. Operative versus non-operative treatment in complex proximal humeral fractures: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Ding, Fan; Zhao, Zhigang; Chen, Yan; Xing, Danmou

    2015-01-01

    Whether operative treatment for complex proximal humeral fractures (CPHFs) has a greater benefit over non-operative treatment remains controversial. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment in elderly patients with CPHFs. This updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aims to investigate whether operative treatment is superior to non-operative treatment in CPHFs. The authors searched RCTs in the electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Embase, Springer Link, Web of Knowledge, OVID and Google Scholar) from their establishment to July 2015. Researches on operative and non-operative treatment for CPHFs were selected in this meta-analysis. The quality of all studies was assessed and effective data was pooled for this meta-analysis. Outcome measurements were functional status include constant scores (CS scores) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand scores (DASH scores), total complication rates and healthy-related quality of life. The meta-analysis was performed with software revman 5.3. Nine articles with a total 518 patients (average age 70.93) met inclusion criteria. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year in all the studies. No statistical differences were found between operative and non-operative treatment in CS scores at 12 mo (months) [MD 1.06 95 % CI (-3.51, 5.62)] and 24 mo [MD -0.61 95 % CI (-5.87, 4.65)]. There are also no statistical differences between operative and non-operative treatment in DASH scores at 12 mo [MD -4.51 95 % CI (-13.49, 4.47)] and 24 mo [MD -7.43 95 % CI (-16.14, 1.27)]. Statistical differences were found between operative and non-operative treatment in total complication rates [RR 1.55, 95 % CI (1.24, 1.94)]. Statistical differences in EQ-5D at 24 mo [MD 0.15, 95 % CI (0.05, 0.24)] were found between operative and non-operative treatment but no statistical differences were found in ED-5D at 12 mo [MD 0.08, 95 % CI (-0.01, 0.17)], 15D at

  4. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-10-24

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  5. Proinflammatory responses in the murine brain after intranasal delivery of cholera toxin: implications for the use of AB toxins as adjuvants in intranasal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michelle E; Lavelle, Ed C; Loscher, Christine E; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G

    2005-11-01

    Intranasal delivery of vaccines provides an attractive alternative to parenteral delivery, but it requires appropriate mucosal adjuvants. Cholera toxin (CT) is a powerful mucosal adjuvant, but it can undergo retrograde transport to the brain via the olfactory system after intranasal delivery. We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of CT increases the expression of interleukin-1 beta , cyclooxygenase-2, and chemokine messenger RNA in the murine hypothalamus, whereas parenterally delivered CT has little effect. Our findings suggest that CT can induce proinflammatory mediators in the brain when it is administered intranasally but not parenterally, and they raise concerns about the use of AB toxins as adjuvants in intranasal vaccines.

  6. Intranasal Dexmedetomidine Sedation as Adjuvant Therapy in Acute Asthma Exacerbation With Marked Anxiety and Agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Lega, Sara; Giorgi, Rita; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-01-01

    We describe 2 patients with acute asthma exacerbation who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with severe agitation and restlessness as a prominent finding, for which bedside asthma treatment sedation with intranasal dexmedetomidine was performed. In both cases, dexmedetomidine allowed the patients to rest and improved tolerance to treatment. Dexmedetomidine is a unique sedative with an excellent safety profile and minimal effect on respiratory function. These properties render it particularly promising for the management of severe agitation in children admitted to the ED with acute asthma exacerbation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intranasal Immunization with Chitosan/pCAGGS-flaA Nanoparticles Inhibits Campylobacter jejuni in a White Leghorn Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common zoonotic bacterium associated with human diarrhea, and chickens are considered to be one of the most important sources for human infection, with no effective prophylactic treatment available. We describe here a prophylactic strategy using chitosan-DNA intranasal immunization to induce specific immune responses. The chitosan used for intranasal administration is a natural mucus absorption enhancer, which results in transgenic DNA expression in chicken nasopharynx. Chickens immunized with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, which carried a gene for the major structural protein FlaA, produced significantly increased levels of serum anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG and intestinal mucosal antibody (IgA, compared to those treated with chitosan-DNA (pCAGGS. Chitosan-pCAGGS-flaA intranasal immunization induced reductions of bacterial expellation by 2-3 log10 and 2 log10 in large intestine and cecum of chickens, respectively, when administered with the isolated C. jejuni strain. This study demonstrated that intranasal delivery of chitosan-DNA vaccine successfully induced effective immune response and might be a promising vaccine candidate against C. jejuni infection.

  8. Intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreases brain inflammatory mediators and provides neuroprotection after brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-11-01

    Brain injury due to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disabilities in newborns. We determined whether intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could provide neuroprotection in neonatal rats after brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain HI. They were then treated with intranasal PDTC. Neurological outcomes were evaluated 7 or 30 days after the brain HI. Brain tissues were harvested 6 or 24 h after the brain HI for biochemical analysis. Here, PDTC dose-dependently reduced brain HI-induced brain tissue loss with an effective dose (ED)50 at 27 mg/kg. PDTC needed to be applied within 45 min after the brain HI for this neuroprotection. This treatment reduced brain tissue loss and improved neurological and cognitive functions assessed 30 days after the HI. PDTC attenuated brain HI-induced lipid oxidative stress, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and various inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase after brain HI reduced brain tissue loss. Our results suggest that intranasal PDTC provides neuroprotection possibly via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Intranasal PDTC may have a potential to provide neuroprotection to human neonates after birth asphyxia.

  9. Brain delivery of valproic acid via intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers: in vivo pharmacodynamic studies using rat electroshock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Eskandari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharareh Eskandari1, Jaleh Varshosaz1, Mohsen Minaiyan2, Majid Tabbakhian11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The treatment of brain disorders is one of the greatest challenges in drug delivery because of a variety of main barriers in effective drug transport and maintaining therapeutic concentrations in the brain for a prolonged period. The objective of this study was delivery of valproic acid (VPA to the brain by intranasal route. For this purpose, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication and characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading percentage, and release. Six groups of rats each containing six animals received drug-loaded NLCs intraperitoneally (IP or intranasally. Brain responses were then examined by using maximal electroshock (MES. The hind limb tonic extension:flexion inhibition ratio was measured at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-minute intervals. The drug concentration was also measured in plasma and brain at the most protective point using gas chromatography method. The particle size of NLCs was 154 ± 16 nm with drug-loading percentage of 47% ± 0.8% and drug release of 75% ± 1.9% after 21 days. In vivo results showed that there was a significant difference between protective effects of NLCs of VPA and control group 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after treatment via intranasal route (P < 0.05. Similar protective effect was observed in rats treated with NLCs of VPA in intranasal route and positive control in IP route (P > 0.05. Results of drug determination in brain and plasma showed that brain:plasma concentration ratio was much higher after intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA than the positive control group (IP route. In conclusion, intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA provided a better protection

  10. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3‒6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods. A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3‒6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale, who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were ran-domly given ketamine (10 mg/kg and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures com-pared to oral sedation (P<0.05. Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05. The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physio-logical limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001 with a more sleepy face (P=0.004. Conclusion. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  12. Dente intranasal em portador de fissura de lábio e palato: relato de caso Intranasal tooth in patient with cleft lip and palate: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria F. de Castilho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de dentes na cavidade nasal é rara e inclui alguns sinais e sintomas característicos, como obstrução nasal, rinite casual e odor fétido, entre outros, que podem ser confundidos com outras patologias. Por esta razão, o diagnóstico diferencial deve ser bem executado, por meio dos exames clínico e radiográfico da região. O tratamento, geralmente, é cirúrgico e pode prevenir complicações secundárias. O presente trabalho apresenta um caso de dente intranasal e seu respectivo tratamento cirúrgico para remoção.The presence of teeth at the nasal cavity is rare and involves some characteristic signs and symptoms, such as nasal obstruction, eventual rhinitis and fetid smell, and also others that may be confused with other pathologies. Therefore, differential diagnosis should be carefully accomplished by means of clinical and radiographic examinations of the area. Treatment is usually surgical and may prevent secondary complications. The present paper presents a case of intranasal tooth and the respective surgical treatment for its removal.

  13. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray. A study in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, P.D.; Jonker, D.M.; Hoeven, R.T. van der; Vermeij, T.A.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Brekelmans, G.J.; Haan, G.J. de

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray, compared with intravenous midazolam, in healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Subjects were administered single doses of 5 mg midazolam intranasally and intravenously in a cr

  15. A comparison of costs and efficacy of intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, C M; Schulz, R M; Sclar, D A; Kral, K M; Mackowiak, J I

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets within a sample of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms due to mountain cedar allergy. Efficacy was assessed using secondary data analysis of patient ratings of symptoms and their overall assessment of response to treatment within a previously conducted clinical trial. Costs include direct costs of the drugs used for therapy. Patients with documented mountain cedar allergy who were 12 years of age or older (N = 232) had been randomized to either receive intranasal fluticasone propionate, terfenadine, or placebo. The cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate 200 micrograms once daily were more favorable than the ratios for terfenadine 60 mg twice daily. This relationship remained throughout the sensitivity analysis. Because intranasal fluticasone propionate is only available in a fixed package size, the number of efficacy-adjusted days of terfenadine therapy that could be purchased to reach break-even costs for a 30-day supply of fluticasone was calculated. Cost efficacy-adjusted days ranged from 11 to 18 days. If cost-efficacy adjustments are not conducted, the upper end of the range increases from 18 to 22 days, since 22 days of terfenadine could be purchased for the price of a 30-day supply of intranasal fluticasone propionate. Depending on which of the efficacy measures the reader believes, if patients use terfenadine for longer than 11 to 22 days, fluticasone propionate is the more cost-efficacious choice. Because most allergies are seasonal and allergy seasons typically last longer than 11 to 22 days, it is likely that fluticasone propionate will frequently be the more cost-efficacious choice in the patient population represented in this study.

  16. A pilot study assessing the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diazepam after intranasal and intravenous administration in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Suresh K; Kriel, Robert L; Brundage, Richard C; Ivaturi, Vijay D; Cloyd, James C

    2013-08-01

    Diazepam rectal gel (Diastat(®)) is the only FDA-approved product indicated for acute repetitive seizures. Despite its proven efficacy, most older children and adults object to this route of administration. As a result, many patients do not realize the benefit of a therapy that can improve outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines offers a potential alternative. The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two novel intranasal (IN) diazepam (DZP) formulations versus intravenous (IV) administration in healthy volunteers. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized into an open-label, three-way crossover study. 10mg doses of two investigational intranasal DZP formulations (solution, suspension) and a 5mg IV dose of commercially available DZP injectable, USP were given. A two-week washout period separated treatments. Plasma samples for DZP analysis were collected pre-dose and at regular intervals up to 240 h post-dose. DZP concentration-time data were analyzed using a non-compartmental pharmacokinetics approach. Exposure following administration of DZP IN solution (absolute bioavailability - 97%) was greater than the IN suspension (absolute bioavailability - 67%). Mean Cmaxvalues for the suspension and solution formulations were 221 ng/mL and 272 ng/mL, respectively. Median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was 1h and 1.5h for suspension and solution formulation, respectively. Both investigational intranasal formulations were well tolerated. The results of this pilot study indicate that development of an intranasal diazepam formulation with high bioavailability, reasonable variability, and good tolerability is feasible.

  17. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa, E-mail: etyszkiewicz@wum.edu.pl

    2012-11-15

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ► Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ► Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ► Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  18. Repeated intranasal TLR7 stimulation reduces allergen responsiveness in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiff Lennart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Th1 and Th2 immune responses are of importance to the onset and development of allergic disorders. A Toll-like receptor 7 agonist such as AZD8848 may have potential as a treatment for allergic airway disease by skewing the immune system away from a Th2 profile. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal AZD8848. Methods In a placebo-controlled single ascending dose study, AZD8848 (0.3-600 μg was given intranasally to 48 healthy subjects and 12 patients with allergic rhinitis (NCT00688779. In a placebo-controlled repeat challenge/treatment study, AZD8848 (30 and 60 μg was given once weekly for five weeks to 74 patients with allergic rhinitis out of season: starting 24 hours after the final dose, daily allergen challenges were given for seven days (NCT00770003. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers were monitored. During the allergen challenge series, nasal symptoms and lavage fluid levels of tryptase and α2-macroglobulin, reflecting mast cell activity and plasma exudation, were monitored. Results AZD8848 produced reversible blood lymphocyte reductions and dose-dependent flu-like symptoms: 30–100 μg produced consistent yet tolerable effects. Plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was elevated after administration of AZD8848, reflecting interferon production secondary to TLR7 stimulation. At repeat challenge/treatment, AZD8848 reduced nasal symptoms recorded ten minutes after allergen challenge up to eight days after the final dose. Tryptase and α2-macroglobulin were also reduced by AZD8848. Conclusions Repeated intranasal stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 by AZD8848 was safe and produced a sustained reduction in the responsiveness to allergen in allergic rhinitis. Trial registration NCT00688779 and NCT00770003 as indicated above.

  19. Overcoming barriers to intranasal corticosteroid use in patients with uncontrolled allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgeman MB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mary Barna Bridgeman1,2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Abstract: Patients suffering from allergic rhinitis often attempt to self-manage their ­symptoms and may seek advice from pharmacists about nonprescription product choices. Several drug classes, both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC, are available, including intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs; oral, intranasal, and ocular antihistamines; leukotriene antagonists; and topical and systemic decongestants, as well as immunotherapies. Selection of the optimal treatment approach depends on the temporal pattern, frequency, and severity of symptoms as well as the patient’s age. Nasal congestion is typically the most bothersome symptom, although rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and ocular symptoms are also problematic. Together, these symptoms may adversely impact the quality of life, work productivity, sleep quality, and the ability to perform daily activities, particularly when uncontrolled. Practice guidelines recognize that INCSs are the most effective medications for controlling allergic rhinitis symptoms, including nasal congestion. Available INCS products have comparable safety and efficacy profiles, but they differ in formulation characteristics and sensory attributes. Several barriers can impede the use of INCSs, including concerns about safety, misperceptions regarding the loss of response from frequent use, and undesirable sensations associated with intranasal administration. Given the increasing number of INCSs available OTC, pharmacists can help allay these concerns by discussing treatment expectations, recommending INCS products with favorable formulation characteristics, and reviewing proper use and technique for the administration of the selected product. These steps can help

  20. The safety and tolerability of intranasal midazolam in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that has clearly demonstrated to be an effective option for the acute management of epileptic seizures. It has the advantage of being water-soluble, with a rapid onset of action and it can be administered orally or intranasally, implementing an early intervention at the pre-hospital setting. This article aims to provide an overview of intranasal midazolam in the acute management of epileptic seizures. Available data suggest that midazolam 0.2 mg/kg is as effective as diazepam 0.5 mg/kg, especially in children with febrile or afebrile seizures. Local mucosal irritation seems to occur in less than one-third of cases while serious side effects such as respiratory depression in about 1%. Future studies need to be focused on adults and optimized technologies for intranasal delivery. Moreover, comparisons with buccal midazolam are warranted.

  1. Validation of a Best-Fit Pharmacokinetic Model for Scopolamine Disposition after Intranasal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S-L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Motion Sickness. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were determined per Investigative New Drug (IND) evaluation guidance by the Food and Drug Administration. Earlier, we reported the development of a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine (SCOP) concentrations using data collected from an IND clinical trial with INSCOP. This data analysis project is designed to validate the reported best fit PK model for SCOP by comparing observed and model predicted SCOP concentration-time profiles after administration of INSCOP.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formation During Antiorthostatic Bedrest - A Microgravity Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Putcha; Singh, R. P.; Crady, V. A.; Derendorf, H.

    2011-01-01

    Space Motion sickness (SMS) is an age old problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is the most frequently used drug for the treatment of motion sickness (MS) which is currently available in transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability thus allowing precise and reduced dosing options in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. As such, an intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and Pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined under IND guidelines. The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostatic bedrest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a four-way crossover design. Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose. Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration versus time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose. This difference in AUC and Cls at the higher but not the lower dose during ABR may suggest that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance at higher doses of INSCOP. These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  3. Intranasal administration of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium enhances vascular remodeling after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuchen; Hu, Jinxia; Xiang, Jie; Gu, Yuming; Jin, Peisheng; Hua, Fang; Zhang, Zunsheng; Liu, Yonghai; Zan, Kun; Zhang, Zuohui; Zu, Jie; Yang, Xinxin; Shi, Hongjuan; Zhu, Jienan; Xu, Yun; Cui, Guiyun; Ye, Xinchun

    2015-10-22

    Stem cell-based treatments have been reported to be a potential strategy for stroke. However, tumorigenic potential and low survival rates of transplanted cells could attenuate the efficacy of the stem cell-based treatments. The application of stem cell-condition medium (CM) may be a practicable approach to conquer these limitations. In this study, we investigated whether intranasal administration of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs)-CM has the therapeutic effects in rats after stroke. Adult male rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and were treated by intranasal routine with or without hUCMSCs-CM (1 ml/kg/d), starting 24h after MCAo and daily for 14 days. Neurological functional tests, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, were measured. Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression were measured by immunohistochemistry, and Western blot, respectively. hUCMSCs-CM treatment of stroke by intranasal routine starting 24h after MCAo in rats significantly enhances BBB functional integrity and promotes functional outcome but does not decrease lesion volume compared to rats in DMEM/F12 medium control group and saline control group. Treatment of ischemic rats with hUCMSCs-CM by intranasal routine also significantly decreases the levels of Ang2 and increases the levels of both Ang1 and Tie2 in the ischemic brain. To take together, increased expression of Ang1 and Tie2 and decreased expression of Ang2, induced by hUCMSCs-CM treatment, contribute to vascular remodeling in the ischemic brain which plays an important role in functional outcome after stroke.

  4. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  5. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  6. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  7. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  8. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Intranasal Oxytocin as an Adjunct to Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    active placebo behavioral treatment of 12 sessions of relaxation training, and placebo medication; (2) Group 2 (CBT/placebo), who will receive the...randomized to receive either social skills training or a stress management/ relaxation therapy, and will be randomized to receive either intranasal oxytocin...structural image edits for Freesurfer processing stream, and preliminary analysis of functional task activation to verify data quality and expected

  10. Operative treatment for spinal deformities in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Carol C

    2013-11-01

    The higher the functional impairment, the more likely patients with cerebral palsy (cP) are to develop a scoliotic deformity. This is usually long-sweeping, C-shaped, and progressive in nature, since the causes of the deformity, such as muscular weakness, imbalance, and osteoporosis, persist through adulthood. In contrast to idiopathic scoliosis, not only is the spine deformed, the patient is also sick. This multimorbidity warrants a multidisciplinary approach with close involvement of the caregivers from the beginning. Brace treatment is usually ineffective or intolerable in light of the mostly stiff and severe deformities and the poor nutritional status. The pros and cons of surgical correction need to weighed up when pelvic obliquity, subsequent loss of sitting balance, pressure sores, and pain due to impingement of the rib cage on the ileum become issues. General risks of, for example, pulmonary or urogenital infections, pulmonary failure, the need for a tracheostoma, permanent home ventilation, and death add to the particular surgery-related hazards, such as excessive bleeding, surgical site infections, pseudarthrosis, implant failure, and dural tears with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. The overall complication rate averages around 25 %. From an orthopedic perspective, stiffness, marked deformities including sagittal profile disturbances and pelvic obliquity, as well as osteoporosis are the main challenges. In nonambulatory patients, long fusions from T2/T3 with forces distributed over all segments, low-profile anchors in areas of poor soft tissue coverage (sublaminar bands, wires), and strong lumbosacropelvic modern screw fixation in combination with meticulous fusion techniques (facetectomies, laminar decortication, use of local autologous bone) and hemostasis can be employed to keep the rate of surgical and implant-related complications at an acceptably low level. Excessive posterior release techniques, osteotomies, or even vertebrectomies in cases of

  11. Effects of single dose intranasal oxytocin on social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael C; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Clarke, Angelika D; McGee, Mark R; Green, Michael F; Marder, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in schizophrenia and predict poor community functioning. Given the current limitations of psychosocial treatments and the lack of pharmacological treatments for social cognitive deficits, the development of novel therapeutic agents could greatly enhance functional recovery in schizophrenia. This study evaluated whether a single dose of intranasal oxytocin acutely improves social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Twenty-three male veterans with schizophrenia completed baseline assessments of social cognition that were divided into lower-level (facial affect perception, social perception, detection of lies) and higher-level (detection of sarcasm and deception, empathy) processes. One week later, patients received the same battery after being randomized to a single dose of 40 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo. Though the groups did not differ significantly on the social cognition composite score, oxytocin improved performance for the higher-level social cognitive tasks (Cohen's d=1.0, p=0.045). Subjects were unable to accurately guess which treatment they had received. The improvements found in higher-level social cognition encourage further studies into the therapeutic potential of oxytocin in schizophrenia.

  12. Cluster headache with ptosis responsive to intranasal lidocaine application: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakbak Berker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The application of lidocaine to the nasal mucosal area corresponding to the sphenopalatine fossa has been shown to be effective at extinguishing pain attacks in patients with a cluster headache. In this report, the effectiveness of local administration of lidocaine on cluster headache attacks as a symptomatic treatment of this disorder is discussed. Cases presentation A 22-year-old Turkish man presented with a five-year history of severe, repeated, unilateral periorbital pain and headache, diagnosed as a typical cluster headache. He suffered from rhinorrhea, lacrimation and ptosis during headaches. He had tried several unsuccessful daily medications. We applied a cotton tip with lidocaine hydrochloride into his left nostril for 10 minutes. The ptosis responded to the treatment and the intensity of his headache decreased. Conclusion Intranasal lidocaine is a useful treatment for the acute management of a cluster headache. Intranasal lidocaine blocks the neural transmission of the sphenopalatine ganglion, which contributes to the trigeminal nerve as well as containing both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

  13. The Effect of Long-Term Intranasal Serotonin Treatment on Metabolic Parameters and Hormonal Signaling in Rats with High-Fat Diet/Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Derkach, Kira V.; Bondareva, Vera M.; Oxana V. Chistyakova; Berstein, Lev M.; Alexander O. Shpakov

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) was carried out using regulators of the brain signaling systems. In DM2 the level of the brain serotonin is reduced. So far, the effect of the increase of the brain serotonin level on DM2-induced metabolic and hormonal abnormalities has been studied scarcely. The present work was undertaken with the aim of filling this gap. DM2 was induced in male rats by 150-day high-fat diet and the treatment with low dose of streptozotocin (...

  14. Intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Cook, Sarah J; Duchaine, Bradley; Tree, Jeremy J; Burns, Edwin J; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is characterised by a severe lifelong impairment in face recognition. In recent years it has become clear that DP affects a substantial number of people, yet little work has attempted to improve face processing in these individuals. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that intranasal inhalation of the hormone oxytocin can improve face processing in unimpaired participants, and we investigated whether similar findings might be noted in DP. Ten adults with DP and 10 matched controls were tested using a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind within-subject experimental design (AB-BA). Each participant took part in two testing sessions separated by a 14-25 day interval. In each session, participants inhaled 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo spray, followed by a 45 min resting period to allow central oxytocin levels to plateau. Participants then completed two face processing tests: one assessing memory for a set of newly encoded faces, and one measuring the ability to match simultaneously presented faces according to identity. Participants completed the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MMQ) at three points in each testing session to assess the possible mood-altering effects of oxytocin and to control for attention and wakefulness. Statistical comparisons revealed an improvement for DP but not control participants on both tests in the oxytocin condition, and analysis of scores on the MMQ indicated that the effect cannot be attributed to changes in mood, attention or wakefulness. This investigation provides the first evidence that oxytocin can improve face processing in DP, and the potential neural underpinnings of the findings are discussed alongside their implications for the treatment of face processing disorders.

  15. Intranasal administration of oxytocin: Behavioral and clinical effects, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Olivier, B.

    2013-01-01

    The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways'

  16. Kliniske konsekvenser af intranasal insulinbehandling ved insulinkraevende diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J C; Madsbad, S; Rasmussen, M H;

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic control, hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosal physiology were evaluated in 31 insulin-dependent diabetics treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for one month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin for another month in a randomized crossover trial. During both periods...

  17. Intranasal oxytocin administration in relationship to social behaviour in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin has been shown to alter positive and negative social behaviour. Positive social behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa) may be expressed through gentle social nosing, and greater insight in the specific expression hereof might contribute to the current search for positive indicators of animal welfare. We investigated whether oxytocin alters social nosing and whether this is specific to nose-body or nose-nose contact. Sixty-four focal female pigs of 13weeks of age (out of 16 groups) were given oxytocin (24IU dose) and saline (placebo) intranasally once on two consecutive days. The frequency of nose-to-nose contact and nose-to-body contact was recorded upon pigs' return in the home pen after being for 10min located in a separate area near pen mates undergoing a positive or negative event or not. The effect of intranasal oxytocin depended on the social context in which pigs were studied. Control pigs, which were not exposed to positively or negatively aroused pen mates, gave and received less nose-nose contact after oxytocin administration than after saline administration. Pigs exposed to positively aroused pen mates also tended to give less nose contact when given oxytocin compared to saline, whereas pigs exposed to negatively aroused pen mates and administered oxytocin tended to receive more nose contact. Nose-body contact was lowest in groups of negative social context, suggesting an effect of emotional state on social nosing. In contrast to nose-nose contact, nose-body contact was unaffected by oxytocin treatment. The relationship between social nosing and oxytocin merits further research.

  18. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filt

  19. Hip Osteoarthritis : symptomatic presentation and non-operative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Dorleijn (Desirée)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractHip osteoarthritis is a common, chronic disease characterized by pain and disability. It can have a considerable impact on a person’s activities of daily living. Because there is no treatment available that can cure osteoarthritis, the treatment consists of symptom management. This

  20. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  1. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

  2. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay W. Hooper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route.

  3. Intranasal delivery of hypoxia-preconditioned bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced regenerative effects after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinmei; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, James Ya; Zhang, Yongbo; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity with very limited treatment options. Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach to replace damaged brain tissues and promote regenerative processes. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intranasally delivered hypoxia-preconditioned BMSCs could reach the brain, promote tissue repair and improve functional recovery after ICH. Hemorrhagic stroke was induced in adult C57/B6 mice by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, intranasal BMSC treatment group, and vehicle treatment group. BMSCs were pre-treated with hypoxic preconditioning (HP) and pre-labeled with Hoechst before transplantation. Behavior tests, including the mNSS score, rotarod test, adhesive removal test, and locomotor function evaluation were performed at varying days, up to 21days, after ICH to evaluate the therapeutic effects of BMSC transplantation. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the neurotrophic effects. Intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs were identified in peri-injury regions. NeuN+/BrdU+ co-labeled cells were markedly increased around the hematoma region, and growth factors, including BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF were significantly upregulated in the ICH brain after BMSC treatment. The BMSC treatment group showed significant improvement in behavioral performance compared with the vehicle group. Our data also showed that intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs migrated to peri-injury regions and provided growth factors to increase neurogenesis after ICH. We conclude that intranasal administration of BMSC is an effective treatment for ICH, and that it enhanced neuroregenerative effects and promoted neurological functional recovery after ICH. Overall, the investigation supports the potential therapeutic strategy for BMSC transplantation therapy against hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endovascular treatment of aneurisms: Pre, intra and post operative management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracard, S., E-mail: s.bracard@chu-nancy.fr [Université de Lorraine (France); INSERM U 947 (France); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology. CHU Nancy cedex (France); Barbier, C., E-mail: c.barbier@chu-nancy.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology. CHU Nancy, Batiment Jean Lepoire. Hopital Central, CHU Nancy, 54035 Nancy cedex (France); Derelle, A.L., E-mail: al.derelle@chu-nancy.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology. CHU Nancy, Batiment Jean Lepoire. Hopital Central, CHU Nancy, 54035 Nancy cedex (France); Anxionnat, R., E-mail: r.anxionnat@chu-nancy.fr [Université de Lorraine (France); INSERM U 947 (France); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology. CHU Nancy cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    The most frequent risk in endovascular aneurysm treatment is thromboembolic complications. Thus adjuvant pharmaceuticals are largely focused on preventing and treating these latter. Additionally symptomatic treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and treatments to avoid vasospasm will enter into play in cases of ruptured aneurisms. Consensus exists in the literature neither for the necessity of heparin or antiplatelets nor for the doses to be administered. The principles and rationale of the use of these medications are reviewed with a discussion of protocols according with clinical situations and technical choices.

  5. Intranasal salcatonin (salmon calcitonin). A review of its pharmacological properties and role in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosker, G L; McTavish, D

    1996-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a common problem among postmenopausal women and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and costs primarily resulting from osteoporotic fractures. Salcatonin (salmon calcitonin) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and is approximately 40 to 50 times more potent than human calcitonin. In most randomised trials in which intranasal salcatonin (usually 50 to 200 IU/day plus oral calcium supplements) was administered for 1 to 5 years to postmenopausal women for prevention of osteoporosis, bone mineral density or content of the lumbar spine increased by approximately 1 to 3% from baseline. In contrast, postmenopausal women receiving only oral calcium supplements typically had reductions in bone mineral density or content of about 3 to 6%. The difference between treatment groups was statistically significant in essentially all studies. Although changes in bone mineral density or content were broadly similar in studies of postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis to those in postmenopausal women receiving therapy for prevention of the disease, studies in women with established osteoporosis did not usually demonstrate statistically significant differences between treatment groups. Also in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis, intranasal salcatonin reduced pain and/or analgesic consumption in some trials and, in a limited number of studies of relatively short duration (i.e. transient, usually involving local reactions such as nasal discomfort, rhinorrhoea or rhinitis. Thus, for postmenopausal women unable or unwilling to tolerate long term hormone replacement therapy, intranasal salcatonin is an attractive alternative for the management of osteoporosis.

  6. Using Gelatin Nanoparticle Mediated Intranasal Delivery of Neuropeptide Substance P to Enhance Neuro-Recovery in Hemiparkinsonian Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Zheng Zhao

    Full Text Available Intranasal administration of phospholipid-based gelatin nanoparticles (GNP was prepared to investigate the neuro-recovery effects of neuropeptide Substance P (SP on hemiparkinsonian rats.The SP-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (SP-GNP were prepared by a water-in-water emulsion method and possessed high stability, encapsulating efficiency and loading capacity. PC-12 cells were used to examine the growth enhancement of SP-GNP in vitro by MTT assays and flow cytometry (FCM. The therapeutic effects of SP-GNP on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonian rats were assessed by quantifying rotational behavior and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, phosphorylated c-Jun protein (p-c-Jun and Caspase-3 (Cas-3 expressed in substantia nigra (SN region of hemiparkinsonian rats.PC-12 cells under SP-GNP treatment showed better cell viability and lower degree of apoptosis than those under SP solution treatment. Hemiparkinsonian rats under intranasal SP-GNP administration demonstrated better behavioral improvement, higher level of TH in SN along with much lower extent of p-c-Jun and Cas-3 than those under intranasal SP solution administration and intravenous SP-GNP administration.With the advantages of GNP and nose-to-brain pathway, SP can be effectively delivered into the damaged SN region and exhibit its neuro-recovery function through the inhibition on JNK pathway and dopaminergic neuron apoptosis.

  7. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  8. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  9. Hip Osteoarthritis : symptomatic presentation and non-operative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dorleijn, Desirée

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractHip osteoarthritis is a common, chronic disease characterized by pain and disability. It can have a considerable impact on a person’s activities of daily living. Because there is no treatment available that can cure osteoarthritis, the treatment consists of symptom management. This thesis describes a systematic review on the usefulness of anesthetic hip joint injection in diagnosing hip osteoarthritis. Also it reports on associations between biochemical cartilage markers and c...

  10. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  11. Influence Of Different Methods Of Operative Treatment On Ovarian Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Simrok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of ovarian reserve estimation for 125 women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS who have undergone various methods of surgical treatment - resection of the ovaries, thermokauterisation and drilling by laser (Ho-Yag. Ovarian reserve was estimated according to the amount of antral follicles, level of follitropin and Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also named anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH. Blood flow in ovarian tissue was also examined after various methods of surgical treatment. The study has shown that the gentlest method of surgical treatment is drilling by Ho-Yag laser, which is least likely to injure the tissue of ovaries, and also this method is most effective in enhancing and preserving ovarian reserve.

  12. [The Paltrinieri operation in treatment of pseudarthroses of the leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghele, N; Troianescu, O; Serban, N; Niţu, C; Zamfirescu, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors present 8 cases of pseudarthroses of the tibia secondary to surgical and orthopaedic treatments of fractures of the leg, in whom para-focal osteotomia was performed. The Paltrinieri method is a simple and efficient intervention based on the biochemical principle of re-establishing a normal tibial axis, and on exclusion of the pseudarthrosis focus from under the influence of negative mechanical factors, an intervention which leads to a revival of the capacities of consolidation of the pseudarthrosis. The very good results obtained justify the recommendation ofthis therapeutical method in the treatment of pseudarthroses, especially of the suppurated pseudarthroses of the leg.

  13. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  14. Intranasal administration of one alpha gliadin can downregulate the immune response to whole gliadin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurano, F; Siciliano, R A; De Giulio, B; Luongo, D; Mazzeo, M F; Troncone, R; Auricchio, S; Rossi, M

    2001-03-01

    The mucosal lesion present in coeliac disease is an immune-mediated injury triggered by gliadin and restricted by a particular assortment of major histocompatibility complex genes. In view of this, an immunomodulatory approach that induces tolerance to this antigen appears to be a possible alternative to a strict gluten-free diet in treating coeliac disease. We have shown that intranasal administration of multiple doses of whole gliadin is required to specifically inhibit T helper 1-like T-cell reactivity in BALB/c mice immunized parenterally with whole gliadin. However, T-cell activation to multiple antigens, as a consequence of the chemical complexity shown by the antigen gliadin, could hamper efforts to identify single component(s) useful for tolerance induction. In this study, gliadin fractions were purified and administered intranasally to study their ability to induce tolerance to whole gliadin in our animal model. We found that the alpha fraction was particularly effective in downregulating both the in vitro gliadin-specific T-cell proliferation and interferon-gamma production to whole gliadin. In particular, a purified alpha-gliadin was able to suppress the immune response to the entire gliadin mixture. These results demonstrate how an immune response to a complex antigen may be controlled by treatment with a purified component and specifically indicate alpha-gliadin to be a good candidate for further identification of short peptides to be used as tolerogens in this model.

  15. Low-dose intranasal versus oral midazolam for routine body MRI of claustrophobic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschirch, Frank T.C.; Goepfert, Kerstin; Brunner, Genevieve; Weishaupt, Dominik [University Hospital Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Klus-Apotheke, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the potential of low-dose intranasal midazolam compared to oral midazolam in claustrophobic patients undergoing routine body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-two adult claustrophobic patients referred for body MRI were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (TG1 and TG2). The 36 patients of TG1 received 7.5 mg midazolam orally 15 min before MRI, whereas the 36 patients of TG2 received one (or, if necessary, two) pumps of a midazolam nasal spray into each nostril immediately prior to MRI (in total, 1 or 2 mg). Patients' tolerance, anxiety and sedation were assessed using a questionnaire and a visual analogue scale immediately before and after MRI. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point-scale. In TG1, 18/36 MRI examinations (50%) had to be cancelled, the reduction of anxiety was insufficient in 12/18 remaining patients (67%). In TG2, 35/36 MRI examinations (97%) were completed successfully, without relevant adverse effects. MRI image quality was rated higher among patients of TG2 compared to TG1 (p<0.001). Low-dose intranasal midazolam is an effective and patient-friendly solution to overcome anxiety in claustrophobic patients in a broad spectrum of body MRI. Its anxiolytic effect is superior to that of the orally administrated form. (orig.)

  16. Post-operative duodenal fistula: percutaneous treatment and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Huerta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal fistula is a complex condition, relatively frequent presentation, being in most cases of postoperative origin. Among the latter, 6% to 11% are secondary to surgical treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer, and more unusual, as a complication of cholecystectomy. Two cases treated percutaneous at the Polyclinic Bank city of Buenos Aires are presented. The first, a female patient with a duodenal fistula as a postoperative complication of a perforated duodenal ulcer and the second one patient male with the same pathology but as a complication of cholecystectomy. Percutaneous treatment of this disease has been reported sporadically without having proven its usefulness. Once diagnosed the same Fistulography and obliteration were performed percutaneously achieving complete remission of the disease.

  17. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  18. Effect of solvent selection on froth treatment for mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, H.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The heavy oil (bitumen) industry is important for the Canadian economy. The oil sands are unique to Canada and government support is crucial for continued research into the development of technologies and products which make less of an impact on the environment. This paper describes a successful collaboration between the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) and Shell Canada which led to the 2003 award for Advanced Separation Technologies (AST). This PowerPoint presentation reviews feeds for a naphtha solvent treatment versus a paraffinic solvent treatment. The feeds include bitumen froth, low quality bitumen emulsions, in-situ heavy oil emulsions, and bitumen. Microscope images for each of these feeds were illustrated. The typical elements of the solvent treatment process were also outlined in a flow chart. The main feature of the naphtha process is that it is well established plus it renders a product with 1.5 to 4 per cent water and 0.5 per cent solids. It needs chemical demulsifiers and no asphaltene is rejected. The main feature of the paraffinic process is that it produces a product with low water/solids content and asphaltene levels can be controlled. The process requires less solvent for pipelining because of its reduced viscosity and if offers flexibility in terms of upgrading options. The presentation listed achievements in AST by Albian Sands, TrueNorth, Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Suncor, Syncrude, and AEC Pipelines Ltd. tabs., figs.

  19. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  20. An observational feasibility study to assess the safety and effectiveness of intranasal fentanyl for radiofrequency ablations of the lumbar facet joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Michael W; McCoart, Amy; Hong, Kyung-soo Jason; Haley, Chelsey; Highland, Krista Beth; Plunkett, Anthony R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present observational, feasibility study is to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of intranasal fentanyl for lumbar facet radiofrequency ablation procedures. Patients and methods This cohort observational study included 23 adult patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, oxygen saturation percent, Pasero Opioid-Induced Sedation Scale score, and the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale pain score were assessed prior to the procedure and intranasal fentanyl (100 μg) administration and every 15 minutes after administration, up to 60 minutes post administration. Follow-up of patient satisfaction with pain control and treatment was assessed 24 hours after discharge. The primary outcome was safety as evidenced by adverse events. Secondary outcomes included the above-mentioned vital signs and pain ratings. Results No adverse events occurred in the present study and all participants maintained an acceptable level of awareness throughout the assessment period. One-way repeated measures analyses of covariance tests with Bonferroni-adjusted means indicated that oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and heart rate changed from baseline, whereas pain scores were lower at post-administration levels compared with baseline. Finally, the majority of participants reported being satisfied with pain control and treatment. Conclusion Preliminary evidence indicates that intranasal fentanyl is safe and effective for lumbar facet radiofrequency ablation procedures. Future rigorous randomized control trials are needed to confirm the present results and to examine the effects of intranasal fentanyl on intraoperative and postoperative opioid use.

  1. Intranasal Delivery of A Novel Amnion Cell Secretome Prevents Neuronal Damage and Preserves Function In A Mouse Multiple Sclerosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Reas S.; Dine, Kimberly; Bauman, Bailey; Lorentsen, Michael; Lin, Lisa; Brown, Helayna; Hanson, Leah R.; Svitak, Aleta L.; Wessel, Howard; Brown, Larry; Shindler, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a novel intranasally delivered amnion cell derived biologic to suppress inflammation, prevent neuronal damage and preserve neurologic function in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis was assessed. Currently, there are no existing optic nerve treatment methods for disease or trauma that result in permanent vision loss. Demyelinating optic nerve inflammation, termed optic neuritis, induces permanent visual dysfunction due to retinal ganglion cell damage in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ST266, the biological secretome of Amnion-derived Multipotent Progenitor cells, contains multiple anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Intranasally administered ST266 accumulated in rodent eyes and optic nerves, attenuated visual dysfunction, and prevented retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis, with reduced inflammation and demyelination. Additionally, ST266 reduced retinal ganglion cell death in vitro. Neuroprotective effects involved oxidative stress reduction, SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial function promotion, and pAKT signaling. Intranasal delivery of neuroprotective ST266 is a potential novel, noninvasive therapeutic modality for the eyes, optic nerves and brain. The unique combination of biologic molecules in ST266 provides an innovative approach with broad implications for suppressing inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and for preventing neuronal damage in acute neuronal injury and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:28139754

  2. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  3. PHYSIOLOGIC BASIS OF NASAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilding, A. C.

    1950-01-01

    To be successful, intranasal operations must be so designed as to restore the normal physiologic function of the nose. It is impossible with impunity to operate upon the interior of the nose as though it were simply an air flue and on the sinuses as though they were boxes. PMID:15400563

  4. Targeting glioblastoma via intranasal administration of Ff bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor-On, Eyal; Solomon, Beka

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are ubiquitous viruses that control the growth and diversity of bacteria. Although they have no tropism to mammalian cells, accumulated evidence suggests that phages are not neutral to the mammalian macro-host and can promote immunomodulatory and anti-tumorigenic activities. Here we demonstrate that Ff phages that do not display any proteins or peptides could inhibit the growth of subcutaneous glioblastoma tumors in mice and that this activity is mediated in part by lipopolysaccharide molecules attached to their virion. Using the intranasal route, a non-invasive approach to deliver therapeutics directly to the CNS, we further show that phages rapidly accumulate in the brains of mice and could attenuate progression of orthotopic glioblastoma. Taken together, this study provides new insight into phages non-bacterial activities and demonstrates the feasibility of delivering Ff phages intranasally to treat brain malignancies. PMID:26074908

  5. Targeting glioblastoma via intranasal administration of Ff bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eDor-On

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages (phages are ubiquitous viruses that control the growth and diversity of bacteria. Although they have no tropism to mammalian cells, accumulated evidence suggests that phages are not neutral to the mammalian macro-host and can promote immunomodulatory and anti-tumorigenic activities. Here we demonstrate that Ff phages that do not display any proteins or peptides could inhibit the growth of subcutaneous glioblastoma tumors in mice and that this activity is mediated in part by lipopolysaccharide molecules attached to their virion. Using the intranasal route, a non-invasive approach to deliver therapeutics directly to the CNS, we further show that phages rapidly accumulate in the brains of mice and could attenuate progression of orthotopic glioblastoma. Taken together, this study provides new insight into phages non-bacterial activities and demonstrates the feasibility of delivering Ff phages intranasally to treat brain malignancies.

  6. Targeting glioblastoma via intranasal administration of Ff bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor-On, Eyal; Solomon, Beka

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are ubiquitous viruses that control the growth and diversity of bacteria. Although they have no tropism to mammalian cells, accumulated evidence suggests that phages are not neutral to the mammalian macro-host and can promote immunomodulatory and anti-tumorigenic activities. Here we demonstrate that Ff phages that do not display any proteins or peptides could inhibit the growth of subcutaneous glioblastoma tumors in mice and that this activity is mediated in part by lipopolysaccharide molecules attached to their virion. Using the intranasal route, a non-invasive approach to deliver therapeutics directly to the CNS, we further show that phages rapidly accumulate in the brains of mice and could attenuate progression of orthotopic glioblastoma. Taken together, this study provides new insight into phages non-bacterial activities and demonstrates the feasibility of delivering Ff phages intranasally to treat brain malignancies.

  7. Assessment of the pharmacodynamics of intranasal, intravenous and oral scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1990-01-01

    Space motion sickness is an important issue in the space medical sciences program. One of the objectives of the ongoing clinical experimental protocol Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine in Normal Subjects is to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of scopolamine using salivary flow rate and pH profiles and cognitive performance tests as pharmacodynamic parameters. Normal volunteers collected saliva and performed the NTI Multiresource Performance Battery tests at designed time intervals to establish control saliva flow rates, salivary pH profiles, and the characteristics of the learning curve for the performance program under normal conditions. In the clinical part of the study, saliva samples and performance test scores are collected from healthy nonsmoking subjects after receiving a single 0.4 mg dose of either intranasal, intravenous, or oral scopolamine.

  8. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  9. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed.

  10. Delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Prashanth; Hargett, Jamie K; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the plausibility of delivery of cefotaxime to the brain via intranasal administration. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and the effect of different concentrations of chitosan (0.1% w/v and 0.25% w/v) on drug permeation across the bovine olfactory mucosa was determined. Samples were collected from the receiver compartment at different time points and analyzed using HPLC. The amount of cefotaxime that permeated across the olfactory mucosa when 0.25% w/v of chitosan was used as a permeation enhancer was ~1.5- and ~2-fold higher at the end of the first hour and second hour, respectively, over control (29.56 ± 6.18 µg/cm(2)). There was no significant enhancement in drug permeation when 0.1% w/v chitosan was used as the permeation enhancer. Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out using Sprague-Dawley rats. Cefotaxime solution with 0.25% w/v chitosan (40 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to rats in groups 1 and 3 and intranasally to those in group 2 and 4. The time course of drug in the brain was investigated by performing microdialysis in rats of groups 1 and 2. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats in groups 3 and 4, and cefotaxime in plasma was analyzed using HPLC after extraction with a hydrochloric acid-chloroform:1-pentanol (3:1) and phosphate buffer solvent system. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the trapezoidal rule. The results imply that the drug levels attained in the brain following i.v. and intranasal administrations were comparable. These results suggest that intranasal administration of cefotaxime could be a potential method of delivering antibacterial agents because of it being noninvasive and patient compliant.

  11. Delayed intranasal delivery of hypoxic-preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhanced cell homing and therapeutic benefits after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ning; Yu, Shan Ping; Gu, Xiaohuan; Taylor, Tammi M; Song, Denise; Liu, Xin-Feng; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. Effective delivery of exogenous cells and homing of these cells to the lesion region, however, have been challenging issues that hinder the efficacy and efficiency of cell-based therapy. In the present investigation, we tested a delayed treatment of noninvasive and brain-targeted intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model. The investigation tested the feasibility and effectiveness of intranasal delivery of BMSCs to the ischemic cortex. Hypoxia preconditioning (HP) of BMSCs was performed before transplantation in order to promote their survival, migration, and homing to the ischemic brain region after intranasal transplantation. Hoechst dye-labeled normoxic- or hypoxic-pretreated BMSCs (1 × 10(6) cells/animal) were delivered intranasally 24 h after stroke. Cells reached the ischemic cortex and deposited outside of vasculatures as early as 1.5 h after administration. HP-treated BMSCs (HP-BMSCs) showed a higher level of expression of proteins associated with migration, including CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9. HP-BMSCs exhibited enhanced migratory capacities in vitro and dramatically enhanced homing efficiency to the infarct cortex when compared with normoxic cultured BMSCs (N-BMSCs). Three days after transplantation and 4 days after stroke, both N-BMSCs and HP-BMSCs decreased cell death in the peri-infarct region; significant neuroprotection of reduced infarct volume was seen in mice that received HP-BMSCs. In adhesive removal test of sensorimotor functional assay performed 3 days after transplantation, HP-BMSC-treated mice performed significantly better than N-BMSC- and vehicle-treated animals. These data suggest that delayed intranasal administration of stem cells is feasible in the treatment of stroke and hypoxic

  12. Surface treatment by propane operated static jet engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-03-01

    Based on the principle of the jet engine, by projecting abrasive materials in hot gas at supersonic speed, 'thermo-blasting' is an industrial solution for surface treatment which combines propane, innovation and environmental protection. From the very outset, these three reasons incited Primagaz to take part in the perfection and development of the system designed by Thermo-Blast International SA. This young company from Pau (Southern France) which also validated its design with Turbomeca and the ENSAM in Paris, is currently enjoying a growing reputation at international level. In order to remain the world leader in its field and retain its technological advance, Thermo-Blast continues to refine its process with the support of Primagaz and D.B. Consultants with regard to optimising gas combustion techniques. (author)

  13. Operative treatment of chondroblastoma: a study of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapa, Onur; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Demirkıran, Nihat Demirhan; Akdeniz, Olcay; Havitçioğlu, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Aim of the study was to review the radiological, clinical results of 11 chondroblastoma cases treated at our institute between 2003-2013. All patients with chondroblastoma included in this study underwent intra-lesional curettage+/-bone grafting. Follow up for healing of chondroblastoma lesions and detection of any local recurrence was assessed on clinical and radiological bases. The functional outcome was assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 6.1 years. There were three recurrences (two femoral head, one proximal tibia). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 21. First line aggressive treatment seems appropriate for chondroblastoma especially when localized at lower extremities.

  14. Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    finding clinical trial is proposed using two doses within the range that has been shown to be effective and safe in cognitively impaired older adults ...Kang et al., 2009; Gulf War Research Advisory Committee (RAC), 2008; IOM, 2010). GW deployed veterans are also developing significantly more chronic...nervous system (CNS). Over the years it has been found that cognitive complaints have been particularly troublesome to GWV. Recent studies have shown a

  15. Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pump twice daily through the nose . The placebo group will administer saline through a nasal infusion pump twice daily as well. The primary outcome...level sarin and cyclosarin exposure and Gulf War Illness on Brain Structure and Function: A study at 4T. Neurotoxicology. Chao LL, Rothlind JC...Cardenas VA, Meyerhoff DJ, Weiner MW. (2010). Effects of low-level exposure to sarin and cyclosarin during the 1991 Gulf War on brain function and brain

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formulation During Antiorthostatic Bed Rest, a Microgravity Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra P.; Daniels, Vernie R.; Crady, Camille J.; Derendorf, H.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Purpose, Innovation or Hypothesis: Space Motion sickness (SMS) is a long-standing problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is frequently used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), and is available as transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability, thus allowing precise and reduced dosing in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined in clinical trials with human subjects under IND guidelines.Description of Methods and Materials: The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostaticbed rest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a 4-way crossover design.Data and Results: Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose, Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose.Interpretation, Conclusion or Significance: The difference in AUC and Cls at the higher (0.4 mg) but not the lower dose (0.2 mg) during ABR suggests that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance of INSCOP at higher doses . These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  17. Intranasal fentanyl for the management of acute pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrian; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Wakai, Abel; Grant, Timothy S; Barrett, Michael J; Cronin, John; McCoy, Siobhan C; Hom, Jeffrey; Kandamany, Nandini

    2014-10-10

    Pain is the most common symptom in the emergency setting; however, timely management of acute pain in children continues to be suboptimal. Intranasal drug delivery has emerged as an alternative method of achieving quicker drug delivery without adding to the distress of a child by inserting an intravenous cannula. We identified and evaluated all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials to assess the effects of intranasal fentanyl (INF) versus alternative analgesic interventions in children with acute pain, with respect to reduction in pain score, occurrence of adverse events, patient tolerability, use of "rescue analgesia," patient/parental satisfaction and patient mortality. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 1); MEDLINE (Ovid SP, from 1995 to January 2014); EMBASE (Ovid SP, from 1995 to January 2014); the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO Host, from 1995 to January 2014); the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS) (BIREME, from 1995 to January 2014); Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts (from 1995 to January 2014); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (from 1995 to January 2014); BIOSIS Previews (from 1995 to January 2014); the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (from 1995 to January 2014); International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) (from 1995 to January 2014); ClinicalTrials.gov (from 1995 to January 2014); and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (to January 2014). We included RCTs comparing INF versus any other pharmacological/non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of children in acute pain (aged < 18 years). Two independent review authors assessed each title and abstract for relevance. Full copies of all studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved for further assessment. Mean difference (MD), odds

  18. A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades. CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted.

  19. Functional outcome 5 years after non-operative treatment of type A spinal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, RB; Keizer, HJE; Leferink, VJM; van der Sluis, CK

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to study the functional outcome after non-operative treatment of type A thoracolumbar spinal fractures without neurological deficit. Functional outcome was determined following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, measuring restrictions in

  20. Pharmacotherapeutics of Intranasal Scopolamine: FDA Regulations and Procedures for Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H.; Daniels, V. R.; Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Buckey, J. C.; Locke, J. P.; Putcha, L.

    2007-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is commonly experienced by astronauts and often requires treatment with medications during the early flight days of a space mission. Bioavailability of oral (PO) SMS medications is often low and highly variable; additionally, physiological changes in a microgravity environment exacerbate variability and decrease bioavailability. These factors prompted NASA to develop an intranasal dosage form of scopolamine (INSCOP) suitable for the treatment of SMS. However, to assure safety and efficacy of treatment in space, NASA physicians prescribe commercially available pharmaceutical products only. Development of a pharmaceutical preparation for clinical use must follow distinct clinical phases of testing, phase I through IV to be exact, before it can be approved by the FDA for approval for clinical use. After a physician sponsored Investigative New Drug (IND) application was approved by the FDA, a phase I clinical trial of INSCOP formulation was completed in normal human subjects and results published. The current project includes three phase II clinical protocols for the assessment of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), efficacy, and safety of INSCOP. Three clinical protocols that were submitted to FDA to accomplish the project objectives: 1) 002-A, a FDA Phase II dose ranging study with four dose levels between 0.1 and 0.4 mg in 12 subjects to assess PK/PD, 2) 002-B, a phase II clinical efficacy study in eighteen healthy subjects to compare efficacy of 0.2 (low dose) and 0.4 mg (high dose) INSCOP for prophylactic treatment of motion-induces (off-axis vertical rotation) symptoms, and (3) 002-C, a phase II clinical study with twelve subjects to determine bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of two doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP in simulated microgravity, antiorthostatic bedrest. All regulatory procedures were competed that include certification for Good laboratory Procedures by Theradex , clinical documentation, personnel training

  1. Comparison of Preanesthetic Sedation after Intranasal Administration of Fentanyle, Ketamin and Midazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javaherforoosh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Induction of anesthesia in children can be a challenge for anesthetist. A stormy induction may increase the personality & behavioral changes. Therefore, it is desirable that they enter the operating room sedated. Many drugs are used for preanesthetic medication and there are many routes for administration. One route of administration is nasal mucous. In this study we compared the effect and side effect of three drugs (midazolam, ketamin and fentanyle after intra nasal administration. Materials & Methods: This is a double blind clinical trial. In this study we selected 60 patients (20 patients for every group A, B or C. We used 3 mg/kg ketamin or 3µg/kg fentanyle or 0.3 mg/kg midazolam by intranasal spray. After administration and in 5, 10 and 15 minutes, we observed the SPO2, PR and RR. After 15 min’s we separated children from parents and brought them to the operating room and controlled the acceptance of separation, depth of sedation with Ramsay score, acceptance of mask and tolerance of IV canulation. The data were then analyzed using K2 and kruskal-wallis test. Results: In our study we found that in SPO2 fentanyle had the highest rate of reduction even though none of the children had SPO2 lower than 90%. There were no differences between drugs in RR. In fentanyle group, we had the lowest rate and in ketamin group the highest rate. Midazolam had the medium rate. The rate of sedation for acceptance of separation from parents had no difference between the groups and all drugs with this dosage were effective for this aim. However, in Ramsay score, acceptance of mask and tolerance of IV canulation, the midazolam was more effective than the others. Conclusion: Intranasal administration of midazolam is a safe route for sedation in children in the pre-anesthetic time.

  2. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  3. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  4. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  5. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  6. The relationship between temporal discounting and the prisoner's dilemma game in intranasal abusers of prescription opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Richard; Buchhalter, August R; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Bickel, Warren K

    2007-02-23

    Previous research on college students has found that cooperation in iterated prisoner's dilemma game is correlated with preference for delayed rewards in studies of temporal discounting. The present study attempted to replicate this finding in a drug-dependent population. Thirty-one individuals who intranasally abuse prescription opioids participated in temporal discounting and iterated prisoner's dilemma game procedures during intake for a treatment study. Rate of temporal discounting was determined for each participant at two hypothetical reward magnitudes, as well as proportion of cooperation in a 60-trial iterated prisoner's dilemma game versus a tit-for-tat strategy. Cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game and temporal discounting rates were significantly correlated in the predicted direction: individuals who preferred delayed rewards in the temporal discounting task were more likely to cooperate in the prisoner's dilemma game.

  7. Experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy of intranasal levocabastine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Stefan; Nielsen, K; Bisgaard, H;

    1998-01-01

    In allergic rhinitis, a nasal H1-antihistamine spray seems to be well suited for usage on an as-needed basis, because it has a quick onset of action, and many patients prefer to take medicine only when they have symptoms. It is a prerequisite, however, that nasal hypersecretion during a rhinitis...... episode does not significantly reduce the efficacy of intranasal treatment by washing away the drug before it reaches the H1-histamine receptors. In order to investigate this problem, we have induced nasal hypersecretion with a methacholine challenge in one experiment and in four experiments we have......% (p antihistamine spray. We conclude that experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy...

  8. Development of intranasal nanovehicles of itraconazole and their immunological activities for the therapy of rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Aeri; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-07-01

    Itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded microemulsion (ME) systems for intranasal (IN) delivery were developed for the treatment of human rhinovirus serotype 1B (HRV1B) infection. ITZ was incorporated into the oil-in-water (o/w) ME formulation composed of benzyl alcohol (oil), Cremophor EL (surfactant), Solutol HS15 (cosurfactant), and water. The optimized composition of ME was determined by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagram. ITZ ME formulation with about 150nm mean diameter and spherical shape was prepared and the solubility of ITZ in blank ME was markedly improved (up to 13.9mg/mL). The initial value of droplet size was maintained with four times dilution in the aqueous buffer and 72h incubation. Released amounts of drug from ME formulation were significantly enhanced compared to drug suspension group (prhinovirus infection.

  9. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Sec

  10. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  11. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  12. Evaluation of subcutaneous versus mucosal (intranasal) allergen-specific rush immunotherapy in experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Spinka, Christine M; Reinero, Carol R

    2009-05-15

    Rush immunotherapy (RIT) is effective for the treatment of experimental feline allergic asthma. In humans, the safety profile of immunotherapy is improved by delivering allergen by a mucosal route. We hypothesized that mucosal (intranasal) RIT would have similar efficacy to subcutaneous RIT with improved safety. Twelve cats sensitized and challenged with Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) were randomized to receive subcutaneous (SC) or intranasal (IN) RIT. Increasing doses of BGA (20-200 microg) were administered over 24h followed by 200 microg BGA weekly as maintenance. Adverse reactions were recorded. Clinical respiratory scores after BGA aerosol challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) % eosinophils, and cytokine concentrations were measured before RIT (day 1) and at months 1, 3 and 6 (M1, M3, M6). More adverse events were recorded with SC RIT (n=12) compared with IN RIT (n=6). Respiratory scores were lower by M6 compared with D1 in both the groups. The % BALF eosinophils declined significantly after RIT for both groups (mean+/-SEM, SC RIT D1 62+/-12, M6 9+/-4; IN RIT D1 54+/-9, M6 14+/-6). The BALF IL-4:IFN-gamma ratio significantly decreased over time in the IN RIT group (mean+/-SEM, D1 2.4+/-0.2, M6 1.0+/-0.2). While both protocols decreased eosinophilic airway inflammation, the SC RIT protocol did not cause life-threatening adverse events and demonstrated more consistent resolution of clinical signs after allergen challenge. Either protocol could be considered for the treatment of feline allergic asthma.

  13. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  14. User Charge Revenues for Wastewater Treatment Plants--Insufficient to Cover Operation and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-02

    AD-All 588 SEMERAL ACCOUNTINq OFFICE WASHINGTON DC COMUNITY AN--ETC F/S 13/2 USER CHARGE REVENUES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS--INSUFFICI--ETC(U...COMPTROLLER GENERAL 0 Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES User Charge Revenues For Wastewater = Treatment Piants-Insutficient To Cover Operation And...Maintenance Half of the 36 municipal wastewater treatment plants GAO reviewed in 10 States were not raising sufficient funds from their user charge iP

  15. Thermoreversible biogels for intranasal delivery of rizatriptan benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a thermoreversible formulation containing rizatriptan benzoate for intranasal administration. Chitosan and aqueous β-glycerolphosphate were mixed in cold condition to obtain chitosan-β-glycerolphosphate mixtures, which served as the thermoreversible systems. Rizatriptan benzoate was incorporated at a final strength of 25 mg/ml. Both in vitro release and ex vivo permeation of rizatriptan from gels were measured at 37º using Franz diffusion cells Formulations were tested in vivo in mice for reduction in locomotor activity using digital actophotometer and nasal mucosal tissues were examined histopathologically.

  16. Evaluation of Intranasal Midazolam as an Anesthetic Premedication in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Behdad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative psycho emotional preparation of patients is one of the principle purposes of anesthesia which can be achieved by administration of premedications. Children should receive premedication before entering the operating room due to their dependence on parents and the fear and anxiety of separation from parents. Different drugs are administered for this purpose, but considering children's sensitivity, it is wise to use the most effective and comfortable medication with least side effects. Midazolam is a rapid onset, short acting and water soluble benzodiazapine which can be administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular, rectal or intranasal routes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of intranasal midazolam administration (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in children aged 2-6 years.( Min dose and enough time Methods: In this randomized prospective study, 100 children aged between 2-6 years old in class ASA 1 and candidates of surgery were divided into two groups; case and control. The control group received several nasal drops of normal saline, while the case group received 0.2 mg/kg nasal midazolam 20 minutes before anesthesia induction. Results: Twenty minutes after administration of the nasal drops, 14% in the control group and 68% in the case group were alert and calm. (P value=0.0 . Mask acceptance during induction of anesthesia in control and case group was 14%and 72%, respectively (P value >0.00 The recovery time in the case group was longer (P value >0.5, but no complications (nausea, vomiting, respiratory and cardiovascular problems were seen in either group. Conclusion: Nasal midazolam with its anxiolytic, tranquilizing effects and no respiratory or cardiovascular complications is a safe drug and being better than parenteral drugs is acceptable by children.

  17. A new minimal-stress freely-moving rat model for preclinical studies on intranasal administration of CNS drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Jasper; Suidgeest, Ernst; van der Graaf, Piet Hein; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a new minimal-stress model for intranasal administration in freely moving rats and to evaluate in this model the brain distribution of acetaminophen following intranasal versus intravenous administration. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received one intranasal cannula, an intra-cerebra

  18. Efeitos anestésicos da administração intranasal ou intramuscular de cetamina S+ e midazolam em pomba-rola (Streptotelia sp. Anesthetic effects of intranasal or intramuscular administration of S+ Ketamine and Midazolam in ring necked dove (Streptotelia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane L. Beier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A via intranasal é uma boa alternativa por ser indolor e de fácil aplicação em aves. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cetamina S+ e midazolam pela via intranasal (IN em comparação com a via intramuscular (IM em pombos. Foram utilizados 12 pombos alocados em dois grupos com 15 dias de intervalo, os quais receberam: grupo IM: 20 mg/kg de cetamina S+ associada a 3,5 mg/kg de midazolam pela via intramuscular (musculatura do peito; e grupo IN, mesmo protocolo, porém, pela via intranasal. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: período de latência, tempo de duração em decúbito dorsal, tempo total de anestesia, tempo de recuperação e efeitos adversos. Para a análise estatística, empregou-se o teste de Wilcoxon, com as diferenças consideradas significativas quando PThe intranasal route is a good alternative because is painless and easy to perform in birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic effects of S+ ketamine and midazolam administered by intranasal or intramuscular route in pigeons. Twelve animals were used in a randomized and crossover design. Animals received two treatments with 2-weeks interval. IM group: animals received 20mg/kg of S+ ketamine and 3.5mg/kg of midazolam by intramuscular route (pectoral muscles; IN group: animals received the same protocol by intranasal route. Parameters evaluated were: onset of action, time of duration in dorsal recumbency; total time of anesthesia and side effects. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon test and the differences were considered significant when P<0.05. Onset of action was 30 [30-47.5] and 40 [30-50] seconds for IM and IN respectively. Time of duration in dorsal recumbency was 59 [53.25-65] and 63 [37-71.25] minutes for IM and IN respectively, without significant differences between treatments. Total time of anesthesia was 88 [86.25-94.5] and 68 [53.5-93] minutes for IM and IN, respectively, with significant

  19. Audit of the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) generates radioactive and liquid wastes that must be treated before being discharged to the environment. Presently, the liquid wastes are treated in the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility), which is over 30 years old and in need of repair or replacement. However, there are various ways to satisfy the treatment need. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Los Alamos cost effectively managed its Treatment Facility operations. The audit determined that Los Alamos` treatment costs were significantly higher when compared to similar costs incurred by the private sector. This situation occurred because Los Alamos did not perform a complete analysis of privatization or prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its treatment operations, although a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan requirement was incorporated into the contract in 1996. As a result, Los Alamos may be spending $2.15 million more than necessary each year and could needlessly spend $10.75 million over the next five years to treat its radioactive liquid waste. In addition, Los Alamos has proposed to spend $13 million for a new treatment facility that may not be needed if privatization proves to be a cost effective alternative. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque), (1) require Los Alamos to prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its radioactive liquid waste treatment operations, (2) review the plan for approval, and (3) direct Los Alamos to select the most cost effective method of operations while also considering other factors such as mission support, reliability, and long-term program needs. Albuquerque concurred with the recommendations.

  20. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Darshana S., E-mail: darshanaj_cup@yahoo.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Bajaj, Amrita N. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Athawale, Rajani B., E-mail: rajani.athawale@gmail.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Shikhande, Shruti S. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Pandey, Abhijeet [H. R Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra (India); Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P. [Gude Lab, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 210 (India); Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti [Cipla Pvt. Ltd., Vikhroli (West), Mumbai (India)

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  1. Intranasal Oxytocin Selectively Modulates Social Perception, Craving, and Approach Behavior in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin.

  3. Exposure to the operator and patient during short wave diathermy treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchly, M A; Repacholi, M H; Lecuyer, D W; Mann, R D

    1982-03-01

    Short-wave diathermy is one of the most popular treatment modalities used to relieve pain through localized heating. In Canada its use in hospitals is as frequent as that of ultrasonic therapy devices and about 10 times more popular than microwave diathermy. Intensities of the electric and magnetic fields around applicators of 7 different diathermy units were measured at the operator position and at various untreated areas of the patient during 11 treatment regimes using 5 types of applicators. Exposure to the operator in the normal operating position, behind the device console, usually does not exceed the limits recommended by the Canadian Federal Government. The intense fields around the applicators and the cables extend up to 0.5 m and are a source of potential overexposure to the operator.

  4. Intranasal sufentanil for cancer-associated breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, P; Jackson, K; Brumley, D; Ashby, M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy, safety and patient acceptability of the use of intranasal sufentanil for cancer-associated breakthrough pain. This was a prospective, open label, observational study of patients in three inpatient palliative care units in Australia. Patients on opioids with cancer-associated breakthrough pain and clinical evidence of opioid responsiveness to their breakthrough pain were given intranasal (IN) Sufentanil via a GO Medical patient controlled IN analgesia device. The main outcome measures were pain scores, need to revert to previous breakthrough opioid after 30 min, number of patients who chose to continue using IN sufentanil, and adverse effects. There were 64 episodes of use of IN sufentanil for breakthrough pain in 30 patients. There was a significant reduction in pain scores at 15 (P < 0.0001) and 30 min (P < 0.0001). In only 4/64 (6%) episodes of breakthrough pain did the participants choose to revert to their prestudy breakthrough medication. Twenty-three patients (77%) rated IN sufentanil as better than their prestudy breakthrough medication. The incidence of adverse effects was low and most were mild. Our study showed that IN sufentanil can provide relatively rapid onset, intense but relatively short lasting analgesia and in the palliative care setting it is an effective, practical, and safe option for breakthrough pain.

  5. Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    Following the discovery that intranasal administration of neuropeptides can reach the central nervous system, a growing number of studies applied intranasal oxytocin (OT) paradigms to demonstrate the positive effects of OT on social and emotional processes. The three-step paradigm typically included: OT administration, a 45-min waiting period, and approximately 1-h period of active drug effects when experimental manipulations are applied. Yet, this schedule has not been put to systematic validation. Utilizing a double-blind placebo-control within-subject design, ten individuals were administered OT or placebo and salivary OT was measured ten times, at baseline and nine times over four consecutive hours. OT administration induced substantial increases in salivary OT across the entire period. OT rose dramatically 15 min after administration (from 6.9 pg/ml at baseline to 1265.4 pg/ml), reached plateau at 45-120 min (range=131.6 and 105.3 pg/ml), and did not return to baseline by 4h. Results contribute to discussion on brain-periphery coordination of OT and highlight the need for further research on the temporal dynamics and durations of OT administration effects.

  6. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-07-14

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device.

  7. [Operative treatment of pediatric open fractures of the lower limb using the Taylor spatial frame fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, J; Baecker, H; Graf, M; Ozokyay, L; Muhr, G; Seybold, D

    2010-05-01

    The operative management of open fractures of the lower limb requires a consistent treatment to avoid soft tissue complications. Acute angular shortening of the fracture enabling primary soft tissue closure is still an uncommon operative technique because of difficulties in correcting the secondary deformity. The case of a pediatric open fracture of the lower limb (Gustilo type IIIa) is described, which was treated with acute angular shortening followed by gradual correction using the Taylor spatial frame (TSF).

  8. Efficacy of Intranasal Minimal-invasive Operation in Treatment of Patients With Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis%鼻内镜微创手术治疗牙源性上颌窦炎的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振祥

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究鼻内镜微创手术治疗牙源性上颌窦炎的效果.方法 研究对象取2013年8月~2014年8月本院牙源性上颌窦炎52例,按照治疗方式差异分成两组.26例入组对照组,施以传统手术;余26例入组研究组,施以鼻内镜微创手术,组间对比疗效.结果 研究组的住院日短,随访疗效较好,并发症率低,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 鼻内镜微创手术治疗牙源性上颌窦炎效果较好,且并发症少,住院时间短,需引起重视.

  9. Results of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rockwood Types III and V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukainen, Antti; Kröger, Heikki; Niemitukia, Lea; Mäkelä, E. Antero; Väätäinen, Urho

    2014-01-01

    Background: The optimal treatment of acute, complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is still unresolved. Purpose: To determine the difference between operative and nonoperative treatment in acute Rockwood types III and V ACJ dislocation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In the operative treatment group, the ACJ was reduced and fixed with 2 transarticular Kirschner wires and ACJ ligament suturing. The Kirschner wires were extracted after 6 weeks. Nonoperatively treated patients received a reduction splint for 4 weeks. At the 18- to 20-year follow-up, the Constant, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA), Larsen, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores were obtained, and clinical and radiographic examinations of both shoulders were performed. Results: Twenty-five of 35 potential patients were examined at the 18- to 20-year follow-up. There were 11 patients with Rockwood type III and 14 with type V dislocations. Delayed surgical treatment for ACJ was used in 2 patients during follow-up: 1 in the operatively treated group and 1 in the nonoperatively treated group. Clinically, ACJs were statistically significantly less prominent or unstable in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (normal/prominent/unstable: 9/4/3 and 0/6/3, respectively; P = .02) and in the operative type III (P = .03) but not type V dislocation groups. In operatively and nonoperatively treated patients, the mean Constant scores were 83 and 85, UCLA scores 25 and 27, Larsen scores 11 and 11, and SST scores 11 and 12 at follow-up, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in type III and type V dislocations. In the radiographic analysis, the ACJ was wider in the nonoperative than the operative group (8.3 vs 3.4 mm; P = .004), and in the type V dislocations (nonoperative vs operative: 8.5 vs 2.4 mm; P = .007). There was no statistically significant difference between study groups in

  10. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Zhu, Motao; Wang, Yun; Wang, Meng; Gu, Yiqun; Ouyang, Hong; Wang, Huajian; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Haifang

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe2O3 nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 μg) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe2O3 particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particle treatment ( p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe2O3 generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe2O3 particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe2O3 treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe2O3 treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe2O3 nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the larger particle did. This is the first study to compare the neurotoxicity of nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3

  11. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Feng Weiyue, E-mail: fengwy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Zhu Motao; Wang Yun; Wang Meng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Gu Yiqun [Maternity Hospital of Haidian District (China); Ouyang Hong; Wang Huajian; Li Ming; Zhao Yuliang, E-mail: zhaoyuliang@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang Haifang [Peking University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China)

    2009-01-15

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 {mu}g) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle treatment (p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the

  12. Gigant Transethmoidal Meningoencephalocele Operated by Full Endonasal Endoscopic Approach: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lopez Arbolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal meningoencephaloceles have historically been managed by neurosurgeons, although their main clinical manifestations are rhinological. Recent advances in endoscopic skull base surgery has significantly improved the treatment of these lesions and consequently diminished appreciable surgical morbidity. We report an ethmoidal meningoencephalocele case operated on by endonasal endoscopic approach for removal of the lesion and reconstructing the associated skull base. From this experience, we conclude that removal of the lesion and watertight closure of the skull base irrespective of the size of the mass and anterior skull base defect are the operation’s most important aspects.

  13. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  14. The diagnostic contribution of computed tomography in intranasal carcinoma with retrobulbar, oral and brain invasion in a canine: case report; Contribuicao da tomografia computadorizada no diagnostico de carcinoma intranasal com invasao retrobular, oral e cerebral em canino: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Karen Maciel, E-mail: kmz@bol.com.br; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zanoni, Diogo Souza; Costa, Denis Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Intranasal tumors are uncommon and in most cases are malignant, aggressive and with low to moderate potential for metastasis. Clinical signs are usually caused by progressive obstruction of the upper airways. The test cytopathological also is a diagnosis method, but the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended to treatment planning. A poodle was attended at the veterinary hospital with a clinical history of epistaxis and nasal and ocular secretions, seizures and severe dyspnoea. The animal underwent to radiographic examination of the chest and skull as well as helical computed tomography of the nasal cavity and brain before and after the administration of intravenous contrast. The CT findings revealed an expansive bilateral nasal cavity neoformation, with involvement of the retrobulbar space, right frontal sinus, brain and oral cavity, suggesting a neoplastic or an infectious process. The CT examination allowed the material collection, directly from the mass, to cytological examination, providing the diagnosis of carcinoma. CT also allowed the determination of the unfavorable prognosis of the patient and the treatment planning which not included the surgical excision of the neoformation. Although CT was not conclusive in the diagnosis of carcinoma, it was essential to accurately define the extent of the lesion, to guide the collection of material directly from the tumor and to determine the prognosis of the animal, proving to be an extremely useful tool in cases of tumors intranasal in dogs. (author)

  15. Theoretical and experimental researches on the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F.-V.; Anton, I.-A.

    2015-11-01

    Purpose of the work: The total cost of a sewage plants is often determined by the present value method. All of the annual operating costs for each process are converted to the value of today's correspondence and added to the costs of investment for each process, which leads to getting the current net value. The operating costs of the sewage plants are subdivided, in general, in the premises of the investment and operating costs. The latter can be stable (normal operation and maintenance, the establishment of power) or variables (chemical and power sludge treatment and disposal, of effluent charges). For the purpose of evaluating the preliminary costs so that an installation can choose between different alternatives in an incipient phase of a project, can be used cost functions. In this paper will be calculated the operational cost to make several scenarios in order to optimize its. Total operational cost (fixed and variable) is dependent global parameters of wastewater treatment plant. Research and methodology: The wastewater treatment plant costs are subdivided in investment and operating costs. We can use different cost functions to estimate fixed and variable operating costs. In this study we have used the statistical formulas for cost functions. The method which was applied to study the impact of the influent characteristics on the costs is economic analysis. Optimization of plant design consist in firstly, to assess the ability of the smallest design to treat the maximum loading rates to a given effluent quality and, secondly, to compare the cost of the two alternatives for average and maximum loading rates. Results: In this paper we obtained the statistical values for the investment cost functions, operational fixed costs and operational variable costs for wastewater treatment plant and its graphical representations. All costs were compared to the net values. Finally we observe that it is more economical to build a larger plant, especially if maximum loading

  16. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  17. The comparison of the quality of life and intranasal edema between the patients with or without nasal packing after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayahan, B; Ozer, S; Suslu, A E; Ogretmenoglu, O; Onerci, M

    2017-03-01

    Septoplasty is one of the most common operations performed in otolaryngology and anterior nasal packing is done routinely to prevent postoperative bleeding, septal hematoma or nasal synechia. Currently, transseptal sutures have gained a broader application area, not only for preventing the complications such as septal hematoma and bleeding but also closing any accidental tears of septal mucosa and providing additional support for the cartilage pieces retained in septoplasty. We evaluated the quality of life of the patients in early postoperative period (in the first postoperative week), intranasal edema with endoscopic examination and the intranasal changes with acoustic rhinometry. We performed a prospective and randomized study with patients undergoing septoplasty without inferior turbinectomy. As packing material, there were two groups: in group A, gauze in a glove finger and in group B, Doyle splint were used, and in the additional group C, only transseptal suture with 4/0 vicryl among the cartilaginous septum was performed. The patients were invited to control examinations on the postoperative 2nd, 4th and 7th days to evaluate the scores from 1 to 5 on the questionnaire for the pain, nasal fullness, sneezing, epiphora, difficulty in swallowing and sleep disturbances. The patients were also administered an endoscopic nasal examination for the purpose of detecting the intranasal edema, and acoustic rhinometry was performed during the control examinations to detect the intranasal changes. Total occluding packing was found to cause much more frequent and higher scores of epiphora, sneezing, difficulty in swallowing, but mainly, the pain compared to in silicone packing with airway and transseptal suture only. Although the silicone packing with airway was found to be much more comfortable, it also led to sneezing and epiphora. The patients without nasal packing had more comfortable period especially in the early postoperative days (the first 4 days). However, 1

  18. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  19. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer--a part of modern operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanov, A; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S; Hinkova, N

    2014-01-01

    After brest cancer the endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy. The lymphno destatus is with great prognostic value. There is no agreement for the therapeutic valuae and the contents of the lymph node desectionin early stages. That is why the sentinel lymph node biopsy is a part of modern operative treatment of endometrial cancer.

  20. The Treatment of Six Sigma in Introductory Operations Management Textbooks: Clearing Up the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically examines the treatment of the statistical basis for Six Sigma and process capability in popular operations management textbooks. It discusses areas of confusion and suggest ways of treating the topic that make sense to instructors as well as students. Even though Six Sigma was introduced almost 30 years ago, misconceptions…

  1. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  2. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  3. [Comparative characteristic of methods for operative treatment of patients suffering varicocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, M I; Pasiechnikov, S P; Boĭko, O M

    2014-04-01

    Efficacy and security of treatment of varicocele constitute a complex issues in urology, necessitating the additional investigations conduction. The results of surgical treatment of 280 patients, suffering left-sided varicocele and operated using three different methods--retroperitoneal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy and subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (SMV)--were analyzed. The advantages and faults of these methods were estimated, basing on the recurrence rate, complications by hidrocele occurrence and changes in the patients quality of life. SMV was determined as most effective and secure method of varicocele correction. The data obtained may be useful for choice of tactics for the disease treatment.

  4. Re-operation for parotid gland cancer following non-standard surgical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangmin Zhang; Xiaolin Lan; Lianbin Liu; Rong Li; Fufu Xiao; Folin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical disadvantages of non-standard surgical treatment for parotid gland cancer and probe the re-operative indication following non-standard surgical treatment.Methods: Data of 58 cases suffered parotid gland cancer who received non-standard operation at other hospital and received re-operation in tumor hospital of Ganzhou from June 1998 to October 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.Results: In all cases, parotid gland cancer were residual in 46 cases, the facial nerve remaining rate was 81.0% (47/58), facial nerve branches injury rate was 3.5% (2/58), facial nerve partial resection rate was 8.6% (5/58) and total resection rate was 6.9% (4/58).The sensitivity of residual tumor was 83.3%, scanned by contrast-enhanced CT and the CT positive predictive value was 86.9%.Conclusion: Consideration of the higher residual tumor rate in patients who received non-standard operations, the re-operations were necessary.Contrast-enhanced CT positive predictive value was high for residual tumor and it was important for re-operation.

  5. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  6. Case presentation of an intranasal ectopic tooth in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Gu, Deying; An, Junnan; Tang, Yuedi

    2015-01-01

    An ectopic tooth in the nasal cavity is a rare phenomenon, especially on the inferior turbinate. In most of the reported cases, no etiological explanation of the intranasal teeth has been suggested or found. In children, intranasal ectopic teeth are usually associated with cleft lip and alveolus. Here, we report a rare case of a pediatric patient with unilateral nasal obstruction due to an intranasal ectopic tooth originating from the inferior turbinate without any facial and dental deformities. This case is unique due to the unusual location of the ectopic tooth and its presentation in a child without facial and dental deformities.

  7. Topical and Intranasal Analgesic Therapy in a Woman with Refractory Postherpetic Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C. Hohmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient-specific, stepped approach to topical and intranasal analgesic pharmacotherapy was effective in reducing refractory postherpetic neuralgia (PHN not responding to the current standard of care for PHN. The use of topical analgesic therapy allowed for higher concentrations of medication locally while reducing the likelihood of systemic side effects common to the drugs used. No adverse effects were noted for either topical or intranasal drug therapy. The patient-specific, stepped approach resulted in clinically significant decreases in pain on visual analog scale (VAS, with the use of intranasal ketamine 10% solution and topical gabapentin 6%, ketoprofen 10%, lidocaine 5%, and ketamine 10% cream.

  8. Nanoemulsion based intranasal delivery of antimigraine drugs for nose to brain targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanushali R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion and gel formulations for rizatriptan benzoate for prolonged action. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams using lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants and water. Various mucoadhesive agents were tried out to form thermo-triggered mucoadhesive nanoemulsions. Mucoadhesive gel formulations of rizatriptan were prepared using different ratios of HPMC and Carbopol 980. Comparative evaluation of intranasal nanoemulsions and intranasal mucoadhesive gels indicated that greater brain-targeting could be achieved with nanoemulsions.

  9. Effect of heat treatment operations on the Rm tensile strength of silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to good technological properties, low weight and good corrosion resistance, aluminum-silicon alloys are widely used as a material for cast machinery components. State of macro- and microstructure of a castings manufactured from Al-Si alloys, which is determined by a shape and distribution of hardening phases, segregation of alloying constituents and impurities, as well as distribution of porosity, create conditions to obtainment of proper mechanical properties. These properties can be improved through modification of the alloy and performed heat treatment operations. The paper presents effect of modification and heat treatment process on the Rm tensile strength of a selected silumins (EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe, EN AB-AlSi12CuNiMg, EN AB-AlSi17Cu1Ni1Mg. Investigated alloys were put to treatments of refining and modification, and next to heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results illustrate registered curves of melting and solidification from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of performed initial tests one determined parameters of the heat treatment process (temperature and duration of solutionig and ageing treatments enabling obtainment of improved Rm tensile strength of the investigated alloys.

  10. Regaining familiarity with own body after treatment for operable lung cancer - a qualitative longitudinal exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missel, M; Pedersen, J H; Hendriksen, C; Tewes, M; Adamsen, L

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the experiences of operable lung cancer patients during treatment in a clinical setting based on fast-track surgery. The study aimed to explore (1) the embodied meaning of illness in patients with operable lung cancer during treatment to 4 months after surgery and (2) patterns of change over time that may affect the patients' daily lives. Twenty patients referred for lung cancer surgery were interviewed three times, corresponding to potential critical transition points following surgery: hospitalisation; hospital-to-home transition; and resumption of daily life activities. Data collection, analysis and interpretation followed a phenomenological hermeneutical approach inspired by Ricoeur and the theoretical framework was grounded in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception. The findings reveal the process patients went through in regaining familiarity with their own body after lung cancer treatment. Through the post-operative trajectory the patients' resumption of daily activities involved adjusting to a new awareness of everyday life, physical restrictions and their perception of themselves. The findings are expressed in four sub-themes: (1) perceptions of embodied alterations; (2) transformation of embodied structures in the transition from hospital to home was unexpectedly challenging; (3) embodied perceptions of the intersubjective world; and (4) transforming embodied disruptions into bodily awareness. Patients experienced a smooth treatment trajectory regarding physical consequences of illness and treatment which might be due to the fast-track surgery. Clinicians should be aware of patients' experiences of illness to facilitate patient reconstitution of own identity.

  11. Evolution of the treatment of splenic injuries: from surgery to non-operative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Patrizio; Anduaga Peña, María Fernanda; Servide Staffolani, María José; Brathwaite, Collin; Axelrad, Alexander; Ceballos Esparragón, José

    2017-08-02

    The spleen is one of the most frequently injured organs in blunt abdominal trauma. In the past decades, the treatment of patients with blunt splenic injury has shifted from operative to non-operative management. The knowledge of physiology and immunology of the spleen have been the main reasons to develop techniques for splenic salvage. The advances in high-resolution imaging techniques, as well as less invasive procedures, including angiography and angioembolization, have allowed a higher rate of success in the non-operative management. Non-operative management has showed a decrease in overall mortality and morbidity. The aim of this article is to analyze the current management of splenic injury based on a literature review of the last 30 years, from we have identified 63,205 patients. This would enable the surgeons to provide the best care possible in every case. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on Intranasal Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中药经鼻腔给药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬伟魁; 张海燕; 宋伟; 贺娅; 李芳; 郑琴; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    主要对中药经鼻腔给药研究进行文献整理和分析.研究表明,中药经鼻腔给药可以在鼻腔起局部治疗作用,或经鼻吸收后向脑内递药发挥中枢治疗作用,还可以起到治疗全身性疾病的作用.综述了近年来中药经鼻腔给药的实验研究及临床运用,主要包括鼻用制剂国内现状、中药经鼻腔给药基础实验研究(给药途径的选择、剂型的选择、辅料的选择、体外释药评价、药代动力学研究、药效学研究、脑靶向性、安全评价)、中药鼻用制剂的临床观察实例研究,并对其进行了展望,以期为中药经鼻腔给药临床疾病治疗应用和中药鼻用制剂新药开发提供参考.%The field of intranasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine is illustrated in this review article. Intranasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine has a local effect on nasal cavity,or delivered from nose to brain to show a centralnervons treatment as well as works in curing systemic diseases. This paper makes an overview of expenrimental study ( the route of administration, dosage form selection, the choice of excipients, evaluation of drug release in vitro, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynaraics, brain targeting, safety evaluation ) and clinical applications on intranasal administration of Chinese Medicine in recent years and has a bright future, expecting to provide reference for new drug of intranasal preparation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Formulation and kinetic modeling of curcumin loaded intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mikesh Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to develop the optimum dosage form of poorly water-soluble drugs and to target them due to limited bioavailability, intra and inter subject variability. In this investigation, mucoadhesive microemulsion of curcumin was developed by water titration method taking biocompatible components for intranasal delivery and was characterized. Nasal ciliotoxicity studies were carried out using excised sheep nasal mucosa. in vitro release studies of formulations and PDS were performed. Labrafil M 1944 CS based microemulsion was transparent, stable and nasal non-ciliotoxic having particle size 12.32±0.81nm (PdI=0.223 and from kinetic modeling, the release was found to be Fickian diffusion for mucoadhesive microemulsion.

  14. Formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion of olanzapine for intranasal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Misra, Ambikanandan; Pathak, Kamla

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to formulate an olanzapine nanoemulsion that could potentially deliver the drug directly to the brain following intranasal administration. The nanoemulsions were prepared using the water titration method. The mucoadhesive character was imparted by the addition of 0.5%w/w chitosan and 0.5%w/w polycarbophil and was characterized for drug content, pH, percentage transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, and PDI. The composition (%w/w) of the optimized olanzapine nanoemulsion was capmul MCM, tween 80, and a mixture of 1:1 ratio of polyethylene glycol 400 and ethanol, and aqueous phase in a ratio of 15:35:17.5:32.5. The optimized olanzapine nanoemulsion exhibited a high diffusion coefficient and no nasal cilio-toxicity. The drug release followed the Higuchi model. The optimized nanoemulsions were found to be stable for 3 months.

  15. INTRANASAL LIPOSOMES : AN APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Jatin B. Trivedi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting drug molecules to brain is one of the most challenging research areas in pharmaceuticalsciences. Drugs that are effective against diseases in the CNS and reach the brain via the bloodcompartment must pass the BBB. The blood-brain barrier (BBB represents an insurmountable obstaclefor a large number of drugs, including antibiotics, anti-neoplastic agents, and a variety of central nervoussystem (CNS-active drugs. Therefore, various strategies have been proposed to improve the delivery ofdifferent drugs to this tissue which includes liposomes, colloidal drug carriers, micelles, chimericpeptide technology, intranasal and olfactory route of administration and nano technology. The discoveryof liposome or lipid vesicle emerged from self forming enclosed lipid bi-layer upon hydration; liposomedrug delivery systems have played a significant role in formulation of potent drug to improvetherapeutics Liposomes have been investigated as carriers of various pharmacologically active agentssuch as antineoplastic, antimicrobial drugs, chelating agents, steroids, vaccines, and genetic materials.Liposomes provide an efficient drug delivery system because they can alter the pharmacokinetics andpharmacodynamics of the entrapped drugs. Liposomes have been widely used for brain delivery in vivo.Nowadays, the nasal route for systemic drug delivery has gained great interest. It provides severaladvantages over other routes of drug administrations, which includes rapid absorption, avoids intestinaland hepatic presystemic disposition and high potential for drug transfer to the CSF. Moreover, the nasalroute is a potential alternative route for systemic availability of drugs restricted to intravenousadministration, viz. peptide and protein drugs and vaccines. As well, intranasal route has also beensuccessfully exploited for bypassing the blood brain barrier [BBB] and subsequently delivering drugmolecules to central nervous system [CNS].

  16. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  17. Thermoreversible nanoethosomal gel for the intranasal delivery of Eletriptan hydrobromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, Santosh; Shahi, Sadhana; Jadhav, Kiran; Dhamecha, Dinesh; Tiwari, Roshan; Patil, Hemlata

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to formulate and characterize thermoreversible gel of Eletriptan Hydrobromide for brain targeting via the intranasal route. Ethosomes were prepared by 3(2) factorial design with two independent variables (concentration of soya lecithin and ethanol) and two response variables [percent entrapment efficiency and vesicle size (nm)] using ethanol injection method. Formulated ethosomes were evaluated for preliminary microscopic examination followed by percent drug entrapment efficiency, vesicle size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersibility index and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM confirms spherical morphology of ethosomes, whereas Malvern zeta sizer confirms that the vesicle size was in the range of 191 ± 6.55-381.3 ± 61.0 nm. Ethosomes were incorporated in gel using poloxamer 407 and carbopol 934 as thermoreversible and mucoadhesive polymers, respectively. Ethosomal gels were evaluated for their pH, viscosity, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release and ex vivo drug permeation through the sheep nasal mucosa. Mucoadhesive strength and pH was found to be 4400 ± 45 to 5500 ± 78.10 dynes/cm(2) and 6.0 ± 0.3 to 6.2 ± 0.1, respectively. In-vitro drug release from the optimized ethosomal gel formulation (G4) was found to be almost 100 % and ex vivo permeation of 4980 µg/ml with a permeability coefficient of 11.94 ± 0.04 × 10(-5) cm/s after 24 h. Histopathological study of the nasal mucosa confirmed non-toxic nature of ethosomal gels. Formulated EH loaded ethosomal thermoreversible gel could serve as the better alternative for the brain targeting via the intranasal route which in turn could subsequently improve its bioavailability.

  18. Biological treatment of high strength waste water by fed-batch operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargi, F. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel Univ. Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    1996-12-01

    Biological treatment systems for high strength wastewaters are usually operated in continuous mode such as activated sludge systems. When operated at steady-state, continuous systems result in constant effluent standards. However, in the presence of shock loadings and/or toxic compounds in feed wastewater, system performance drops quite significantly as a result of partial loss of microbial activity. In fed-batch operation, wastewater is fed to the aeration tank with a flow rate determined by effluent standards. In this type of operation, wastewater can be fed to biological oxidation unit intermittently or continuously with a low flow rate without any effluent removal. Feed flow rate is adjusted by measuring COD concentration in the effluent. As a result of intermittent addition of wastewater high COD concentrations and toxic compounds are diluted in large volume of aeration tank and inhibition effects of those compounds are reduced. As a result, biological oxidation of these compounds take place at a much higher rate. In order to show the aforementioned advantage of fed-batch operation, a high strength synthetic wastewater consisting of diluted molasses, urea, KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4} was treated in an biological aeration tank by fed-batch operation. Organisms used were an active and dominant culture of Zooglea ramigera commonly encountered in activated sludge operations. COD removal kinetics was found to be first order and the rate constant was determined. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Treatment of a Slaughterhouse Wastewater using Sequencing Batch Reactors at a Shortened Operating Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadi Saikomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory-scale study employed sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology to investigate the effect of two operational parameters [i.e. solids retention time (SRT and anoxic time ratios] regarding the treatment of a slaughterhouse wastewater. Results indicated that organic matter removal, expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD, was very high, consistently exceeding the 95 % level. In addition, the total nitrogen (TN removal ranged between 82 and 94 %, while total phosphorus (TP removal fluctuated between 88 and 94 %. In general, the reactors exhibited a high degree of operational stability during treatment. Although the investigated range of the two operational parameters appeared to have a minimal effect on the process performance (expressed as % carbon or nutrient removal, the corresponding COD and TN specific consumption rates were noticeably affected by the variation in the anoxic time ratios. Furthermore, the operating cycle length of 8 h employed in this study resulted in improved performance, in terms of nitrogen removal, compared to other studies conducted at longer operating cycles.

  20. Results of operative treatment for recalcitrant retrocalcaneal bursitis and midportion Achilles tendinopathy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The results of operative treatment for recalcitrant midportion Achilles tendinopathy and recalcitrant retrocalcaneal bursitis were evaluated using the patient administered, disease specific, and validated VISA-A-G questionnaire. A cohort of 89 patients was prospectively followed. These patients underwent operations for sport induced midportion Achilles tendinopathy (39 procedures) or retrocalcaneal bursitis (55 procedures). Depending on the individual intraoperative findings the patients of either disease were treated with two respective operative modifications (tendon repair or no tendon repair). Preoperative and follow-up status (3, 6, and 12 months) were investigated using the VISA-A-G questionnaire. Preoperatively, the four groups scored from 37.0 ± 17.6 to 45.9 ± 15.2 (p = 0.376-0.993) on the VISA-A-G questionnaire. Six and 12 months postoperatively, the VISA-A-G scores improved significantly (p bursitis and midportion Achilles tendinopathy responded equally well to operative treatment. When repaired, additional tendon lesions did not influence this result. We demand to differentiate not only between midportion Achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis but also to identify additional Achilles tendon lesions to specifically address these lesions during operative procedures.

  1. Towards a "crippled-mode" operation of an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafnicki, Konrad; Narce, Cécile

    2006-02-01

    In house treatment of metal plating wastewater mainly involves chemical treatments performed in continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR). The inflow of these tanks is directly produced by the plating shops activity, and the storage capacity never exceeds a few hours of incoming flow. Thus, any fault on one of the CFSTR may impose a complete stop of the whole manufacturing process, which is unacceptable for the manufacturer. Another solution would be having "spare" CFSTRs ready to be used as alternative in case of any CFSTR fault or maintenance. The latter solution however implies additional costs in equipment, storage space and maintenance so as to keep this equipment fit and ready for operation. The paper presents the study of a "crippled-mode" wastewater treatment (WWT) operation which enables a sufficiently efficient working of the WWT plant during maintenance phases and failure repairing on any of the CFSTR, without any extra equipment needed. This survey has been performed on real industrial WWT plants, with a continuous influent and under industrial operation constraints. The performances of the detoxication have been analysed when a CFSTR is short-circuited and the corresponding chemical treatment is shunt in the upstream or downstream CSFTR. This work shows the possibility of satisfying the environmental regulations with a WWT plant functioning under subnormal conditions.

  2. Integrated radwaste treatment system lessons learned from 2{1/2} years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.N.; Fussner, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a pretreatment scheme to reduce the amount of salts in the high-level radioactive waste (vitrification) stream. Following removal of cesium-137 (Cs-137) by ion-exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS), the radioactive waste liquid is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion-exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids by weight, is encapsulated in cement producing a stable, low-level waste form. The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) operated in this mode from May 1988 through November 1990, decontaminating 450,000 gallons of high-level waste liquid; evaporating and encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393 71-gallon square drums. A number of process changes and variations from the original operating plan were required to increase the system flow rate and minimize waste volumes. This report provides a summary of work performed to operate the IRTS, including system descriptions, process highlights, and lessons learned.

  3. Adapting water treatment design and operations to the impacts of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert M.; Li, Zhiwei; Buchberger, Steven G.

    2011-12-01

    It is anticipated that global climate change will adversely impact source water quality in many areas of the United States and will therefore, potentially, impact the design and operation of current and future water treatment systems. The USEPA has initiated an effort called the Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) which is intended to develop tools and techniques that can assess the impact of global climate change on urban drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. A three step approach for assessing climate change impacts on water treatment operation and design is being persude in this effort. The first step is the stochastic characterization of source water quality, the second step is the application of the USEPA Water Treatment Plant model and the third step is the application of cost algorithms to provide a metric that can be used to assess the coat impact of climate change. A model has been validated using data collected from Cincinnati's Richard Miller Water Treatment Plant for the USEPA Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. An analysis of the water treatment processes in response to assumed perturbations in raw water quality identified TOC, pH, and bromide as the three most important parameters affecting performance of the Miller WTP. The Miller Plant was simulated using the EPA WTP model to examine the impact of these parameters on selected regulated water quality parameters. Uncertainty in influent water quality was analyzed to estimate the risk of violating drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).Water quality changes in the Ohio River were projected for 2050 using Monte Carlo simulation and the WTP model was used to evaluate the effects of water quality changes on design and operation. Results indicate that the existing Miller WTP might not meet Safe Drinking Water Act MCL requirements for certain extreme future conditions. However, it was found that the risk of MCL violations under future conditions could be controlled by

  4. Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, D; Pivetta, M; Bowlt, K; Volmer, C; Holloway, A; Dennis, R

    2014-08-01

    This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors' knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs.

  5. Intravenous ketamine plus midazolam is superior to intranasal midazolam for emergency paediatric procedural sedation

    OpenAIRE

    Acworth, J; Purdie, D.; Clark, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—This study compared intranasal midazolam (INM) with a combination of intravenous ketamine and intravenous midazolam (IVKM) for sedation of children requiring minor procedures in the emergency department.

  6. Intranasal "painless" human Nerve Growth Factor [corrected] slows amyloid neurodegeneration and prevents memory deficits in App X PS1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Capsoni

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is being considered as a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer's disease (AD treatment but the clinical application is hindered by its potent pro-nociceptive activity. Thus, to reduce systemic exposure that would induce pain, in recent clinical studies NGF was administered through an invasive intracerebral gene-therapy approach. Our group demonstrated the feasibility of a non-invasive intranasal delivery of NGF in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. NGF therapeutic window could be further increased if its nociceptive effects could be avoided altogether. In this study we exploit forms of NGF, mutated at residue R100, inspired by the human genetic disease HSAN V (Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Type V, which would allow increasing the dose of NGF without triggering pain. We show that "painless" hNGF displays full neurotrophic and anti-amyloidogenic activities in neuronal cultures, and a reduced nociceptive activity in vivo. When administered intranasally to APPxPS1 mice ( n = 8, hNGFP61S/R100E prevents the progress of neurodegeneration and of behavioral deficits. These results demonstrate the in vivo neuroprotective and anti-amyloidogenic properties of hNGFR100 mutants and provide a rational basis for the development of "painless" hNGF variants as a new generation of therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable membrane operation design for the treatment of the synthetic coke wastewater in SMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Munib, Shahda; Chen, Gui-e; Lu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    Membrane fouling in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) is typically caused by the interaction of microbial characteristics, hydrodynamic behavior, operation environment, wastewater characteristics and membrane properties, which result in the deterioration of performance and increasing energy consumption and cost of membrane replacement. The effect of the crucial MBR parameters (the microbial loading and characteristics, dissolved oxygen (DO), hydraulic retention time (HRT), backwashing conditions and membrane characteristics) on membrane fouling was investigated in a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) during the long term treatment of synthetic coke wastewater. Also the optimum operation strategies were further utilized in order to satisfy the minimal membrane fouling operation through a long-term evaluation of the MBR performance. It has been demonstrated that with application of these optimal designed conditions, significant membrane fouling improvements were achieved over a long operating time, so it was possible to perform in sustainable operation for MBR. In this study, the upper limit of the sustainable flux is found to be as much as 18.6 L/m(2) h and the optimum sustainable flux value should be 50 approximately 75% of critical flux to satisfy the desired sustainable operation period.

  9. Enhanced brain targeting efficiency of intranasally administered plasmid DNA: an alternative route for brain gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Kwon; Kim, Mi Young; Byun, Hyang-Min; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Jung Mogg; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Park, Tae Gwan; Jung, Woon-Won; Chun, Taehoon; Jeong, Gil-Jae; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nasal administration has been studied as a noninvasive route for delivery of plasmid DNA encoding therapeutic or antigenic genes. Here, we examined the brain targeting efficiency and transport pathways of intranasally administered plasmid DNA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements of plasmid DNA in blood and brain tissues revealed that intranasally administered pCMVbeta (7.2 kb) and pN2/CMVbeta (14.1 kb) showed systemic absorption and brain distribution. Following intranasal administration, the beta-galactosidase protein encoded by these plasmids was significantly expressed in brain tissues. Kinetic studies showed that intranasally administered plasmid DNA reached the brain with a 2,595-fold higher efficiency than intravenously administered plasmid DNA did, 10 min post-dose. Over 1 h post-dose, the brain targeting efficiencies were consistently higher for intranasally administered plasmid DNA than for intravenously administered DNA. To examine how plasmid DNA enters the brain and moves to the various regions, we examined tissues from nine brain regions, at 5 and 10 min after intranasal or intravenous administration of plasmid DNA. Intravenously administered plasmid DNA displayed similar levels of plasmid DNA in the nine different regions, whereas, intranasally administered plasmid DNA exhibited different levels of distribution among the regions, with the highest plasmid DNA levels in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, plasmid DNA was mainly detected in the endothelial cells, but not in glial cells. Our results suggest that intranasally applied plasmid DNA may reach the brain through a direct route, possibly via the olfactory bulb, and that the nasal route might be an alternative method for efficiently delivering plasmid DNA to the brain.

  10. Second date appendectomy: Operating for failure of nonoperative treatment in perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Nonoperative treatment of acute appendicitis is embraced by many surgical teams, driven by low to moderate quality randomized studies that support noninferiority of antibiotics versus appendectomy for treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Several flaws of these studies have emerged, especially in the recruitment strategy and in the diagnostic criteria that were used. The growing confidence given to antibiotics, together with the lack of reliable criteria to distinguish between uncomplicated and perforated appendicitis, exposes patients with perforated appendicitis to the likelihood to be treated with antibiotics instead of surgery. Among them, those patients who experience a temporary relief of symptoms due to antibiotics, followed by early recurrence of disease when antibiotics are discontinued, are likely to undergo appendectomy at their second date. Second date appendectomy, i.e. the removal of the appendix when acute inflammation relapses within the scar of a previously unhealed perforated appendicitis, is the unwanted child of the nonoperative treatment and a new challenge for both the surgeon and the patient. Between June and July 2016, two patients were readmitted and operated for failure of nonoperative treatment with antibiotics. A video is presented, which focuses on the different anatomic presentation and technical challenges between prompt and second date laparoscopic appendectomy. When proposing nonoperative treatment for acute appendicitis, surgeons should be aware and inform their patients that if the appendix is perforated and an incomplete healing and early recurrence occur, a second date appendectomy could be a more challenging operation compared to a prompt appendectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of operative treatment and bacteriological examination of persistent oro-antral fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindet-Pedersen, S; Skoglund, L A; Hvidegaard, T; Holst, E

    1983-10-01

    A retrospective study of 35 patients with oro-antral fistulas of more than 2 weeks duration is presented. Treatment results by using the Rehrmann plastic procedure, as well as complications and sequelae are described. The results of bacteriological examination in 15 patients with maxillary sinusitis in association with oro-antral fistulas are presented. The bacteriological findings suggest that broad spectrum antibiotics in certain conditions should be administered in cases of persisting oro-antral fistulas associated with maxillary sinusitis. The results of the present study show that the Rehrmann-operation proves satisfactory even in treatment-resistent cases.

  12. Comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Timms, Peter; Andrew, Dean; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-02-11

    Chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. This, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. To date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological differences between male and female reproductive tracts, we tested the efficacy of a vaccine in 12 captive male koalas. We evaluated the potential of both subcutaneous and intranasal vaccine delivery to elicit mucosal immunity in male koalas. Our results showed that both intranasal and subcutaneous delivery of a vaccine consisting of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the adjuvant immunostimulating complex (ISC) induced significant immune responses in male koalas. Subcutaneous immunization elicited stronger cell-mediated responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and greater plasma antibody levels whereas the intranasal immunization elicited stronger humoral responses in urogenital tract (UGT) secretions. This is the first time a Chlamydia vaccine has been tested in the male koala and the first assessment of a mucosal vaccination route in this species. Our results suggest that vaccination of male koalas can elicit mucosal immunity and could contribute to the long-term survivability of wild populations of the koala.

  13. The effects of operational and environmental variations on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.C. [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Inst. of Tropical Agroindustry), Fortaleza (Brazil); Haandel, A.C. van [Federal University of Campina Grande (Brazil); Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-06-15

    With the aim of improving knowledge about the stability and reliability of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, several researchers have studied the effects of operational or environmental variations on the performance of such reactors. In general, anaerobic reactors are affected by changes in external factors, but the severity of the effect is dependent upon the type, magnitude, duration and frequency of the imposed changes. The typical responses include a decrease in performance, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, drop in pH and alkalinity, change in biogas production and composition, and sludge washout. This review summarises the causes, types and effects of operational and environmental variation on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. However, there still remain some unclear technical and scientific aspects that are necessary for the improvement of the stability and reliability of anaerobic processes. (author)

  14. A prospective randomized comparative study of the effects of intranasal and transdermal 17 β-estradiol on postmenopausal symptoms and vaginal cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odabasi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Investigating the adverse effects of oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT, the clinical effectiveness of alternative combinations and route of administrations. Aim: To compare the effects of intranasal and transdermal 17β-estradiol combined with vaginal progesterone on vasomotor symptoms and vaginal cytology. Settings and Design: A 12-week, prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted between July 2005 and September 2006. Materials and Methods: Eighty postmenopausal women aged between 42-57 years, who had scores of ≥1.7 on the menopause rating scale-I (MRS-I items "1-6", were randomly assigned to receive intranasal (300 µg/day, n =40 or transdermal (50 µg/day, n =40 17β-estradiol continuously. All patients also received a vaginal progesterone gel twice weekly. Vasomotor symptoms were evaluated at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Vaginal maturation index (VMI was evaluated at weeks 0 and 12 of the study. Statistical Analyses: The Mann-Whitney U and the Wilcoxon tests were used. P < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: Thirty-two women in the intranasal and 29 women in the transdermal group completed the study. The total score of the MRS, the sum-scores of Factor 1 "HOT FLUSHES" and Factor 2 "PSYCHE" significantly decreased in both groups at week 4. Factor 3 "ATROPHY" scores significantly decreased only in the transdermal group at week 12. The VMI showed no changes within and between the two groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Intranasal and transdermal 17β-estradiol combined with vaginal progesterone gel as a continuous HRT caused a similar decrease in vasomotor symptoms but did not have any significant effect on VMI after 12 weeks of treatment in this study population.

  15. Local Th17/IgA immunity correlate with protection against intranasal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis; Hansen, Lasse Bøllehuus; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is responsible for a wide array of infections. Respiratory transmission via droplets is the most common mode of transmission but it may also infect the host via other routes such as lesions in the skin. To advance the development of a future vaccine against GAS, it is therefore important to investigate how protective immunity is related to the route of vaccine administration. To explore this, we examined whether a parenterally administered anti-GAS vaccine could protect against an intranasal GAS infection or if this would require locally primed immunity. We foundd that a parenteral CAF01 adjuvanted GAS vaccine offered no protection against intranasal infection despite inducing strong systemic Th1/Th17/IgG immunity that efficiently protected against an intraperitoneal GAS infection. However, the same vaccine administered via the intranasal route was able to induce protection against repeated intranasal GAS infections in a murine challenge model. The lack of intranasal protection induced by the parenteral vaccine correlated with a reduced mucosal recall response at the site of infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that locally primed immunity is important for the defense against intranasal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

  16. Pressure assessment in intercavernous embedding of bulboperineal urethra for treatment of urinary incontinence after prostatic operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xin QIAN; Hong-Fei WU; Yuan-Geng SHUI; Wei ZHANG; Shuang-Guan CHENG; Min GU; Zheng-Quan XU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To put forward criteria for the pressure assessment in the operation of intercavemous embedding of bulboperineal urethra for the treatment of urinary incontinence after prostatic operation. Methods: A Fl4 urethral catheter is inserted during the operation and upon suturing the corpora cavemosa centrally, the catheter is slowly pushed in and pulled out in order that the operator feels a certain degree of close-fit resistance. The degree of tightness of the stitches,which regulate the compression pressure, is adjusted in accordance with this close-fit sensation. To further ascertain the adequacy of the force of compression, the bladder is filled with 300 ml physiological saline and observe the appropriateness (size and continuity) of the outflow stream when the lower abdomen is depressed with a pressure of 80-90 cm H2O. The operation was given to six patients suffered from urinary incontinence for 20 or more months after prostatic operation. Results: Five cases achieved complete recovery, while the therapeutic effect of the 6th one was not satisfactory. A second stage operation was carried out 3 months later with the addition of one more stitch both proximally and distally to reinforce the compression force. The condition was improved dramatically. The follow-up period averaged 3.5 years. Conclusion: The adequacy of the compression pressure exerted by the juxtaposed corpora cavernosa is the key point determining the outcome of the operation. The measures for assessing the compression pressure suggested by the authors are helpful in obtaining the good results of the present paper (6/6 success) as compared with 25/34success in the previous report.

  17. Control and decision strategies in wastewater treatment plants for operation improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Santín, Ignacio; Vilanova, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recogniz...

  18. [Successful treatment of fungal endocarditis and mediastinitis after fenestrated Fontan operation--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, K; Shimada, M; Sekiguchi, A; Nishimura, K; Ishizawa, A; Isoda, T

    1993-12-01

    Fenestrated Fontan operation was performed in a 19-year-old male with a diagnosis of right isomerism syndrome. Postoperatively, fungal endocarditis due to Candida Albicans and mediastinitis by Methicilin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) occurred. For Candida endocarditis, combined surgery and medical treatment with amphotericin B was effective. MRSA mediastinitis was successfully treated by continuous closed irrigation with 0.5% povidone-iodine solution. This is the 17th reported case of fungal endocarditis after open heart surgery in Japanese literature.

  19. Focused ultrasound-enhanced intranasal brain delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Georgiana Zong Xin; Getachew, Hoheteberhan; Acosta, Camilo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to unveil the potential mechanism of focused ultrasound (FUS)-enhanced intranasal (IN) brain drug delivery and assess its feasibility in the delivery of therapeutic molecules. Delivery outcomes of fluorescently-labeled dextrans to mouse brains by IN administration either before or after FUS sonication were compared to evaluate whether FUS enhances IN delivery by active pumping or passive diffusion. Fluorescence imaging of brain slices found that IN administration followed by FUS sonication achieved significantly higher delivery than IN administration only, while pre-treatment by FUS sonication followed by IN administration was not significantly different from IN administration only. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promising neurotrophic factor for the treatment of many central nervous system diseases, was delivered by IN followed by FUS to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and compared with the established FUS technique where drugs are injected intravenously. Immunohistochemistry staining of BDNF revealed that FUS-enhanced IN delivery achieved similar locally enhanced delivery as the established FUS technique. This study suggested that FUS enhances IN brain drug delivery by FUS-induced active pumping of the drug and demonstrated that FUS-enhanced IN delivery is a promising technique for noninvasive and localized delivery of therapeutic molecules to the brain.

  20. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  1. Clinical effect of two operation methods in treatment of Sanders II type calcaneus fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Jun Hua; Yong-Ming Sun; Lu-Min Cao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the differences between percutaneous reduction hollow screw internal fixation and open reduction plate internal fixation in the treatment of Sanders II type calcaneal fracture.Method:68 patients with Sanders II type calcaneal fracture from January, 2012 to February, 2013 were divided into poking group and open reduction group, 34 cases in each group. They were treated with poking reduction and internal fixation, as well as open reduction and internal fixation, and then followed up for one year successfully. The operation time, hospitalization time, wound healing time and the amount of bleeding were compared. The Maryland foot score system was employed to assess the function recovery of two groups and the related complications were recorded.Result:The operation time, hospitalization time, incision healing time and the amount of bleeding in operation of poking group were significantly less than the open reduction group; The excellent rate of functional recovery of poking group and open reduction group were 79.41% and 82.35%. The difference between two groups had no statistical significance; the complication rate of poking group and open reduction group were 2.94% and 17.65%. The difference between two groups had statistical significance.Conclusion:Poking reduction combined with internal fixation for the treatment of Sanders II type calcaneal fracture can not only reduce the wound and intraoperative bleeding, shorten operation and hospitalization time, but also prevent the occurrence of complications.

  2. The pivotal role of the intermediate fragment in initial operative treatment of olecranon fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hierholzer Christian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve initial operative treatment of complex olecranon fractures we searched for new determining details. We assumed that the intermediate fragment plays a decisive role for anatomic restoration of the trochlear notch and consecutive outcome of initial operative treatment. Methods 80 patients operated with diagnosis of complex olecranon fracture were identified in an 8-year-period from trauma unit files at two European Level 1 Trauma Centers. Retrospective review of all operative reports and radiographs/computer-tomography scans identified patients with concomitance of an intermediate fragment. The Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation Score was calculated for 45 of 80 patients at a minimum of 8 months postoperatively (range 8-84 months. Results 29 patients were treated with stable internal fixation with figure-of-eight tension band wire fixation and 51 patients with posterior plate osteosynthesis with/without intramedullary screw. An intermediate fragment was seen in 52 patients. In 29 of these 52 patients, the intermediate fragment was described in operative report. 24 of these 29 patients were treated with posterior plate osteosynthesis, and 5 patients with figure-of-eight tension band wiring. Complications included superficial infection (2 patients, secondary dislocation (3 patients and heterotopic ossifications (1 patient. Functional outcome demonstrated a total PREE score of 9 points on average in 45 of 80 patients. Conclusion An extraordinary amount of patients showed an intermediate fragment. Consideration, desimpaction and anatomic reduction of the intermediate fragment are necessary preconditions for anatomic restoration of the trochlear notch. There is no clear benefit for plating versus tension band wiring according to our data. In the operative report precise description of the fracture pattern including presence of an intermediate fragment is recommended.

  3. Intercavernous Embedding of Bulboperineal Urethra in the Treatment of Male Urinary Incontinence after Prostate Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立新; 吴宏飞; 眭元庚; 张炜; 程双管; 顾民; 徐正铨

    2001-01-01

    Objective To describe the operation procedure of intercaverous embedding of bulboperineal urethra and evaluate its efficacy on male urinary incontinence after prostate operation. Methods This kind surgical treatment was given to six cases after prostate operation with urinary incontinence over 20 months who had no benefits from conservative therapy . Prepared bulboperineal urethra along its entire length and then embedded perineal urethra between corpora that were closed with sutures. U-shaped suture was placed on bulbous urethra and anchored distally to corpora. Results Follow-up ranged from 9 months to 6 years. Five cases had complete urinary continence.One case experienced considerable improvement after secondary embedding of bulbous urethra because of first failure. Conclusions The etiology of male urinary incontinence is proximal and distal sphincteric mechanism damage following either prostatectomy or urethra balloon dilatation . Surgical treatment was performed for those urinary incontinent patients over 12 months after conservative treatment . The technique of embedding bulboperineal urethra is easily performed .This procedure can be bring out a good result with fewer side-effects.

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of intranasally delivered mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielyan, Lusine; Schäfer, Richard; von Ameln-Mayerhofer, Andreas; Bernhard, Felix; Verleysdonk, Stephan; Buadze, Marine; Lourhmati, Ali; Klopfer, Tim; Schaumann, Felix; Schmid, Barbara; Koehle, Christoph; Proksch, Barbara; Weissert, Robert; Reichardt, Holger M; van den Brandt, Jens; Buniatian, Gayane H; Schwab, Matthias; Gleiter, Christoph H; Frey, William H

    2011-02-01

    Safe and effective cell delivery remains one of the main challenges in cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. Graft survival, sufficient enrichment of therapeutic cells in the brain, and avoidance of their distribution throughout the peripheral organs are greatly influenced by the method of delivery. Here we demonstrate for the first time noninvasive intranasal (IN) delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the brains of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. IN application (INA) of MSCs resulted in the appearance of cells in the olfactory bulb, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Out of 1 × 10⁶ MSCs applied intranasally, 24% survived for at least 4.5 months in the brains of 6-OHDA rats as assessed by quantification of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) DNA. Quantification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive EGFP-MSCs showed that 3% of applied MSCs were proliferative 4.5 months after application. INA of MSCs increased the tyrosine hydroxylase level in the lesioned ipsilateral striatum and substantia nigra, and completely eliminated the 6-OHDA-induced increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of these areas. INA of EGFP-labeled MSCs prevented any decrease in the dopamine level in the lesioned hemisphere, whereas the lesioned side of the control animals revealed significantly lower levels of dopamine 4.5 months after 6-OHDA treatment. Behavioral analyses revealed significant and substantial improvement of motor function of the Parkinsonian forepaw to up to 68% of the normal value 40-110 days after INA of 1 × 10⁶ cells. MSC-INA decreased the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines-interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, -6, -12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-in the lesioned side to their

  6. CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER OPERATIVE TREATMENT IN FLOATING SHOULDER- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ‘floating shoulder’ is a rare injury consisting of ipsilateral fractures of the clavicle and glenoid neck. Although it may appear to be bony injury, studies suggest that ligamentous disruption associated with ipsilateral clavicle fracture and scapular neck fracture contributes to such entity. More commonly floating shoulder is defined as double disruption of the superior shoulder suspensory complex. Open reduction and internal fixation of both the fractures is the treatment of choice. We have made this study to assess clinical outcome after operative treatment of floating shoulder by DASH score. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a study of 10 cases of floating shoulder injury operated in the same sitting by anterior approach for fracture clavicle and Judet’s posterior approach for scapula fracture from Jan 2014 to Oct 2016. All cases were assessed with DASH score at the end of six months. RESULTS Results of our study shows that majority of patients had excellent to good results with improvement in DASH score from 92.8 to 16.8 at final follow up. No major complications. All patients had radiological signs of union at the end of 1 year. CONCLUSION Surgical intervention should be considered for all floating shoulder injuries. open reduction and internal fixation not only increases stability but also to improves functional outcome of the patient. DASH score is an effective method to assess clinicofunctional outcome in post-operative cases of floating shoulder.

  7. Anesthesia treatment in cases of infant epiglottis cyst emergency extirpation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Xu, J P; Wang, L Z

    2014-06-17

    Congenital epiglottic cyst is a rare embryonic disease. As a congenital laryngeal mucocele, its clinical manifestations include repeated sudden dyspneic respiration and even suffocation accompanied by laryngeal stridor after birth. During food intake, bucking and vomiting is a key feature. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of the disease affects growth and the development of neonatorum leading to suffocation and death. This study was designed to investigate the safety of anesthesia in infants with congenital epiglottic cyst during operation to reduce the occurrence of its complications. The treatment of operations on 12 infants with congenital epiglottic cysts were retrospectively analyzed. Twelve cases of infants with epiglottic cysts received emergency enucleation. Owing to adequate preanesthetic preparation, cystectomies were successfully performed with microwave cauterization under suspension laryngoscopy. None of the 12 patients showed apparent suffocation during anesthesia, the surgical results were good, and after 6 months to 1 year of follow-up, the disease had not recurred. Because of the acute onset of the disease and its severe symptoms and complications, attention should be paid to improve preoperative preparation. Careful selection of proper anesthesia is the key to achieving a successful operation.

  8. Intranasal deferoxamine reverses iron-induced memory deficits and inhibits amyloidogenic APP processing in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuang; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Wei; Shan, Zhong-Yan; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis and an amyloid-β (Aβ)-iron interaction may contribute to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas iron chelation could be an effective therapeutic intervention. In the present study, transgenic mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 and watered with high-dose iron served as a model of AD. We evaluated the effects of intranasal administration of the high-affinity iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on Aβ neuropathology and spatial learning and memory deficits created in this AD model. The effects of Fe, DFO, and combined treatments were also evaluated in vitro using SHSY-5Y cells overexpressing the human APP Swedish mutation. In vivo, no significant differences in the brain concentrations of iron, copper, or zinc were found among the treatment groups. We found that high-dose iron (deionized water containing 10 mg/mL FeCl(3)) administered to transgenic mice increased protein expression and phosphorylation of APP695, enhanced amyloidogenic APP cleavage and Aβ deposition, and impaired spatial learning and memory. Chelation of iron via intranasal administration of DFO (200 mg/kg once every other day for 90 days) inhibited iron-induced amyloidogenic APP processing and reversed behavioral alterations. DFO treatment reduced the expression and phosphorylation of APP protein by shifting the processing of APP to the nonamyloidogenic pathway, and the reduction was accompanied by attenuating the Aβ burden, and then significantly promoted memory retention in APP/PS1 mice. The effects of DFO on iron-induced amyloidogenic APP cleavage were further confirmed in vitro. Collectively, the present data suggest that intranasal DFO treatment may be useful in AD, and amelioration of iron homeostasis is a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of this disease.

  9. Rapid widespread distribution of intranasal naloxone for overdose prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madah-Amiri, Desiree; Clausen, Thomas; Lobmaier, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Take home naloxone programs have been successful internationally in training bystanders to reverse an opioid overdose with naloxone, an opioid antagonist. A multi-site naloxone distribution program began in Norway in 2014 as part of a national overdose prevention strategy. The aim of this study was to a) describe the program, and b) present findings from the government-supported intervention. From July 2014 to December 2015, staff from multiple low-threshold facilities trained clients on how to use intranasal naloxone. Distribution occurred without an individual prescription or physician present. Questionnaires from initial and refill trainings were obtained, and distribution rates were monitored. There were 2056 naloxone sprays distributed from one of the 20 participating facilities, with 277 reports of successful reversals. Participants exhibited known risks for overdosing, with injecting (p=0.02, OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.14, 5.00) and concomitant benzodiazepine use (p=0.01, OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.31, 5.23) being significant predictors for having had high rates of previous overdoses. Suggested target coverage for large-scale programs was met, with an annual naloxone distribution rate of 144 per 100,000 population, as well as 12 times the cities mean annual number of opioid-related deaths. A government-supported multisite naloxone initiative appears to achieve rapid, high volume distribution of naloxone to an at-risk population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intranasal Midazolam Sedation in a Pediatric Emergency Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbhay, Fathima; Elsheikhomer, Ahmed Mahgoub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and recovery times of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (INM) administered with a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) in a pediatric emergency dental hospital clinic. One hundred eighteen children aged from 4 to 6 years were randomly administered either 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg INM via an MAD in a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sedation was achieved to some degree in 100% of the sample. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were within the normal range in 99% of the patients. A burning sensation was reported in 9% of children. The recovery time of the 0.5 mg/kg group was statistically longer than that of the 0.3 mg/kg group (16.5 vs 18.8 minutes) but the difference was not clinically significant. The findings of this study show that 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg doses of INM resulted in safe and effective sedation. The 0.5 mg/kg dose was more effective than the 0.3 mg/kg dose in reducing anxiety.

  11. Distribution of nimodipine in brain following intranasal administration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-zhi ZHANG; Xin-guo JIANG; Chun-hua WU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether nasally applied nimodipine (NM) could improve its systemic bioavailability and be transported directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. METHODS: NM was administered nasally, intravenously (iv), and orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats. At different times post dose, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue samples were collected, and the concentrations of NM in the samples were analyzed by HPLC. RESULTS:Oral systemic bioavailability of NM in rats was 1.17 %, nasal dosing improved bioavailibility to 67.4 %. Following intranasal administration, NM concentrations in olfactory bulb (OB) within 30 min post dose were found significant higher than in the other brain tissues. However, similar NM levels in different brain regions were observed after iv injection. AUC in CSF and OB from the nasal route was 1.26 and 1.39 fold compared with the iv route, respectively.The brain-to-plasma AUC ratios were significantly higher after nasal administration than after iv administration (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Nasally administered NM could markedly improve the bioavailability and a fraction of the NM dose could be transported into brain via the olfactory pathway in rats.

  12. Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Mouez, Mamdouh; Zaki, Noha M; Mansour, Samar; Geneidi, Ahmed S

    2014-01-23

    Chitosan microspheres are potential drug carriers for maximizing nasal residence time, circumventing rapid mucociliary clearance and enhancing nasal absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for intranasal delivery as an alternative to oral VRP which suffers low bioavailability (20%) due to extensive first pass effect. The microspheres were produced using a spray-drying and precipitation techniques and characterized for morphology (scanning electron microscopy), particle size (laser diffraction method), drug entrapment efficiency, thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry) and crystallinity (X-ray diffractometric studies) as well as in vitro drug release. Bioavailability of nasal VRP microspheres was studied in rabbits and the results were compared to those obtained after nasal, oral and intravenous administration of VRP solution. Results demonstrated that the microspheres were spherical with size 21-53 μm suitable for nasal deposition. The spray-drying technique was superior over precipitation technique in providing higher VRP entrapment efficiency and smaller burst release followed by a more sustained one over 6h. The bioavailability study demonstrated that the nasal microspheres exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (58.6%) than nasal solution of VRP (47.8%) and oral VRP solution (13%). In conclusion, the chitosan-based nasal VRP microspheres are promising for enhancing VRP bioavailability by increasing the nasal residence time and avoiding the first-pass metabolism of the drug substance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of intranasal and carotid cooling on cerebral temperature balance and oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eNybo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the influence of intranasal cooling with balloon catheters, increased nasal ventilation, or percutaneous cooling of the carotid arteries on cerebral temperature balance and oxygenation in six healthy male subjects. Aortic arch and internal jugular venous blood temperatures were measured to assess the cerebral heat balance and corresponding paired blood samples were obtained to evaluate cerebral metabolism and oxygenation at rest, following 60 min of intranasal cooling, 5 min of nasal ventilation, and 15 min with carotid cooling. Intranasal cooling induced a parallel drop in jugular venous and arterial blood temperatures by 0.30 ± 0.08 ºC (mean ± SD, whereas nasal ventilation and carotid cooling failed to lower the jugular venous blood temperature. The magnitude of the arterio-venous temperature difference across the brain remained unchanged at - 0.33 ± 0.05 ºC following intranasal and carotid cooling, but increased to - 0.44 ± 0.11 ºC (P< 0.05 following nasal ventilation. Calculated cerebral capillary oxygen tension was 43 ± 3 mmHg at rest and remained unchanged during intranasal and carotid cooling, but decreased to 38 ± 2 mmHg (P< 0.05 following increased nasal ventilation. In conclusion, percutaneous cooling of the carotid arteries and intranasal cooling with balloon catheters are insufficient to influence cerebral oxygenation in normothermic subjects as the cooling rate is only 0.3 ºC per hour and neither intranasal nor carotid cooling is capable of inducing selective brain cooling.

  14. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Darshana S; Bajaj, Amrita N; Athawale, Rajani B; Shikhande, Shruti S; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N; Gude, Rajiv P; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors.

  15. Low-dose intranasal versus oral midazolam for routine body MRI of claustrophobic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, Frank T C; Göpfert, Kerstin; Fröhlich, Johannes M; Brunner, Genevieve; Weishaupt, Dominik

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the potential of low-dose intranasal midazolam compared to oral midazolam in claustrophobic patients undergoing routine body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-two adult claustrophobic patients referred for body MRI were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (TG1 and TG2). The 36 patients of TG1 received 7.5 mg midazolam orally 15 min before MRI, whereas the 36 patients of TG2 received one (or, if necessary, two) pumps of a midazolam nasal spray into each nostril immediately prior to MRI (in total, 1 or 2 mg). Patients' tolerance, anxiety and sedation were assessed using a questionnaire and a visual analogue scale immediately before and after MRI. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point-scale. In TG1, 18/36 MRI examinations (50%) had to be cancelled, the reduction of anxiety was insufficient in 12/18 remaining patients (67%). In TG2, 35/36 MRI examinations (97%) were completed successfully, without relevant adverse effects. MRI image quality was rated higher among patients of TG2 compared to TG1 (pclaustrophobic patients in a broad spectrum of body MRI. Its anxiolytic effect is superior to that of the orally administrated form.

  16. Intranasal delivery of cholera toxin induces th17-dominated T-cell response to bystander antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Boong Lee

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is a potent vaccine adjuvant, which promotes mucosal immunity to protein antigen given by nasal route. It has been suggested that CT promotes T helper type 2 (Th2 response and suppresses Th1 response. We here report the induction of Th17-dominated responses in mice by intranasal delivery of CT. This dramatic Th17-driving effect of CT, which was dependent on the B subunit, was observed even in Th1 or Th2-favored conditions of respiratory virus infection. These dominating Th17 responses resulted in the significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of mice given CT. Both in vitro and in vivo treatment of CT induced strongly augmented IL-6 production, and Th17-driving ability of CT was completely abolished in IL-6 knockout mice, indicating a role of this cytokine in the Th17-dominated T-cell responses by CT. These data demonstrate a novel Th17-driving activity of CT, and help understand the mechanisms of CT adjuvanticity to demarcate T helper responses.

  17. Treatment of epithelial carcinoma of the ovary: operation, irradiation, and chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, R.S.; Allt, W.E.C.; Beale, F.A.; Bean, H.; Pringle, J.F.; Sturgeon, J.

    1977-04-01

    This paper presents an interim analysis of 279 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary who were entered into a prospective study started in April, 1971. One hundred and three patients were available for analysis three years after diagnosis. Apart from the survival differences by stage and treatment method, this study has shown that the completeness of the initial pelvic operation, in Stages II and III, is of greater prognostic importance than the stage. The importance of the features of the pelvic disease which interfere with the removal of all pelvic organs led the authors to conclude that factors other than stage should be considered in prescribing postoperative treatment. To date, the disease-free survival trends in Stages IB, II, and asymptomatic Stage III show that physicians should place much greater emphasis on the initial operative features when they are seeking the most effective combination of irradiation and chemotherapy. Analysis of failures shows that upper abdominal irradiation is more effective than daily chlorambucil in preventing progression of disease to that area. However, early evidence indicates that chlorambucil added to pelvic irradiation improves the control of pelvic disease. Improved methods of treatment have not yet been identified for early Stage I (IA) and advanced presentations (symptomatic Stages III and IV).

  18. THE OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF SPINAL FRACTURE-DISLOCATION WITHOUT NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the results of operative treatment of spinal fracture-dislocation without neurologic deficits. Methods. Eighteen patients with spinal fracture-dislocation were neurologically intact at the time of injury, and all were treated operatively. The fracture sites were:8 cases in cervical spine, 3 cases in thoracic spine, and 7 cases in lumbar spine. Eight patients with cervical injuries had variant degrees of forward slide and kyphotic deformity. Of the 10 thoracic and lumbar fracttwes, one had lateral dislocation, 4 cases with kyphotic deformities, 5 cases with spinal canal compromise averaged 50% (ranging from 40% to 70%). Results. The average period of follow-up was 4.4 years with a range of 11 months to 13 years. All the patientsretumed to full-time work. No patient developed neurologic deterioration. Kyphotic deformity was corrected in the 4cases, and no progressive kyphosis was noted. There was no operation-related complication. The averaged post-opera-tive hospitalization time was 13 days. Conelusions. Despite the rare incidence of spinal fracture-dislocation without neumlogic deficits, we suggested that kind of fracture be considered unstable fracture because of its potential risk of delayed neurologic deterioration and kyphotic deformity, and be treated operatively to restore the sagittal ali~ment and the stability of the spine.

  19. Operative treatment for cervical fracture and dislocation with blunt unilateral vertebral artery injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; REN Xian-jun; WANG Wei-dong; ZHANG Xia; LI Chang-qing; HAO Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risks and clinical effects of operative treatment for cervical vertebral fracture and dislocation associated with unilateral vertebral artery injury.Methods: This group consisted of 76 cases of closed cervical spine trauma combined with unilateral vertebral artery injury (23 cases of bilateral facet dislocation, 28 unilateral facet dislocation and 25 fracture). All patients underwent prospective examination of cervical spine MRI and vertebral artery two-dimensional time-of-flight (2D TOF)magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and anterior cervical decompression. The healthy vertebral artery paths were evaluated before the surgery, and were protected during the surgery according to the anatomical signs.Results: There were no acute or chronic clinical damage symptoms in 76 cases after surgery. No neural damage symptoms were observed in patients with normal neural functions. The neural functions of incomplete paralyzed patients were improved in different grades.Conclusions: Reliable anterior operation can produce good results for cervical fracture and dislocation with unilateral vertebral artery injury. Detecting the course of uninjured vertebral artery before operation and locating the anatomical site during operation are effective to avoid damaging vertebral artery of uninjured side.

  20. Reduction of radiofrequency exposure to the operator during short-wave diathermy treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J

    1986-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields near short-wave diathermy equipment operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz can expose the physical therapist to levels above those recommended in standards for radiofrequency exposure in Western countries. Electric and magnetic fields around air-gap, diplode, monode and circuplode applicators were mapped by the author. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for the various applicators. The air-gap electrodes caused the highest levels of unwanted radiation, and the circuplode caused the lowest levels. The use of the circuplode would normally ensure an operator exposure far below the levels in recommended standards. In order to reduce the exposure during the first few minutes of a treatment, when air-gap electrodes or diplode are used, the operator should stand at the end of the diathermy console opposite to the applicator and cables and not, as is often the case, at one side. It is recommended that manufacturers change the design of the diathermy console (a minor modification) in order to ensure this operating position.

  1. Conventional operation and laser therapy in the treatment of varicose veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of endovenous laser therapy and conventional therapy on the varicose of great saphenous vein. Methods: Thirty-two patients received endovenous laser therapy and 32 patients were operated by conventional therapy (high ligation and stripping). The observation results of great saphenous vein(GSV) were recorded by clinical evaluation and duplex ultrasound examination. And the operating time, intraoperative blood loss, time to become moveable, duration of hospitalization and degree of feeling pain were compared between the two groups. Results: Compared with conventional therapy, laser therapy had good curative effect with less complications and no scars and no pains. There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: Laser therapy for varicose of great saphenous vein is better than the conventional therapy. It deserves to be widely used in clinical treatment.

  2. Comparison of octreotide LAR and lanreotide autogel as post-operative medical treatment in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutuncu, Yasemin; Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kucukler, Ferit Kerim; Aydin, Yusuf; Guler, Serdar

    2012-09-01

    Long-acting somatostatin analogs are frequently used as adjuvant treatment of acromegaly patients after noncurative surgery. This sudy aims to compare the efficacy of octreotide long-acting release (OCT) and lanreotide Autogel (LAN) in acromegaly patients. Sixty-eight patients not cured by transsphenoidal endoscopic or microscopic pituitary surgery between 2003 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (25 men; 43 women; mean age 41.1 ± 10.9 years [range 18-65 years]). The patients were assigned randomly to OCT (n = 36) and LAN (n = 32) groups. Evaluations included insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after starting medical treatment; pituitary magnetic resonance imaging was performed before treatment and after 3 and 12 months. Patients achieving IGF-I levels within the age and gender normal range and GH level <1 μg/l following OGTT were considered a 'biochemical cure'. Mean IGF-I and GH values and tumor volumes (cm(3)) in the LAN and OCT groups were similar in the post-operative period before initiation of medical treatment. A statistically significant decrease in GH and IGF-I levels was obtained for both treatment groups at each follow-up visit compared to the previous value. Tumor shrinkage after 12 months of treatment was statistically significant in both groups but the percentage tumor shrinkage (28.5% vs. 34.9%, P = 0.166) and rate of patients achieving biochemical cure (63.9 and 78.1%, P = 0.454) were similar between OCT and LAN groups, respectively. OCT and LAN treatment options have similar efficacy for ensuring biochemical cure and tumor shrinkage in acromegaly patients who had noncurative surgery.

  3. Adapting water treatment design and operations to the impacts of global climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert M. Clark; Zhiwei LI; Steven G. Buchberger

    2011-01-01

    It is anticipated that global climate change will adversely impact source water quality in many areas of the United States and will therefore,potentially,impact the design and operation of current and future water treatment systems.The USEPA has initiated an effort called the Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) which is intended to develop tools and techniques that can assess the impact of global climate change on urban drinking water and wastewater infrastructure.A three step approach for assessing climate change impacts on water treatment operation and design is being persude in this effort.The first step is the stochastic characterization of source water quality,the second step is the application of the USEPA Water Treatment Plant model and the third step is the application of cost algorithms to provide a metric that can be used to assess the coat impact of climate change.A model has been validated using data collected from Cincinnati's Richard Miller Water Treatment Plant for the USEPA Information Collection Rule (ICR) database.An analysis of the water trentment processes in response to assumed perturbations in raw water quality identified TOC,pH,and bromide as the three most important parameters affecting performance of the Miller WTE The Miller Plant was simulated using the EPA WTP model to examine the impact of these parameters on selected regulated water quality parameters.Uncertainty in influent water quality was analyzed to estimate the risk of violating drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).Water quality changes in the Ohio River were projected for 2050 using Monte Carlo simulation and the WTP model was used to evaluate the effects of water quality changes on design and operation.Results indicate that the existing Miller WTP might not meet Safe Drinking Water Act MCL requirements for certain extreme future conditions.However,it was found that the risk of MCL violations under future conditions could be controlled by enhancing existing WTP

  4. Determining Capital Cost in Wastewater Treatment Installations Operating Under Inflow Characteristics Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, D. F.; Pollalis, Y. A.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with the determination of capital cost in wastewater treatment installations operating under inflow characteristics uncertainty. For this purpose, a methodological framework, under the form of an algorithmic procedure, has been designed/developed and successfully implemented in two cases of biological processing under steady state conditions. The results obtained are in satisfactory approximation with industrial data. Moreover, mathematical formulae have been derived for determining capital cost when processing takes place under unsteady state conditions; in this case, numerical approximation is necessary, since the expressions obtained have not analytic solution. Last, the influence of certain technical parameters on minimum capital cost is discussed.

  5. The relationship between formal operations cognition and suitability for psychoanalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, J F

    1993-01-01

    Psychoanalytic practice can benefit from a coherent theory of cognition that is more comprehensive than, but which includes the related concepts of primary/secondary processes. For reasons not yet understood, cognition has not received the continuing attention it deserves in psychoanalytic theory. As demonstrated, Piaget's empirical studies of cognition can potentially help the practicing psychoanalyst to clinically differentiate those patients suitable for psychoanalytic treatment. It appears that Piaget's theory may hold greater utility for psychoanalysis than has been evidenced to date and analysts may be able to eventually describe defensive operations as well as other ego functions in terms of the cognitive functions delineated by Piaget.

  6. Valves replacement operation in treatment of electrical storm induced by rheumatic valves disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenqiang Chen; Hui Zhang; Yang Zhao; Haiji Yang; Sheng'ai Ye; Liang Cheng; Ying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of electrical storm (ES) in a female patient with rheumatic valve disease. Methods: A female patient with severe rheumatic valve disease suffered an unexpected ES. She received more than 50 electrical shocks for repeated cardiac arrests due to ES over 16 hours. Then she received beta-blocking agent treatment and had an operation of double valves replacement. Results: ES was suppressed by sympathetic blockade with beta-receptor blocker and finally disappeared after the double pathological valves had been replaced. Conclusion: Increased sympathetic activity plays an important role in the genesis of electrical storm and sympathetic blockade may effectively suppress ES. However, the most important thing in the treatment of ES is to identify and eliminate the underlying cause of ES.

  7. [The treatment of acute reflex urinary retention after operations in the area of the rectal sphincter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaitskiĭ, N A; Aĭvazian, I A; Al-Shukhri, S Kh; Gorbachev, A G

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of a new peptide medicine-Prostatilen was studied when using it in acute postoperative retention of urine. Under observation there were 87 patients of 23-78 years of age after hemorrhoidectomy, plasty of the rectal sphincter or dissection of its fissure etc. The patients endured the treatment with Prostatilen well. Self-dependent urination was recovered during the nearest 40 min after injection of 5 mg of the medicine. In the treatment of 23 patients it was used prophylactically before the appearance of a micturate urge. In 14 of them the postoperative period was smooth, in 9 patients the self-dependent urination was recovered following one additional injection. Clinical observations confirm that Proctatilen has a regulating effect upon the bladder tone which allows it to be recommended as a medicine for prevention of acute reflex retention of urine after operations in the area of the rectal sphincter.

  8. Early influence of bilateral turbinoplasty combined with septoplasty on intranasal air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Dzida, Rene; Wiesmiller, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Too extensive resection of the inferior turbinates (ITs) during nasal surgery leads to a severely disturbed intranasal air conditioning. Data comparing nasal air conditioning before and after turbinoplasty in nasal surgery are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the early effect of bilateral turbinoplasty combined with septoplasty on intranasal heating and humidification. Twelve patients were included into this prospective study. In one-half of the patients a bilateral turbinoplasty of the IT during nasal surgery was performed, in the other half no surgery on the IT was performed. Intranasal air temperature and humidity were measured before and after surgery. A combined miniaturized thermocouple and a humidity sensor were used for simultaneous in vivo intranasal measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in temperature and humidity values between the two study groups before surgery (p > 0.05). In both groups, the postoperative temperature and humidity values were statistically significantly higher compared with the preoperative ones (p air conditioning was improved after surgery. A carefully performed and conservative reduction of the IT in nasal surgery seems to even improve intranasal air conditioning.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of chitosan derivatives as adjuvants for intranasal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Fukushima, Kenji; Sannan, Takanori; Saito, Noriko; Takiguchi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Yuko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Ishikawa, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    Intranasal immunization is currently used to deliver live virus vaccines such as influenza. However, to develop an intranasal vaccine to deliver inactivated virus, a safe and effective adjuvant is necessary to enhance the mucosal immune response. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a chitosan microparticle (1-20 μm, 50 kDa, degree of deacetylation=85%) and a cationized chitosan (1000 kDa, degree of deacetylation=85%) derived from natural crab shells as adjuvants for an intranasal vaccine candidate. We examined the effectiveness of chitosan derivatives as an adjuvant by co-administering them with ovalbumin (OVA) intranasally in BALB/c mice, polymeric Ig receptor knockout (pIgR-KO) mice, and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). pIgR-KO mice were used to evaluate S-IgA production on the mucosal surface without nasal swab collection. Administration of OVA with chitosan microparticles or cationized chitosan induced a high OVA-specific IgA response in the serum of pIgR-KO mice and a high IgG response in the serum of BALB/c mice and cynomolgus monkeys. We also found that administration of chitosan derivatives did not have a detrimental effect on cynomolgus monkeys as determined by complete blood count, blood chemistries, and gross pathology results. These results suggest that chitosan derivatives are safe and effective mucosal adjuvants for intranasal vaccination.

  10. ROLE OF INTRANASAL STEROIDAL SPRAY IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS WITH OCULAR SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineel Muppidi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The eye is especially susceptible to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, itching (pruritus, tearing (epiphora and redness (erythema because it lacks a mechanical barrier that could prevent the deposition of allergens, such as pollen on the conjunctival surface. These ocular symptoms have been described as examples of the type 1 immediate hypersensitivity reaction. A number of recently published clinical studies apparently support the positive effect of intranasal steroidal sprays on ocular allergy symptoms. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of intranasal steroids in relieving ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 subjects who had seasonal allergic rhinitis with ocular symptoms came to Outpatient Department of Chalmeda Anand Rao Hospital in the year 2015-2016. Randomly, each intranasal steroid is given to 12 patients to a total of 60 patients for 4 weeks 2 puffs in each nostril twice daily and the clinical response is observed. RESULTS A subjective improvement in ocular symptoms was observed in 11 of the 12 patients treated with fluticasone furoate, 8 of 12 patients with fluticasone propionate, 7 of the 12 patients with mometasone furoate, 6 of the 12 patients with beclomethasone and 6 of the 12 patients with budesonide. CONCLUSION Intranasal corticosteroids, which are used for seasonal allergic rhinitis with ocular symptoms are effective in controlling of ocular symptoms. Among these, intranasal corticosteroids, which are used for allergic rhinitis, fluticasone furoate is more effective in relieving ocular symptoms in our study.

  11. [Pre-anesthetic medication with intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam as an anxiolytic. A clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares Segovia, B; García Cuevas, M A; Ramírez Casillas, I L; Guerrero Romero, J F; Botello Buenrostro, I; Monroy Torres, R; Ramírez Gómez, X S

    2014-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a pharmacological option for sedation in children. In this study, the efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine to reduce preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients is compared with that of oral midazolam. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted on children 2-12 years of age, randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: group A received premedication with oral midazolam and intranasal placebo, group B received intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral placebo. Anxiety was assessed with the modified Yale scale, and a risk analysis and number needed to treat was performed. A total of 108 patients were included, 52 (48.1%) treated with dexmedetomidine, and 56 (51.9%) with midazolam. Anxiety was less frequent in the dexmedetomidine group at 60minutes (P=.001), induction (p=.04), and recovery (P=.0001). Risk analysis showed that dexmedetomidine reduced the risk of anxiety by 28% (RAR=0.28, 95% CI; 0.12 to 0.43) and to prevent one case of anxiety, four patients need to be treated with intranasal dexmedetomidine (NNT=4, 95% CI: 3-9).Changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation, were statistically significant in the dexmedetomidine group, with no clinical consequences. There were no cases of bradycardia, hypotension or oxygen desaturation. Intranasal dexmedetomidine premedication is more effective than oral midazolam to reduce preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Position on zinc delivery to olfactory nerves in intranasal insulin phase I-III clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidovic, A

    2015-11-01

    Zinc in pancreatic insulin is essential for processing and action of the peptide, while in commercial preparations zinc promotes hexameric structure and prevents aggregate formation. In 2002, for the first time, insulin was delivered to humans intranasally with resulting cerebrospinal fluid insulin increases, but steady peripheral insulin levels. The novel method of increasing brain insulin levels without changes in the periphery resulted in an expansion of brain insulin research in clinical trials. As pre-clinical research has shown that brain insulin modulates a number functions, including food cravings and eating behavior, learning and memory functions, stress and mood regulation; realization of beneficial effects of insulin in modulating these functions in clinical populations became a possibility with the new direct-to-brain insulin delivery methodology. However, zinc, being integral to insulin structure and function, is neurotoxic, and has resulted in adverse effects to human health. In the last century, intranasal zinc was given preventively during the time of polio outbreak, and in the 21st century intranasal zinc was widely used over the counter to prevent common cold. In both cases, patients experienced partial or complete loss of smell. This paper is the first one to analyze zinc salts and concentrations of those two epidemiological adversities and directly compare formulations distributed to the public with animal toxicity data. The information gained from animal and epidemiological data provides a foundation for the formation of opinion given in this paper regarding safety of intranasal zinc in emerging clinical trials with intranasal insulin.

  13. Intranasal insulin enhances brain functional connectivity mediating the relationship between adiposity and subjective feeling of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2017-05-09

    Brain insulin sensitivity is an important link between metabolism and cognitive dysfunction. Intranasal insulin is a promising tool to investigate central insulin action in humans. We evaluated the acute effects of 160 U intranasal insulin on resting-state brain functional connectivity in healthy young adults. Twenty-five lean and twenty-two overweight and obese participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, on two separate days, before and after intranasal insulin or placebo application. Insulin compared to placebo administration resulted in increased functional connectivity between the prefrontal regions of the default-mode network and the hippocampus as well as the hypothalamus. The change in hippocampal functional connectivity significantly correlated with visceral adipose tissue and the change in subjective feeling of hunger after intranasal insulin. Mediation analysis revealed that the intranasal insulin induced hippocampal functional connectivity increase served as a mediator, suppressing the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and hunger. The insulin-induced hypothalamic functional connectivity change showed a significant interaction with peripheral insulin sensitivity. Only participants with high peripheral insulin sensitivity showed a boost in hypothalamic functional connectivity. Hence, brain insulin action may regulate eating behavior and facilitate weight loss by modifying brain functional connectivity within and between cognitive and homeostatic brain regions.

  14. Blockade of STAT3 in T Cells Inhibits Germinal Center Reactions against Intranasal Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Garam; Chung, Yeonseok

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the developmental mechanisms of humoral immunity against intranasal antigens is essential for the development of therapeutic approaches against air-borne pathogens as well as allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells expressing CXCR5 are required for humoral immunity by providing IL-21 and ICOS costimulation to activated B cells. However, the regulation of Tfh cell responses against intranasal antigens remains unclear. Here, we found that the generation of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells in the bronchial lymph node against intranasal proteinase antigens was independent of TGF-β. In contrast, administration of STAT3 inhibitor STA-21 suppressed the generation of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells. Compared with wild-type OT-II T cells, STAT3-deficient OT-II T cells transferred into recipients lacking T cells not only showed significantly reduced frequency Tfh cells, but also induced diminished IgG as well as IgE specific for the intranasal antigens. Cotransfer study of wild-type OT-II and STAT3-deficient OT-II T cells revealed that the latter failed to differentiate into Tfh cells. These findings demonstrate that T cell-intrinsic STAT3 is required for the generation of Tfh cells to intranasal antigens and that targeting STAT3 might be an effective approach to ameliorate antibody-mediated pathology in the lung.

  15. Design and operation of UASB—A/O process for treatment starch and VB12 wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan CHEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and VB12 wastewater with higher COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration, contains a large number of difficult biodegradable material, complex composition, is difficult to deal with. In recent years, with the increasingly stringent wastewater discharge standards, require the use of a stable and efficient wastewater treatment process for purification treatment of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater and the refractory organic pollutants, to achieve discharge standards. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB—Anoxic/Oxic(A/O process was employed in a wastewater treatment of starch and Vitamin B12 wastewater, which was 5 000 m3/d with highly concentrated organic pollutants and ammonia. The efficiency and reliability of the process has been proven. The results of the system operation show that the concentration of the effluent COD, ammonia and total nitrogen (TN were at 78.4 mg/L, 18.7 mg/L and 41.1 mg/L, and the treatment efficiencies of COD, ammonia and TN reached over 99%, 92.1%, 82.7%, respectively, when the influent COD and TN concentration were in the ranges of 8 544~9 720 mg/L and 240~250 mg/L. The quality of the treated wastewater met the first-class discharge standards in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996.

  16. Rescue pre-operative treatment with Lugol’s solution in uncontrolled Graves’ disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falhammar, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Three therapies have been used for decades: pharmacologic therapy, surgery and radioiodine. In case of adverse events, especially agranulocytosis or hepatotoxicity, pre-treatment with Lugol’s solution containing iodine/potassium iodide to induce euthyroidism before surgery could be advocated, but this has rarely been reported. Methods All patients hospitalised due to uncontrolled hyperthyroidism at the Karolinska University Hospital 2005–2015 and treated with Lugol’s solution were included. All electronic files were carefully reviewed manually, with focus on the cause of treatment and admission, demographic data, and effects of iodine on thyroid hormone levels and pulse frequency. Results Twenty-seven patients were included. Lugol’s solution had been chosen due to agranulocytosis in 9 (33%), hepatotoxicity in 2 (7%), other side effects in 11 (41%) and poor adherence to medication in 5 (19%). Levels of free T4, free T3 and heart rate decreased significantly after 5–9 days of iodine therapy (free T4 53–20 pmol/L, P = 0.0002; free T3 20–6.5 pmol/L, P = 0.04; heart rate 87–76 beats/min P = 0.0007), whereas TSH remained unchanged. Side effects were noted in 4 (15%) (rash n = 2, rash and vomiting n = 1, swelling of fingers n = 1). Thyroidectomy was performed in 26 patients (96%) and one was treated with radioiodine; all treatments were without serious complications. Conclusion Treatment of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism with Lugol’s solution before definitive treatment is safe and it decreases thyroid hormone levels and heart rate. Side effects were limited. Lugol’s solution could be recommended pre-operatively in Graves’ disease with failed medical treatment, especially if side effects to anti-thyroid drugs have occurred. PMID:28325735

  17. Comparison of intranasal dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine for premedication in pediatrics patients: A randomized double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ravi; Santhosh, M.C.B.; Annigeri, Venkatesh M.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal of premedication in pediatric anesthesia are relieving pre and postoperative anxiety, good parental separation, and smooth induction of anesthesia. Anxiety can produce aggressive reactions, increased distress, increased postoperative pain and postoperative agitation. The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is the most frequently used premedication in pediatric anesthesia. Midazolam has a number of beneficial effects when used as premedication in children: Sedation, fast onset, and limited duration of action. Though midazolam has a number of beneficial effects, it is far from an ideal premedicant having untoward side effects such as paradoxical reaction, respiratory depression, cognitive impairment, amnesia, and restlessness. Dexmedetomidine is a newer α-2-agonist, which can be used as premedicant. Aims: To compare the level of sedation, parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative recovery of intranasal premedication with dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized double-blind study. Subjects and Methods: After written informed consent from the patient's parents or legal guardian, 54 children of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 1 and 6 years, scheduled to undergo elective minor surgery were enrolled. In group D patient received 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine intranasally and in group DK received 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 2 mg/kg ketamine intranasally. Patients were assessed every 10 min for the level of sedation, parenteral separation, heart rate, and oxygen saturation by an independent observer. Mask acceptance and postoperative agitation were noted using an appropriate scale. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson Chi-square analysis to determine differences between two groups with respect to separation anxiety and acceptance of the anesthesia mask. Percentages used to represent frequencies. The level of significance was set at P< 0

  18. 髋臼骨折的手术治疗%The operation treatment of acetabulum fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉庆; 程学福; 姜建军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨髋臼骨折的分型、手术入路的选择及手术效果.方法 手术治疗22例髋臼骨折患者,后壁骨折和后柱加后壁骨折选择K-L入路,前柱、前壁骨折及横断骨折选择髂腹股沟入路,前后移位明显的横断骨折、T形骨折、双柱骨折选择前后联合入路.结果 22例均获随访,时间6个月~5年,骨折6~9个月均愈合.按Matta评定标准:解剖复位 9例,满意复位13例.根据改良的Merle d′Aubigne-Poster髋关节功能评分标准:优7例,良10例,可4例,差1例.1例股骨头坏死,3例创伤性关节炎,2例异位骨化.结论 按髋臼骨折的分型选择合适的手术入路和良好的骨折复位内固定是获得满意疗效的前提.%Objective To investigate the classification of acetabular fracture, operation approach and operation effect. Methods The operation treatment was done for 22 cases of patients with acetabular fracture. Posterior wall fracture and posterior column fracture with posterior wall were operated through K-L approach, anterior column, anterior wall fractures and horizontal fractures were operated through ilioinguinal approach. Anterior and posterior displaced transverse fracture, fracture of type T, double column fractures were operated through combined anterior and posterior approach. Results 22 cases were followed up for 6 months to 5 years. All fractures got healing in 6 ~ 9 months. According to Matta standards, anatomical reduction was obtained in 9 cases, and satisfactory reduction in 13 cases. According to the modified Merled Aubigne-Poster hip score criteria, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 10, fair in 4, and poor in 1. 1 patient was complicated with femoral head necrosis, 3 with traumatic arthritis, and 2 with heterotopic ossification. Conclusions The acetabular fracture type, appropriate operation approach and good fracture reduction fixation are keys to obtain satisfactory curative effect.

  19. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  20. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

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    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  1. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  2. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

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    Maria A de Souza Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dopamine (DA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA, nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor.Methods: Rats were administered intranasal application of 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH, with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT two hours following administration of the radioligand. Results: 1 After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered dopamine had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration. 2 DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant

  3. Effect on the treatment of congenital ptosis in two kinds of operation method

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    Yun-Jia Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the functional and cosmetic effects of two different surgical techniques for congenital ptosis. METHODS: The patients were divided into four groups according to the operation method: Patients undertook bilateral fascial suspension surgery as Group A(42 eyes of 21 cases; Patients undertook bilateral levator muscle shortening surgery as Group B(38 eyes of 19 cases; Patients undertook unilateral fascial suspension surgery as Group C(24 eyes of 24 cases; Patients undertook unilateral levator muscle shortening surgery as Group D(29 eyes of 29 cases. Each group patients were followed for postoperative function and appearance effect. RESULTS: 1Early postoperative of two operation function success rate was up to 100%, the function of levator muscle shortening surgery was 97.01% in the late postoperative, was higher than bilateral fascial suspension surgery(87.88%, with statistical difference in both surgerys(PP >0.05; In the late postoperative, the mean grades for “Lid Contour” and “Lid Crease” of Group B were better than that of Group A(PPCONCLUSION: Two kinds of operation method have good effects on the treatment of congenital ptosis. In terms of cosmetic effect, levator muscle shortening surgery is better.

  4. Intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improved neurovascular regeneration and rescued neuropsychiatric deficits after neonatal stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Ferdinand, Anwar; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Ji, Xun Ming; Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in infants and children. Currently, very limited therapeutic strategies are available to protect the developing brain against ischemic damage and promote brain repairs for pediatric patients. Moreover, children who experienced neonatal stroke often have developmental social behavior problems. Cellular therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has emerged as a regenerative therapy after stroke. In the present investigation, neonatal stroke of postnatal day 7 (P7) rat pups was treated with noninvasive and brain-specific intranasal delivery of BMSCs at 6 h and 3 days after stroke (1 × 10(6)cells/animal). Prior to transplantation, BMSCs were subjected to hypoxic preconditioning to enhance their tolerance and regenerative properties. The effects on regenerative activities and stroke-induced sensorimotor and social behavioral deficits were specifically examined at P24 of juvenile age. The BMSC treatment significantly reduced infarct size and blood-brain barrier disruption, promoted angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neurovascular repair, and improved local cerebral blood flow in the ischemic cortex. BMSC-treated rats showed better sensorimotor and olfactory functional recovery than saline-treated animals, measured by the adhesive removal test and buried food finding test. In social behavioral tests, we observed functional and social behavioral deficits in P24 rats subjected to stroke at P7, while the BMSC treatment significantly improved the performance of stroke animals. Overall, intranasal BMSC transplantation after neonatal stroke shows neuroprotection and great potential as a regenerative therapy to enhance neurovascular regeneration and improve functional recovery observed at the juvenile stage of development.

  5. Evaluating the immunogenicity of an intranasal vaccine against nicotine in mice using the Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome (AFPL1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraleigh, Nya L; Boudreau, Justin; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Eng, Nelson F; Murad, Yanal; Lafrenie, Robert; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Oliva, Reynaldo; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Le, Hoang-Thanh

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is recognized as a global pandemic resulting in 6 million deaths per year. Despite a variety of anti-smoking products available to aid with tobacco cessation, the majority of people who attempt to quit smoking relapse within 6 months due to the addictive nature of nicotine. An immunotherapy approach could offer a promising treatment option by inducing a potent selective antibody response against nicotine in order to block its distribution to the brain and its addictive effects in the central nervous system. Our nicotine vaccine candidate was administered intranasally using the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1 (AFPL1) as a part of the delivery system. This system was designed to generate a robust immune response by stimulating IL-1β production through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a potent mechanism for mucosal immunity. The vaccine induced high antibody titers in mice sera in addition to inducing mucosal antibodies. The efficacy of our vaccine was demonstrated using in vivo challenge experiments with radioactive [(3)H]-nicotine, followed by an analysis of nicotine distribution in the lung, liver, blood and brain. Our results were encouraging as the nicotine concentration in the brain tissue of mice vaccinated with our candidate vaccine was four times lower than in non-vaccinated controls; suggesting that the anti-nicotine antibodies were able to block nicotine from crossing the blood brain barrier. In summary, we have developed a novel nicotine vaccine for the treatment of tobacco addiction by intranasal administration and also demonstrated that the AFPL1 can be used as a potential adjuvant for this vaccine design.

  6. Intranasal midazolam administration enhances amnesic effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Takao; Kawano, Takashi; Yamanaka, Daiki; Tateiwa, Hiroki; Urakawa, Manami; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2016-06-01

    Intranasal (i.n.) administration of midazolam has been shown to be effective and safe for its sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, there has been no investigation on the influence of i.n. administration on midazolam-induced anterograde amnesia. In addition, although the potential of direct drug delivery from the nose to the central nervous system (CNS) has recently become a topic of great interest, it remains unclear whether this pathway is also involved after i.n. midazolam. In this study, we examined the efficacy and the underlying mechanism of i.n. administration compared with intramuscular (i.m.) administration on midazolam-induced amnesia in rats. Equivalent doses of 0.6 mg/kg midazolam were administered via either the i.m or the i.n. route. Anterograde amnesia was assessed by a contextual/cued fear conditioning test. Each animal was conditioned 20 min after drug administration and then tested for a freezing response 24 h later. Midazolam administration by either route produced a similar level of light sedation (minimum spontaneous activity). However, i.n. administration of midazolam induced significantly less freezing behavior compared with i.m. midazolam. Furthermore, in rats with disrupted electrical input from the olfactory epithelium after an olfactotoxicant 3-methylindole administration, the i.n.-mediated enhanced amnesic effect of midazolam was not observed. Our findings indicate that i.n midazolam could probably generate olfactory signals to the brain via benzodiazepine receptors and, compared with i.m. administration, can produce a more significant amnesic effect without alteration in sedative levels. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  7. Observations on Electroacupuncture Treatment of 60 Patients with Urine Retention Following Cervical Cancer Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学农; 张世忠; 赵开祝

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the curative effect of electroacupuncture on urine retention following cervical cancer operation. Methods: A treatment group was treated with electroacupuncture according to classification based on syndrome differentiation and a control group, by a conventional method. One course of treatment consisted of 5 days. Results: The curative rate and cure rate were 96.67% and 76.67%, respectively, in the treatment group and 70% and 36.67%, respectively, in the control group. There were significant differences in curative rate and cure rate between the two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion:Electroacupuncture is a good method for treating urine retention subsequent to cervical cancer operation.%目的:观察电针治疗宫颈癌术后尿潴留的疗效.方法:治疗组按辨证分型采用电针治疗,对照组采用常规方法治疗,5 d为1个疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为96.7%,治愈率为76.7%;对照组有效率为70.0%,治愈率为36.7%.两组间有效率、痊愈率比较,差异均有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论: 电针疗法是治疗宫颈癌术后尿潴留的较佳方法.

  8. Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Procedural Sedation in Children, a Suitable Alternative to Chloral Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Norbedo, Stefania; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-04-01

    Sedation is often required for children undergoing diagnostic procedures. Chloral hydrate has been one of the sedative drugs most used in children over the last 3 decades, with supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety. Recently, chloral hydrate was banned in Italy and France, in consideration of evidence of its carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative with unique properties that has been increasingly used for procedural sedation in children. Several studies demonstrated its efficacy and safety for sedation in non-painful diagnostic procedures. Dexmedetomidine's impact on respiratory drive and airway patency and tone is much less when compared to the majority of other sedative agents. Administration via the intranasal route allows satisfactory procedural success rates. Studies that specifically compared intranasal dexmedetomidine and chloral hydrate for children undergoing non-painful procedures showed that dexmedetomidine was as effective as and safer than chloral hydrate. For these reasons, we suggest that intranasal dexmedetomidine could be a suitable alternative to chloral hydrate.

  9. The effects of general anesthesia legislation on operating room visits by preschool children undergoing dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Halley R; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of state-level general anesthesia (GA) legislation on operating room visits for the treatment of dental caries on preschool-aged children. The North Carolina Ambulatory Surgery Discharge Database was used to observe GA visits for fiscal years (FY) 1997 to 2001. A pretest/post-test design with concurrent comparison groups was used for 2 analyses: (1) all children treated for dental caries were compared to those treated for otitis media; and (2) those whose treatment for dental caries was reimbursed by Medicaid were compared to those whose treatment for dental caries was not reimbursed by Medicaid. In the prelegislation period (FY 1997 and 1998), there were 3,857 GA visits for dental core and 21,038 for otitis media. Postlegislation (FY 2000 and 2001) dental visits increased to 5,511(43%), and otitis media visits increased to 22,279 (6%)-a statistically significant difference (Pdental visits and 2,487 Medicaid dental visits. Non-Medicaid and Medicaid dental visits postlegislation increased to 2,195 (60%) and 3,316 (33%), respectively. This difference was significant (Panesthesia legislation resulted in an increase in access to care for children needing dental care in North Carolina.

  10. Comparison of Nanoemulsion and Aqueous Micelle Systems of Paliperidone for Intranasal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Kartika; Suares, Divya

    2016-10-06

    The objective of the study was to develop and compare the efficiency of nanoemulsion and aqueous micelle system of Paliperidone on intranasal administration. Both the formulations were evaluated for physical parameters such as globule size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and in vitro drug release studies. The reduction in spontaneous motor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss Albino mice on intranasal administration of nanoemulsion and micellar system of Paliperidone was compared with plain drug suspension. Histopathological evaluation of formulation treated nasal mucosal membrane was performed. Nasal spray device was evaluated for spray pattern and volume per actuation. Globule size of micellar system and nanoemulsion was found to be 16.14 & 38.25 nm, respectively. In vitro release of drug from micellar system was found to be 1.8-fold higher than nanoemulsion. The loading of drug in nanoemulsion was found to be superior (2.5 mg/mL) when compared to micellar system (0.41 mg/mL). The spray pattern of micellar system and nanoemulsion from the device was elliptical and circular, respectively. The locomotor activity of L-dopa and Carbidopa-treated Swiss albino mice was found to be 1096.5±78.49, 551.5±13.43 and 535.5±24.75 counts/min in case of plain drug suspension, micellar system and nanoemulsion, respectively. The intranasal administration of developed formulations showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the locomotor activity when compared to intranasal administration of plain drug. Thus it can be concluded that both the developed formulations have shown improved in vivo activity on intranasal administration and pose great potential for delivery of Paliperidone through intranasal route.

  11. IS ATOMIZED INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM A NOVEL SEDATIVE PREMEDICATION IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS?

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    Savitri D. Kabade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The successful conduct of anaesthesia in children depends on adequate premedication, which not only comforts the anxious child but also comforts the parents or guardians. Atomized Intranasal Midazolam is quickly absorbed through the nasal mucosa, resulting in a rapid and reliable onset of action. Clonidine has several applications in paediatric anaesthesia as a premedication and as an adjuvant in general as well as regional anaesthesia. Thus, in search of a novel premedication technique, we conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of atomized intranasal midazolam with intranasal clonidine for preoperative sedation in paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and parent’s consent, a prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study was conducted in 78 children of ASA I and II, belonging to 2 - 10 years age, posted for various elective surgery. Group M (n= 39 received atomized intranasal midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and Group C (n= 39 received clonidine (4 mcg/kg instilled into both the nostrils. Sedation score (Ramsay, separation score, mask acceptance, recovery and vital parameters were recorded. Statistical analysis of data was done using IBM-SPSS version 21.0. RESULTS Mean sedation scores (± SD were higher in Group M than in Group C (at 5th minute 1.58 ± 0.55 in Group M and 1.15 ± 0.36 in Group C with P= 0.002, at 10th minute 2.34 ± 0.97 in Group M and 1.75 ± 0.71 in Group C with P= 0.008. Separation scores and mask acceptance were better with Group M than Group C. Haemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups and no major adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION Atomized intranasal midazolam produces superior sedation levels, child-parent separation and mask acceptance compared to intranasal clonidine in children.

  12. Therapeutic effects of intranasal cyclosporine for eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Yeop; Joo, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Myeong Hee; Kim, Dae Woo; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a principally type 2 T helper cell (Th2)-mediated inflammatory disease. Systemic corticosteroids currently represent the most effective treatment for CRSwNP, but their long-term use is constrained due to their detrimental side effects. Long-term use of topical steroids is safe, but their efficacy is often limited. Topical cyclosporine has proven to be safe and effective for Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic conjunctivitis. It was hypothesized that topical cyclosporine would be an effective novel drug for the treatment of CRSwNP; its therapeutic efficacy was assessed using a previously established mouse model. After induction of eosinophilic CRSwNP in four-week-old BALB/c mice according to previous protocols, the therapeutic effects of intranasal cyclosporine were evaluated and compared with those of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC). Histopathologic changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin for polyp formation and Sirius red staining for eosinophilic infiltration. The production of cytokines in sinonasal tissues, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A, was measured using a cytometric bead array. The number of polyp-like lesions was reduced significantly only by systemic TAC, but the degree of eosinophilic infiltration was decreased significantly by topical cyclosporine, the potency of which was similar to that of topical or systemic TAC. Except for IFN-γ, the majority of measured cytokines were reduced significantly by topical cyclosporine, although their effects on IL-2 and IL-13 were less potent than those of systemic TAC. Topical cyclosporine might be an effective drug for the management of CRSwNP.

  13. Return to Play in National Football League Players After Operative Jones Fracture Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Craig R; Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Jones fractures commonly occur in professional athletes and operative treatment remains the standard of care in this patient population. In our clinical experience, an aggressive postoperative rehabilitation protocol for National Football League (NFL) players with an average return to play (RTP) between 8 and 10 weeks can have successful outcomes with few complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify RTP and rate of complications, including nonunion, refracture, and reoperation among a cohort of NFL players with operatively treated Jones fractures. Between 2004 and 2014, 25 consecutive NFL players who underwent acute Jones fracture fixation by a single surgeon were reviewed. Operative treatment for the majority of patients involved fixation with a Jones-specific intramedullary screw and iliac crest bone marrow aspirate with demineralized bone matrix injected at the fracture site. Additionally, our protocol involved the use of noninvasive bone stimulators, application of customized orthoses, and an aggressive patient-specific rehabilitation protocol. Patient demographics were recorded along with position played, seasons played after surgery, RTP, and complications. RTP was defined as the ability to play in a single regular-season NFL game after surgery. At the time of surgery, average age for all patients was 24.0 years and BMI 31.0. Player positions included 8 wide receivers, 4 linebackers, 4 tight ends, 2 defensive tackles, 2 cornerbacks, 1 offensive tackle, 1 center, 1 tackle, 1 defensive end, and 1 quarterback. Seventy-six percent of players underwent operative fixation during their first 3 seasons. Forty-eight percent were diagnosed before or during their rookie (first) season.RTP was 100% for all players and 80% were still playing at time of publication. Three patients (12.0%) refractured and required revision surgery. Time until RTP was influenced by other variables and difficult to measure because many surgeries were performed early in the

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  15. 45 CFR 164.506 - Uses and disclosures to carry out treatment, payment, or health care operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosures that require an authorization under § 164.508(a)(2) and (3), a covered entity may use or disclose... operations. (1) A covered entity may use or disclose protected health information for its own treatment, payment, or health care operations. (2) A covered entity may disclose protected health information for...

  16. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OPERATIVE TREATMENT FOR LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC PROLAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar S. D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Amongst painful diseases, sciatica occupies a foremost place by reason of its prevalence, its production by a great variety of conditions, the great disablement it may produce and its tending to relapse all of which have led to its recognition as one of the great scourges of humanity. Intervertebral disc prolapse is the important and common cause of low back pain and sciatica. Here, the subject of laminectomy and discectomy in the treatment of proven intervertebral disc prolapse in the lower lumbar region is reviewed and its results examined. AIM OF STUDY This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the following objectives. PRIMARY Analysis of clinical parameters and per operative findings of lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse. SECONDARY Analysis of clinical parameters and surgical outcome in lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse with respect to improvement in pain and neurological status. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was undertaken in 22 patients who attended the Orthopaedic Department of Mount Zion Medical College, Adoor, between August 2014 to July 2015. All of them were suffering from a prolapsed lumbar vertebral disc as shown by clinical examination and investigations. Lumbar laminectomy and discectomy constituted the operative procedure for all of them. RESULTS In acute onset cases and cases with short duration, results were good. By six months, 80% of patients recorded of good pain relief, 80% of patients returned to work within six 6 months, 60% of patients showed good neurological recovery by 6 months. Laminectomy and discectomy in proven cases of lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse is a rewarding procedure. LT definitely relieved pain in all cases and improved morbidity and neurological deficits in most of the cases. CONCLUSION 1. Laminectomy and discectomy is an effective method of treatment in herniation of lumbar intervertebral disc. 2. The procedure is ideally done in those with the disc prolapse proved with the

  18. Allergen-specific regulation of allergic rhinitis in mice by intranasal exposure to IgG1 monoclonal antibody Fab fragments against pathogenic allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Daiko; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Yoshino, Shin

    2014-09-01

    Fab fragments (Fabs) have the ability to bind to specific antigens but lack the Fc portion for binding to receptors on immune and inflammatory cells that play a critical role in allergic diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether Fabs of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibited allergic rhinitis in mice. BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum on days 0 and 14 were intranasally challenged with OVA on days 28-30, and 35. Fabs prepared by the digestion of an anti-OVA IgG1 mAb (O1-10) with papain were also intranasally administered 15min before each OVA challenge. The results showed that treatment with O1-10 Fabs significantly suppressed the sneezing frequency, associated with decrease of OVA-specific IgE in the serum and infiltration by mast cells in the nasal mucosa seen following the fourth antigenic challenge; additionally, the level of mouse mast cell protease-1, a marker of mast cell activation, in serum was decreased. Furthermore, infiltration of eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal mucosa at the fourth challenge were inhibited by treatment with O1-10 Fabs. In conclusion, these results suggest that intranasal exposure to Fabs of a pathogenic antigen-specific IgG1 mAb may be effective in regulating allergic rhinitis through allergen capture by Fabs in the nasal mucosa before the interaction of the intact antibody and allergen.

  19. Improving intranasal delivery of neurological nanomedicine to the olfactory region using magnetophoretic guidance of microsphere carriers

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    Xi J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jinxiang Xi,1 Ze Zhang,1 Xiuhua A Si21School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA, USABackground: Although direct nose-to-brain drug delivery has multiple advantages, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (<1% to the olfactory region where drugs can enter the brain. It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region.Materials and methods: We introduced a delivery method that used magnetophoresis to improve olfactory delivery efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was assessed numerically in an image-based human nose model. Influences of the magnet layout, magnet strength, drug-release position, and particle diameter on the olfactory dosage were examined.Results and discussion: Results showed that particle diameter was a critical factor in controlling the motion of nasally inhaled ferromagnetic drug particles. The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 µm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose. Olfactory delivery efficiency was shown to be sensitive to the position and strength of magnets and the release position of drug particles. The results of this study showed that clinically significant olfactory doses (up to 45% were feasible using the optimal combination of magnet layout, selective drug release, and microsphere-carrier diameter. A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field. However, the sensitivity of olfactory dosage to operating conditions and the unstable nature of magnetophoresis make controlled guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols still highly challenging.Keywords: direct nose–brain delivery, olfactory deposition, magnetophoretic

  20. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

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    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  1. Traumatic First Time Shoulder Dislocation: Surgery vs Non-Operative Treatment

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    Ioannis Polyzois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of first shoulder dislocation following reduction remains controversial. The two main options are immobilisation and arthroscopic stabilisation. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the issues that influence decision making when discussing management options with these patients, including natural history of the first time dislocation, outcomes of surgery and non-operative management particularly on the risk of future osteoarthritis (OA, the effects of delaying surgery and the optimal method of immobilisation. Extensive literature review was performed looking for previous publication addressing 4 points. i Natural history of primary shoulder dislocation ii Effect of surgical intervention on natural history iii Risk of long term osteoarthritis with and without surgical intervention iv Immobilisation techniques post reduction. Individuals younger than 25 years old are likely to re-dislocate with non-operative management. Surgery reduces risk of recurrent instability. Patients with recurrent instability appear to be at a higher risk of OA. Those who have surgical stabilisation do not appear to be at a higher risk than those who dislocate just once, but are less likely to develop OA than those with recurrent instability. Delaying surgery makes the stabilisation more demanding due to elongation of capsule, progressive labro-ligamentous injury, prevalence and severity of glenoid bone loss. Recent studies have failed to match the preliminary outcomes associated with external rotation braces. Defining the best timing and type of treatment remains a challenge and should be tailored to each individual’s age, occupation and degree of physical activity.

  2. Evaluation Of Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Anaerobic Baffled Reactor And Biofilter

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    Evy Hendriarianti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of communal Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP in city of Malang since 1998 but until recently had never done an evaluation the performance. Communal WWTP performance evaluation is needed to see how far the efficiency of processing result. Until now, Environmental Agency Malang City only measure effluent from WWTP Communal  to know the suitability  with domestic wastewater quality standards. Effluent quality data in 2014 showed value above the quality standard of domestic wastewater from East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 in 2013 for parameters BOD and COD. WWTP Communal USRI research objects are on a six (6 locations by involving the user community during the planning, construction, operation and maintenance. Technology choice of ABR followed by a biofilter reactor with the stone media proved capable of processing organic matter of BOD and COD with the removal levels respectively by 78% -99% and 71% -99%. As for the parameters of TSS, NO3 and PO4 have the ranges of removal respectively by 56% -100%, (43% - 72%, (2% - 13%. Ratio BOD and COD in influent are low and ranged from 0.22 to 0.41. From the evaluation shows that high organic matter concentrations in influent along with the HRT and operation time high will result in a higher removal level

  3. National Utilization Patterns of Steroid Injection and Operative Intervention for Treatment of Common Hand Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Erika D.; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a population-level analysis of practice trends and probability of surgery based on the number of steroid injections for common hand conditions. Methods Patients at least 18 years old receiving injection or surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), trigger finger (TF), or De Quervain tenovaginitis (DQ) were identified for inclusion using the 2009–2013 Truven MarketScan databases. The number of injections performed was counted, and time between injection and operation was calculated for patients receiving both treatments. A multivariable logistic regression model was created to evaluate the odds of undergoing surgery based on the number of injections performed, controlling for patient age, sex, comorbidities, and insurance type. Results The study sample included 251,030 patients who underwent steroid injection or operative release for CTS (n=129,917), TF (n=102,778), and DQ (n=18,335). The majority of CTS patients were managed with immediate surgery (71%), whereas most patients with TF and DQ were managed initially with injection (74% and 84%, respectively). Among patients receiving both an injection and an operation, a single injection was the most common practice prior to surgery (69%, 58%, and 67% of patients with CTS, TF, and DQ, respectively). Multiple injections for DQ and TF were associated with relatively low predicted probability of surgery (17% and 26%, respectively, after 2 injections). However, the predicted probability of surgery after two injections was higher in patients with CTS (44%). Conclusions Given the associated probability of surgery after multiple injections for the three hand conditions examined, the practice of repeat injections should be critically examined to determine whether underuse or overuse is present and whether efficiency and resource utilization can be improved upon. Level of Evidence Level II (retrospective prognostic study) PMID:26774548

  4. Operative Treatment of Haglund Syndrome With Central Achilles Tendon-Splitting Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Chi-Young; Byun, Chu-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Haglund syndrome is characterized by chronic posterior heel pain associated with a posterosuperior calcaneal prominence. We assessed the clinical and radiologic outcomes after operative treatment of Haglund syndrome using the central tendon-splitting approach. Fifteen feet in 15 patients were investigated retrospectively after surgery. Of the 15 patients, 14 were males (93.3%) and 1 was female (6.7%). Their mean age was 33.1 ± 8.2 (range 20 to 50) years. The mean follow-up duration was 3.5 ± 1.5 years (range 24 to 90 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot Scale and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles scores were investigated to assess the clinical outcomes. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the latest follow-up visit. The lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, Fowler-Philip angle, and parallel pitch line were measured to assess the foot shape and radiographic outcomes. Clinically, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale score increased from 62.1 ± 7.5 preoperatively to 92.5 ± 3.5 at the latest follow-up visit. The mean Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles score increased from 53.2 ± 7.4 to 89.6 ± 3.4. All patients were satisfied with the operative results. Radiographically, all patients had cavus feet with an increased lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (mean +5.9° ± 5.0°) and calcaneal pitch angle (mean 26.0° ± 3.8°). The mean Fowler-Philip angle decreased from 58.9° ± 15.0° to 32.5° ± 7.2° postoperatively, and the positive parallel pitch line had changed to a negative value in all cases. Operative treatment with the central tendon-splitting approach appears to be safe and satisfactory for intractable Haglund syndrome.

  5. The operative treatment of complex pilon fractures: A strategy of soft tissue control

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    Xianfeng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilon fractures are challenging to manage because of the complexity of the injury pattern and the risk of significant complications. The soft tissue injury and handling of the soft tissue envelope are crucial in pilon fracture outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early rate of complications using the strategy of "soft tissue control" for operative treatment of complex pilon fractures. Materials and Methods: 36 complex pilon fractures were treated with the "soft tissue control" strategy. Patients followed the standard staged protocol, anterolateral approach to the distal tibia, the "no-touch" technique and incisional negative pressure wound therapy for pilon fractures. Patients were examined clinically at 2-3 weeks and then 8 weeks for complications associated with the surgical technique. Results: All fractures were AO/OTA (Orthopaedic Trauma Association type C fractures (61% C3, 22% C2 and 16% C1. Only one patient developed superficial infection and resolved with antibiotics and local wound care. None developed deep infection. Conclusions: The strategy of soft tissue control for treatment of pilon fractures resulted in relatively low incidence of early wound complications in patients with complex pilon fractures.

  6. [Evaluation of Radiation Dose during Stent-graft Treatment Using a Hybrid Operating Room System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yoshihiro; Chida, Kouichi; Kaga, Yuji; Saitou, Kazuhisa; Arai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Kumasaka, Eriko; Kataoka, Nozomi; Satou, Naoto; Abe, Mitsuya

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, aortic aneurysm treatment with stent graft grafting in the X-ray fluoroscopy is increasing. This is an endovascular therapy, because it is a treatment which includes the risk of radiation damage, having to deal with radiation damage, to know in advance is important. In this study, in order to grasp the trend of exposure stent graft implantation in a hybrid operating room (OR) system, focusing on clinical data (entrance skin dose and fluoroscopy time), was to count the total. In TEVAR and EVAR, fluoroscopy time became 13.40 ± 7.27 minutes, 23.67 ± 11.76 minutes, ESD became 0.87 ± 0.41 mGy, 1.11 ± 0.57 mGy. (fluoroscopy time of EVAR was 2.0 times than TEVAR. DAP of EVAR was 1.2 times than TEVAR.) When using the device, adapted lesions and usage are different. This means that care changes in exposure-related factors. In this study, exposure trends of the stent graft implantation was able to grasp. It can be a helpful way to reduce/optimize the radiation dose in a hybrid OR system.

  7. Translating removal efficiencies into operational performance indices of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Quadros, Sílvia; Ramalho, Pedro; Alegre, Helena; Rosa, Maria João

    2014-06-15

    Removal efficiencies are often used to assess the performance of a single or a group of unit operations/processes (UOPs) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). However, depending on the influent concentration (Cin), the same efficiency of removal (Er) may be insufficient or excessive to achieve the UOP or WWTP effluent quality requirements, expressed by concentration limit values (LVs). This paper proposes performance indices (PXs), Er-based, as new metrics for benchmarking, i.e. for assessing and improving the performance of each UOP or treatment step and ultimately of the WWTP as a multi-barrier system, and comprehensively describes the stepwise method of translating Ers into PXs. PXs are dimensionless and vary between 0 and 300 to define three performance levels: unsatisfactory (0-100), acceptable (100-200) and good (200-300) performance. The method developed takes into consideration Cin and LV, and the reference values for judging the performance are given from Er-Cin typical ranges and Er vs. Cin model curves, LV based and field data based. The general equations of the Er model curves are derived. A set of six curves is calibrated for TSS (Total Suspended Solids) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal by primary sedimentation and activated sludge systems (carbon or combined carbon and nutrients removal), using 5-year (2006-2010) field data from five Portuguese WWTPs. A statistical analysis of the PX results is additionally proposed to assess treatment reliability. The new method is applied in two WWTPs and the PX results are compared with those of conventional measures - Er and performance indicators (PIs). The results demonstrate that, whereas a simplistic Er-driven or PI-driven management of the WWTPs shows limitations, the developed PXs are adequate measures for benchmarking removal efficiencies towards WWTP reliability and sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking.

  9. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  10. Optimization Model for Land Treatment Planning, Design and Operation. Part 3. Model Description and User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    land treatment equations is necessary to develop the user -supplied PARAM and INPUT files and to interpret the model results. A schematic of the system...land treatment equations and is supplied and named by the user . A total of 160 parameter values must be specified. The file must consist of 26 lines...7 AD-A134 461 OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR LAND TREATMENT PLANNING DESIN 1/AND OPERATION PART 3..U) COLD REGIONS RESEARCH ANDENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH J A

  11. Pathogenesis and host response in Syrian hamsters following intranasal infection with Andes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Safronetz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, is a rare but frequently fatal disease caused by New World hantaviruses. In humans HPS is associated with severe pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear largely due to a lack of suitable animal models for the study of disease progression. In this study we monitored clinical, virological, pathophysiological parameters and host immunological responses to decipher pathological factors and events in the lethal Syrian hamster model of HPS following intranasal inoculation of Andes virus. Transcriptional profiling of the host gene responses demonstrated a suppression of innate immune responses in most organs analyzed during the early stage of infection, except for in the lung which had low level activation of several pro-inflammatory genes. During this phase Andes virus established a systemic infection in hamsters, with viral antigen readily detectable in the endothelium of the majority of tissues analyzed by 7-8 days post-inoculation. Despite wide-spread infection, histological analysis confirmed pathological abnormalities were almost exclusively found in the lungs. Immediately preceding clinical signs of disease, intense activation of pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses were observed in the lungs as well as the heart, but not in peripheral organs, suggesting that localized immune-modulations by infection is paramount to pathogenesis. Throughout the course of infection a strong suppression of regulatory T-cell responses was noted and is hypothesized to be the basis of the aberrant immune activations. The unique and comprehensive monitoring of host immune responses to hantavirus infection increases our understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of HPS and will facilitate the development of treatment strategies targeting deleterious host immunological responses.

  12. Intranasal Cerebrolysin Attenuates Learning and Memory Impairments in D-galactose-Induced Senescence in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmemar, Ehsan; Majdi, Alireza; Haramshahi, Morteza; Talebi, Mahnaz; Karimi, Pouran; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are currently being considered as pro-cognitive therapeutic approaches for management of cognitive deficits. This study aims to evaluate the effects of intranasal (i.n.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Cerebrolysin (CBL) (as a mixture of neurotrophic factors) on the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and memory as well as learning impairment in mice. For this purpose, CBL (1, 2.5, 5 ml/kg/i.p.) or (1 ml/kg/i.n.), were administrated daily in d-galactose-received (100 mg/kg/subcutaneous (s.c.)) mice model of aging for eight weeks. Spatial and recognition memories were assessed by the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tasks. Brain and blood of animals were analysed for oxidative stress biomarkers including malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Apoptosis rate in the hippocampus was evaluated by TUNEL staining of brain tissue. 5 ml/kg/i.p. dose of CBL increased the locomotor activity but, 1 ml/kg/i.p. dose didn't show detectable behavioural or molecular effects on aged mice. Treatment with 2.5 ml/kg/i.p. and 1 ml/kg/i.n. doses attenuated d-galactose-impaired spatial and recognition memories. Results showed an obvious increase in the antioxidant biomarkers and decrease in the malondialdehyde levels both in the blood and brain of aged mice in 2.5 ml/kg/i.p. dose, and only in the brain in 1 ml/kg/i.n. dose of CBL. Anti-apoptotic effects also were seen in the same dose/rout of CBL administration in aged animals. This study proves the usefulness of i.n. CBL administration as a non-invasive and efficient method of drug delivery to the brain to improve aging-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and learning as well as memory impairment.

  13. Intranasal application of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist BHT-920 produces decongestion in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, R L; Erickson, C H; Mingo, G G; Hey, J A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of alpha2-selective adrenoreceptor activation on nasal cavity dimension in an experimental model of congestion has not been defined. Presently, we used acoustic rhinometry to evaluate the decongestant activity of BHT-920, a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist against nasal congestion produced by intranasal compound 48/80. Administration of the mast cell liberator compound 48/80 (1%) into a nasal passageway decreased ipsilateral volume and minimum cross-sectional area by 73 +/- 4% and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. The congestant effect of compound 48/80 was blocked by topical BHT-920 (0.3 and 1%) in a dose related manner. In addition, the decrease in minimum cross-sectional area produced by compound 48/80 was attenuated after topical BHT-920 treatment. As a comparison we also evaluated the topical decongestant activity effects of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, and the nonselective alpha-agonist oxymetazoline. Both phenylephrine (0.1-1.0%) and oxymetazoline (0.01-0.3%) produced decongestion. The blood pressure effects of these three drugs also were evaluated. At doses of 0.3 and 1.0%, BHT-920 did not produce hypertension. In contrast, oxymetaZoline (0.01-0.1%) produced a transient hypertension that peaked at 15 minutes and fully recovered 45 minutes after administration. The hypertensive effect of phenylephrine at 0.3 and 1.0% lasted over 60 minutes. The present findings indicate that selective alpha2-agonists may produce decongestant activity with an improved cardiovascular profile compared with current sympathomimetic drugs such as phenylephrine.

  14. Single HA2 mutation increases the infectivity and immunogenicity of a live attenuated H5N1 intranasal influenza vaccine candidate lacking NS1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Krenn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4, whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH ≤ 5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose₅₀. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may

  15. Simulated versus realistic intra operative radiation therapy (I.O.R.T.) treatment in operating room: from knowledge of stray radiation to action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, S.; Moretti, R. [USC Fisica Sanitaria - Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy); Catalano, M.; Locatelli, F. [Degli Studi di Milano Univ., Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (I.O.R.T.) is carried out with electron beams produced by a Linac (Linear Accelerator) generally used for conventional radiotherapy with external beam, or by dedicated accelerators that can be employed directly into an operating room. I.O.R.T. refers to the application of radiation during a surgical intervention, after the removal of a neoplastic mass. I.O.R.T. uses on the tumour area a direct irradiation, for the possible localisation of sub-clinic illness or macroscopic residue in the case of non-radical resection. Intra-Operative Radiotherapy foresees a single session only, generally preceded or followed by radiotherapy with external beam. It allows the achievement of a selective radiation boost on the tumour volume. In some cases, it can also be used as a one-time/stand alone treatment in initial cancer of small volume, or in unresectable malignancies for palliative purpose. The technical advantages of I.O.R.T. consist in the direct visual control of the target volume, and in the possibility to protect the healthy tissues by moving them away from the path of the radiation beam. The use of electron beams allows the administration of a homogeneous dose to a selected layer of tissues surrounding the tumour. The following professional staff forms the Operative Group: radiation oncologist, surgeon, anaesthetist, medical physicist, radiation technologist, nurse.The choice of a simulation geometry very similar to the clinical situation allows to evaluate radioprotection data very close to the real situation. For a fixed layout, an anthropomorphic phantom was positioned on the operating bed and a breast I.O.R.T. treatment was simulated positioning all the accessories of the operating room in their typical positions. A detailed dose mapping was performed with a Victoreen 450P ionisation chamber and with environment film-dosimeter on the walls of the operating room during the simulation of the clinical treatment. The simulation appears

  16. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  17. Intranasal Rapamycin Rescues Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    Mice from Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Shock Teresa Krakauer * and Marilyn Buckley Integrated Toxicology Division, U.S. Army Medical...2012 / Published: 18 September 2012 Abstract: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and related exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus are...allowing a wider therapeutic window. Keywords: intranasal rapamycin; staphylococcal enterotoxin B; shock 1. Introduction Staphylococcal

  18. Safety of Intranasal Fentanyl in the Out-of-Hospital Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders P H; Pedersen, Danny M B; Trautner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    : In this prospective observational study, we administered intranasal fentanyl in the out-of-hospital setting to adults and children older than 8 years with severe pain resulting from orthopedic conditions, abdominal pain, or acute coronary syndrome refractory to nitroglycerin spray. Patients received 1 to 3 doses...

  19. Limited evidence for effects of intranasal corticosteroids on symptom relief for recurrent acute rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, J.W.L.; van Harn, R.P.; Venekamp, R.P.; Kaper, N.M.; Sachs, A.P.E.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the evidence base on the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in adult patients with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. Data Sources Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Review Methods A comprehensive search was performed up to March 20, 2013. Two reviewer

  20. CSF and blood oxytocin concentration changes following intranasal delivery in macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dal Monte

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT in the central nervous system (CNS influences social cognition and behavior, making it a candidate for treating clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Intranasal administration has been proposed as a possible route of delivery to the CNS for molecules like OT. While intranasal administration of OT influences social cognition and behavior, it is not well established whether this is an effective means for delivering OT to CNS targets. We administered OT or its vehicle (saline to 15 primates (Macaca mulatta, using either intranasal spray or a nebulizer, and measured OT concentration changes in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and in blood. All subjects received both delivery methods and both drug conditions. Baseline samples of blood and CSF were taken immediately before drug administration. Blood was collected every 10 minutes after administration for 40 minutes and CSF was collected once post-delivery, at the 40 minutes time point. We found that intranasal administration of exogenous OT increased concentrations in both CSF and plasma compared to saline. Both delivery methods resulted in similar elevations of OT concentration in CSF, while the changes in plasma OT concentration were greater after nasal spray compared to nebulizer. In conclusion our study provides evidence that both nebulizer and nasal spray OT administration can elevate CSF OT levels.

  1. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis...

  2. Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D

    2015-07-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse.

  3. Intranasal delivery of liposomal indole-3-carbinol improves its pulmonary bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Min; Kirtane, Ameya R; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Qian, Xuemin; Balbo, Silvia; Teferi, Fitsum; Panyam, Jayanth; Kassie, Fekadu

    2014-12-30

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a constituent of commonly consumed Brassica vegetables, has been shown to have anticancer effects in a variety of preclinical models of lung cancer. However, it has shown only limited efficacy in clinical trials, likely due to its poor oral bioavailability. Intranasal administration of I3C has the potential to enhance the pulmonary accumulation of the drug, thereby improving its availability at the target site of action. In this study, we developed a liposomal formulation of I3C and evaluated its lung delivery and chemopreventive potential in tobacco smoke carcinogen [4-(methylnitro-samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)]-treated mice. Intranasal administration of I3C liposomes led to a ∼100-fold higher lung exposure of I3C than the oral route of administration. Further, intranasal delivery of liposomal I3C led to a significant reduction (37%; pLiposomal I3C also significantly increased (by 10-fold) the expression of CYP1A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to increase the detoxification of chemical carcinogens by enhancing their metabolism. Overall, our findings demonstrate that intranasal administration of liposomal I3C has the potential to significantly improve the efficacy of I3C for lung cancer chemoprevention.

  4. Preparation of lorazepam-loaded microemulsions for intranasal delivery and its pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J; Hou, L; Zhou, J P; Zhang, Z Q; Sun, L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a microemulsion system for intranasal delivery of lorazepam. The phase behavior and properties of microemulsions were characterized in a pseudo-ternary system composed of Cremophor EL 35/Transcutol P/Lauroglycol FCC or Labrafil M 1944CS/water, and intranasal absorption of lorazepam from microemulsions was investigated in rabbit. The microemulsions, comprising of FCC, Cremophor EL 35/Transcutol P (1.5:1) and water, were optimal for intranasal delivery of lorazepam. These systems had a higher solubilization capacity with the particle size of lorazepam from microemulsions at 0.38 mg/kg had the larger AUC(0-t), the longer half-life and the prolonged circulation time with the mean bioavailability of 80.84% for ME2 and 63.48% for ME8 as compared to the intramuscular injection at 0.16 mg/kg. These results indicate that microemulsions may bea promising approach for the intranasal delivery of lorazepam.

  5. Effect of intranasally administered insulin on cerebral blood flow and perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van Opstal, Anna M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin, a vasoactive modulator regulating peripheral and cerebral blood flow, has been consistently linked to aging and longevity. In this proof of principle study, using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, we explored the effects of intranasally administered insulin...

  6. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  7. Intranasal oxytocin administration in relationship to social behaviour in domestic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, Irene; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin has been shown to alter positive and negative social behaviour. Positive social behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa) may be expressed through gentle social nosing, and greater insight in the specific expression hereof might contribute to the current search for posi

  8. An Intranasal Formulation of Erythropoietin (Neuro-EPO) Prevents Memory Deficits and Amyloid Toxicity in the APPSwe Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cruz, Yamila; Strehaiano, Manon; Rodríguez Obaya, Teresita; García Rodríguez, Julío César; Maurice, Tangui

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD. Mice were administered 3 times a day, 3 days in the week with Neuro-EPO (125, 250 μg/kg) intranasally, between 12 and 14 months of age. Motor responses, general activity, and memory responses were analyzed during and after treatment. The deficits in spontaneous alternation, place learning in the water-maze, and novel object recognition observed in APPSwe mice were alleviated by the low dose of Neuro-EPO. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, trophic factor levels, and a synaptic marker were analyzed in the hippocampus or cortex of the animals. The increases in lipid peroxidation or in GFAP and Iba-1 contents in APPSwe mice were significantly reduced after Neuro-EPO. Activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways was analyzed. The increases in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, TNFα, or Fas ligand levels observed in APPSwe mice were reduced by Neuro-EPO. Finally, immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of Aβ1-42 levels in the APPSwe mouse cortex and hippocampus showed a marked reduction in Aβ deposits and in soluble and insoluble Aβ1-42 forms. This study therefore confirmed the neuroprotective activity of EPO, particularly for an intranasally deliverable formulation, devoid of erythropoietic side effects, in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Neuro-EPO alleviated memory alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis induction, and amyloid load in 14-month-old APPSwe mice.

  9. Direct nose-brain transport of benzoylecgonine following intranasal administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, H H; Anavy, N; Villalobos, A

    2001-11-01

    In our previous research, cocaine applied intranasally in rats diffused or was transported directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, the direct nose-brain cocaine transport only contributes to an initial increase in the relative cocaine brain exposure. In this study, we have determined the nose-brain transport of a polar metabolite of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, to help understand factors affecting drug transport via this novel pathway. The nasal cavity of male Sprague-Dawley rats was isolated to prevent drainage of nasally applied dosing solution to non-nasal regions. Benzoylecgonine was then administered, either by intranasal administration or by intravenous (iv) injection. At different times postdose, blood and tissues from different regions of the brain were collected from groups of rats (n = 4 for each collection time) and benzoylecgonine concentrations in these samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Benzoylecgonine concentrations in plasma were at maximal levels immediately after iv dosing and declined as a function of time. Following intranasal administration, benzoylecgonine concentrations in plasma reached maximal levels between 15 and 30 min after dosing and declined as a function of time. To allow comparison of brain benzoylecgonine content after iv and intranasal administration, brain benzoylecgonine contents were normalized by plasma benzoylecgonine concentrations. The ratios of the area under the benzoylecgonine concentration-time curve (AUC) between the olfactory bulb and plasma following intranasal administration were 10-100 times higher than those obtained after iv dosing. The olfactory tract-to-plasma benzoylecgonine AUC ratios after intranasal administration were significantly higher than those after iv dosing up to 120 min following dosing. The brain tissue-to-plasma AUC ratios in cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebral cortex after intranasal administration were significantly higher than the corresponding ratios

  10. Treatment of recurrent anterior dislocations of shoulder by Laterjet-Bristow operation: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, A R; Anjum, M P

    2007-01-01

    Shoulder dislocation is common problem in orthopaedics. Management of recurrent shoulder dislocation is painstaking with different surgical procedures having varying outcomes. Laterjet-Bristow procedure provides stability and good functional outcome in Rowe scale and long term patient satisfaction. This is an observational prospective study carried out at two different tertiary care centers at Nepal and Pakistan using the same protocol. Habitual and pathological recurrent dislocations were excluded and all the recurrent dislocation of shoulder following initial traumatic anterior dislocation was included in this study. Standard Laterjet-Bristow operation was done and followed up for average of 27 months. Functional evaluation was done using Rowe score and graded as excellent, good, fair and poor. There were 12 men and 9 women with the mean ages of 23.4 years. At 12 months, 11 patients had fair result and seven patients had good result. At two years only three had fair result, 15 had good result and three patients had excellent result. Only three patients had poor result at one year while none had poor result at two year. The mean loss of external rotation in operated shoulder at one year was 24.33 degrees which decreased to 21.2 degrees at the end of second year. There was no restriction of external rotation in three patients at both yearly follow-ups while 18 patients had restriction in the range 10-30 degrees. Laterjet-Bristow can be the procedure of choice for surgical treatment of recurrent traumatic anterior dislocation and also as a salvage surgery for failed cases from other types of procedures. The only shortcoming of this procedure was some limitation in external rotation and minor loss in muscle power of that shoulder.

  11. Operational experience of the industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Licki, Janusz; Pawelec, Andrzej; Tymiński, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. The process, which has been developed in Japan, the United States, Germany and Poland allows simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x with high efficiency and by-product generated can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial installations using this technology have been constructed in the world, one in China and the second in Poland. Other plants are constructed in Japan and China. Chinese installation is mostly SO 2 removal oriented (since the NO x emission limits in China are not imposed up to now), so Polish plant one is as a matter of fact the first installation for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases. The plant located in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin treats the flue gases emitted from two Benson boilers of 65 MW e and 100 MW th each. The flue gases of maximum flow of 270 000 N m 3/h are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. Description of the plant and the results obtained have been presented in this paper. The plant has been in operation for more than 2500 h (5500 h including one accelerator set operation). Removal efficiencies up to 95% for SO 2 and up to 70% for NO x were achieved. Several thousand tons of the by-product was sold in the form of NPK fertilizer. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones.

  12. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  13. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels.

  14. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  15. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokutti-Kurz, Martina; König-Schuster, Marielle; Koller, Christiane; Graf, Christine; Graf, Philipp; Kirchoff, Norman; Reutterer, Benjamin; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Nakowitsch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09)pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7). Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus) and a H1N1(09)pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection. A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  16. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Morokutti-Kurz

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo.We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7. Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and a H1N1(09pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection.A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  17. Intranasal insulin prevents anesthesia-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau in 3xTg-AD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well documented that elderly individuals are at increased risk of cognitive decline after anesthesia. General anesthesia is believed to be a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recent studies suggest that anesthesia may increase the risk for cognitive decline and AD through promoting abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, which is crucial to neurodegeneration seen in AD. Methods: We treated 3xTg-AD mice, a commonly used transgenic mouse model of AD, with daily intranasal administration of insulin (1.75U/day for one week. The insulin- and control-treated mice were then anesthetized with single intraperitoneal injection of propofol (250 mg/kg body weight. Tau phosphorylation and tau protein kinases and phosphatases in the brains of mice 30 min and two hours after propofol injection were then investigated by using Western blots and immunohistochemistry.Results: Propofol strongly promoted hyperphosphorylation of tau at several AD-related phosphorylation sites. Intranasal administration of insulin attenuated propofol-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau, promoted brain insulin signaling, and led to up-regulation of protein phosphatase 2A, a major tau phosphatase in the brain. Intranasal insulin also resulted in down-regulation of several tau protein kinases, including cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that pretreatment with intranasal insulin prevents AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide the first evidence supporting that intranasal insulin administration might be used for the prevention of anesthesia-induced cognitive decline and increased risk for AD and dementia.

  18. Intranasal Corticosteroids in Management of Acute Sinusitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Gail; Heneghan, Carl; Perera, Rafael; Thompson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Acute sinusitis is a common condition in ambulatory care, where it is frequently treated with antibiotics, despite little evidence of their benefit. Intranasal corticosteroids might relieve symptoms; however, evidence for this benefit is currently unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of intranasal corticosteroids on the symptoms of acute sinusitis. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases until February 2011 for studies comparing intranasal corticosteroids with placebo in children or adults having clinical symptoms and signs of acute sinusitis or rhinosinusitis in ambulatory settings. We excluded chronic/allergic sinusitis. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the studies’ methodologic quality. RESULTS We included 6 studies having a total of 2,495 patients. In 5 studies, antibiotics were prescribed in addition to corticosteroids or placebo. Intranasal corticosteroids resulted in a significant, small increase in resolution of or improvement in symptoms at days 14 to 21 (risk difference [RD] = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03–0.13). Analysis of individual symptom scores revealed most consistently significant benefits for facial pain and congestion. Subgroup analysis by time of reported outcomes showed a significant beneficial effect at 21 days (RD = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06–0.17), but not at 14 to 15 days (RD = 0.05; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.11). Meta-regression analysis of trials using different doses of mometasone furoate showed a significant dose-response relationship (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS Intranasal corticosteroids offer a small therapeutic benefit in acute sinusitis, which may be greater with high doses and with courses of 21 days’ duration. Further trials are needed in antibiotic-naïve patients. PMID:22585889

  19. Drug brain distribution following intranasal administration of Huperzine A in situ gel in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHAO; Peng YUE; Tao TAO; Qing-hua CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the uptake extent of Huperzine A (Hup A) into the brain after intranasal administration of Hup A in situ gel to rats, and to compare the pharma-cokinetic parameters between intranasal administration and iv and po. Methods: Hup A was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via nasal, iv and oral routes at the dose of 166.7, 166.7, and 500μg/kg, respectively. Blood and brain tissue samples including the cerebrum, hippocampus, cerebellum and olfactory bulb were collected, and the concentrations of Hup A in the samples were assayed by HPLC. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC,0→6h) and the ratio of the AUC,brain, to the AUC,plasma (drug targeting efficiency, DTE) were calculated toevaluate the brain targeting efficiency of the drug via 3 administration routes. Results: The AUC,0→6h of the drug in the cerebrum, hippocampus, cerebellum, left olfactory bulb and right olfactory bulb after intranasal administration of the Hup A in situ gel were 1.5, 1.3, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.0 times of those after iv administration of the injection, and 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, 3.1, and 2.6 times of those after administration of the oral formulation. The AUC,brain0→6h/AUC,plasma0→6h of Hup A in the cerebrum, hippocampus and left olfactory bulb following the intranasal administration dose were significantly higher (P0.05) than the iv dose. Conclusion: Intranasal delivery showed a viable, non-invasive strategy for delivering the drug into brain.

  20. Intranasal delivery of plasma and platelet growth factors using PRGF-Endoret system enhances neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret, an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1 mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU, doublecortin (DCX, and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD.

  1. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  2. The therapeutic effect of dacryocystorhinostomy under intranasal endoscope for chronic dacryocystitis%鼻内窥镜下泪囊鼻腔吻合术治疗慢性泪囊炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东平; 李钒; 张敏; 潘央央

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effect of dacryocystorhinostomy under intranasal endoscope for treatment of chronic dacryocystitis.Methods Sixty seven patients(77 eyes)with chronic dacryocystitis were treated with dacryocystorhinostomy under intranasal endoscope,and were followed up for 1~1.5 years.Results 69 eyes were cured(89.61%),5 eyes achieved symptomatic relief(6.49%)and 3 eyes remained unchanged(3.90%),the effective rate was 96.10%.Conclusion Dacryocystorhinostomy under intranasal endoscope was proved to be effective for the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis,with minimal surgery trauma and left no facial scar,furthermore.nasal disease may be treated at the sanle time.%目的 探讨鼻内镜下泪囊鼻腔吻合术治疗慢性泪囊炎的疗效.方法 对67例(77眼)慢性泪囊炎行鼻内镜下泪囊鼻腔吻合术.随访观察1~1.5 a.结果 治愈69眼,好转5眼,无效3眼.有效率96.10%.结论 鼻内镜下鼻腔泪囊吻合术治疗慢性泪囊炎疗效好,手术创伤小,面部不留瘢痕,还可同期处理鼻腔疾病.

  3. Post-traumatic flexion contractures of the elbow: Operative treatment via the limited lateral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Andrew J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varying surgical techniques, patient groups and results have been described regards the surgical treatment of post traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow. We present our experience using the limited lateral approach on patients with carefully defined contracture types. Surgical release of post-traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow was performed in 23 patients via a limited lateral approach. All patients had an established flexion contracture with significant functional deficit. Contracture types were classified as either extrinsic if the contracture was not associated with damage to the joint surface or as intrinsic if it was. Overall, the mean pre-operative deformity was 55 degrees (95%CI 48 – 61 which was corrected at the time of surgery to 17 degrees (95%CI 12 – 22. At short-term follow-up (7.5 months the mean residual deformity was 25 degrees (95%CI 19 – 30 and at medium-term follow-up (43 months it was 32 degrees (95%CI 25 – 39. This deformity correction was significant (p Surgical release of post-traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow via a limited lateral approach is a safe technique, which reliably improves extension especially for extrinsic contractures. In this series all patients with an extrinsic contracture regained a functional range of movement and were satisfied with their surgery.

  4. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  6. Nicht-operative invasive Therapie der Perforansinsuffizienz // Nonoperative Therapy in the Treatment of Varicose Vein Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerweck C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonoperative therapy options in the treatment of varicose vein disease have gained more in importance over the last decade. A profound, catheter- based varicose vein therapy must accomplish powerful therapy solutions for all kinds of varicose vein anatomies, such as saphenous veins, side branches and incompetent perforating veins. This overview, focused on thermal ablation techniques such as laser-, radiofrequencyor steamablation and other chemical sclerotherapy options provides also step-by-step guidance and tricks on perforating vein ablation. The enormous quantity of incompetent perforating vein ablation studies shows great interest in this method and occupies an important place in the field of chronic venous disease therapy. p bKurzfassung: /bNicht-operative Therapieverfahren gewinnen in der modernen Varizentherapie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Um eine uneingeschränkte Varizensanierung mit kathetergestützten Therapieverfahren durchführen zu können, sind analog zur operativen Sanierung für sämtliche Varizenformen potente Okklusionsverfahren notwendig. Diese Arbeit soll einen Überblick zum derzeitigen Stand der Ablationserfolge von inkompetenten Perforansvenen geben. Neben den thermischen Ablationsverfahren wie Laser-, Radiowellen- und Dampfablation sowie sonstigen chemischen Sklerosierungsarten gibt die Arbeit praktische Anleitung und Tipps zur Durchführung einer Perforansvenenablation. Die große Anzahl von Studien zur Perforansvenen ablation zeigt, dass die Behandlung mit Kathetersystemen einen bedeutenden und festen Platz in der Therapie der Perforansvarikosis hat.

  7. Intranasal insulin: the effects of three dose regimens on postprandial glycaemic profiles in type II diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P A; Ismail, I S; Luzio, S D; Griffiths, I; Ollerton, R L; Vølund, A; Owens, D R

    1995-03-01

    In both fasting normal and diabetic subjects, nasally administered insulin achieves significant falls in plasma glucose concentrations. Repeated administration before and during a meal has been necessary to lower postprandial glycaemic excursion in subjects with NIDDM. We have studied the use of Novolin Nasal which employs a non-irritant, lecithin-based enhancer as a vehicle for human insulin, on postprandial glucose profiles in NIDDM subjects to determine efficacy, optimal dose frequency, and tolerability. Seventeen NIDDM subjects (15 men, 2 women) participated in a randomized, partially blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of three active treatment regimens (nasal insulin, 120 U at 0 min, 60 U at 0 and +20 min or 120 U at +20 min) in relation to a standardized mixed meal given at 0 min. All active treatments significantly reduced postprandial glucose concentrations compared to placebo. Intranasal insulin given at 0 min at a dose of 60 U or 120 U resulted in a 50% reduction in postprandial incremental glucose compared to placebo over the first 2 h, whereas treatment with 60 U both at 0 and 20 min lead to a 70% reduction over the 240 min postprandial period. Post-prandial intravenous insulin was the least effective. There were no episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia. Local tolerability was excellent with only four reports of transient nasal irritation out of a total of 68 doses. The delivery device was accurate with intra-device CV of delivered dose of 4.8%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  9. Comparative study of operative treatment [corrected] of varicose veins according to the Klapp and Smetana method versus Myers method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaković, Emir; Totić, Dragan; Solaković, Sid

    2008-08-01

    Venous abnormalities in lower extremities are among the most frequent disorders that affects general population with significant morbidity and mortality. Usually, the problem consists of a mild form of varicose veins and teleangiectasis. Treatment in this stage of disease is highly recommended since progression can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and chronic disability with very few effective treatment options. The most effective and popular treatment of varicose veins is operative treatment; specifically two different operative procedures: method according to Myers and method according to Klapp and Smetana. We designed this study in order to determine which method is superior based on clinical parameters and patients satisfaction. Our evidence strongly support clinical superiority, as well as patient satisfaction, of Klapp and Smetana method.

  10. Non-operative treatment of a fracture to the coracoid process with acromioclavicular dislocation in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pedersen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coracoid process fractures are rare and often associated with dislocations of the acromioclavicular (AC joint. There is little evidence about the treatment of these injuries in adolescents, but the few case reports published recommend surgery. We report a case of a dislocated epiphyseal fracture to the base of the coracoid process with AC joint dislocation in a 14-year-old ice-hockey player following direct impact to his left shoulder. Since magnetic resonance tomography revealed intact AC and coracoclavicular ligaments, we initiated non-operative treatment with immobilization and unloading of the shoulder by an abduction brace allowing limited rotation for 6 weeks. This treatment resulted in complete recovery after 8 weeks and return to full sports on first league level after 3 month. In conclusion, non-operative treatment of coracoid base fractures with concomitant AC-joint injury in the adolescent can result in excellent functional results and early recovery.

  11. HYBRID TREATMENT OF COMPLEX COMBINED CORONARY AND VALVE DISEASE FOR PATIENTS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF OPERATIONAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Aniskevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of results of hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease at patients with high level of operational risk between January 2005 and December 2010. The hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease, provides performance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI in a combinati- on valve surgery. 118 patients, with a median age 64.4 ± 8.9 years, are included in research. 2 approaches of a hy- brid method of treatment – 2-Staged (n = 86 and a method «1-stop» (n = 32 are applied. The оperative mortality has made 4.2%. On the basis of the received results were the conclusion is drawn that at high-risk patients with complex combined coronary and valve disease the hybrid method of treatment allows to lower risk of operation

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  13. [Operative treatment of Dubberley type 3B capitulum-trochlea fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochuan; Xiang, Ming; Yang, Guoyong; Chen, Hang; Tang, Haochen

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the method and effectiveness of operative treatment of Dubberley type 3B capitulum-trochlea fractures. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 8 cases of Dubberley type 3B capitulum- trochlea fractures were treated. There were 2 males and 6 females with an average age of 55 years (range, 43-65 years). The injury was caused by falling in 6 cases, electric bicycle accident in 1 case, and traffic accident in 1 case. All fractures were fresh and closed injury. No neural or vascular injury was found. The time between injury and operation was 3-15 days (mean, 5.9 days). Olecranon osteotomy was performed by a posterior midline skin incision of the elbow; 3.0 mm Herbert compression screws placed from posterior to anterior, 2.4 mm L shape locking compression plate designed for distal radius or 2.7 mm anatomical locking compression plate designed for distal humerus and 1.0 mm Kirschner wires or 3.0 mm Herbert screw for the transverse and coronal plane in the subchondral of anterior articular surface were used for fixation; and the lateral and medial collateral ligaments were repaired. All incisions healed by first intention. The patients were followed up 12-18 months (mean, 14.5 months). The X-ray films showed that fracture healing was achieved at 12-24 weeks (mean, 15 weeks) in 7 cases. Fracture nonunion and partial bone resorption in the capitellum were observed in 1 case. No failure of internal fixation, ulnohumeral joint instability, or traumatic arthritis occurred. At last follow-up, the range of motion of injured elbow was 0-40° in extension (mean 25.0°), 100-135° in flexion (mean, 116.3°), 60-70° in pronation (mean, 61.3°), and 80-90° in supination (mean, 81.3°). The elbow function score was 64-96 (mean, 81.1) according to the Broberg-Morrey evaluation criteria; the results were excellent in 2 cases, good in 4 cases, and fair in 2 cases with an excellent and good rate of 75%. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 0-3 (mean, 1). For Dubbelley

  14. A unified treatment of some perturbed fixed point iterative methods with an infinite pool of operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikazad, Touraj; Abbasi, Mokhtar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a subclass of strictly quasi-nonexpansive operators which consists of well-known operators as paracontracting operators (e.g., strictly nonexpansive operators, metric projections, Newton and gradient operators), subgradient projections, a useful part of cutter operators, strictly relaxed cutter operators and locally strongly Féjer operators. The members of this subclass, which can be discontinuous, may be employed by fixed point iteration methods; in particular, iterative methods used in convex feasibility problems. The closedness of this subclass, with respect to composition and convex combination of operators, makes it useful and remarkable. Another advantage with members of this subclass is the possibility to adapt them to handle convex constraints. We give convergence result, under mild conditions, for a perturbation resilient iterative method which is based on an infinite pool of operators in this subclass. The perturbation resilient iterative methods are relevant and important for their possible use in the framework of the recently developed superiorization methodology for constrained minimization problems. To assess the convergence result, the class of operators and the assumed conditions, we illustrate some extensions of existence research works and some new results.

  15. DIRECT trial. Diverticulitis recurrences or continuing symptoms: Operative versus conservative Treatment. A MULTICENTER RANDOMISED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Wall Bryan JM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persisting abdominal complaints are common after an episode of diverticulitis treated conservatively. Furthermore, some patients develop frequent recurrences. These two groups of patients suffer greatly from their disease, as shown by impaired health related quality of life and increased costs due to multiple specialist consultations, pain medication and productivity losses. Both conservative and operative management of patients with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or frequently recurring diverticulitis are applied. However, direct comparison by a randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which is superior in relieving symptoms, optimising health related quality of life, minimising costs and preventing diverticulitis recurrences against acceptable morbidity and mortality associated with surgery or the occurrence of a complicated recurrence after conservative management. We, therefore, constructed a randomised clinical trial comparing these two treatment strategies. Methods/design The DIRECT trial is a multicenter randomised clinical trial. Patients (18-75 years presenting themselves with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or three or more recurrences within 2 years will be included and randomised. Patients randomised for conservative treatment are treated according to the current daily practice (antibiotics, analgetics and/or expectant management. Patients randomised for elective resection will undergo an elective resection of the affected colon segment. Preferably, a laparoscopic approach is used. The primary outcome is health related quality of life measured by the Gastro-intestinal Quality of Life Index, Short-Form 36, EQ-5D and a visual analogue scale for pain quantification. Secondary endpoints are morbidity, mortality and total costs. The total follow-up will be three years. Discussion Considering the high incidence and the

  16. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  17. Assessment of the Possibility of Improvement of Dairy Wastewater Treatment System Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hercog, Jernej

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of dairy wastewater from the viewpoint of successful elimination of organic and inorganic components in physical and biological treatment processes in pre-treatment systems. Theoretically, the thesis covers the definitions and explanations of biological wastewater treatment, and deals with treatment processes in the sequencing batch reactor as well as the tertiary treatment level for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Furthermore, the thesis cove...

  18. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  19. Factors in reliable treatment plant operation for the production of safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Bruce A

    2010-08-01

    This contribution to the International Congress on Production of Safe Water, Izmir, Turkey, 20-24 January, 2009, relates to general aspects of a water supply undertaking rather than to particular technologies or chemistries for water treatment. The paper offers a "creative problem solving" approach following Fogler and LeBlanc (Strategies for creative problem solving. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995) as a model for generating sustainable solutions when water quality and safety problems arise. Such a structured approach presents a systematic methodology that can promote communication and goal-sharing across the inter-related, but often isolated and dispersed, functions of water scientists and researchers, engineers, operations managers, government departments and communities. A problem-solving strategy, or "heuristic", invokes five main steps (define; generate; decide; implement; evaluate). Associated with each step are various creative and enabling techniques, many of which are quite familiar to us in one form or another, but which we can use more effectively in combination and through our increased awareness and practice. For example, taking a fresh view of a problem can be promoted by a variety of "lateral thinking" tools. First-hand investigation of a problem can trigger new thinking about the real problem and its origins. A good strategy implementation will always address each and every step (though not necessarily every possible technique) and will use them at various stages in the search for and implementation of solutions. The creative nature of our experience with a problem-solving heuristic develops our facility to cope better with complex formal situations, as well as with less formal or everyday problem situations. A few anecdotes are presented that illustrate some of the author's experiences relating to factors involved in safe water supply. Here, the term "factors" may signify people and organisations as agents, as well as meaning those aspects of a problem

  20. Treatment of oily wastewater by ultrafiltration: The effect of different operating and solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesampour, M

    2009-07-01

    In many industries, such as petroleum production, and the petrochemical, metal, food and cosmetics industries, wastewaters containing an emulsion of oil in water are often produced. The emulsions consist of water (up to 90%), oils (mineral, animal, vegetable and synthetic), surfactants and other contaminates. In view of its toxic nature and its deleterious effects on the surrounding environment (soil, water) such wastewater needs to be treated before release into natural water ways. Membrane-based processes have successfully been applied in industrial applications and are considered as possible candidates for the treatment of oily wastewaters. Easy operation, lower cost, and in some cases, the ability to reduce contaminants below existing pollution limits are the main advantages of these systems. The main drawback of membranes is flux decline due to fouling and concentration polarisation. The complexity of oil-containing systems demands complementary studies on issues related to the mitigation of fouling and concentration polarisation in membranebased ultrafiltration. In this thesis the effect of different operating conditions (factors) on ultrafiltration of oily water is studied. Important factors are normally correlated and, therefore, their effect should be studied simultaneously. This work uses a novel approach to study different operating conditions, like pressure, flow velocity, and temperature, and solution properties, like oil concentration (cutting oil, diesel, kerosene), pH, and salt concentration (CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl)) in the ultrafiltration of oily water, simultaneously and in a systematic way using an experimental design approach. A hypothesis is developed to describe the interaction between the oil drops, salt and the membrane surface. The optimum conditions for ultrafiltration and the contribution of each factor in the ultrafiltration of oily water are evaluated. It is found that the effect on permeate flux of the various factors studied strongly

  1. Intranasal “painless” Human Nerve Growth Factors Slows Amyloid Neurodegeneration and Prevents Memory Deficits in App X PS1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Simona; Marinelli, Sara; Ceci, Marcello; Vignone, Domenico; Amato, Gianluca; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Meli, Giovanni; Viegi, Alessandro; Pavone, Flaminia; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is being considered as a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment but the clinical application is hindered by its potent pro-nociceptive activity. Thus, to reduce systemic exposure that would induce pain, in recent clinical studies NGF was administered through an invasive intracerebral gene-therapy approach. Our group demonstrated the feasibility of a non-invasive intranasal delivery of NGF in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. NGF therapeutic window could be further increased if its nociceptive effects could be avoided altogether. In this study we exploit forms of NGF, mutated at residue R100, inspired by the human genetic disease HSAN V (Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Type V), which would allow increasing the dose of NGF without triggering pain. We show that “painless” hNGF displays full neurotrophic and anti-amyloidogenic activities in neuronal cultures, and a reduced nociceptive activity in vivo. When administered intranasally to APPxPS1 mice ( n = 8), hNGFP61S/R100E prevents the progress of neurodegeneration and of behavioral deficits. These results demonstrate the in vivo neuroprotective and anti-amyloidogenic properties of hNGFR100 mutants and provide a rational basis for the development of “painless” hNGF variants as a new generation of therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22666365

  2. Use of flagellin and cholera toxin as adjuvants in intranasal vaccination of mice to enhance protective immune responses against uropathogenic Escherichia coli antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections in human. Antibiotics are common therapy for UTIs, but increase in antibiotic resistance will complicate future treatment of the infections, making the development of an efficacious UTI vaccine more urgent. In this study, we have evaluated intranasally the efficacy of FliC and FimH antigens of UPEC in different vaccine formulations with and without cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant. Immunization of mice with FliC in fusion form or admixed with FimH elicited higher levels of serum, mucosal and cell-mediated responses than FimH alone. Furthermore, the use of CT in synergism with FliC resulted in the stimulation of a mixed Th1 and Th2 responses against FimH and FliC as antigen and maintained the antibody responses for at least 24 weeks following the last vaccine dose. Of the vaccine preparations, Fusion, Fusion + CT, and FimH admixed with FliC and CT showed the best protection against UPEC. These data indicated that intranasal administration of a FliC and CT adjuvant-based vaccine has the potential to provide protective responses against UPEC strains.

  3. 46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c), UHT-6, UHT-23, and UHT-82). 54.25-20 Section 54.25... VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-20 Low temperature...

  4. Efficacy of post-operative clopidogrel treatment in patients revascularized with coronary artery bypass grafting after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the clinical efficacy of clopidogrel treatment on death and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) among MI patients revascularized by coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). BACKGROUND: The benefit from post-operative clopidogrel in CABG-...

  5. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a

  6. Intranasal Dopamine Reduces In Vivo [123I]FP-CIT Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Correlation with Behavioral Changes and Evidence for Pavlovian Conditioned Dopamine Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A.; Mattern, Claudia; Decheva, Cvetana; Huston, Joseph P.; Sadile, Adolfo G.; Beu, Markus; Müller, H.-W.; Nikolaus, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor. Methods: Rats were administered 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH), with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming) were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h following administration of the radioligand. Results: (1) After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered DA had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration; and (2) DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased) the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant drugs. Conclusions: The results: (a

  7. Non-operative treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wever Jan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. Case presentation A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treated non-operatively with naso-gastric suction and intravenous medication. Gastrointestinal involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and therapeutic considerations in a high risk patient are discussed. Conclusion Non-surgical treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer should be considered in high risk patients, as is the case in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients must be carefully observed and operated on if non-operative treatment is unsuccessful.

  8. The effect of intranasal oxytocin on perceiving and understanding emotion on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Christopher; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that intranasal oxytocin enhances the perception of emotion in facial expressions during standard emotion identification tasks. However, it is not clear whether this effect is desirable in people who do not show deficits in emotion perception. That is, a heightened perception of emotion in faces could lead to "oversensitivity" to the emotions of others in nonclinical participants. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of intranasal oxytocin on emotion perception using ecologically valid social and nonsocial visual tasks. Eighty-two participants (42 women) self-administered a 24 IU dose of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo in a double-blind, randomized experiment and then completed the perceiving and understanding emotion components of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In this test, emotion identification accuracy is based on agreement with a normative sample. As expected, participants administered intranasal oxytocin rated emotion in facial stimuli as expressing greater emotional intensity than those given a placebo. Consequently, accurate identification of emotion in faces, based on agreement with a normative sample, was impaired in the oxytocin group relative to placebo. No such effect was observed for tests using nonsocial stimuli. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin enhances the salience of social stimuli in the environment, but not nonsocial stimuli. The present findings support a growing literature showing that the effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition can be negative under certain circumstances, in this case promoting "oversensitivity" to emotion in faces in healthy people.

  9. Visualization of murine intranasal dosing efficiency using luminescent Francisella tularensis: effect of instillation volume and form of anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Miller

    Full Text Available Intranasal instillation is a widely used procedure for pneumonic delivery of drugs, vaccine candidates, or infectious agents into the respiratory tract of research mice. However, there is a paucity of published literature describing the efficiency of this delivery technique. In this report we have used the murine model of tularemia, with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (FTLVS infection, to evaluate the efficiency of pneumonic delivery via intranasal dosing performed either with differing instillation volumes or different types of anesthesia. FTLVS was rendered luminescent via transformation with a reporter plasmid that constitutively expressed the Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon from a Francisella promoter. We then used an IVIS Spectrum whole animal imaging system to visualize FT dissemination at various time points following intranasal instillation. We found that instillation of FT in a dose volume of 10 µl routinely resulted in infection of the upper airways but failed to initiate infection of the pulmonary compartment. Efficient delivery of FT into the lungs via intranasal instillation required a dose volume of 50 µl or more. These studies also demonstrated that intranasal instillation was significantly more efficient for pneumonic delivery of FTLVS in mice that had been anesthetized with inhaled (isoflurane vs. parenteral (ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. The collective results underscore the need for researchers to consider both the dose volume and the anesthesia type when either performing pneumonic delivery via intranasal instillation, or when comparing studies that employed this technique.

  10. Intranasal siRNA administration reveals IGF2 deficiency contributes to impaired cognition in Fragile X syndrome mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Martinez, Ana; Faghihi, Mohammad A.; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eleonore

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory remain imprecisely understood, and restorative interventions are lacking. We report that intranasal administration of siRNAs can be used to identify targets important in cognitive processes and to improve genetically impaired learning and memory. In mice modeling the intellectual deficiency of Fragile X syndrome, intranasally administered siRNA targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), HDAC2, or HDAC3 diminished cognitive impairments. In WT mice, intranasally administered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) siRNA or HDAC4 siRNA impaired learning and memory, which was partially due to reduced insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) levels because the BDNF siRNA– or HDAC4 siRNA–induced cognitive impairments were ameliorated by intranasal IGF2 administration. In Fmr1–/– mice, hippocampal IGF2 was deficient, and learning and memory impairments were ameliorated by IGF2 intranasal administration. Therefore intranasal siRNA administration is an effective means to identify mechanisms regulating cognition and to modulate therapeutic targets. PMID:28352664

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF THE EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA WITH VERTEBRAL INVOLVEMENT USING ORTHOPEDIC CORSET AND SURGICAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Snetkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment of 72 patients with pathological fracture of vertebra bodies against eosinophilic granuloma a spine are analysed. Orthopedic corset technologies are used in treatment of 42 patients, surgical treatment was applied. Orthopedic corset may be used in patients with eosinophilic granuloma of backbone. This method of treatment was used in a case of the absence of spine secondary deformations and neurologic semiology. Orthopedic corset treatment is associated with long immobilization on the average within 1,5-2 years and never leads to a complete recovery of the damaged spine. Surgical treatment consists in use only at loss of height of a body to 30-40%, when destruction of spine more severe it is necessary to use operative treatment in two stages. Absolute indications to surgical treatment are the neurologic deficit and secondary deformations of a spine. Surgical treatment allows to reduce terms of treatment till 3-4 months and quickly to return the patient to an active life.

  12. Comparison between intranasal and intravenous midazolam sedation (with or without patient control) in a dental phobia clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E; Davidson, E; Sheinkman, Z; Magora, F

    1994-08-01

    Two new modes of sedation; patient-controlled sedation (PCS) and intranasal sedation (INS) were compared with the traditional bolus intravenous sedation (BIVS) while delivering dental care to apprehensive patients in a specialized dental fear clinic. Effective sedation was evaluated in a randomized, prospective study in 42 ASA 1 and 2 patients, in a factorial design. Eighteen patients were sedated with .5% midazolam INS. Ten patients received intravenous PCS via a patient-controlled analgesia pump containing midazolam, and 14 patients received intermittent intravenous boluses of 1 mg midazolam given as needed (BIVS). Appropriate local anesthetic nerve blocks with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and supplementary inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen via a nasal mask, were also given to all patients in the study. The dosage requirement with PCS was higher than that found with INS or BIVS. However, PCS produced some anxiety reduction when compared with INS and BIVS. It also reduced interfering movements during treatment more effectively than the other sedation modes. No complications were detected in any of the patients and they were able to leave the clinic within 1 hour after completion of treatment.

  13. Recommendations for research studies on treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Consensus 2014 between SOSORT and SRS non-operative management committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Hresko, Timothy M; O'Brien, Joseph P; Price, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The two main societies clinically dealing with idiopathic scoliosis are the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), founded in 1966, and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), started in 2004. Inside the SRS, the Non-Operative Management Committee (SRS-NOC) has the same clinical interest of SOSORT, that is the Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation (or Non-Operative, or conservative) Management of idiopathic scoliosis patients. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a Consensus among the best experts of non-operative treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, as represented by SOSORT and SRS, on the recommendation for research studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. The goal of the consensus statement is to establish a framework for research with clearly delineated inclusion criteria, methodologies, and outcome measures so that future meta- analysis or comparative studies could occur. A Delphi method was used to generate a consensus to develop a set of recommendations for clinical studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. It included the development of a reference scheme, which was judged during two Delphi Rounds; after this first phase, it was decided to develop the recommendations and 4 other Delphi Rounds followed. The process finished with a Consensus Meeting, that was held during the SOSORT Meeting in Wiesbaden, 8-10 May 2014, moderated by the Presidents of SOSORT (JP O'Brien) and SRS (SD Glassman) and by the Chairs of the involved Committees (SOSORT Consensus Committee: S Negrini; SRS Non-Operative Committee: MT Hresko). The Boards of the SRS and SOSORT formally accepted the final recommendations. The 18 Recommendations focused: Research needs (3), Clinically significant outcomes (4), Radiographic outcomes (3), Other key outcomes (Quality of Life, adherence to treatment) (2), Standardization of methods of non-operative research (6).

  14. Role of leukotriene antagonists and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoğlu, Bengü; Toskala, Elina; Ural, Ahmet; Cingi, Cemal

    2013-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in ENT clinics. It is diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. Patient education, environmental control measures, pharmacotherapy, and allergen-specific immunotherapy are the cornerstones of allergic rhinitis treatment and can significantly reduce the burden of disease. Current treatment guidelines include antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, intranasal anticholinergics, intranasal cromolyn, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the mechanism of allergic rhinitis, histamine is responsible for major allergic rhinitis symptoms such as rhinorrhea, nasal itching and sneezing. Its effect on nasal congestion is less evident. In contrast, leukotrienes result in increase in nasal airway resistance and vascular permeability. Antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The published literature about combined antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists in mono- or combination therapy is reviewed and presented.

  15. Depth of Blanket. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasmith, E. E.

    The determination of the thickness of a sludge blanket in primary and secondary clarifiers and in gravity thickness is important in making operational control decisions. Knowing the thickness and concentration will allow the operator to determine sludge volume and detention time. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

  16. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL ASDM PARAMETERS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN THE SEQUENTIAL–FLOW TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. The presented method of study of the selected parameters impact on the activated sludge biokinetic model (including autotrophs maximum growth rate, the share of organic slurry in suspension general operational, efficiency secondary settling tanks can be used for conducting simulation studies of other treatment plants.

  17. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  18. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis......Induction of long-term tolerance to β-cell autoantigens has been investigated both in animal models and in human type 1 diabetes (T1D) in order to prevent the disease. As regards external compounds, the dietary plant protein fraction has been associated with high penetrance of the disease, whereas...... was lowered. Intranasal gliadin also rescued a fraction of prediabetic 13-week-old NOD mice from progressing to clinical onset of diabetes compared to OVA-treated controls. Vaccination with i.n. gliadin led to an induction of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and even more significant induction of γδ T cells in mucosal...

  19. PPS nanoparticles as versatile delivery system to induce systemic and broad mucosal immunity after intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Armando; van der Vlies, André J; Martino, Mikael M; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Simeoni, Eleonora

    2011-01-17

    Degradable polymer nanoparticles (NPs, 50 nm) based on polypropylene sulfide (PPS) were conjugated to thiolated antigen and adjuvant proteins by reversible disulfide bonds and evaluated in mucosal vaccination. Ovalbumin was used as a model antigen, and antigen-conjugated NPs were administered intranasally in the mouse. We show penetration of nasal mucosae, transit via M cells, and uptake by antigen-presenting cells in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ovalbumin-conjugated NPs induced cytotoxic T lymphocytic responses in lung and spleen tissues, as well as humoral response in mucosal airways. Co-conjugation of the TLR5 ligand flagellin further enhanced humoral responses in the airways as well as in the distant vaginal and rectal mucosal compartments and induced cellular immune responses with a Th1 bias, in contrast with free flagellin. The PPS NP platform thus appears interesting as a platform for intranasally-administered mucosal vaccination for inducing broad mucosal immunity.

  20. Intranasal oxytocin attenuates the human acoustic startle response independent of emotional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie; Cardoso, Christopher; Joober, Ridha

    2014-11-01

    Oxytocin promotes social affiliation in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further elucidation. The present study investigated the influence of intranasal oxytocin on basic emotional processing in men and women, using an emotion-modulated startle response paradigm. Eighty-four participants self-administered 24 IU of intranasal oxytocin or saline and completed an assessment of the acoustic startle reflex, using electromyography (EMG), with varying emotional foregrounds. Oxytocin had no impact on the affective modulation of the startle eye blink response, but significantly diminished the acoustic startle reflex irrespective of the emotional foreground. The results suggest that oxytocin facilitates prosocial behavior, in part, by attenuating basic physiological arousal. The dampening effect of oxytocin on EMG startle could possibly be used as an inexpensive marker of oxytocin's effect on limbic brain circuits.

  1. Brain Targeting of a Water Insoluble Antipsychotic Drug Haloperidol via the Intranasal Route Using PAMAM Dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Yogesh K; Daya, Ritesh P; Sookram Gray, Christal; Luckham, Roger E; Bhandari, Jayant; Chauhan, Abhay S; Mishra, Ram K

    2015-09-01

    Delivery of therapeutics to the brain is challenging because many organic molecules have inadequate aqueous solubility and limited bioavailability. We investigated the efficiency of a dendrimer-based formulation of a poorly aqueous soluble drug, haloperidol, in targeting the brain via intranasal and intraperitoneal administration. Aqueous solubility of haloperidol was increased by more than 100-fold in the developed formulation. Formulation was assessed via different routes of administration for behavioral (cataleptic and locomotor) responses, and for haloperidol distribution in plasma and brain tissues. Dendrimer-based formulation showed significantly higher distribution of haloperidol in the brain and plasma compared to a control formulation of haloperidol administered via intraperitoneal injection. Additionally, 6.7 times lower doses of the dendrimer-haloperidol formulation administered via the intranasal route produced behavioral responses that were comparable to those induced by haloperidol formulations administered via intraperitoneal injection. This study demonstrates the potential of dendrimer in improving the delivery of water insoluble drugs to brain.

  2. Levamisole induced necrosis of the skin and neutropenia following intranasal cocaine use: a newly recognized syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzakis, John; Somboonwit, Charurut; Lakshmi, Seetha; Rumbak, Mark; Sinnott, John; Cherpelis, Basil; Keshishian, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Levamisole is a veterinary anti-helminthic used to treat several autoimmune conditions but also commonly utilized as an additive in cocaine distribution. Toxicity resulting in agranulocytosis and cutaneous necrosis in association with cocaine use is an infrequently described phenomenon of an emerging problem. Although levamisole is found extensively in the cocaine supply of the United States, relatively few cases of necrotic skin lesions associated with intranasal use have been reported. The skin necrosis secondary to levamisole toxicity is characterized by variable findings on biopsy, ranging from leukocytoclastic vasculitis to occlusive vasculopathy. The following case describes a 54-year-old male who developed fever, agranulocytosis, p-ANCA autoantibodies and extensive skin necrosis following heavy intranasal cocaine use. Necrosis of greater than 50% of the patient's total body surface area resulted and was followed by thorough wound debridement.

  3. Synthetic polyacrylate polymers as particulate intranasal vaccine delivery systems for the induction of mucosal immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mehfuz; Simerska, Pavla; Toth, Istvan

    2010-04-01

    The nasal route as a site of vaccine delivery for both local and systemic effect is currently of considerable interest. The administration of vaccines to mucosal surfaces such as the nasopharynx associated lymphoid tissues confers many advantages since the nasal mucosa is a primary site through which most inhaled antigens are encountered. However, the success of intranasally delivered mucosal vaccines is limited by lack of effective vaccine formulations or delivery systems suitable for use in humans. This review provides a brief overview of the mucosal immune system at the nasal surface, enhancement techniques for induction of mucosal immune response after intranasal administration of particulate systems and an explanation of the inherent properties of polyacrylate polymer-based particulate systems that may facilitate mucosal immune responses.

  4. Effect of Intranasal Sedation Using Ketamine and Midazolam on Behavior of 3-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Children in Dental Office: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mehran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of intranasal ketamine and midazolam on behavior of 3-6 year-old children during dental treatments.  Materials and Methods: In this randomized cross-over clinical trial, 17 uncooperative children requiring at least two dental treatments were selected and randomly received ketamine (0.5mg/kg or midazolam (0.2mg/kg prior to treatment. The other medication was used in the next visit. The children’s behavioral pattern was determined according to the Houpt's scale regarding sleep, movement, crying and overall behavior. Physiological parameters were also measured at different time intervals. The data were subjected to Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA.Results: The frequency of crying decreased significantly following ketamine administration compared to midazolam (P=0.002; movement of children decreased with fewer incidence of treatment interruption (P=0.001 while their sleepiness increased (P=0.003. Despite higher success of sedation with ketamine compared to midazolam, no significant differences were found between the two regarding patients’ overall behavior (P>0.05. The patients had higher heart rate and blood pressure with ketamine; however, no significant difference was found regarding respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (P>0.05.  Conclusions: Ketamine (0.5mg/kg led to fewer movements, less crying and more sleepiness compared to midazolam (0.2mg/kg. No significant differences were found between the two drugs regarding children’s overall behavior and sedation efficiency. Both drugs demonstrated positive efficacy for sedation of children during dental treatments.Keywords: Conscious Sedation; Ketamine; Midazolam; Administration, Intranasal

  5. The surgical treatment of pectus excavatum: an experience with 90 operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, A P

    1976-01-01

    Funnel chest, a congenital hereditary deformity, may lead to impairment of cardiopulmonary function. The predominant motives for operation are psychological and cosmetic. Patients with minor deformities amenable to physiotherapy should not be operated upon, but moderately severe defects justify surgical intervention. Objective photographic documentation is essential. Because of their importance to surgical technique and results, the symmetrical, asymmetrical, localized, and extensive deformities should be distinguished. Ninety operations were performed between 1951 and 1974 according to the various techniques known during that period. Results were irregular until the introduction eight years ago of an operation combining extensive resection according to Ravitch and stabilization by a metal strut as recommended by Adkins and others. Of 24 operations performed during the last eight years, 23 have given excellent long-term results.

  6. Operating costs and energy demand of wastewater treatment plants in Austria: benchmarking results of the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, J; Lindtner, S; Krampe, J

    2016-12-01

    This work presents operating costs and energy consumption of Austrian municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (≥10,000 PE-design capacity) that have been classified into different size groups. Different processes as well as cost elements are investigated and processes with high relevance regarding operating costs and energy consumption are identified. Furthermore, the work shows the cost-relevance of six investigated cost elements. The analysis demonstrates the size-dependency of operating costs and energy consumption. For the examination of the energy consumption the investigated WWTPs were further classified into WWTPs with aerobic sludge stabilisation and WWTPs with mesophilic sludge digestion. The work proves that energy consumption depends mainly on the type of sludge stabilisation. The results of the investigation can help to determine reduction potential in operating costs and energy consumption of WWTPs and form a basis for more detailed analysis which helps to identify cost and energy saving potential.

  7. Operational strategy, economic and environmental performance of sludge treatment reed bed systems - based on 28 years of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.; Larsen, Julie Dam

    2016-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems have been used for dewatering and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. STRB systems provide substantial environmental, economic, and operational benefits compared to mechanical sludge dewatering solutions such as belt presses and centrifuges...... and hazardous organic compounds, qualities that make it suitable for recycling on agricultural land. The upfront capital cost for STRBs are often higher compared to mechanical dewatering devices. However, the operational expenses (OPEX) (including energy, chemicals, bio solid handling) are significantly lower...... compared to conventional mechanical dewatering devices, delivering an economic break-even of about 3-5 years. This paper provides an overview of the operation and maintenance costs and environmental benefits of a typical STRB based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRBs...

  8. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  9. Abuse Potential of Intranasal Buprenorphine versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Buprenorphine-Maintained Heroin Users

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital ...

  10. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt Tasaniyananda

    Full Text Available Cats (Felis domesticus are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE. BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1, L-cCE, or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35 and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β. In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients.

  11. Recurrent epistaxis caused by an intranasal supernumerary tooth in a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dhafeeri, Hamed O.; Kavarodi, Abdulmajid; Shaikh, Khalil Al; Bukhari, Ahmed; Hussain, Omair Al; Baramawy, Ahmed El

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Recurrent epistaxis Symptoms: Nasal bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Recurrent epistaxis is a common disorder among children and young adults. We report an unusual cause, intranasal supernumerary tooth causing friction with Little’s area of the nasal septum. Case Report: A 22-year-old male presented with recurrent, mild, unilateral left-sided epistaxis once t...

  12. Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of intranasally administered liposomal formulation of donepezil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmari AK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari,1 Zabih Ullah,1 Mohammad Tariq,1 Amal Fatani21Department of Research, Prince Sultan, Military Medical City, 2Department of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: The adequate amount of drug delivery to the brain in neurological patients is a major problem faced by the physicians. Recent studies suggested that intranasal administration of liposomal formulation may improve the drug delivery to the brain. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the brain bioavailability of commonly used anti-Alzheimer drug donepezil (DNP liposomal formulation by intranasal route in rats. We adopted the thin layer hydration technique for the preparation of liposomes by using cholesterol, polyethylene glycol, and 1,2-distearyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC. The prepared liposomes were characterized by determining particle size, shape, surface morphology, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release of DNP. The pharmacokinetic parameters of liposomal DNP in plasma and brain of rats were determined following oral and nasal administration. The results of this study showed that the DNP liposomal formulation was stable with a consistent size (102±3.3 nm and shape. The prepared liposomes showed high encapsulation efficiency (84.91%±3.31% and sustained-release behavior. The bioavailability of DNP in plasma and brain increased significantly (P<0.05 after administration of liposomal formulation by the intranasal route. Histopathological examination showed that the formulation was safe and free from toxicity. It can be concluded that the nasal administration of liposomal preparation may provide an efficient and reliable mode of drug delivery to the central nervous system.Keywords: donepezil, intranasal, liposomes, bioavailability, blood–brain barrier

  13. The Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of a Low-dose, Aqueous, Intranasal Scopolamine Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    21. Simmons, R. G., Phillips , J. B., Lojewski, R. A., Wang, Z., Boyd, J. L., & Putcha, L. (2010). The efficacy of low-dose intranasal scopolamine...for motion sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 81, 405-412. 22. Simmons, R. G., Phillips , J. B., & Lojewski, R. A. (2008...of Medicine and Surgery, Department of the Navy. 23. Simmons, R. G., Phillips , J. B., Lowjeski, R. A., & Lawson, B. D. (2008). A comparison of

  14. A Feasibility Trial of Home Administration of Intranasal Vaccine by Parents to Eligible Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Ravi; Allyne, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Intranasal vaccines are being developed for protection against many different infectious agents. The currently available intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is only approved for administration by medical personnel. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of training parents to give LAIV to their own children. Subjects were recruited from several sources: a university-based outpatient clinic, university employee e-mail announcement, and direct referrals from study subjects. After confirming eligibility to receive LAIV, consented parents were trained by viewing a video with the study staff. LAIV was provided in a cooler with instructions to vaccinate within 24 hours. Telephone follow-up was conducted to confirm proper administration and to assess parental attitudes about home administration. At season's end, immunization registry and hospital records were reviewed to confirm no additional doses were given. Twenty-seven families with 41 children were enrolled. All participants successfully administered LAIV to their children, and all preferred or strongly preferred home administration to an office visit for getting vaccinated. Two families stated that without this option they would not have otherwise vaccinated their children. Adverse events were minor. All patients had their state vaccine registries accurately updated and none received duplicate doses. Upon review, no reimbursement was received for vaccination. Home administration of intranasal LAIV was successful and well received. This option could be used in the future for LAIV or other intranasal vaccines as a way to increase vaccination rates and convenience for parents. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01938170. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intranasal delivery of Natesto® testosterone gel and its effects on doping markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey D; Nair, Vinod; Morrison, M Scott; Summers, Maggie; Willick, Stuart E; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The laboratory profile of intranasal testosterone gel has not been previously reported from an anti-doping perspective. Because intranasal testosterone gel is newly available as a commercial product, we sought to examine the laboratory parameters following administration of this formulation, with particular attention to anti-doping guidelines. Five healthy and active male subjects were administered testosterone intranasal gel three times daily for four weeks, using a pattern of five consecutive days on, two days off. Urine was collected after each five-day round of drug administration and analyzed using a full steroid screen and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Windows of detection for elevated testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) and other steroid ratios, World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) athlete biological passport (ABP) findings, and IRMS results were analyzed in this study. In the 0-24 h window post-administration, 70% of samples were flagged with a suspicious steroid profile and 85% were flagged as atypical passport findings according to the WADA ABP steroid module. In the 24-48 h window, 0% of samples displayed suspicious steroid profiles while 40% resulted in atypical passport findings. IRMS testing confirmed the presence of exogenous testosterone in 90% and 40% of samples in the 0-24 h and 24-48 h windows post-administration, respectively. Additionally, IRMS data were analyzed to determine commonalities in the population changes in δ(13) C values of testosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5αAdiol, and 5βAdiol. Though no discernible metabolic trend of the route of administration was identified, we discovered that intranasal gel testosterone is detectable using conventional anti-doping tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ADMINISTRACIÓN DE INSULINA POR VÍA INTRANASAL Y MEMORIA DECLARATIVA: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA DE LA LITERATURA Intranasal insulin administration and declarative memory: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Jagua Gualdrón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La insulina participa de los procesos de formación de la memoria y los defectos en su señalización podrían estar relacionados con el déficit cognitivo y las enfermedades neurode-generativas como la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Objetivo. Evaluar la relación entre la administración de la insulina por vía intranasal y la memoria declarativa en estudios en humanos. Material y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda intensiva y sistemática de estudios publicados entre enero de 1997 y diciembre del 2008 a través de las bases de datos MEDLINE, Cochrane, DynaMed y LILACS. Los estudios fueron sometidos a dos pruebas de calidad metodológica, se les realizó un análisis crítico y se aplicó estadística básica. Resultados. Se hallaron cinco artículos que incluían 252 personas. De ellos 143 tenían diagnóstico probable de la enfermedad de Alzheimer o alteración cognitiva leve. Los estudios reportan mejoría en las tareas de la memoria a corto y largo plazo en los grupos que recibieron la insulina comparados con quienes recibieron el placebo. Conclusión. Los estudios son pocos y difíciles de comparar. Sin embargo tras este análisis puede sugerirse que la insulina actúa durante la formación de la memoria declarativa y podría emplearse en el tratamiento de los trastornos de la memoria.Background. Insulin acts in memory formation and its signal impairment can be related with mild cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Objective. To evaluate the relationship between intranasal insulin administration and declarative memory in studies with human. Materials and methods. A systematic search of studies published from January 1997 to december 2008 through electronic databases MEDLINE, DynaMed, Cochrane and LIlACS. Articles were evaluated with two tests for methodological validity and a basic statistical analysis was performed. Results. We find five articles that include 252 persons. 143 have

  17. Comparison of Behavior and Dental Anxiety During Intranasal and Sublingual Midazolam Sedation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaavel, A K; Asokan, Sharath; Baby, John J; Priya, Geetha; Gnana Devi, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the behavioral effects and the changes in the anxiety level of children after intranasal and sublingual midazolam sedation using Venham's clinical anxiety scale and salivary cortisol level. Twenty children aged 3 to 7 years were randomly assigned to Group A (n=10) intranasal or Group B (n=10) sublingual midazolam (0.2mg/kg) sedation. The anxiety levels at various time periods were assessed using Venham clinical anxiety scale and corresponding changes in salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the drug administration. The anxiety levels were assessed independently by two pediatric dentists from recorded videos. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 19.0. There was a significant decrease in anxiety level from baseline to 20 minutes after drug administration in group A (p=0.004) and group B (p=0.003). There was no significant change in salivary cortisol levels before and after the drug administration in group A (p=0.07) and group B (p=0.38). Both intranasal and sublingual administration of midazolam was equally effective in reducing the child's anxiety. However, there was no significant difference in the salivary cortisol levels in both groups.

  18. Thermo-sensitive gels containing lorazepam microspheres for intranasal brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, S; Ansa, C R; Cinu, T A; Chacko, A J; Aleykutty, N A; Ferreira, S V; Souto, E B

    2013-01-30

    Thermo-sensitive gels containing lorazepam microspheres were developed and characterized for intranasal brain targeting. Pluronics (PF-127 and PF-68) have been selected since they are thermo-reversible polymers with the property of forming a solution at low temperatures (4-5 °C), and a gel at body temperature (37 °C). This property makes them an interesting material to work with, especially in case of controlled release formulations. The present study focuses on the development of an intranasal formulation for lorazepam, as an alternative route of drug delivery to the brain. Direct transport of drugs to the brain circumventing the brain barrier, following intranasal administration, provides a unique feature and better option to target brain. The presence of mucoadhesive microspheres in the gel vehicle via nasal route can achieve a dual purpose of prolonged drug release and enhanced bioavailability. To optimise the microsphere formulation, Box Behnken design was employed by investigating the effect of three factors, polymer concentration (chitosan), emulsifier concentration (Span 80) and cross-linking agent (glutaraldehyde) on the response variable which is the mean particle size. The concentration of 21% PF-127 and 1% PF-68 were found to be promising gel vehicles. The results showed that the release rate followed a prolonged profile dispersion of the microspheres in the viscous media, in comparison to the microspheres alone. Histopathological studies proved that the optimised formulation does not produce any toxic effect on the microscopic structure of nasal mucosa.

  19. Mexico City air pollution adversely affects olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hummel, Thomas; Martínez-Gómez, Margaríta; Hudson, Robyn

    2009-11-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the effects of big-city air pollution on olfactory function and even less about its effects on the intranasal trigeminal system, which elicits sensations like burning, stinging, pungent, or fresh and contributes to the overall chemosensory experience. Using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test battery and an established test for intranasal trigeminal perception, we compared the olfactory performance and trigeminal sensitivity of residents of Mexico City, a region with high air pollution, with the performance of a control population from the Mexican state of Tlaxcala, a geographically comparable but less polluted region. We compared the ability of 30 young adults from each location to detect a rose-like odor (2-phenyl ethanol), to discriminate between different odorants, and to identify several other common odorants. The control subjects from Tlaxcala detected 2-phenyl ethanol at significantly lower concentrations than the Mexico City subjects, they could discriminate between odorants significantly better, and they performed significantly better in the test of trigeminal sensitivity. We conclude that Mexico City air pollution impairs olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity, even in otherwise healthy young adults.

  20. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D; Rauh, Benjamin A; Gant, John C; Blalock, Eric M; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca(2+)-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP.

  1. Cellular immune responses to nine Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates following intranasal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj B Sable

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines that elicit a protective immune response in the lungs is important for the development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a comparison of intranasal (i.n. and subcutaneous (s.c. vaccination with the BCG vaccine demonstrated that a single moderate dose delivered intranasally induced a stronger and sustained M. tuberculosis-specific T-cell response in lung parenchyma and cervical lymph nodes of BALB/c mice than vaccine delivered subcutaneously. Both BCG and a multicomponent subunit vaccine composed of nine M. tuberculosis recombinant proteins induced strong antigen-specific T-cell responses in various local and peripheral immune compartments. Among the nine recombinant proteins evaluated, the alanine proline rich antigen (Apa, Rv1860 was highly antigenic following i.n. BCG and immunogenic after vaccination with a combination of the nine recombinant antigens. The Apa-induced responses included induction of both type 1 and type 2 cytokines in the lungs as evaluated by ELISPOT and a multiplexed microsphere-based cytokine immunoassay. Of importance, i.n. subunit vaccination with Apa imparted significant protection in the lungs and spleen of mice against M. tuberculosis challenge. Despite observed differences in the frequencies and location of specific cytokine secreting T cells both BCG vaccination routes afforded comparable levels of protection in our study. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings support consideration and further evaluation of an intranasally targeted Apa-based vaccine to prevent tuberculosis.

  2. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus against Leishmania (Viannia Braziliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzinei da Silva-Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection.Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN doses of LaAg (10 µg or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM immunisation failed to provide protection.These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  3. Mucoadhesive microemulsion of ibuprofen: design and evaluation for brain targeting efficiency through intranasal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjyanarayan Mandal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing mucoadhesive microemulsion gel to enhance the brain uptake of Ibuprofen through intranasal route. Ibuprofen loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI was developed by incorporating polycarbophil as mucoadhesive polymer into Capmul MCM based optimal microemulsion (MEI and was subjected to characterization, stability, mucoadhesion and naso-ciliotoxicity study. Brain uptake of ibuprofen via nasal route was studied by performing biodistribution study in Swiss albino rats. MEI was found to be transparent, stable and non ciliotoxic with 66.29 ± 4.15 nm, -20.9 ± 3.98 mV and 98.66 ± 1.01% as average globule size, zeta potential and drug content respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study revealed the narrow globule size distribution of MEI. Following single intranasal administration of MMEI and MEI at a dose of 2.86 mg/kg, uptake of ibuprofen in the olfactory bulb was around 3.0 and 1.7 folds compared with intravenous injection of ibuprofen solution (IDS. The ratios of AUC in brain tissues to that in plasma obtained after nasal administration of MMEI were significantly higher than those after intravenous administration of IDS. Findings of the present investigation revealed that the developed mucoadhesive microemulsion gel could be a promising approach for brain targeting of ibuprofen through intranasal route.

  4. Post-operative pain treatment in Denmark from 2000 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P R; Christensen, P A; Meyhoff, C S;

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the first acute pain service (APS) was introduced in 1993. An important objective became to facilitate implementation of accelerated post-operative rehabilitation programmes (ACC) in selected procedures in abdominal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. Therefore, it is of consider......In Denmark, the first acute pain service (APS) was introduced in 1993. An important objective became to facilitate implementation of accelerated post-operative rehabilitation programmes (ACC) in selected procedures in abdominal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. Therefore......, it is of considerable interest to study the association between the developments of post-operative pain management and the ACC by sequential analyses from 2000 to 2009....

  5. Method of osteotomy fixation and need for removal following bimaxillary orthognathic, osseous genioplasty, and intranasal surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Chavda, A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and causes of fixation hardware removal after bimaxillary orthognathic, osseous genioplasty, and intranasal surgery. A retrospective study was performed, involving subjects with a bimaxillary developmental dentofacial deformity (DFD) and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing. At a minimum, subjects underwent Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomies (SROs), septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. The primary outcome variable studied was fixation hardware removal. Demographic, anatomical, and surgical predictor variables were assessed. Two hundred sixty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age at operation was 25 years (range 13-63 years); 134 were female (51.1%). Simultaneous removal of a third molar was performed in 39.9% of SROs. Three of 262 Le Fort I procedures (1.1%) and two of 524 SROs (0.4%) required hardware removal. There were four cases of ramus wound dehiscence, four of ramus surgical site infection (SSI), one of chin SSI, two of maxillary sinusitis, and one of lingual nerve injury; none of these subjects underwent hardware removal. A limited need for fixation hardware removal after orthognathic procedures was confirmed. There was no statistical correlation between hardware removal and patient sex, age, pattern of DFD, simultaneous removal of a third molar, or occurrence of wound dehiscence, SSI, or lingual nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of Pain or Discomfort Following One-Visit Operative Treatment: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-19

    Material used Analgam alloy 82 51/62 Composite resin 13 8/62 Temporary restorative material 8 3/62 D. Previous history of pain Yes - pain in the treated...both active duty personnel and dependents. Operative procedures included Classes I, II, and V amalgams in posterior teeth and Class III, IV, and V... composite restorations in anterior teeth. The patients were randomly assigned to OTI four different operators. Basic principles of cavity design and pulp

  7. A new treatment for some periodic Schr\\"{o}dinger operators II: the wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Following the approach of our previous paper we continue to study the asymptotic solution of periodic Schr\\"{o}dinger operators. Using the eigenvalues obtained earlier the corresponding asymptotic wavefunctions are derived. This gives further evidence in favor of the monodromy relations for the Floquet exponent proposed in the previous paper. In particular, the large energy asymptotic wavefunctions are related to the instanton partition function of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory with surface operator. A relevant number theoretic dessert is appended.

  8. Stormwater Treatment Evaluation of a Constructed Floating Wetland after Two Years Operation in an Urban Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Walker; Katharina Tondera; Terry Lucke

    2017-01-01

    Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFW) for stormwater treatment are increasingly used to treat urban runoff. However, studies of large-scale systems and the long-term evaluation of their treatment efficiency are scarce. This article presents the final results of a two-year study of the pollutant removal performance of a CFW in a stormwater pond capturing runoff from a low-residential catchment in South-East Queensland (Australia) under subtropical conditions. Although the CFW treatment area to c...

  9. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  10. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  11. Can modeling of HIV treatment processes improve outcomes? Capitalizing on an operations research approach to the global pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollingsworth Eric B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling has been applied to a range of policy-level decisions on resource allocation for HIV care and treatment. We describe the application of classic operations research (OR techniques to address logistical and resource management challenges in HIV treatment scale-up activities in resource-limited countries. Methods We review and categorize several of the major logistical and operational problems encountered over the last decade in the global scale-up of HIV care and antiretroviral treatment for people with AIDS. While there are unique features of HIV care and treatment that pose significant challenges to effective modeling and service improvement, we identify several analogous OR-based solutions that have been developed in the service, industrial, and health sectors. Results HIV treatment scale-up includes many processes that are amenable to mathematical and simulation modeling, including forecasting future demand for services; locating and sizing facilities for maximal efficiency; and determining optimal staffing levels at clinical centers. Optimization of clinical and logistical processes through modeling may improve outcomes, but successful OR-based interventions will require contextualization of response strategies, including appreciation of both existing health care systems and limitations in local health workforces. Conclusion The modeling techniques developed in the engineering field of operations research have wide potential application to the variety of logistical problems encountered in HIV treatment scale-up in resource-limited settings. Increasing the number of cross-disciplinary collaborations between engineering and public health will help speed the appropriate development and application of these tools.

  12. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-07-28

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist.

  13. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  14. The effect of tear size on the treatment outcome of operatively treated rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Juha; Kauko, Tommi; Virolainen, Petri; Äärimaa, Ville

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the tear size and the short-term clinical outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction. The hypothesis was that the size of the rotator cuff tear has a direct negative correlation with post-operative clinical outcome. Five hundred and seventy-six consecutive shoulders with a primarily arthroscopically treated full-thickness rotator cuff tear were followed up. Rotator cuff tear size (anteroposterior dimension) was measured intraoperatively with an arthroscopic measuring probe. The Constant score was used as an outcome measure and was measured pre-operatively and 1-year post-operatively. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients (99 %) were available for 1-year follow-up. The mean age of patients was 59.6 (SD 9.6) years. There were 225 (40 %) female and 344 (60 %) male patients. The mean size of the rotator cuff tear was 25 mm (SD 18). The mean pre- and post-operative Constant score was 52.3 (SD 17.4) and 74.2 (SD 15.5), respectively (p infraspinatus tendon involvement. The size of the rotator cuff tear linearly correlates with the Constant scores both pre- and post-operatively. The outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction is strongly related to the intraoperatively detected tear size. Retrospective comparative register study, Level III.

  15. Analgesic activity of DaChuanXiongFang after intranasal administration and its potential active components in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Pan, Weiwei; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping

    2013-11-25

    DaChuanXiongFang was a well-known formula originated from Jin Dynasty, China. It has been used in both China and Japan to treat migraine. In the present study, the analgesic and sedative efficacy of DaChuanXiongFang ethanol extract (DCXFEE) after intranasal administration was tested and compared with that by intragastric route. Three mice experimental models: acetic acid-induced writhing response test, hot-plate latent pain response test and pentobarbital-induced sleep model were used to evaluate DCXFEE activity. To further explore the in vivo potential active components of DCXFEE that contribute to the difference of activity induced by different administration route, ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) was utilized to analyze components in rat brain after given DCXFEE (60 mg/kg). DCXFEE showed analgesic efficacy after intranasal administration (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. While after intragastric administration, DCXFEE only showed analgesic efficacy at high dose (60 mg/kg). Moreover, the analgesic potency was weaker after intragastric administration compared with that after intranasal administration at the same dose (60 mg/kg). Similar results were obtained in hot-plate latent pain response test in mice. DCXFEE (60 mg/kg) had no sedative effect after intranasal and intragastric administration. No components originated from DCXFEE were identified in rat brain 15 min after oral administration. One major parent component ligustilide was detected in rat brain after intranasal administration. These data demonstrate that DCXFEE had faster onset of action as well as better analgesic efficacy after intranasal administration than that after intragastric administration. DCXFEE has no sedative activity on potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice given by both routes. Ligustilide might represents the potential major bioactive component of DCXFEE after intranasal administration and contribute

  16. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...... operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal...... rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot...

  17. HYSTERECTOMY OPERATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE EGG BINDING IN THE LOVEBiRD (AGAPORNIS COMPRISE): CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; TOYDEMİR, Seval; APAYDIN ENGİNLER, Sinem Özlem; Turna YILMAZ, Özge; YİGİT, Funda; UÇMAK, Melih

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The case material is a 15 months-old lovebird who performed hysteretomy operation for egg binding three months ago. Calcium gluconate (0.5 mg/100 g) and oxytocin (1 unit/kg) were administered intramuscularly after the lubrication of the cloacal opening. These applications yielded no results and attempts were made to remove the egg manually as a result of which the egg shell was broken. By considering the case's current condition and future life, treatment by hysterectomy was pre...

  18. Intranasal MSCs: Boosting regeneration of the neonatal injured brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Donega, V.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains a major health issue worldwide. A HI-insult results in brain damage with subsequent development of motor and cognitive impairments like cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Currently, hypothermia is the only available treatment, but is o

  19. Internal reforming over nickel/zirconia anodes in SOFCS operating on methane: influence of anode formulation, pre-treatment and operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.M.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    Internal methane reforming over nickel/zirconia cermet anodes has been studied in detail using a thin-walled extruded zirconia tubular SOFC reactor. The influence of anode formulation, anode pre-treatment, operating temperature and methane/steam ratio on the reforming characteristics, resistance to carbon deposition and durability of the anode have been investigated under actual operating conditions. Post-reaction TPO has been used to determine the amount of carbon deposition and its strength of interaction with the anode. A 90-vol.% nickel/zirconia anode shows higher activity than a 50-vol.% Ni anode at higher reforming temperatures, and shows very good durability. Pre-reducing the anodes in H{sub 2} at 1173 K leads to a more active reforming catalyst. Carbon is removed from the anodes in two processes during TPO, suggesting two types of carbon species. As the reforming temperature increases both carbon types are removed at higher temperature, and there is an increase in the relative population of the more strongly bound form of carbon. (orig.)

  20. Operational strategy, economic and environmental performance of sludge treatment reed bed systems - based on 28 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S; Larsen, J D

    2016-10-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems have been used for dewatering and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. STRB systems provide substantial environmental, economic, and operational benefits compared to mechanical sludge dewatering solutions such as belt presses and centrifuges. They require less energy, no chemicals, reduce the sludge volume and produce bio solids with dry solid contents up to 20-40% under Danish climate conditions, depending on the sludge quality. Experience has shown that sludge treated in STRBs represents a high quality product with a low content of pathogens and hazardous organic compounds, qualities that make it suitable for recycling on agricultural land. The upfront capital cost for STRBs are often higher compared to mechanical dewatering devices. However, the operational expenses (OPEX) (including energy, chemicals, bio solid handling) are significantly lower compared to conventional mechanical dewatering devices, delivering an economic break-even of about 3-5 years. This paper provides an overview of the operation and maintenance costs and environmental benefits of a typical STRB based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRBs with yearly treatment capacities between 100 and 3,000 tonnes of dry solid up to approximately 250,000 PE in Denmark and Europe.

  1. Surgical treatment of patients with lung cancer and limited lung function: Preoperative assessment, operative mortality and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung resection in patients with limited lung function is one of the greatest challenges in general thoracic surgery. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the pattern of lung function changes after operation, operative morbidity and mortality and to compare them with control group of patients. Method. The study included 34 patients with limited lung function, operated for primary lung cancer in one-year period. All patients underwent preoperative desobstructive treatment. The type of ventilatory disorder was analyzed depending on preoperative radiographic and bronchoscopic aspect. Statistics: chisquare test, t-test. Results. In patients with lobectomy, the mean difference in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 between preoperative and postoperative values was 16.81%, whilst in the pneumonectomy group this difference was 39.51%. The mean change in forced vital capacity (FVC in the lobectomy and pneumonectomy group was 15.83% and 42.73% respectively. In the control group of 28 patients with lobectomy, the decrease in FVC and FEV1 was 19.9% and 24.18% respectively. In the control group of 28 patients with pneumonectomy, the decrease in FVC and FEV1 was 43.52% and 41.36% respectively. In patients with limited lung function and lobectomy, changes in FEV1 and VC after resection were significantly lower compared to the control group of patients with lobectomy and normal lung function. None of 34 operated patients with borderline lung function died inside 30 postoperative days. In the same period, of a total number of 344 patients without respiratory function impairment, operative mortality was 3.1%. In the analyzed group, operative morbidity was 32.35%. Cardiovascular and respiratory complications in the analyzed and control groups occurred in 14.7% and 6.1% of patients respectively (p>0.05. Conclusion. Surgery should not be excluded in patients with borderline lung function prior to preoperative treatment and

  2. Treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in biochar-packed vertical flow constructed wetland columns: Role of media and tidal operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Simon; Lv, Tao; Wu, Shubiao; Ajmal, Zeeshan; Luo, Hongzhen; Dong, Renjie

    2017-03-15

    Three types of vertical flow constructed wetland columns (VFCWs), packed with corn cob biochar (CB-CW), wood biochar (WB-CW) and gravel (G-CW) under tidal flow operations, were comparatively evaluated to investigate anaerobic digested effluent treatment performance and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that CB-CW and WB-CW provide significantly higher removal efficiencies for organic matter (>59%), NH4(+)-N (>76%), TN (>37%) and phosphorus (>71%), compared with G-CW (22%-49%). The higher pollutants removal ability of biochar-packed VFCWs was mainly attribute to the higher adsorption ability and microbial cultivation in the porous biochar media. Moreover, increasing the flooded/drained ratio from 4/8h to 8/4h of the tidal operation further improved around 10% of the removal of both organics and NH4(+)-N for biochar-packed VFCWs. The phosphorus removal was dependent on the media adsorption capacities through the whole experiment. However, the NH4(+)-N biodegradation by microbial communities was demonstrated to become the dominant removal mechanism in the long term treatment, which compensated the decreased adsorption capacities of the media. The study supported that the use of biochar would increase the treatment performance and elongate the lifespan of CWs under tidal operation.

  3. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  4. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  5. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage