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  1. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48...

  2. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Piccart , Kristine; Verbeke , Joren; De Visscher , Anneleen; Piepers , Sofie; Haesebrouck , Freddy; De Vliegher , Sarne

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococc...

  3. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive ener...

  4. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers.

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    Piccart, Kristine; Verbeke, Joren; De Visscher, Anneleen; Piepers, Sofie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2016-05-12

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S. chromogenes IM) and a S. chromogenes strain isolated from a heifer's teat apex (S. chromogenes TA). Each heifer was inoculated in the mammary gland with 1.0 × 10(6) colony forming units of each bacterial strain (one strain per udder quarter), whereas the remaining quarter was infused with phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, the CNS evoked a mild local host response. The somatic cell count increased in all S. fleurettii-inoculated quarters, although the strain was eliminated within 12 h. The two S. chromogenes strains were shed in larger numbers for a longer period. Bacterial and somatic cell counts, as well as neutrophil responses, were higher after inoculation with S. chromogenes IM than with S. chromogenes TA. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response.

  5. Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

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    Vernay, M C M B; Wellnitz, O; Kreipe, L; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. These changes supposedly impair the immune system. The goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. Seventeen midlactating dairy cows received a hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin infusion (HypoG; n=5), a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n=6), or infusion of saline solution (NaCl; n=6) for 56 h. At 48 h of infusion, 2 udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. At 48 h of infusion (immediately before LPS challenge), tumor necrosis factor α, lactoferrin, and serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA abundance was increased in HypoG and Il-1β mRNA abundance was decreased in EuG. After LPS challenge, plasma glucose concentration did not decrease, although plasma insulin increased simultaneously in all groups either due to enhanced endogenous release (NaCl) or due to increased insulin infusion rate (HypoG; EuG). Plasma cortisol, rectal temperatures, and milk somatic cell count of challenged quarters increased, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similarly decreased across treatments. In mammary biopsies, increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, and SAA were observed in LPS-treated quarters of all groups, with a more pronounced increase in IL-1β, IL-10, and SAA expression in EuG. Nuclear factor-κB mRNA expression was upregulated in NaCl and EuG but not in HypoG in response to LPS. Lactoferrin, toll-like receptor 4, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was increased in LPS-treated quarters of EuG only, and 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression was decreased

  6. Intramammary Immunization of Pregnant Mice with Staphylococcal Protein A Reduces the Post-Challenge Mammary Gland Bacterial Load but Not Pathology.

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    Jully Gogoi-Tiwari

    Full Text Available Protein A, encoded by the spa gene, is one of the major immune evading MSCRAMM of S. aureus, demonstrated to be prevalent in a significant percentage of clinical bovine mastitis isolates in Australia. Given its' reported significance in biofilm formation and the superior performance of S. aureus biofilm versus planktonic vaccine in the mouse mastitis model, it was of interest to determine the immunogenicity and protective potential of Protein A as a potential vaccine candidate against bovine mastitis using the mouse mastitis model. Pregnant Balb/c mice were immunised with Protein A emulsified in an alum-based adjuvant by subcutaneous (s/c or intramammary (i/mam routes. While humoral immune response of mice post-immunization were determined using indirect ELISA, cell-mediated immune response was assessed by estimation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ produced by protein A-stimulated splenocyte supernatants. Protective potential of Protein A against experimental mastitis was determined by challenge of immunized versus sham-vaccinated mice by i/mam route, based upon manifestation of clinical symptoms, total bacterial load and histopathological damage to mammary glands. Significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of IgG1 isotype were produced in mice immunized by the s/c route. In contrast, significantly higher levels of the antibody isotype IgG2a were produced in mice immunized by the i/mam route (p<0.05. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in bacterial loads of the mammary glands of mice immunized by Protein A regardless of the route of immunization, with medium level of clinical symptoms observed up to day 3 post-challenge. However, Protein A vaccine failed to protect immunized mice post-challenge with biofilm producing encapsulated S. aureus via i/mam route, regardless of the route of immunization, as measured by the level of mammary tissue damage. It was concluded that, Protein A in its' native state was apparently not a suitable candidate for inclusion

  7. Acute phase response in lactating dairy cows during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamps and after intramammary LPS challenge.

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    De Matteis, L; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Wellnitz, O; Van Dorland, H A; Vernay, M C M B; Bruckmaier, R M; Trevisi, E

    2017-06-01

    The link between energy availability, turnover of energy substrates and the onset of inflammation in dairy cows is complex and poorly investigated. To clarify this, plasma inflammatory variables were measured in mid-lactating dairy cows allocated to three groups: hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5); hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n = 6); control, receiving a saline solution infusion (NaCl; n = 6). At 48 h after the start of i.v. infusions, two udder quarters per cow were challenged with 200 μg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual blood samples were taken before clamps, before LPS challenge (i.e. 48 h after clamps) and 6.5 h after. At 48 h, positive acute phase proteins (posAPP) did not differ among groups, whereas albumin and cholesterol (index of lipoproteins), negative APP (negAPP), were lower (p insulin at the tissue-level makes dairy cows more susceptible to inflammatory events. In contrast, HypoG seems to attenuate the inflammatory response. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Changes in Holstein cow milk and serum proteins during intramammary infection with three different strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Robert Claude

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle. Intramammary infection of dairy cows with S. aureus is often subclinical, due to the pathogen's ability to evade the innate defense mechanisms, but this can lead to chronic infection. A sub-population of S. aureus, known as small colony variant (SCV, displays atypical phenotypic characteristics, causes persistent infections, and is more resistant to antibiotics than parent strains. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the host immune response will be different for SCV than its parental or typical strains of S. aureus. In this study, the local and systemic immune protein responses to intramammary infection with three strains of S. aureus, including a naturally occurring bovine SCV strain (SCV Heba3231, were characterized. Serum and casein-depleted milk cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1, as well as serum haptoglobin concentrations were monitored over time after intramammary infection with each of the three S. aureus strains. Furthermore, comparative proteomics was used to evaluate milk proteome profiles during acute and chronic phases of S. aureus intramammary infection. Results Serum IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 responses differed in dairy cows challenged with different strains of S. aureus. Changes in overall serum haptoglobin concentrations were observed for each S. aureus challenge group, but there were no significant differences observed between groups. In casein-depleted milk, strain-specific differences in the host IFN-γ response were observed, but inducible IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were not different between groups. Proteomic analysis of the milk following intramammary infection revealed unique host protein expression profiles that were dependent on the infecting strain as well as phase of infection. Notably, the protein, component-3 of the proteose peptone (CPP3, was

  9. Transfer of immunoglobulins through the mammary endothelium and epithelium and in the local lymph node of cows during the initial response after intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin

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    Lun Shichun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first hours after antigen stimulation, interactions occur influencing the outcome of the immunological reaction. Immunoglobulins originate in blood and/or are locally synthesized. The transfer of Ig isotypes (Igs in the udder has been studied previously but without the possibility to distinguish between the endothelium and the epithelium. The purpose of this study was to map the Ig transfer through each barrier, separately, and Ig transfer in the local lymph nodes of the bovine udder during the initial innate immune response. Methods The content of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and albumin (BSA was examined in peripheral/afferent mammary lymph and lymph leaving the supramammary lymph nodes, and in blood and milk before (0 h and during 4 hours after intramammary challenge with Esherichia coli endotoxin in 5 cows. Results Igs increased most rapidly in afferent lymph resulting in higher concentrations than in efferent lymph at postinfusion hour (PIH 2, contrary to before challenge. Ig concentrations in milk were lower than in lymph; except for IgA at 0 h; and they increased more slowly. Afferent lymph:serum and efferent lymph:serum concentration ratios (CR of Igs were similar to those of BSA but slightly lower. Milk:afferent lymph (M:A CRs of each Ig, except for IgG2, showed strikingly different pattern than those of BSA. The M:A CR of IgG1, IgM and IgA were higher than that of BSA before challenge and the CR of IgA and IgG1 remained higher also thereafter. At PIH 2 there was a drop in Ig CRs, except for IgG2, in contrast to the BSA CR which gradually increased. The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability. Conclusion The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion. The transfer through the epithelium and the Ig concentrations in milk seemed more influenced by selective mechanisms and

  10. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  11. Cow-to-cow variation in fibroblast response to a toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist and its relation to mastitis caused by intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Benjamin, A L; Green, B B; Hayden, L R; Barlow, J W; Kerr, D E

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of chronic mammary gland infections in dairy cattle. However, the inflammatory response and duration of infection following pathogen exposure is variable between individual animals. To investigate interanimal differences in immune response, dermal fibroblast cultures were established from skin biopsies collected from 50 early lactation Holstein cows. The fibroblasts ability to produce IL-8 in response to a 24-h treatment with a synthetic toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist (Pam2CSK4) was used to assign a response phenotype to the animals. Five high-responding and 5 low-responding animals were then selected for an intramammary challenge with S. aureus to evaluate differences in the inflammatory response, chronicity of infection, and development of antibodies to the pathogen. All animals exhibited clinical symptoms of mastitis at 24h postchallenge. Animals previously classified as high responders experienced a greater inflammatory response characterized by elevated levels of milk somatic cell count, IL-8, and BSA following the challenge compared with low responders. In addition, antibodies toward the challenge strain of S. aureus reached higher levels in whey from the challenged gland of high responders compared with low responders. Despite the antibody response, all 5 high responders were chronically infected for the 6-wk duration of the study, whereas 2 of the low responders cleared the infection, although 1 of these did become reinfected. The observed differences between animals classified as low and high responders based on their fibroblast responsiveness suggests that this cell type can be used to further examine the causes of interanimal variation in response to mammary infection. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

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    Anja Sipka

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3 or 48 h (n = 3 post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP, CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  13. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

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    Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Duhamel, Gerald E; Swinkels, Jantijn; Rainard, Pascal; Schukken, Ynte

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3) or 48 h (n = 3) post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP), CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  14. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696 Penicillin...

  15. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

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    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  16. Monitoring health spending increases: incremental budget analyses reveal challenging tradeoffs.

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    Hartman, Micah; Smith, Cynthia; Heffler, Stephen; Freeland, Mark

    2006-01-01

    With each passing decade, health care has consumed a larger share of gross domestic product (GDP) and Federal budgets. By the 2000-2004 period, society was willing to devote over 20 percent of the cumulative increase in GDP and the cumulative increase in Federal outlays towards health care. The financing challenges are expected to become more acute for private payers as well as Federal, State, and local budgets. With the implementation of Part D in 2006, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget projects that Federal budget pressures will heighten, bringing increased attention to Medicare's long-term fiscal outlook.

  17. Megacity precipitationsheds reveal tele-connected water security challenges

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    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is a global process that has taken billions of people from the rural countryside to concentrated urban centers, adding pressure to existing water resources. Many cities are specifically reliant on renewable freshwater regularly refilled by precipitation, rather than fossil groundwater or desalination. A precipitationshed can be considered the “watershed of the sky” and identifies the origin of precipitation falling in a given region. In this paper, we use this concept to determine the sources of precipitation that supply renewable water in the watersheds of the largest cities of the world. We quantify the sources of precipitation for 29 megacities and analyze their differences between dry and wet years. Our results reveal that 19 of 29 megacities depend for more than a third of their water supply on evaporation from land. We also show that for many of the megacities, the terrestrial dependence is higher in dry years. This high dependence on terrestrial evaporation for their precipitation exposes these cities to potential land-use change that could reduce the evaporation that generates precipitation. Combining indicators of water stress, moisture recycling exposure, economic capacity, vegetation-regulated evaporation, land-use change, and dry-season moisture recycling sensitivity reveals four highly vulnerable megacities (Karachi, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing). A further six megacities were found to have medium vulnerability with regard to their water supply. We conclude that understanding how upwind landscapes affect downwind municipal water resources could be a key component for understanding the complexity of urban water security. PMID:29534109

  18. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

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    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Normal milk microbiome is reestablished following experimental infection with Escherichia coli independent of intramammary antibiotic treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin in bovines.

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    Ganda, Erika K; Gaeta, Natalia; Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Oikonomou, Georgios; Schukken, Ynte H; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2017-07-12

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance are global concerns. Ceftiofur is the only third-generation cephalosporin labeled for veterinary use in the USA, and it is the drug of choice in the majority of dairy farms for the treatment of mastitis. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to describe longitudinal changes that occur in the milk microbiome before, during, and after infection and treatment with ceftiofur. Twelve animals were intramammary challenged with Escherichia coli in one quarter and randomly allocated to receive intramammary treatment with ceftiofur (5d) or untreated controls. Serial samples were collected from -72 to 216 h relative to challenge from the challenged quarter, an ipsilateral quarter assigned to the same treatment group, and from a third quarter that did not undergo intervention. Infection with E. coli dramatically impacted microbial diversity. Ceftiofur significantly decreased LogCFUs but had no significant effect on the milk microbiome, rate of pathogen clearance, or somatic cell count. At the end of the study, the microbial profile of infected quarters was indistinguishable from pre-challenge samples in both treated and untreated animals. Intramammary infusion with ceftiofur did not alter the healthy milk (i.e., milk devoid of clots or serous appearance and collected from a mammary gland that shows no clinical signs of mastitis) microbiome. Our results indicate that the mammary gland harbors a resilient microbiome, capable of reestablishing itself after experimental infection with E. coli independent of antimicrobial treatment.

  20. Case Report: Intramammary lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary, probably occult breast, undifferentiated carcinoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Zacharoula Sidiropoulou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the clinical importance of intramammary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, even though it is not rare. In the present paper, the authors present an unusual, rare case of an intramammary lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary, probably occult breast cancer, and its management. The patient was submitted to various staging exams and surgical procedures and a definitive diagnosis was not established. From a multidisciplinary context, it was assumed that the patient had a breast triple negative primary with axillary involvement. This decision lead to adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy. Challenging cases like the one described here, should always be managed within the multidisciplinary team context and recorded in the institution’s database.

  1. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

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    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  2. Florfenicol concentrations in milk of lactating cows postreated by intramuscular or intramammary routes

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    John Ruiz B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available intramammary administration to establish the optimum withdrawal time, therapeutic efficacy, and its influence on milk yield. Materials and method. Twelve healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected from the University of Antioquia’s teaching dairy herd (Colombia, were randomly assigned to a control (n=6 group or florfenicol (n=6 group that received 20 mg/kg of florfenicol by intramammary and intramuscular routes, with a 15 days washout period between treatments. Results. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramuscular route were 6 hoursand 2.86 mg/L respectively. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramammary route, were estimated at 0 hour and about 20000 mg/L respectively by extrapolated from regression line. The florfenicol elimination phase in milk had an average half-life of elimination (t½ of 19.8 hours and 4.9 hours for intramuscular and intramammary administration, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route, when minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. of florfenicol by Stahphylococcus aureus, was used as reference value. There was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and non-treated cows. Conclusions. According to these results, post-treatment milk withdrawal should be no less than 3 days for intramammary administration, and at least 7 days for intramuscular administration. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and nontreated cows.

  3. Intra-species diversity and epidemiology varies among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species causing bovine intramammary infections.

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    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-02-24

    Although many studies report coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as the predominant cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, their epidemiology is poorly understood. In the current study, the genetic diversity within four CNS species frequently associated with bovine intramammary infections, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. simulans, S. chromogenes, and S. epidermidis, was determined. For epidemiological purposes, CNS genotypes recovered from bovine milk collected on six Flemish dairy farms were compared with those from the farm environment, and their distribution within the farms was investigated. Genetic diversity was assessed by two molecular typing techniques, amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Subtyping revealed the highest genetic heterogeneity among S. haemolyticus isolates. A large variety of genotypes was found among environmental isolates, of which several could be linked with intramammary infection, indicating that the environment could act as a potential source for infection. For S. simulans, various genotypes were found in the environment, but a link with IMI was less obvious. For S. epidermidis and S. chromogenes, genetic heterogeneity was limited and the sporadic isolates from environment displayed largely the same genotypes as those from milk. The higher clonality of the S. epidermidis and S. chromogenes isolates from milk suggests that specific genotypes probably disseminate within herds and are more udder-adapted. Environmental sources and cow-to-cow transmission both seem to be involved in the epidemiology of CNS, although their relative importance might substantially vary between species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  5. Examining the effect of intramammary infections with minor mastitis pathogens on the acquisition of new intramammary infections with major mastitis pathogens--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyher, K K; Haine, D; Dohoo, I R; Revie, C W

    2012-11-01

    Major mastitis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and the coliforms are usually considered more virulent and damaging to the udder than minor mastitis pathogens such as Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The current literature contains several studies detailing analyses with conflicting results as to whether intramammary infection (IMI) with the minor pathogens decreases, increases, or has no effect on the risk of a quarter acquiring a new intramammary infection (NIMI) with a major pathogen. To investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the effect of IMI with minor pathogens on the acquisition of NIMI with major pathogens, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The total extant English- and French-language literature in electronic databases was searched and all publications cited by relevant papers were investigated. Results from 68 studies were extracted from 38 relevant papers. Random-effects models were used to investigate the effects of CNS and C. bovis on acquisition of new IMI with any of the major pathogens, as well as individually for the minor pathogens and Staph. aureus. Significant heterogeneity among studies exists, some of which could be accounted for by using meta-regression. Overall, observational studies showed no effect, whereas challenge studies showed strong and significant protective effects, specifically when major pathogens were introduced into the mammary gland via methods bypassing the teat end. Underlying risk can account for several unmeasured factors, and studies with higher underlying risk found more protective effects of minor pathogens. Larger doses of challenge organisms reduced the protective effect of minor pathogens, and studies with more stringent diagnostic criteria for pathogen IMI identified less protection. Smaller studies (those utilizing fewer than 40 cows) also showed a greater

  6. 21 CFR 526.1696c - Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin sulfate for intramammary infusion (dry cows).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin sulfate... INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696c Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin sulfate for intramammary infusion (dry cows). (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliters of suspension contains penicillin G procaine...

  7. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Gene expression profiling of liver from dairy cows treated intra-mammary with lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vels Lotte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver plays a profound role in the acute phase response (APR observed in the early phase of acute bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli. To gain an insight into the genes and pathways involved in hepatic APR of dairy cows we performed a global gene expression analysis of liver tissue sampled at different time points before and after intra-mammary (IM exposure to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment. Results Approximately 20% target transcripts were differentially expressed and eight co-expression clusters were identified. Each cluster had a unique time-dependent expression profile and consisted of genes involved in different biological processes. Our findings suggest that APR in the liver is triggered by the activation of signaling pathways that are involved with common and hepatic-specific transcription factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These mediators in turn stimulated or repressed the expression of genes encoding acute phase proteins (APP, collectins, complement components, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules and key metabolic enzymes during the APR. Hormones, anti-inflammatory and other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA linked mediators also seemed to participate in APR. Conclusion Performing global gene expression analysis on liver tissue from IM LPS treated cows verified that the liver plays a major role in the APR of E. coli mastitis, and that the bovine hepatic APR follows the same pattern as other mammals when they are challenged with LPS. Our work presents the first insight into the dynamic changes in gene expression in the liver that influences the induction, kinetics and clinical outcome of the APR in dairy cows.

  9. Comparison of Sonography versus Digital Breast Tomosynthesis to Locate Intramammary Marker Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Dankerl, P; Dilbat, G; Bani, M; Fasching, P A; Heusinger, K; Lux, M P; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Beckmann, M W; Wachter, D L; Uder, M; Meier-Meitinger, M; Brehm, B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the accuracy of sonography versus digital breast tomosynthesis to locate intramammary marker clips placed under ultrasound guidance. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with suspicion of breast cancer (lesion diameter less than 2 cm [cT1]) had ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy with placement of a marker clip in the center of the tumor. Intramammary marker clips were subsequently located with both sonography and digital breast tomosynthesis. Results: Sonography detected no dislocation of intrammammary marker clips in 42 of 50 patients (84 %); dislocation was reported in 8 patients (16 %) with a maximum dislocation of 7 mm along the x-, y- or z-axis. Digital breast tomosynthesis showed accurate placement without dislocation of the intramammary marker clip in 48 patients (96 %); 2 patients (4 %) had a maximum clip dislocation of 3 mm along the x-, y- or z-axis (p tomosynthesis could improve the accuracy when locating intramammary marker clips compared to sonography and could, in future, be used to complement or even completely replace sonography.

  10. Relationship between intramammary infection prevalence and somatic cell score in commercial dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shook, G.E.; Kirk, R.L.B.; Welcome, Frank L.; Schukken, Y.H.; Ruegg, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to

  11. Relationship between intramammary infection prevalence and somatic cell score in commercial dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shook, G. E.; Kirk, R. L.Bamber; Welcome, Frank L.; Schukken, Y. H.; Ruegg, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to 2004.

  12. Usage of Intramammary Antimicrobial Veterinary Medicinal Products in The Republic of Serbia from 2011 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjelkovic Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prudent use of antimicrobial medicine is an imperative in both human and veterinary medicine today. Antibiotic usage in humans and animals has increased over the years, consequently giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. Mastitis is one of the most common conditions in bovine species, and intramammary antibacterial medicinal products are used in animal husbandry for mastitis treatment and prophylaxis.

  13. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  14. Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram

  15. [Aspects of the innate immune response to intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infections in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Elizabet A L; Dallard, Bibiana E; Calvinho, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most frequently isolated from bovine mastitis worldwide, causing chronic intramammary infections that limit profitable dairying. The objective of this article is to characterize the mechanisms involved in S. aureus mammary gland infections considering two different aspects of the infectious process; on the one hand, the aspects involved in the host innate immune response and on the other hand, the capacity of this organism to evade the immune system and interact with different cell types. The exploration of S. aureus interactions with the immune response of bovine mammary gland will help identify targets to outline new preventive or curative alternatives for intramammary infections caused by this organism. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, Cristina; Fernández Martínez, Nélida; Sierra Vega, Matilde; Diez Liébana, Maria J; Gonzalo Orden, Jose M; Sahagún Prieto, Ana M; García Vieitez, Juan J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites. 26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep. For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue. By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.

  17. Proinflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression in mammary tissue of cows following intramammary inoculation of Panax ginseng at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, C; Dallard, B E; Cadoche, M C; Pereyra, E A L; Neder, V E; Ortega, H H; Calvinho, L F

    2011-11-15

    The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (Pmastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatic cell count and milk neutrophil viability of dairy heifers with specific CXCR1 genotypes following experimental intramammary infection with Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piccart, Kristine; Piepers, Sofie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; De Visscher, Anneleen; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-06-01

    Previous observational studies suggest an association between polymorphism c.980A>G in the CXCR1 gene, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and the innate immunity and infection status of the mammary gland. Mammary glands of eight Holstein heifers were experimentally infected with a Staphylococcus chromogenes isolate originating from a chronic intramammary infection (IMI) to study differences between CXCR1 genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG. Quarters from heifers with genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG developed subclinical mastitis but showed differences in the early response at 6-18 h post challenge. Bacterial count at 18 h post challenge tended to be higher in quarters from c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Somatic cell count (SCC) was higher at 6 h post challenge and tended to be higher at 9 h post challenge in c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Milk production decreased similarly. Milk neutrophils of c.980AG heifers showed more apoptosis at 9 h post challenge and tended to show more necrosis at 6, 9 and 12 h post challenge than c.980GG heifers. Differences were less pronounced in the later stage (>18 h) of infection. The results demonstrate that CXCR1 polymorphism can influence SCC and milk neutrophil viability following experimental IMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Minimally Actuated Walking: Identifying Core Challenges to Economical Legged Locomotion Reveals Novel Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Schroeder

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial organisms adept at locomotion employ strut-like legs for economical and robust movement across the substrate. Although it is relatively easy to observe and analyze details of the solutions these organic systems have arrived at, it is not as easy to identify the problems these movement strategies have solved. As such, it is useful to investigate fundamental challenges that effective legged locomotion overcomes in order to understand why the mechanisms employed by biological systems provide viable solutions to these challenges. Such insight can inform the design and development of legged robots that may eventually match or exceed animal performance. In the context of human walking, we apply control optimization as a design strategy for simple bipedal walking machines with minimal actuation. This approach is used to discuss key facilitators of energetically efficient locomotion in simple bipedal walkers. Furthermore, we extrapolate the approach to a novel application—a theoretical exoskeleton attached to the trunk of a human walker—to demonstrate how coordinated efforts between bipedal actuation and a machine oscillator can potentially alleviate a meaningful portion of energetic exertion associated with leg function during human walking.

  20. Location memory biases reveal the challenges of coordinating visual and kinesthetic reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Peterson, Clayton; Darling, Warren; Spencer, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments explored the influence of visual and kinesthetic/proprioceptive reference frames on location memory. Experiments 1 and 2 compared visual and kinesthetic reference frames in a memory task using visually-specified locations and a visually-guided response. When the environment was visible, results replicated previous findings of biases away from the midline symmetry axis of the task space, with stability for targets aligned with this axis. When the environment was not visible, results showed some evidence of bias away from a kinesthetically-specified midline (trunk anterior–posterior [a–p] axis), but there was little evidence of stability when targets were aligned with body midline. This lack of stability may reflect the challenges of coordinating visual and kinesthetic information in the absence of an environmental reference frame. Thus, Experiments 3–5 examined kinesthetic guidance of hand movement to kinesthetically-defined targets. Performance in these experiments was generally accurate with no evidence of consistent biases away from the trunk a–p axis. We discuss these results in the context of the challenges of coordinating reference frames within versus between multiple sensori-motor systems. PMID:17703284

  1. Pay For Success And Population Health: Early Results From Eleven Projects Reveal Challenges And Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rosenbaum, Sara; Ku, Leighton; Iovan, Samantha

    2016-11-01

    Pay for success (PFS) is a type of social impact investing that uses private capital to finance proven prevention programs that help a government reduce public expenditures or achieve greater value. We conducted an analysis of the first eleven PFS projects in the United States to investigate the potential of PFS as a strategy for financing and disseminating interventions aimed at improving population health and health equity. The PFS approach has significant potential for bringing private-sector resources to interventions regarding social determinants of health. Nonetheless, a number of challenges remain, including structuring PFS initiatives so that optimal prevention benefits can be achieved and ensuring that PFS interventions and evaluation designs are based on rigorous research principles. In addition, increased policy attention regarding key PFS payout issues is needed, including the "wrong pockets" problem and legal barriers to using federal Medicaid funds as an investor payout source. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow...

  3. Reciprocal osmotic challenges reveal mechanisms of divergence in phenotypic plasticity in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Reid S; Galvez, Fernando; Whitehead, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is an estuarine species with broad physiological plasticity, enabling acclimation to diverse stressors. Previous work suggests that freshwater populations expanded their physiology to accommodate low salinity environments; however, it is unknown whether this compromises their tolerance to high salinity. We used a comparative approach to investigate the mechanisms of a derived freshwater phenotype and the fate of an ancestral euryhaline phenotype after invasion of a freshwater environment. We compared physiological and transcriptomic responses to high- and low-salinity stress in fresh and brackish water populations and found an enhanced plasticity to low salinity in the freshwater population coupled with a reduced ability to acclimate to high salinity. Transcriptomic data identified genes with a conserved common response, a conserved salinity-dependent response and responses associated with population divergence. Conserved common acclimation responses revealed stress responses and alterations in cell-cycle regulation as important mechanisms in the general osmotic response. Salinity-specific responses included the regulation of genes involved in ion transport, intracellular calcium, energetic processes and cellular remodeling. Genes diverged between populations were primarily those showing salinity-specific expression and included those regulating polyamine homeostasis and the cell cycle. Additionally, when populations were matched with their native salinity, expression patterns were consistent with the concept of 'transcriptomic resilience', suggesting local adaptation. These findings provide insight into the fate of a plastic phenotype after a shift in environmental salinity and help to reveal mechanisms allowing for euryhalinity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  5. Dry cow therapy with a non-antibiotic intramammary teat seal - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispie Fiona

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry cow antibiotic therapy is used to eliminate existing intramammary infections and to prevent new infections in the dry period. It is implemented as part of a total management system known as the 'Five-Point Plan' for mastitis control. Recent public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics, coupled with an increasing interest in organic farming, have lead to a re-evaluation of the treatment of cows at drying-off. As a result, attention has focussed on the use of novel alternatives to antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation. One such therapy involves the application of a non-antibiotic bismuth-based intramammary teat seal designed for use in cows with low cell counts at the end of lactation. Like the keratin plug that forms naturally in teats of cows that have been dried-off, teat seal forms a physical barrier to invading pathogens. To date, a number of independent studies have shown that teat seal is as effective as traditional dry cow antibiotic products in preventing the occurrence of new infection during the dry period in cows with somatic cell counts of ≤200,000 cells ml-1 at drying-off. This paper reviews the efficacy of teat seal in preventing dry period mastitis in both conventional and organic dairying systems.

  6. Risk factors for subclinical intramammary infection in dairy goats in two longitudinal field studies evaluated by Bayesian logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Gerrit; Collar, Carol A.; Toft, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC are impe......Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC...... are imperfect tests, particularly lacking sensitivity, which leads to misclassification and thus to biased estimates of odds ratios in risk factor studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the true (latent) IMI status of major pathogens in dairy goats. We used Bayesian logistic...... regression models that accounted for imperfect measurement of IMI by both culture and SCC. Udder half milk samples were collected from 530 Dutch and 438 California dairy goats in 10 herds on 3 occasions during lactation. Udder halves were classified as positive or negative for isolation of a major pathogen...

  7. 21 CFR 526.1696b - Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin in soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subclinical mastitis in dairy cows at the time of drying off, specifically against infections caused by... soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows). 526.1696b Section 526.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... infusion (dry cows). (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliters of suspension contains penicillin G procaine...

  8. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, S.; Peeters, K.; Opsomer, G.; Barkema, H.W.; Frankena, K.; Vliegher, de S.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected

  9. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S.; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line

    2018-01-01

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with au...

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic detection of capsular polysaccharides in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Camussone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (n=157 isolated from intramammary infections in Argentine dairy areas were evaluated for presence of cap5 and cap8 loci. Isolates carrying cap5 and cap8 were serotyped using specific antisera. Sixty four percent of the isolates were genotyped as cap5 or cap8 and 50% of them expressed CP5 or 8.

  11. Insights into udder health and intramammary antibiotic usage on Irish dairy farms during 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By international standards, Ireland is a relatively small dairy producer. However, the industry plays a critical role to the national economy, accounting for approximately 3% of national gross domestic product. This paper presents insights into udder health and intramammary antibiotic usage on Irish dairy farms during 2003-2010, based on data from several sources. Three data sources were used, including data on milk recording data, intramammary antibiotic sales and animal health assessment. The milk recording data included a single unadjusted herd-level somatic cell count (SCC value for each herd at each milk recording, being the arithmetic mean of cow-level SCC of each cow at that recording, weighted by cow-level yield. These data were used to calculate the percentage of herds each month where the unadjusted herd SCC exceeded 200,000 and 400,000 cells/mL. Two logistic generalised estimating-equations (GEE models were developed, the outcome variable being either the probability that the monthly SCC of a herd was greater than 400,000 cells/mL or less than or equal to 200,000 cells/mL. Spring herds had a lower probability of a high SCC (> 400,000 cells/mL during February to October compared to non-Spring herds but a higher probability between November to January. The odds of a high SCC were greater in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2010 but less in 2007 and 2008 compared to 2004. Smaller herds had higher odds of having a high SCC compared to larger herds. We present the number of intramammary tubes and the quantity of active substance (kg sold annually in Ireland during 2003-2010. We infer an incidence of clinical mastitis of 54.0 cases per 100 cow-years at risk, assuming 4 tubes per treatment regime, one affected quarter per cow, tubes restricted to clinical cases only and 100% of treated cases considered new cases, based on data collected on sales of in-lactation intra-mammary antibiotics. With differing assumptions, this estimate varied between

  12. A Cow- and Herd-specific Bio-Economic Model of Intramammary Infections in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare

    Introduction. Mastitis, or intramammary infection (IMI), is one of the most significant diseases in dairy herds worldwide. It is caused by environmental and contagious bacteria. Simulation models have proven useful for evaluating the effect of different control strategies. However, previous...... published models are not cow-specific and therefore not so detailed in the simulation of host-pathogen interactions. If a simulation model is to be used by dairy farmers as a decision-making tool, it needs to be cow-specific because daily management decisions are made on cow level. Furthermore, as IMI......, contagious or mixed), the model should be able to reflect this diversity. Our objective was thus to create a pathogen-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model that could simulate multiple pathogens and strains at the same time within a dairy herd. This model should be able to simulate realistic...

  13. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...... of uncured cows after 2 mo of infection. Model behavior was observed for variation in parameter input values. Compared with no lactational intervention, lactational intervention of new subclinical IMI resulted in fewer clinical flare ups, less transmission within the herd, and much lower combined total....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did...

  15. The intramammary efficacy of first generation cephalosporins against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-11-09

    Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC by California Mastitis Test (CMT and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC. Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111, in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18% of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81% samples while 3 (1% samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (72% of all isolates, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates. Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000 associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a

  17. Systemic and mammary gland disposition of enrofloxacin in healthy sheep following intramammary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristina; García, Juan José; Sierra, Matilde; Diez, María José; Pérez, Claudia; Sahagún, Ana Maria; Fernández, Nélida

    2015-04-09

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy sheep. Antimicrobial drugs are often administered directly through teat to treat or prevent this disease, but data on drug distribution within glandular tissue are scarce and it cannot be estimated from concentrations in milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate systemic and mammary gland distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary administration. The drug was administered to 6 healthy lactating Assaf sheep with an injector containing an enrofloxacin preparation (1 g drug/5 g ointment). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Animals were then sedated and sacrificed, and glandular tissue samples were obtained from treated udders at 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm height. Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured in plasma and tissue samples by UV high-performed liquid chromatography. Mean enrofloxacin plasma concentrations were below 0.5 μg/mL. Mean tissue concentrations decreased in mammary gland with vertical distance from the teat, ranging from 356.6 μg/g at 2 cm to 95.60 μg/g at the base of the udder. Glandular tissue concentrations best fitted to a decreasing monoexponential model, and showed a good correlation with an ex vivo model previously developed. Enrofloxacin concentrations were effective in the entire glandular tissue against the main pathogens causing mastitis in sheep. These results suggest that this drug may be suitable to treat mastitis in sheep by intramammary administration.

  18. Intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis in ewes to treat staphylococcal mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignacca, Sebastian Alessandro; Dore, Simone; Spuria, Liliana; Zanghì, Pietro; Amato, Benedetta; Duprè, Ilaria; Armas, Federica; Biasibetti, Elena; Camperio, Cristina; Lollai, Stefano A; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Cannas, Eugenia Agnese; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-12-01

    Alternatives to antibiotic therapy for mastitis in ruminants are needed. We present an evaluation, in two trials, of the efficacy of an intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis for the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in ewes. In total, 67 animals were enrolled: 19 lactating ewes (study 1), including healthy (N=6) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-infected ewes (N=13); and 48 lactating ewes (study 2) with either CNS mastitis (N=32), or Staphylococcus aureus mastitis (N=16), for a total of 123 mammary glands. Intramammary infusions were performed with either L. lactis or PBS for 3 (study 1) or 7 (study 2) consecutive days. Antibiotic-treated and untreated control glands were included. Milk samples for microbiology, somatic cell analysis and milk production were collected before and after treatment.Results/Key findings.L. lactis rapidly activated the mammary glands' innate immune response and initiated an inflammatory response as evidenced by the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and increased somatic cell counts. But while leading to a transient clearance of CNS in the gland, this response caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis characterized by abnormal milk secretions and udder inflammation. Moreover, S. aureus infections did not improve, and CNS infections tended to relapse. Under our experimental conditions, the L. lactis treatment led to a transient clearance of the pathogen in the gland, but also caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis. We believe it is still early to implement bacterial formulations as alternatives in treating mastitis in ruminants and further experimentation is needed.

  19. Reactive intramammary lymph node mimicking recurrence on MRI study in a patient with prior breast conservation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema A Kembhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast conservative therapy (BCT is a well accepted form of treatment for patients with early stage breast cancer. The incidence of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence is higher in patients undergoing BCT than in those patients undergoing Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM without any adverse effect on survival. Patients treated with BCT are put on active surveillance using clinical breast examination and mammography. The radiologist reading the follow-up mammograms is on high alert and any neo-density is viewed with suspicion. MRI may be used as a problem solving tool. At such a time, an innocuous intra-mammary node can mimic malignancy on MRI. We want to showcase one such typical example with histological proof and highlight that type III curve may be seen in an intramammary node. Our case also reinforces the utility of second look ultrasound which is a faster, cheaper and easier method for localization and biopsy of abnormalities seen on MRI.

  20. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  1. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  3. Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Spelta, C; Garlappi, R; Luini, M; Cremonesi, F

    2014-10-01

    Bovine udder infections induce a variety of changes in gene expression of different growth factors that may suggest their possible role in glandular tissue protection or repair processes. Growth factors and also chemokines and cytokines may act synergistically to increase the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages to promote angiogenesis, fibroplasia, matrix deposition, and, ultimately, re-epithelialization. Considering the vast applications, typically in human medicine, of platelet concentrate (PC) and its ease of preparation, the aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative therapy to stimulate the regeneration of glandular tissue, administering a concentration in excess of the growth factors contained in the PC. In each one of the 3 farms examined in the trial, PC was prepared from donor cows in good health, free from infections, and with no records of medications administered during the previous 2 mo. The platelet produced in one farm was used only for treating the cows of the same farm in a heterologous way. A total of 229 mastitic quarters were divided in 3 groups: antibiotic group (treated with intramammary antibiotic), antibiotic and PC group (treated intramammarily with antibiotics in association with PC), and PC group (treated with intramammary PC alone). The diagnosis of mastitis was based on somatic cell count and bacteriological evaluation of the milk from the affected quarter. Platelet concentrate, alone or in association with antibiotic, was used for 3 consecutive days as an unconventional therapy in bovine acute and chronic mastitis. Our data show that the associated action of antibiotic and PC performed significantly better than the antibiotic alone, either for the recovery of the affected mammary quarters or for somatic cell count reduction. In the same way, the association antibiotic plus PC showed significantly fewer relapses compared with the antibiotic alone, either for acute or chronic mastitis. The treatment with only PC did not show

  4. Evaluation of minor pathogen intramammary infection, susceptibility parameters, and somatic cell counts on the development of new intramammary infections with major mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyher, K K; Dohoo, I R; Scholl, D T; Keefe, G P

    2012-07-01

    Major mastitis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and coliforms are usually considered more virulent and damaging to the udder than minor mastitis pathogens such as Corynebacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The current literature comprises several studies (n=38) detailing analyses with conflicting results as to whether intramammary infections (IMI) with the minor pathogens decrease, increase, or have no effect on the risk of a quarter acquiring a new IMI (NIMI) with a major pathogen. The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has a large mastitis database derived from a 2-yr data collection on a national cohort of dairy farms, and data from this initiative were used to further investigate the effect of IMI with minor pathogens on the acquisition of new major pathogen infections (defined as a culture-positive quarter sample in a quarter that had been free of that major pathogen in previous samples in the sampling period). Longitudinal milk samplings of clinically normal udders taken over several 6-wk periods as well as samples from cows pre-dry-off and postcalving were used to this end (n=80,397 quarter milk samples). The effects of CNS and Corynebacterium spp. on the major mastitis pathogens Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.) were investigated using risk ratio analyses and multilevel logistic regression models. Quarter-, cow- and herd-level susceptibility parameters were also evaluated and were able to account for the increased susceptibility that exists within herds, cows and quarters, removing it from estimates for the effects of the minor pathogens. Increased quarter-level susceptibility was associated with increased risk of major pathogen NIMI for all pathogens except the coliforms. Increased somatic cell count was consistently associated with elevated risk of new major pathogen infections, but this was

  5. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  6. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

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    Kansuda Leelahapongsathon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM. Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1, during the dry period (P2, and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3, using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

  7. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response.

  8. A strain-, cow-, and herd-speciÞc bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can...... various within-herd levels of IMI prevalence, depending on the simulated pathogens and their parameter settings. The parameters can be adjusted to include different combinations of IMI causing pathogens at different prevalence levels, representing herd-specific situations. The model is most sensitive...

  9. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501

  10. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  11. A strain-, cow-, and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussmann, Maya; Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Farre, Michael; Halasa, Tariq

    2018-07-14

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can be used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of different prevention and control strategies against IMI. The objective of this study was to describe a transmission framework, which simulates spread of IMI causing pathogens through different transmission modes. These include the traditional contagious and environmental spread and a new opportunistic transmission mode. In addition, the within-herd transmission dynamics of IMI causing pathogens were studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of input parameters on model predictions. The results show that the model is able to represent various within-herd levels of IMI prevalence, depending on the simulated pathogens and their parameter settings. The parameters can be adjusted to include different combinations of IMI causing pathogens at different prevalence levels, representing herd-specific situations. The model is most sensitive to varying the transmission rate parameters and the strain-specific recovery rates from IMI. It can be used for investigating both short term operational and long term strategic decisions for the prevention and control of IMI in dairy cattle herds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Milk and plasma disposition of thymol following intramammary administration of a phytoceutical mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C S; Anderson, K L; Yeatts, J L; Mason, S E; Barlow, B M; Baynes, R E

    2011-04-01

    Despite the recent growth of the organic dairy industry, organic producers and veterinarians have limited information when choosing mastitis treatments for animals in organic dairy production. Organic producers commonly administer homeopathic or other plant-based products without having research evaluating the efficacy of these products and using estimated or no withholding times to treat mastitis and other health problems in their herds. In this pilot study, we attempted to identify several active ingredients of Phyto-Mast (Penn Dutch Cow Care, Narvon, PA), a plant-based mastitis treatment used on organic dairy farms, and to quantify the product residue in milk and plasma after intramammary administration. We developed an assay to quantify thymol (one of the active ingredients in Phyto-Mast) in milk and plasma using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol is a volatile aromatic compound with antiinflammatory properties. As a model for dairy cows, 5 healthy, lactating alpine dairy goats were given 5 mL of Phyto-Mast per udder half. For 10 d following treatment, we analyzed blood and milk samples for thymol residues using GC-MS. The GC-MS assay was very sensitive for thymol detection, to a concentration of 0.01 μg/mL in plasma. Using thymol as a marker, Phyto-Mast was detectable and quantifiable in plasma beginning with the 15-min posttreatment sample, but was no longer detectable in the 4-h posttreatment sample. Thymol residues were only detected in the 12-h posttreatment milk sample. An inflammatory response was not evident in the udder following phytoceutical administration. Although this study provides information about the elimination of thymol, the product contains several other active chemicals, which may have different pharmacokinetic behaviors. Further analysis and additional study animals will help to determine a milk withholding time for Phyto-Mast. Given the recent growth of the organic dairy industry, understanding the pharmacokinetics

  13. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

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    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  14. Molecular characterization of non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. from heifer intramammary infections and body sites.

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    Adkins, P R F; Dufour, S; Spain, J N; Calcutt, M J; Reilly, T J; Stewart, G C; Middleton, J R

    2018-03-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. intramammary infections (IMI) in periparturient heifers and determine the relationship of precalving body site isolation with precalving IMI and postcalving IMI using molecular speciation and strain-typing methods. Primiparous heifers were enrolled at approximately 14 d before expected calving date. Precalving mammary quarter secretions and body site swabbing samples (teat skin, inguinal skin, muzzle, and perineum) were collected. Postcalving, mammary quarter milk samples were collected for culture and somatic cell counting. Precalving body site samples were cultured, and up to 10 staphylococcal colonies were saved for characterization. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or sequencing of rpoB or tuf. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to strain type a subset of isolates. Overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus agnetis, and Staphylococcus simulans were the most common species identified in precalving mammary secretions, whereas S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, and S. agnetis were the most common species found in postcalving milk samples. The most common species identified from body site samples were S. chromogenes, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Mammary quarters that had a precalving mammary secretion that was culture positive for S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, or Staphylococcus devriesei had increased odds of having an IMI with the same species postcalving. A S. chromogenes IMI postcalving was associated with higher somatic cell count when compared with postcalving culture-negative quarters. Among heifers identified with a non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. IMI either precalving or postcalving, heifers that had S. agnetis or S. chromogenes isolated from their teat skin had increased odds of having the same species found in their precalving mammary secretions, and heifers

  15. Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of definitions based on a single milk sample.

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    Dohoo, I R; Smith, J; Andersen, S; Kelton, D F; Godden, S

    2011-01-01

    Criteria for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) have been debated for many years. Factors that may be considered in making a diagnosis include the organism of interest being found on culture, the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and whether or not concurrent evidence of inflammation existed (often measured by somatic cell count). However, research using these criteria has been hampered by the lack of a "gold standard" test (i.e., a perfect test against which the criteria can be evaluated) and the need for very large data sets of culture results to have sufficient numbers of quarters with infections with a variety of organisms. This manuscript used 2 large data sets of culture results to evaluate several definitions (sets of criteria) for classifying a quarter as having, or not having an IMI by comparing the results from a single culture to a gold standard diagnosis based on a set of 3 milk samples. The first consisted of 38,376 milk samples from which 25,886 triplicate sets of milk samples taken 1 wk apart were extracted. The second consisted of 784 quarters that were classified as infected or not based on a set of 3 milk samples collected at 2-d intervals. From these quarters, a total of 3,136 additional samples were evaluated. A total of 12 definitions (named A to L) based on combinations of the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and the somatic cell count were evaluated for each organism (or group of organisms) with sufficient data. The sensitivity (ability of a definition to detect IMI) and the specificity (Sp; ability of a definition to correctly classify noninfected quarters) were both computed. For all species, except Staphylococcus aureus, the sensitivity of all definitions was definition A). With the exception of "any organism" and coagulase-negative staphylococci, all Sp estimates were over 94% in the daily data and over 97

  16. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

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    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  17. The first Saudi Arabian national inventory study revealed the upcoming challenges of highly diverse non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases.

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    Bright Varghese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases are reportedly increasing globally and the current epidemiologic situation in Saudi Arabia remains unclear. To study such trend, we carried out a nationwide systematic epidemiological study focusing on NTM diseases for the first time in the country.A nationwide collection of NTM isolates with clinical and demographical data was conducted for a period of 24 months. Primary species identification was carried out by line probe assays followed by sequencing of 16S rRNA, 16S-23S ITS region, rpoB and hsp65 genes. The laboratory findings were comprehensively analysed against demographical and clinical data. A total of 527 isolates were enrolled with a higher proportion of Saudi citizens (76.5%, elderly (>60 years patients (34.2%, and male gender (65.3% respectively. Overall, 75.1% isolates were pulmonary origin with a proven clinical significance of 44.7%. In total, 34 NTM species including 17 rare species were identified, in addition to 8 'undefined' isolates. M.simiae (22.6%, M.fortuitum (18.1% and M.abscessus (17.8% were predominant species. Interestingly, 27 new cases of clinically relevant M.riyadhense were also noticed (Primary data on emergence of rare NTM species and M.riyadhense has been recently reported. Results showed, rare clinical events such as mycobacteremia, cecum abscess, peritonitis and ascites caused by M.wolinskyi, M.holsaticum, M.duvalii and M.monacence respectively. Diabetes mellitus (P value-0.04 and previous history of tuberculosis (P value- 0.001 were identified as independent risk factors associated with NTM diseases.NTM disease spectrum and pathogen diversity is an emerging challenge to any nation, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, more priorities will be given to NTM's with an immediate initiative to develop diagnostic infrastructures and disease management plans.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals unique immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Zhou, Meng; Liang, Risheng; Muhammad, Asim; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-06-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for further validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Due to the lack of predictable adaptive immunity, shrimps rely on an innate immune system to defend themselves against invading microbes by recognizing and clearing them through humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we focused our studies on the humoral immunity, five genes (SR, MNK, CTL3, GILT, and ALFP) were selected from the transcriptomic data, which were significantly up-regulated by V. parahaemolyticus infection. These genes were widely expressed in six different tissues and were up-regulated by both Gram negative bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). To further extend our studies, we knock-down those five genes by dsRNA in L. vannamei and analyzed the functions of specific genes against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial clearance analysis. We found that the ability of L. vannamei was significantly reduced in bacterial clearance when treated with those specific dsRNA. These results indicate that those five genes play essential roles in antibacterial immunity and have its specific functions against different types of pathogens. The obtained data will shed a new light on the immunity

  19. Prevalence of non-aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condas, Larissa A Z; De Buck, Jeroen; Nobrega, Diego B; Carson, Domonique A; Naushad, Sohail; De Vliegher, Sarne; Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; Dufour, Simon; Kastelic, John P; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-07-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bovine milk worldwide, are a heterogeneous group of numerous species. To establish their importance as a group, the distribution of individual species needs to be determined. In the present study, NAS intramammary infection (IMI) was defined as a milk sample containing ≥1,000 cfu/mL in pure or mixed culture that was obtained from a cohort of cows assembled by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Overall, 6,213 (6.3%) of 98,233 quarter-milk samples from 5,149 cows and 20,305 udder quarters were associated with an NAS IMI. Of the 6,213 phenotypically identified NAS isolates, 5,509 (89%) were stored by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network Mastitis Pathogen Collection and characterized using partial sequencing of the rpoB housekeeping gene, confirming 5,434 isolates as NAS. Prevalence of each NAS species IMI was estimated using Bayesian models, with presence of a specific NAS species as the outcome. Overall quarter-level NAS IMI prevalence was 26%. The most prevalent species causing IMI were Staphylococcus chromogenes (13%), Staphylococcus simulans (4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3%), Staphylococcus xylosus (2%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1%). The prevalence of NAS IMI as a group was highest in first-parity heifers and was evenly distributed throughout cows in parities ≥2. The IMI prevalence of some species such as S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis differed among parities. Overall prevalence of NAS IMI was 35% at calving, decreased over the next 10 d, and then gradually increased until the end of lactation. The prevalence of S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus capitis was highest at calving, whereas the prevalence of S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii increased during lactation. Although the overall prevalence of NAS IMI was similar across barn types, the prevalence of S

  20. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

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    Xiang Li-xin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host

  1. Effectiveness of Dry Cow Therapy Comprising Antibiotic Treatment, Internal Teat Sealant, and α-Tocopherol Against New Intramammary Infections in Cows

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    Cengiz Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of dry cow therapy based on antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol administered separately or in various combinations at drying-off The study was performed on 322 uninfected quarters of 95 cows originating from three dairy herds. The new intramammary infection rates after calving were measured to evaluate the effectiveness. The quarters were divided into six groups differing in treatment, namely: control group (group C, n = 40 and five treatment groups. Treatment groups were arranged as follows: group A (antibiotic alone, n = 81, group AS (antibiotic + sealant, n = 40, group AST (antibiotic + sealant + α-tocopherol, n = 40, group T (α-tocopherol alone, n = 40, group S (sealant alone, n = 81. New infection rate amounted to 47.5% in group C. The treatment in group AST significantly prevented from the occurrence of new intramammary infections (12.5%, P 0.05, although the use of the sealant alone (group S decreased the risk of new infection (24.7%, P 0.05. Increased α-tocopherol level (P < 0.05 was detected after calving in the quarters from cows that received α-tocopherol injections. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol used in dry cow therapy showed a significantly better preventive effect against new intramammary infections, than the therapeutics administered separately.

  2. Intramammary infections during the periparturient period in Argentine dairy heifers Infecciones intramamarias durante el periparto en vaquillonas en Argentina

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    L. F. Calvinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of intramammary infections at prepartum and postpartum in primigravid heifers from five dairy herds located in the central dairy area of Argentina was determined. Mammary secretion samples from 140 heifers (560 mammary quarters were obtained 14 days prior to the expected calving day and within 7 days after parturition and subjected to bacteriological analysis. No clinical mastitis cases were detected during the study. The number of infected heifers in at least one mammary quarter at pre and postpartum was 87 (62.2% and 53 (37.8%, respectively. The most prevalent mastitis pathogens at prepartum among samples yielding a positive bacteriological culture were coagulasenegative staphylococci (69.07%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.71% and Streptococcus uberis (4.42%. A decrease on isolation frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci (53.41% and S. uberis (2.27% was observed at postpartum, while that of S. aureus showed an increase (21.59%. Presence of intramammary infections appeared to be associated with some management conditions. These results highlighted the need to improve diagnosis and control measures in replacement heifers.Se determinó la prevalencia al preparto y posparto de infecciones intramamarias causadas por organismos patógenos de mastitis en vaquillonas primíparas de cinco establecimientos lecheros ubicados en la cuenca central santafesina. Se tomaron muestras de secreción mamaria de 140 vaquillonas (560 cuartos mamarios aproximadamente 14 días antes de la fecha probable de parto y dentro de los 7 días posparto, y se procesaron bacteriológicamente. No se detectaron casos de mastitis clínicas durante el estudio. El número de vaquillonas infectadas en al menos un cuarto mamario al preparto y posparto fue de 87 (62,2% y 53 (37,8%, respectivamente. Los organismos patógenos más prevalentes al preparto entre las muestras con cultivo bacteriológico positivo fueron estafilococos coagulasa negativos (69,07%, Staphylococcus

  3. Effect of 2 herbal intramammary products on milk quantity and quality compared with conventional and no dry cow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, K A E; Anderson, K L; Washburn, S P

    2014-01-01

    Dry cow therapy, administered at the end of lactation, is aimed at eliminating current and preventing future intramammary (IMM) bacterial infections and typically involves intramammary administration of antibiotics. Certified organic dairies in the United States are restricted from using antibiotics and must consider an alternative therapy or no dry cow therapy. The current study compared 2 herbal products to conventional dry cow therapy and no treatment for a total of 5 treatments over 2 trials. Trial 1 was conducted over 3 yr on 1 research farm and trial 2 included 4 commercial farms plus the research herd over 2 yr. Treatments included (1) a conventional IMM antibiotic and internal teat sealant (penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin and bismuth subnitrate; CON); (2) an herbal IMM product purported to act as a teat sealant (Cinnatube, New AgriTech Enterprises, Locke, NY; CIN); (3) an herbal IMM product (Phyto-Mast, Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA; P-M); (4) Phyto-Mast and Cinnatube (PC); or (5) no dry cow therapy (NT). Each treatment group was balanced by breed, lactation number, due date, herd, and year. However, the CON treatment was used only in the research herd because of the intent to avoid antibiotic usage on the other 4 farms. Comparisons among treatments included the difference between pre- and posttreatment 305-d mature equivalent milk production (trial 1), somatic cell score change from dry-off to freshening at the cow and quarter levels (trials 1 and 2), and milk microbiology change over the dry period (trial 2). We detected no significant differences among treatments for milk yield differences between the lactation following treatment and the lactation preceding treatment. Changes in somatic cell score from one lactation to the next also did not differ significantly among treatments in either trial. Cure rates were not significantly different among treatments; only 19.6% of all quarters were infected at dry off. The proportion of quarters with new

  4. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl; Ingmer, Hanne

    2018-05-16

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with automatic milking systems, and (2) examine if the isolated NAS influences the expression of S. aureus virulence factors controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system. In 8 herds, 14 to 20 cows with elevated somatic cell count were randomly selected for teat skin swabbing and aseptic quarter foremilk samples from right hind and left front quarters. Teat skin swabs were collected using the modified wet-dry method and milk samples were taken aseptically for bacterial culture. Colonies from quarters with suspicion of having NAS in milk or teat skin samples (or both) were subjected to MALDI-TOF assay for species identification. To investigate the interaction between S. aureus and NAS, 81 isolates NAS were subjected to a qualitative β-galactosidase reporter plate assay. In total, 373 NAS isolates were identified representing 105 from milk and 268 from teat skin of 284 quarters (= 142 cows). Sixteen different NAS species were identified, 15 species from teat skin and 10 species from milk. The most prevalent NAS species identified from milk were Staphylococcus epidermidis (50%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (15%), and Staphylococcus chromogenes (11%), accounting for 76%. Meanwhile, the most prevalent NAS species from teat skin were Staphylococcus equorum (43%), S. haemolyticus (16%), and Staphylococcus cohnii (14%), accounting for 73%. Using reporter gene fusions monitoring transcriptional activity of key virulence factors and regulators, we found that out of 81 supernatants of NAS isolates, 77% reduced expression of hla, encoding a-hemolysin, 70% reduced expression of RNAIII, the key effector molecule of agr, and 61% reduced expression of spa encoding

  5. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

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    Partha Ray

    Full Text Available Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1 and 0.96 µg L(-1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%. Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1 of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1. Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03. Peak excretion (2.69 mg was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03. The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from

  6. A mouse mastitis model to study the effects of the intramammary infusion of a food-grade Lactococcus lactis strain.

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    Cristina Camperio

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry and has "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS status. L. lactis belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and is encountered in a wide range of environments. Recently, the use of the intramammary infusion of a live culture of LAB has been investigated as a new antibiotic alternative for treating mastitis in dairy ruminants. Controversial results are described in literature regarding its efficacy and safety. In this study we conducted in-depth investigation of the mammary gland immune response induced by intramammary inoculum of a live culture of L. lactis LMG 7930 using the mouse mastitis model. Overnight cultures either of L. lactis (≈ 107 CFU or of the mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus chromogenes (≈ 105 CFU or S. aureus (≈ 102 CFU/ml were injected into the mouse inguinal glands. A double injection, consisting of S. chromogenes first and then L. lactis, was also investigated. Bacterial recovery from the gland and inflammatory cell infiltration were assessed. L. lactis-treated and control glands were analysed for proinflammatory cytokine production. Microbiological results showed that L. lactis was able to survive in the mammary gland 24 h post infection, as were the mastitis pathogens S. chromogenes and S. aureus. L. lactis reduced S. chromogenes survival in the glands and increased its own survival ability by coexisting with the pathogen. Histology showed that L. lactis-treated glands presented variable histological features, ranging from undamaged tissue with no inflammatory cell infiltrate to severe PMN infiltrate with focal areas of tissue damage. S. aureus-treated glands showed the most severe histological grade of inflammation despite the fact that the inoculum size was the smallest. In contrast, most S. chromogenes-treated glands showed normal structures with no infiltration or lesions. Significant increases in IL-1β and TNF-α levels were

  7. A mouse mastitis model to study the effects of the intramammary infusion of a food-grade Lactococcus lactis strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, Elena; Frassanito, Paolo; Giovannelli, Carlo; Spuria, Liliana; D’Agostino, Claudia; Tait, Sabrina; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry and has “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status. L. lactis belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is encountered in a wide range of environments. Recently, the use of the intramammary infusion of a live culture of LAB has been investigated as a new antibiotic alternative for treating mastitis in dairy ruminants. Controversial results are described in literature regarding its efficacy and safety. In this study we conducted in-depth investigation of the mammary gland immune response induced by intramammary inoculum of a live culture of L. lactis LMG 7930 using the mouse mastitis model. Overnight cultures either of L. lactis (≈ 107 CFU) or of the mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus chromogenes (≈ 105 CFU) or S. aureus (≈ 102 CFU/ml) were injected into the mouse inguinal glands. A double injection, consisting of S. chromogenes first and then L. lactis, was also investigated. Bacterial recovery from the gland and inflammatory cell infiltration were assessed. L. lactis-treated and control glands were analysed for proinflammatory cytokine production. Microbiological results showed that L. lactis was able to survive in the mammary gland 24 h post infection, as were the mastitis pathogens S. chromogenes and S. aureus. L. lactis reduced S. chromogenes survival in the glands and increased its own survival ability by coexisting with the pathogen. Histology showed that L. lactis-treated glands presented variable histological features, ranging from undamaged tissue with no inflammatory cell infiltrate to severe PMN infiltrate with focal areas of tissue damage. S. aureus-treated glands showed the most severe histological grade of inflammation despite the fact that the inoculum size was the smallest. In contrast, most S. chromogenes-treated glands showed normal structures with no infiltration or lesions. Significant increases in IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also found

  8. A mouse mastitis model to study the effects of the intramammary infusion of a food-grade Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio, Cristina; Armas, Federica; Biasibetti, Elena; Frassanito, Paolo; Giovannelli, Carlo; Spuria, Liliana; D'Agostino, Claudia; Tait, Sabrina; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry and has "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status. L. lactis belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is encountered in a wide range of environments. Recently, the use of the intramammary infusion of a live culture of LAB has been investigated as a new antibiotic alternative for treating mastitis in dairy ruminants. Controversial results are described in literature regarding its efficacy and safety. In this study we conducted in-depth investigation of the mammary gland immune response induced by intramammary inoculum of a live culture of L. lactis LMG 7930 using the mouse mastitis model. Overnight cultures either of L. lactis (≈ 107 CFU) or of the mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus chromogenes (≈ 105 CFU) or S. aureus (≈ 102 CFU/ml) were injected into the mouse inguinal glands. A double injection, consisting of S. chromogenes first and then L. lactis, was also investigated. Bacterial recovery from the gland and inflammatory cell infiltration were assessed. L. lactis-treated and control glands were analysed for proinflammatory cytokine production. Microbiological results showed that L. lactis was able to survive in the mammary gland 24 h post infection, as were the mastitis pathogens S. chromogenes and S. aureus. L. lactis reduced S. chromogenes survival in the glands and increased its own survival ability by coexisting with the pathogen. Histology showed that L. lactis-treated glands presented variable histological features, ranging from undamaged tissue with no inflammatory cell infiltrate to severe PMN infiltrate with focal areas of tissue damage. S. aureus-treated glands showed the most severe histological grade of inflammation despite the fact that the inoculum size was the smallest. In contrast, most S. chromogenes-treated glands showed normal structures with no infiltration or lesions. Significant increases in IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also found in

  9. Longitudinal metagenomic profiling of bovine milk to assess the impact of intramammary treatment using a third-generation cephalosporin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Erika K.; Bisinotto, Rafael S.; Lima, Svetlana F.; Kronauer, Kristina; Decter, Dean H.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Schukken, Ynte H.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in food animals has a direct impact on human health, and approximately 80% of the antibiotics prescribed in the dairy industry are used to treat bovine mastitis. Here we provide a longitudinal description of the changes in the microbiome of milk that are associated with mastitis and antimicrobial therapy. Next-generation sequencing, 16 S rRNA gene quantitative real-time PCR, and aerobic culturing were applied to assess the effect of disease and antibiotic therapy on the milk microbiome. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis associated with Gram-negative pathogens or negative aerobic culture were randomly allocated into 5 days of Ceftiofur intramammary treatment or remained as untreated controls. Serial milk samples were collected from the affected quarter and the ipsilateral healthy quarter of the same animal. Milk from the mastitic quarter had a higher bacterial load and reduced microbial diversity compared to healthy milk. Resolution of the disease was accompanied by increases in diversity indexes and a decrease in pathogen relative abundance. Escherichia coli-associated mastitic milk samples had a remarkably distinct bacterial profile, dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, when compared to healthy milk. However, no differences were observed in culture-negative mastitis samples when compared to healthy milk. Antimicrobial treatment had no significant effect on clinical cure, bacteriological cure, pathogen clearance rate or bacterial load. PMID:27874095

  10. Intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci at parturition: Species-specific prevalence, risk factors, and effect on udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2016-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant intramammary testosterone-anastrozole therapy: neoadjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca L; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical data support the inhibitory effect of testosterone on breast tissue and breast cancer. However, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol, which exerts the opposite effect. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of testosterone, combined with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, on a hormone receptor positive, infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the neoadjuvant setting. To determine clinical response, we obtained serial ultrasonic measurements and mammograms before and after therapy. Three combination implants-each containing 60 mg of testosterone and 4 mg of anastrozole-were placed anterior, superior, and inferior to a 2.4-cm tumor in the left breast. Three additional testosterone-anastrozole implants were again placed peritumorally 48 days later. By day 46, there was a sevenfold reduction in tumor volume, as measured on ultrasound. By week 13, we documented a 12-fold reduction in tumor volume, demonstrating a rapid logarithmic response to intramammary testosterone-anastrozole implant therapy, equating to a daily response rate of 2.78% and a tumor half-life of 23 days. Therapeutic systemic levels of testosterone were achieved without elevation of estradiol, further demonstrating the efficacy of anastrozole combined with testosterone. This novel therapy, delivered in the neoadjuvant setting, has the potential to identify early responders and to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy in vivo. This may prove to be a new approach to both local and systemic therapies for breast cancer in subgroups of patients. In addition, it can be used to reduce tumor volume, allowing for less surgical intervention and better cosmetic oncoplastic results.

  12. Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 1. Protection against new intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, T; Osterås, O; Hogeveen, H; van Werven, T; Nielen, M

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the preventive effect of various dry cow management measures against quarter new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period up to 21 d postcalving. Moreover, the potential publication bias was assessed in the studies selected for this analysis. The intervention measures were blanket dry cow therapy (BDCT), selective dry cow therapy (SDCT), cloxacillin compared with other dry cow therapy products, and teat sealant. A meta-analysis relative risk (RR) was calculated per intervention and pathogen group when enough studies were available from the 33 selected studies. Results of the meta-analyses were examined using publication bias tests. Blanket dry cow therapy showed significant protection against new IMI caused by Streptococcus spp. [the pooled RR was 0.39 (0.30 to 0.51)] but no protection was observed against coliform new IMI [the pooled RR was 0.95 (0.81 to 1.10)]. After correction for publication bias, it became doubtful whether DCT is protective against new Staphylococcus spp. IMI. Cloxacillin showed similar protection against new quarter IMI compared with other DCT products [the pooled RR was 1.09 (0.94 to 1.25)]. Selective dry cow therapy showed higher protection against new IMI compared with no DCT [the pooled RR was 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86)]. However, BDCT showed more protection when compared with SDCT [the pooled RR was 0.55 (0.37 to 0.80)], but the inference about whether BDCT is superior to SDCT was dependent on whether the selection criteria for SDCT was at the cow or quarter level. Internal teat sealants showed significant protection against new IMI during the dry period [the pooled RR was 0.39 (0.18 to 0.82)]. Publication bias should be taken into account when attempts are made to review literature in a meta-analysis.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An evaluation of factors predicting breast recurrence and prognosis after recurrence, on distinguishing intramammary and extramammary recurrence, in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-06-01

    Recurrence of cancer in the breast is an important problem in breast-conserving therapy. We evaluated risk factors for recurrence from the viewpoint of recurrence type and outcome after recurrence. Of 533 cases of breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery from April 1989 through July 2000, disease in 66 recurred (12.4%) and were classified as 23 cases of breast recurrence only, 16 cases of both breast recurrence and distant metastasis, and 27 cases of distant metastasis only. The clinical factors examined included age, lymphatic invasion, nodal status, extensive intraductal component (EIC), proliferative activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Of the 39 cases of breast recurrence, 19 had intramammary tumors and 20 had extramammary tumors of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or muscle, including 8 cases with inflammatory breast recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that factors correlated with breast recurrence were age, ER status, proliferative activity, and surgical margin. EIC-comedo was related to intramammary recurrence, whereas lymphatic invasion and nodal status were related to extramammary recurrence. Postoperative irradiation was an effective treatment for tumors in young women and tumors with positive margins or a comedo component. Outcome after breast recurrence depended on nodal status at primary operation, and survival rates were worst in patients with inflammatory breast recurrence. In conclusion, age, EIC-comedo status, the surgical margin, and negative ER status were correlated with breast recurrence. Countermeasures against these factors should be investigated. (author)

  15. An evaluation of factors predicting breast recurrence and prognosis after recurrence, on distinguishing intramammary and extramammary recurrence, in breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko

    2001-01-01

    Recurrence of cancer in the breast is an important problem in breast-conserving therapy. We evaluated risk factors for recurrence from the viewpoint of recurrence type and outcome after recurrence. Of 533 cases of breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery from April 1989 through July 2000, disease in 66 recurred (12.4%) and were classified as 23 cases of breast recurrence only, 16 cases of both breast recurrence and distant metastasis, and 27 cases of distant metastasis only. The clinical factors examined included age, lymphatic invasion, nodal status, extensive intraductal component (EIC), proliferative activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Of the 39 cases of breast recurrence, 19 had intramammary tumors and 20 had extramammary tumors of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or muscle, including 8 cases with inflammatory breast recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that factors correlated with breast recurrence were age, ER status, proliferative activity, and surgical margin. EIC-comedo was related to intramammary recurrence, whereas lymphatic invasion and nodal status were related to extramammary recurrence. Postoperative irradiation was an effective treatment for tumors in young women and tumors with positive margins or a comedo component. Outcome after breast recurrence depended on nodal status at primary operation, and survival rates were worst in patients with inflammatory breast recurrence. In conclusion, age, EIC-comedo status, the surgical margin, and negative ER status were correlated with breast recurrence. Countermeasures against these factors should be investigated. (author)

  16. Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a 5-day ceftiofur hydrochloride intramammary treatment on nonsevere gram-negative clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukken, Y H; Bennett, G J; Zurakowski, M J; Sharkey, H L; Rauch, B J; Thomas, M J; Ceglowski, B; Saltman, R L; Belomestnykh, N; Zadoks, R N

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride of nonsevere, clinical coliform mastitis. One hundred four cases on 5 farms met the enrollment criteria for the study. Escherichia coli was the most common coliform species identified in milk samples from cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. At enrollment, a milk sample from the affected quarter was taken and used for on-farm culture or submitted to the laboratory. For cows in the treatment group, treatment was initiated with ceftiofur hydrochloride via intramammary infusion at 24-h intervals for 5 d according to label standards. Cows in the control group did not receive treatment. Culture results were available on the day after enrollment and only cows with coliform mastitis continued in the treatment and untreated control groups. Bacteriological cure was defined based on 2 posttreatment milk samples. Molecular typing was used for final definition of bacteriological cure. Treatment of nonsevere clinical gram-negative mastitis with ceftiofur hydrochloride resulted in a significant increase in bacteriological cure compared with nontreated controls in animals infected with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. Treated animals clinically improved significantly more compared with control cows. No significant differences were observed between treated and control animals in milk production or linear score before or after clinical mastitis. Treated animals left the study less frequently compared with control animals. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Update on the development of a novel dry cow therapy using a bismuth-based intramammary teat seal in combination with the bacteriocin lacticin 3147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispie Fiona

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics have led to a search for alternatives to dry cow therapy for the prevention of intramammary infections. A popular alternative is to infuse a teat seal at drying-off. The teat seal is a viscous non-antibiotic formulation and when it is infused into the teat canal and the teat sinus it forms an internal seal that provides a physical barrier to invasion by mastitis-causing pathogens. Enhancement of teat seal formulations may be achieved using non-antibiotic additives such as bacteriocins, potent proteins produced by some bacteria that have the ability to kill other microorganisms. This paper traces the history of investigations at Moorepark Research Centre into the efficacy of teat seal plus lacticin 3147, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC3147, in the prevention of intramammary infections in dry cows. Indications from on-going investigations are that a dry cow formulation combining the two products has considerable potential as a non-antibiotic prophylactic product.

  18. Randomized noninferiority trial comparing 2 commercial intramammary antibiotics for the treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A K; Nydam, D V; Capel, M B; Ceglowski, B; Rauch, B J; Thomas, M J; Tikofsky, L; Watters, R D; Zuidhof, S; Zurakowski, M J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose was to evaluate 2 intramammary treatments for mild-to-moderate cases of clinical mastitis in a noninferiority comparison. Noninferiority trials are intended to show whether a given treatment, hetacillin potassium, has at least comparable efficacy as the reference treatment, ceftiofur hydrochloride. Treatments can be deemed inferior to the reference treatment by an amount less than the margin of noninferiority, or inconclusive if the confidence interval crosses the margin of noninferiority. Cows with clinical mastitis from 6 farms were considered for enrollment. Using a randomized design, cows with mild or moderate mastitis in 1 quarter were assigned to on-label treatment with either ceftiofur or hetacillin. A total of 596 cows met the criteria needed for continued enrollment. Treatment distribution resulted in 309 cows in the ceftiofur group and 287 cows in the hetacillin group. Mixed regression analysis was performed for the following outcomes: bacteriological cure, pathogen cure, clinical cure, postevent milk production and linear score, and survival to d 30 and 60. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to describe treatment effect on survival and mastitis risks. Bacteriological cure, defined as absence of causative organism in samples retrieved at d 14 and 21 postmastitis, was similar between groups. No significant statistical differences were found in cure risk, and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur for bacteriological cure was conclusive (hetacillin=67%, ceftiofur=72%). Absence of a pathogen on both follow-up samples designated a cow as a pathogen cure. Pathogen cure was similar between treatment groups and noninferiority of hetacillin relative to ceftiofur was shown (hetacillin=35%, ceftiofur=32%). Clinical cure (hetacillin=68%, ceftiofur=64%), postevent milk production (hetacillin=37.0kg, ceftiofur=38.2kg), and linear scores (hetacillin=3.4, ceftiofur=3.1) were also not statistically different between treatment groups

  19. Epidemiology of coagulase-negative staphylococci intramammary infection in dairy cattle and the effect of bacteriological culture misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R; Barkema, H W; Descôteaux, L; Devries, T J; Reyher, K K; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T

    2012-06-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify the manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections (IMI) while taking into account the difficulties inherent to their diagnosis. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of CNS IMI misclassification in mastitis research. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy herds was followed throughout 2007 to 2008. In each herd, series of quarter milk samples were collected from a subsample of cows and bacteriological culture was performed to identify prevalent, incident, and eliminated CNS IMI. Practices used on farms were captured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. The relationships between herd CNS IMI prevalence and herd incidence and elimination rates were explored using linear regression. Manageable risk factors associated with the prevalence, incidence, or elimination of CNS IMI were identified via Bayesian analyses using a latent class model approach, allowing adjustment of the estimates for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of bacteriological culture. After adjustment for the diagnostic test limitations, a mean CNS IMI quarter prevalence of 42.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.7, 50.1] and incidence and elimination rates of 0.29 new IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.21, 0.37) and 0.79 eliminated IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.66, 0.91), respectively, were observed. Considerable biases of the estimates were observed when CNS IMI misclassification was ignored. These biases were important for measures of association with risk factors, were almost always toward the null value, and led to both type I and type II errors. Coagulase-negative staphylococci IMI incidence appeared to be a stronger determinant of herd IMI prevalence than IMI elimination rate. The majority of herds followed were already using blanket dry cow treatment and postmilking teat disinfection. A holistic approach considering

  20. Effect of disinfecting teats post-milking or pre- and post-milking on intramammary infection and somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J H; Lacy-Hulbert, S J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of (a) post-milking teat disinfection compared with no disinfection and (b) pre- and post-milking teat disinfection compared with post-milking disinfection alone, on the incidence of new intramammary infection (IMI), somatic cell count (SCC) and teat skin abnormalities in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows in five dairy herds were randomly allocated to a post-milking teat disinfection group (n=230), that was sprayed with an iodine-based disinfectant (TeatguardPlus) for a complete lactation, or to a non-disinfected group (n=239). In Experiment 2, cows were randomly allocated to post-milking teat disinfection (n=239) or both pre- and post-milking teat disinfection (n=235), using a chloramine-T-based disinfectant (Teatsweet) for both treatments, from calving to 118-127 days in milk. The incidence of new IMI was determined by aseptic sampling of all quarters at calving, during lactation, and at trial end or at drying-off, with clinical mastitis cases sampled on detection. SCC and teat skin abnormalities were measured at 2-monthly intervals during lactation. In both experiments, disinfectant was applied by spray application. Cows that received post-milking teat disinfection had a lower incidence of new IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Corynebacterium spp and coagulase negative staphylococci, had lower bulk milk SCC during lactation, and had fewer teat skin abnormalities compared with the non-disinfected cows (p disinfection, in addition to post-milking teat disinfection, did not reduce the incidence of new IMI for any pathogens and did not reduce SCC (p> 0.05). Post-milking teat disinfection applied as a spray is a key component in mastitis control in New Zealand. There was no benefit from the addition of pre-milking disinfection. This study confirms previous findings of the effectiveness of post-milking teat disinfection in reducing the incidence of IMI caused by the common mastitis-causing pathogens in New

  1. Test characteristics of milk amyloid A ELISA, somatic cell count, and bacteriological culture for detection of intramammary pathogens that cause subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, S; Virchow, F; Torgerson, P R; Bischoff, M; Biner, B; Hartnack, S; Rüegg, S R

    2017-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important disease in the dairy industry, causing economic losses as a result of withheld milk and treatment costs. Several studies have suggested milk amyloid A (MAA) as a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of mastitis. In the absence of a gold standard for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, we estimated the diagnostic test accuracy of a commercial MAA-ELISA, somatic cell count (SCC), and bacteriological culture using Bayesian latent class modeling. We divided intramammary infections into 2 classes: those caused by major pathogens (e.g., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, and lacto-/enterococci) and those caused by all pathogens (major pathogens plus Corynebacterium bovis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp.). We applied the 3 diagnostic tests to all samples. Of 433 composite milk samples included in this study, 275 (63.5%) contained at least 1 colony of any bacterial species; of those, 56 contained major pathogens and 219 contained minor pathogens. The remaining 158 samples (36.5%) were sterile. We determined 2 different thresholds for the MAA-ELISA using Bayesian latent class modeling: 3.9 µg/mL to detect mastitis caused by major pathogens and 1.6 µg/mL to detect mastitis caused by all pathogens. The optimal SCC threshold for identification of subclinical mastitis was 150,000 cells/mL; this threshold led to higher specificity (Sp) than 100,000 cells/mL. Test accuracy for major-pathogen intramammary infections was as follows: SCC, sensitivity (Se) 92.6% and Sp 72.9%; MAA-ELISA, Se 81.4% and Sp 93.4%; bacteriological culture, Se 23.8% and Sp 95.2%. Test accuracy for all-pathogen intramammary infections was as follows: SCC, sensitivity 90.3% and Sp 71.8%; MAA-ELISA, Se 88.0% and Sp 65.2%; bacteriological culture, Se 83.8% and Sp 54.8%. We suggest the use of SCC and MAA-ELISA as a combined screening procedure for situations such as a Staphylococcus aureus control program. With Bayesian

  2. VNTR diversity in Yersinia pestis isolates from an animal challenge study reveals the potential for in vitro mutations during laboratory cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Amy J.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Busch, Joseph D.; Sahl, Jason W.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Smith, Susan; Rocke, Tonie E.; Klein, Paul; Wagner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Underlying mutation rates and other evolutionary forces shape the population structure of bacteria in nature. Although easily overlooked, similar forces are at work in the laboratory and may influence observed mutations. Here, we investigated tissue samples and Yersinia pestis isolates from a rodent laboratory challenge with strain CO92 using whole genome sequencing and multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). We identified six VNTR mutations that were found to have occurred in vitro during laboratory cultivation rather than in vivo during the rodent challenge. In contrast, no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations were observed, either in vivo or in vitro. These results were consistent with previously published mutation rates and the calculated number of Y. pestis generations that occurred during the in vitro versus the in vivo portions of the experiment. When genotyping disease outbreaks, the potential for in vitro mutations should be considered, particularly when highly variable genetic markers such as VNTRs are used.

  3. Epidemiology of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci in a dairy cattle herd with a history of recurrent clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (pmastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.

  4. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting the Challenge: Evoking Some Hope; From Personal Advocacy to Public Activism; Seeing Yourself Sitting There; Letting Kids' Gifts Shine Through; Revealing the Secrets of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lee; Lewis, Bryan; Ramsey, Betsy; Tibbetts, Daniel; Kaplan, Kay; Berninger, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with a learning disabled student, parent activist, teacher, tutor, and researcher reveal that learning disabilities are neurologically caused, not the result of low motivation or dysfunctional families. A variety of educational practices are explained that accommodate different learning styles of children with learning disabilities. It…

  7. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological and partial budget analysis for treatment of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections considering microbiological and cytological scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Etter, Eric M C; Donkin, Edward F; Webb, Edward C; Karzis, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    An innovative method was investigated to aid in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) intramammary infections (IMI) from dairy herds. A stochastic model explore the economic benefit of three-day or eight-day treatment of subclinical IMI in all S. aureus infected cows or in only those with a somatic cell count (SCC) exceeding 200,000 cells/ml. An epidemiological model was developed to run parallel to the economic model that would predict the S. aureus IMI likely to persist, develop new infections and clinical mastitis. In the economic model a first algorithm was used to consider the low prevalence (LP) scenario and made use of S. aureus prevalence information provided by retrospective analysis of microbiological and cytological results in South Africa (2008-2012). The data used considered Staphylococcus aureus prevalence from [1.495; 1.595] 95% to [6.72; 6.95] 95% for SCC≤200,000 and SCC>200,000 cells/ml respectively. A second algorithm considered the high prevalence (HP) scenario to evaluate a simulated situation with a 5[U1] [R12] to 25% prevalence. Scenarios of low or high transmission ratio (TR) were included in the model according to the hygiene management on the farm. Probabilities and costs were calculated over 255days. The economic models predicted average cost indices for low S. aureus IMI and low TR to vary from -3179 ZAR (South African Rands) when subclinical cases with SCC higher than 200,000 cell/ml were treated for eight days, to -3663 ZAR when all subclinical S. aureus IMI were treated for three days. With a HP and high TR of S. aureus the average cost indices changed from -18,042 ZAR when none to -5433 ZAR per 255days when all S. aureus IMI were treated for eight days. The epidemiological model in this study predicted substantial benefit of treatment mainly in high TR scenarios. New IMI decreased up to77% in the three-day and up to 91% in the eight-day treatment scenarios. In the HP scenarios, persistent IMI were reduced by 94%. The

  9. VNTR diversity in Yersinia pestis isolates from an animal challenge study reveals the potential for in vitro mutations during laboratory cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Amy J; Nottingham, Roxanne; Busch, Joseph D; Sahl, Jason W; Shuey, Megan M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James M; Smith, Susan R; Rocke, Tonie E; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

    2016-11-01

    Underlying mutation rates and other evolutionary forces shape the population structure of bacteria in nature. Although easily overlooked, similar forces are at work in the laboratory and may influence observed mutations. Here, we investigated tissue samples and Yersinia pestis isolates from a rodent laboratory challenge with strain CO92 using whole genome sequencing and multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). We identified six VNTR mutations that were found to have occurred in vitro during laboratory cultivation rather than in vivo during the rodent challenge. In contrast, no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations were observed, either in vivo or in vitro. These results were consistent with previously published mutation rates and the calculated number of Y. pestis generations that occurred during the in vitro versus the in vivo portions of the experiment. When genotyping disease outbreaks, the potential for in vitro mutations should be considered, particularly when highly variable genetic markers such as VNTRs are used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic investigation of Vibrio alginolyticus challenged Caenorhabditis elegans revealed regulation of cellular homeostasis proteins and their role in supporting innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Sellegounder; Singh, Nirpendra; Kundu, Suman; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2014-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has been the preferred model system for many investigators to study pathogenesis. In the present investigation, regulation of C. elegans proteome was explored against V. alginolyticus infection using quantitative proteomics approach. Proteins were separated using 2D-DIGE and the differentially regulated proteins were identified using PMF and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. The results thus obtained were validated using Western blotting for candidate proteins. The corresponding transcriptional regulation was quantified subsequently using real-time PCR. Interaction network for candidate proteins was predicted using search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and functional validation was performed using respective mutant strains. Out of the 25 proteins identified, 21 proteins appeared to be upregulated while four were downregulated. Upregulated proteins included those involved in stress-response (PDI-2, HSP-6), immune-response (protein kinase -18, GST-8) and energy-production (ATP-2) while proteins involved in structural maintenance (IFB-2) and lipid metabolism (SODH-1) were downregulated. The roles of these players in the host system during Vibrio infection was analyzed in vivo using wild type and mutant C. elegans. Survival assays using mutants lacking pdi-2, ire-1, and xbp-1 displayed enhanced susceptibility to V. alginolyticus. Cellular stress generated by V. alginolyticus was determined using ROS assay. This is the first report of proteome changes in C. elegans against V. alginolyticus challenge and highlights the significance of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during bacterial infection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in compatible interaction of wheat challenged with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lili

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is a fungal pathogen causing stripe rust, one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. The fungus is strictly biotrophic and thus, completely dependent on living host cells for its reproduction, which makes it difficult to study genes of the pathogen. In spite of its economic importance, little is known about the molecular basis of compatible interaction between the pathogen and wheat host. In this study, we identified wheat and P. striiformis genes associated with the infection process by conducting a large-scale transcriptomic analysis using cDNA-AFLP. Results Of the total 54,912 transcript derived fragments (TDFs obtained using cDNA-AFLP with 64 primer pairs, 2,306 (4.2% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation, of which 966 showed up-regulated and 1,340 down-regulated. 186 TDFs produced reliable sequences after sequencing of 208 TDFs selected, of which 74 (40% had known functions through BLAST searching the GenBank database. Majority of the latter group had predicted gene products involved in energy (13%, signal transduction (5.4%, disease/defence (5.9% and metabolism (5% of the sequenced TDFs. BLAST searching of the wheat stem rust fungus genome database identified 18 TDFs possibly from the stripe rust pathogen, of which 9 were validated of the pathogen origin using PCR-based assays followed by sequencing confirmation. Of the 186 reliable TDFs, 29 homologous to genes known to play a role in disease/defense, signal transduction or uncharacterized genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 28 (96.5% genes revealed by the cDNA-AFLP technique. Conclusion The results show that cDNA-AFLP is a reliable technique for studying expression patterns of genes involved in the wheat-stripe rust interactions. Genes involved in compatible interactions between wheat and the

  12. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  13. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederlöf Sara Ellinor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test characteristics of PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct-value cut-offs. Methods Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence of a perfect reference test. The population was divided into two geographically divided subpopulations and the Hui-Walter 2-test 2-populations model applied to estimate Se, Sp for the two tests, and prevalence for the two subpopulations. Results The Se for PCR increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off, accompanied by a small decrease in Sp. For BC the Se decreased and Sp increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off. Most optimal test estimates for the real-time PCR assay were at a Ct-value cut-off of 37; 0.93 [95% posterior probability interval (PPI 0.60-0.99] for Se and 0.95 [95% PPI 0.95-0.99] for Sp. At the same Ct-value cut-off, Se and Sp for BC were 0.83 [95% PPI 0.66-0.99] and 0.97 [95% PPI 0.91-0.99] respectively. Depending on the chosen PCR Ct-value cut-off, the prevalence in the subpopulations varied; the prevalence increased with increasing PCR Ct-value cut-offs. Conclusion Neither BC nor real-time PCR is a perfect test in detecting IMI in dairy cows at dry off. The changes in sensitivity and prevalence at different Ct-value cut-offs for both PCR and

  14. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederlöf, Sara Ellinor; Toft, Nils; Aalbæk, Bent

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of PathoProof TM Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC) in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct)-value cut-offs. METHODS: Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds...... were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI) milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof TM Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence...

  15. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  16. Efficacy assessment of an intramammary treatment with a new recrystallized enrofloxacin vs ceftiofur and parenteral enrofloxacin in dairy cows with nonsevere clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, M; Lopez-Ordaz, R; Gutiérrez, L; Miranda-Calderón, J E; Sumano, H

    2018-02-01

    A recrystallized form of enrofloxacin as dehydrate-HCl (enro-C) was assessed for bacteriological and clinical cure efficacies in Holstein-Friesian cows affected of nonsevere clinical mastitis. Treatments were enro-C susp (n = 81), treated with a pharmaceutical suspension of enro-C/quarter; group enro-C pd (n = 80) treated as above, but using enro-C powder suspended in water; group CF (n = 65), treated with ceftiofur HCl/quarter; and group enro R (n = 66), treated with standard enrofloxacin solution (5 mg/kg, intramuscular). Cows had a mean milk production of 31 L/day and were 2-3 lactational periods old. Treatments were administered every 24 hr for 3 days. Groups treated with enro-C exhibited statistically significant (p > .05) better clinical cure as compared to groups treated with CF or enro R (95.06%, 96.25%, 67.79%, and 57.55%, for enro-C susp , enro-C pd , CF, and enro R , respectively). In contrast, probability of bacteriological cure was not statistically different among treatments. Yet, the outstanding clinical and bacteriological cure rates obtained for enro-C for nonsevere cases of mastitis is superior to previously reported data for parenteral enrofloxacin and other antibacterial-intramammary treatments. Impact of using enro-C on the rate and pattern of bacterial resistance, somatic cell counts and milk electric conductivity, must be studied. Also, the use of enro-C for complicated cases of mastitis should be studied and milk withdrawal times must be accurately established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Bovine Intramammary Infection by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patrícia Aparecida de Campos; Prada e Silva, Luis Felipe; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the main pathogens causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) in many countries. However, one of the limitations related to the specific diagnosis of CoNS is the lack of an accurate, rapid, and convenient method that can differentiate the bacterial species comprising this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to accurately identify CoNS species in dairy cow IMI. In addition, the study aimed to determine the frequency of CoNS species causing bovine IMI. A total of 108 bacterial isolates were diagnosed as CoNS by microbiological cultures from two milk samples collected from 21 dairy herds; the first sample was collected at the cow level (i.e., 1,242 composite samples from all quarters), while the second sample was collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows). After CoNS isolation was confirmed by microbiological culture for both samples, all CoNS isolates (n = 108) were genotypically differentiated by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a partial groEL gene sequence and subjected to the MALDI-TOF MS identification procedure. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 103 (95.4%) of the CoNS isolates identified by PCR-RFLP at the species level. Eleven CoNS species isolated from bovine IMI were identified by PCR-RFLP, and the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (n = 80; 74.1%). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS may be a reliable alternative method for differentiating CoNS species causing bovine IMI. PMID:24622096

  18. Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

    2014-11-01

    Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of standing and lying behavior patterns and incidence of intramammary infection in dairy cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Deming, J A; Rodenburg, J; Seguin, G; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W

    2011-08-01

    The standing and lying behavior patterns of dairy cows, particularly the length of time cows spend standing after milking, have the potential to influence the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI). The objectives were to describe the standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an automatic milking system (AMS) and to determine how these patterns relate to the incidence of IMI. One hundred and eleven lactating Holstein dairy cows were monitored over a 4-mo period. These cows were kept in a sand-bedded freestall barn with 2 pens, each with a free cow traffic AMS. Feed was delivered once daily, and pushed up 2 to 3 times daily. Quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological culture from each cow once every 4 wk. A new IMI was defined as a positive culture sample following a negative culture. For 7 d before each of the last 3 milk samplings, standing and lying behavior, and times of milking and feed manipulation (feed delivery and push up) were recorded. Daily lying time and lying bout length were negatively related with milk yield (r=-0.23 and -0.20, respectively) and milking frequency (r=-0.32 and -0.20, respectively); milk yield was positively related to milking frequency (r=0.58). Feed manipulation near the time cows were milked (1h before 2h after) resulted in the longest post-milking standing times (mean=86 min; 95% confidence interval=78, 94 min), whereas feed manipulation occurring outside that time frame resulted in shorter post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 171 new IMI were detected. Of these new IMI detected, those caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci were the only ones associated with post-milking standing time; as post-milking standing time increased past 2.5h after milking, the odds of acquiring a new IMI tended to also increase. In summary, standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an AMS were affected by both feed manipulation and their milking activity. Further, the post-milking standing

  20. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS

  1. Evaluation of selective dry cow treatment following on-farm culture: risk of postcalving intramammary infection and clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; McKenna, S L; MacDonald, K A; Dohoo, I R; Roy, J P; Keefe, G P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of a Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system when used to make selective antimicrobial treatment decisions on low somatic cell count cows (cows from 16 commercial dairy herds with a low bulk tank somatic cell count (cow therapy (DCT) or Petrifilm-based selective DCT. Cows belonging to the blanket DCT group were infused with a commercial dry cow antimicrobial product and an internal teat sealant (ITS) at drying off. Using composite milk samples collected on the day before drying off, cows in the selective DCT group were treated at drying off based on the results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system with DCT + ITS (Petrifilm culture positive), or ITS alone (Petrifilm culture negative). Quarters of all cows were sampled for standard laboratory bacteriology on the day before drying off, at 3 to 4d in milk (DIM), at 5 to 18 DIM, and from the first case of clinical mastitis occurring within 120 DIM. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effect of study group (blanket or selective DCT) and resulting dry cow treatment (DCT + ITS, or ITS alone) on the risk of intramammary infection (IMI) at calving and the risk of a first case of clinical mastitis between calving and 120 DIM. According to univariable analysis, no difference was observed between study groups with respect to quarter-level cure risk and new IMI risk over the dry period. Likewise, the risk of IMI at calving and the risk of clinical mastitis in the first 120 DIM was not different between quarters belonging to cows in the blanket DCT group and quarters belonging to cows in the selective DCT group. The results of this study indicate that selective DCT based on results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system achieved the same level of success with respect to treatment and prevention of IMI over the dry period as blanket DCT and did not affect the risk of clinical mastitis in the first 120 d of the subsequent lactation

  2. Efficacy of a high free iodine barrier teat disinfectant for the prevention of naturally occurring new intramammary infections and clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Pinheiro, E S C; Gentilini, M; Benavides, M Lopez; Santos, M V

    2017-05-01

    Using a natural exposure trial design, the goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an iodine teat disinfectant with barrier properties and a high level of free iodine relative to a conventional iodine teat disinfectant with no barrier properties and low levels of free iodine. During the 18 wk of the trial, quarter milk samples were collected every 2 wk from 385 dairy cows from 2 herds. Cows on both farms were assigned in a balanced way according to milk yield, number of lactation, days in milk, somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiology culture pretrial into one of following groups: nonbarrier post milking teat disinfectant (NBAR; n = 195 cows; 747 quarters) or barrier postmilking teat disinfectant (BAR; n = 190 cows; 728 quarters). Afterward, at each scoring date every 2 wk, milk SCC was quantified in samples from all mammary quarters and microbiologic culture was only performed on milk samples with SCC >200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and SCC >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows. A new intramammary infection (NIMI) was defined when a quarter had milk SCC 200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows, and positive microorganism isolation. A quarter could have several NIMI, but only 1 case per specific pathogen was considered. The most frequently isolated microorganism group on both farms was Streptococcus spp. (6.25% of total mammary quarters), followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (3.6%) and Corynebacterium spp. (1.5%). In the present study, an interaction occurred between treatment and week of trial on the incidence risk of NIMI. Quarters disinfected with BAR had 54 and 37% lower odds of NIMI than quarters disinfected with NBAR at 8 and 16 wk of the trial, respectively; whereas at other weeks of the study both products had similar incidence risks of NIMI. Overall, teats disinfected with BAR had 46% lower odds of acquiring a clinical mastitis than those disinfected with NBAR. We concluded that

  3. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Zuhair B; Awawdeh, Mofleh S; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage ( Salvia officinalis ) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment. The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations. In this study, the intramammary infusion of sage EO to ewes affected with

  4. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  5. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-06

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge.

  6. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  7. Evaluation of an automated milk leukocyte differential test and the California Mastitis Test for detecting intramammary infection in early- and late-lactation quarters and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Royster, E; Timmerman, J; Rapnicki, P; Green, H

    2017-08-01

    Study objectives were to (1) describe the diagnostic test characteristics of an automated milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify intramammary infection (IMI) in early- (EL) and late-lactation (LL) quarters and cows when using 3 different approaches to define IMI from milk culture, and (2) describe the repeatability of MLD test results at both the quarter and cow level. Eighty-six EL and 90 LL Holstein cows were sampled from 3 Midwest herds. Quarter milk samples were collected for a cow-side CMT test, milk culture, and MLD testing. Quarter IMI status was defined by 3 methods: culture of a single milk sample, culture of duplicate samples with parallel interpretation, and culture of duplicate samples with serial interpretation. The MLD testing was completed in duplicate within 8 h of sample collection; MLD results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible threshold setting (1-18 for EL; 1-12 for LL) and CMT results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible cut-points (trace, ≥1, ≥2, or 3). We created 2 × 2 tables to compare MLD and CMT results to milk culture, at both the quarter and cow level, when using each of 3 different definitions of IMI as the referent test. Paired MLD test results were compared with evaluate repeatability. The MLD test showed excellent repeatability. The choice of definition of IMI from milk culture had minor effects on estimates of MLD and CMT test characteristics. For EL samples, when interpreting MLD and CMT results at the quarter level, and regardless of the referent test used, both tests had low sensitivity (MLD = 11.7-39.1%; CMT = 0-52.2%) but good to very good specificity (MLD = 82.1-95.2%; CMT = 68.1-100%), depending on the cut-point used. Sensitivity improved slightly if diagnosis was interpreted at the cow level (MLD = 25.6-56.4%; CMT = 0-72.2%), though specificity generally declined (MLD = 61.8-100%; CMT = 25.0-100%) depending on the cut-point used. For LL

  8. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  9. Challenges of Virtual School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; LaFrance, Jason; Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine challenges faced by virtual school leaders in the United States. Through semistructured interviews, the researchers explored challenges faced by eighteen leaders of fully online or blended online programs. Analysis revealed six main challenges: funding, staff, accountability, time, parents, and…

  10. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  11. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  12. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  13. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decre......Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  14. Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and the Mayo end-stage liver disease score of 41: A CARE-compliant case report revealed meaningful challenge in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Wang, Chengdi; Chen, Nan; Song, Jiulin; Sun, Yan; Yao, Qin; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin

    2017-11-01

    Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation (IPTE) is one of the most important subject in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation. However, the criteria for IPTE is not uniform at present. We reported a successful IPTE in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and a high Mayo end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 41, which beyond the so-called criteria reported in the literature. The patient was 48-year-old man, admitted in September 2016 for end-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B. End-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B with encephalopathy and a high MELD score of 41. He was involved in our ERAS project and was extubated at the end of the liver transplantation in the operating room. As a result, the patient was not reintubated and had an excellent postoperative recovery, staying in intensive care unit (ICU) for just 2 days and discharged home on day 10. We believed IPTE in liver transplant recipients with severe liver dysfunction is a meaningful challenge in ERAS for liver transplantation. Our case and literature review suggest 3 things: IPTE in liver transplantation is generally feasible and safe; the encephalopathy or high MELD score should not be the only limiting factor; and a more systematic predicting system for IPTE in liver transplantation should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  16. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  17. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  18. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  19. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

  20. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  1. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  2. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  4. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  5. Effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine GM-CSF and IL-8 on CMT score, somatic cell count, and milk mononuclear cell populations in Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, Yoshio; Ozawa, Tomomi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Inumaru, Shigeki; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Nagasawa, Yuya; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hata, Eiji; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-01

    The effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbGM-CSF) and interleukin-8 (rbIL-8) on mononuclear cell populations in quarters, somatic cell count (SCC) and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score were investigated. From the selected cows with naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis, one quarter of each cow were selected for the infusions of rbGM-CSF (400 μg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), rbIL-8 (1 mg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), and phosphate-buffered saline (5 mL/quarter, n = 7). The CMT score of both cytokines post infusion temporarily increased between days 0 and 1 and significantly decreased between days 7 and 14 compared to the preinfusion level. The SCC on day 14 after infusions of rbGM-CSF tended to be lower than that of the control group. The percentage of CD14+ cells increased on days 1 and 2 post infusion of rbGM-CSF. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells also increased on days 2 and 3, suggesting that the infusion of rbGM-CSF enhanced cellular immunity in the mammary gland. In contrast, the percentage of CD14+ cells decreased on days 0.25 and 1 post infusion of rbIL-8. No significant changes in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in milk after infusion of rbIL-8 were evident during the experimental period, which suggested that rbIL-8 had little effect on the function of T cells in the mammary gland. These results indicated that rbGM-CSF and rbIL-8 decreased the CMT score by a different mechanism and may have a potential as therapeutic agents for subclinical mastitis.

  6. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  7. Exercise Testing Reveals Everyday Physical Challenges of Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, David B; Schuh, Leslie M; Newton, Robert L; Stote, Joseph J; Cacucci, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have quantified cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Treadmill testing allows researchers to determine exercise capacity through metabolic equivalents. These findings can assist clinicians in understanding patients' capabilities to carry out various activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to determine exercise tolerance and the variables associated with fitness, among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates completed submaximal treadmill testing and provided ratings of perceived exertion. Each participant also completed questionnaires related to history of exercise, mood, and perceived barriers/benefits of exercise. Over half of participants reported that exercise was "hard to very hard" before reaching 70% of heart rate reserve, and one-third of participants reported that exercise was "moderately hard" at less than 3 metabolic equivalents (light activity). Body mass index and age accounted for the majority of the variance in exercise tolerance, but athletic history, employment status, and perceived health benefits also contributed. Perceived benefit scores were higher than barrier scores. Categories commonly used to describe moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 metabolic equivalents) do not coincide with perceptions of intensity among many bariatric surgery candidates, especially those with a body mass index of 50 or more.

  8. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  9. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  10. Challenging makerspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Thestrup, Klaus

    This paper takes its departure in the EU-project MakEY - Makerspaces in the early years – enhancing digital literacy and creativity that is part of a H2020 RISE-program and is running January 2017 - June 2019. Here digital literacy and creative skills of young children between the age of 3......-8 will be developed through participation in creative activities in specially-designed spaces termed ‘makerspaces’. This paper discusses, develops and challenges this term in relation to Danish pedagogical traditions, to expanding makerspaces onto the internet and on how to combine narratives and construction....... The Danish part of the project will be undertaken by a small network of partners: DOKK1, a public library and open urban space in Aarhus, that is experimenting with different kind of makerspaces, spaces and encounters between people, The LEGO-LAB situated at Computer Science, Aarhus University, that has...

  11. Exploring the genetic architecture and improving genomic prediction accuracy for mastitis and milk production traits in dairy cattle by mapping variants to hepatic transcriptomic regions responsive to intra-mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-05-12

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits can contribute to improve genomic prediction. We hypothesized that genomic variants associated with mastitis and milk production traits in dairy cattle are enriched in hepatic transcriptomic regions that are responsive to intra-mammary infection (IMI). Genomic markers [e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] from those regions, if included, may improve the predictive ability of a genomic model. We applied a genomic feature best linear unbiased prediction model (GFBLUP) to implement the above strategy by considering the hepatic transcriptomic regions responsive to IMI as genomic features. GFBLUP, an extension of GBLUP, includes a separate genomic effect of SNPs within a genomic feature, and allows differential weighting of the individual marker relationships in the prediction equation. Since GFBLUP is computationally intensive, we investigated whether a SNP set test could be a computationally fast way to preselect predictive genomic features. The SNP set test assesses the association between a genomic feature and a trait based on single-SNP genome-wide association studies. We applied these two approaches to mastitis and milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield) in Holstein (HOL, n = 5056) and Jersey (JER, n = 1231) cattle. We observed that a majority of genomic features were enriched in genomic variants that were associated with mastitis and milk production traits. Compared to GBLUP, the accuracy of genomic prediction with GFBLUP was marginally improved (3.2 to 3.9%) in within-breed prediction. The highest increase (164.4%) in prediction accuracy was observed in across-breed prediction. The significance of genomic features based on the SNP set test were correlated with changes in prediction accuracy of GFBLUP (P layers of biological knowledge to provide novel insights into the biological basis of complex traits, and to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction. The SNP set

  12. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR and bacterial culture for diagnosis of subclinical intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy cattle in 2012 using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-05-01

    The misdiagnosis of intramammary infections (IMI) with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) could lead farmers to treat or cull animals unnecessarily. The objective of this field study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR at different cut-offs for cycle threshold (Ct) values against bacterial culture (BC) for diagnosis of S. agalactiae IMI using latent class analysis to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. A total of 614 dairy cows were randomly selected from 6 herds with bulk tank PCR Ct value ≤ 39 for S. agalactiae and S. aureus. At milk recording, 2456 quarter milk samples were taken aseptically for BC and the routinely taken cow level milk samples were analyzed by PCR. Results showed that 53 cows (8.6%) were positive for S. agalactiae IMI by BC. Sensitivity of PCR at cut-offs; ≤ 39, ≤ 37, ≤ 34, and ≤ 32, was 96.2%, 91.9%, 87.2% and 73.9%, while Se of BC was 25.7%, 29.9%, 59.9% and 72.1%. Specificity of PCR at cut-offs; ≤ 39, ≤ 37, ≤ 34, and ≤ 32, was 96.8%, 96.9%, 96.7%, and 97.22%, while Sp of BC was 99.7%, 99.5%, 99.2%, and 98.9%. The estimated prevalence of S. agalactiae IMI by PCR was higher than the apparent prevalence at the tested cut-offs, indicating under estimation of S. agalactiae IMI in the examined dairy cows. In conclusion, Se of PCR is always higher than Se of BC at all tested cut-offs. The lower cut-off, the more comparable becomes Se of PCR and Se of BC. The changes in Se in both PCR and BC at different Ct-value cut-offs may indicate a change in the definition of the latent infection. The similar Se of both tests at cut-off ≤ 32 may indicate high concentrations of S. agalactiae viable cells, representing a cow truly/heavily infected with S. agalactiae and thus easier to detect with BC. At cut-off ≤ 39 the latent definition of infection may reflect a more general condition of cows being positive for S. agalactiae. Our findings indicate that PCR Ct-value cut-offs should

  14. Cracking the Cipher Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Singh, Simon

    2002-01-01

    In the back of 'The Code Book', a history of cryptography, Simon Singh included a series of 10 encoded messages, each from a different period of history. The first person to crack all 10 messages would win a prize of £10,000. Now that the prize has been won, Simon can reveal the story behind the Cipher Challenge. Along the way he will show how mathematics can be used to crack codes, the role it played in World War Two and how it helps to guarantee security in the Information Age.

  15. Glomar challenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J P

    1969-01-01

    The Glomar Challenger has a length of 400 ft, a 65-ft beam, and a depth of 27 ft 6-in. She has a draft of 20 ft with a gross displacement of 10,500 long tons. The principal specifications of the vessel are tabulated. To achieve dynamic positioning, 4 fixed thrusters and the vessel's 2 propulsion screws are utilized. The ''fix'' is obtained by placing a sonar beacon, with self contained batteries, on the ocean floor at a selected site. The vessel is provided with 4 hydrophones installed in the hull at the 4 corners of a square. The sonar beacon radiates sound waves at a fixed pulse rate. If the vessel is directly over the beacon, the sound waves will arrive at all hydrophones simultaneously. A difference in time of arrival indicates the vessel is off location. The sound signals received by the hydrophones are fed into a computer. They are changed into coordinate information, which serves as the primary function of determining corrective action by the vessel's propulsion and thruster system. The computer feeds back information into a control system, which enables the propulsion and thrusters to automatically respond, in order to keep the vessel on the predetermined location. The major drilling components are listed. The deep-sea drilling project is described. A summary of the first leg is given in tabular form.

  16. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  17. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  18. Intramammary immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis in cattle is a worldwide problem in dairy farming with a major impact on animal welfare, life span and milk production. Interestingly, quarters of the same cow can differ in their susceptibility to mastitis. This indicates that susceptibility is defined on the quarter level rather than the

  19. Revealing/Concealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    and potential to disrupt the dualism of Platonism challenged by Nietzsche. Yet the substance of this contribution, intended to express the symptom of perception of premodern image, must greatly differ from the grounds of phenomenology. This paper aims to bring however some arguments in support...... to disrupt the Platonic dualism, but also to provide the arguments to challenge the misunderstood dualism of Platonism itself as it was incorporated into the Western thinking. The subject of this paper will provide the means for this demonstration, and hopefully shed new lights on the nature of the premodern...... image. My argument is based on the third Platonic term – χώρα – a concept with a long tradition since Antiquity until the Byzantine era. I will take further her argument and explore the paradigmatic dimension of this syntagm which could be viewed as “an integrated part of the ancient and premodern image...

  20. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  1. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  2. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  3. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  4. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  5. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  6. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  7. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  9. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  10. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  11. Teaching Fairness in Journalism: A Challenging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectivity has long been contentious in American journalism. Many practitioners call it essential to a news organization's credibility. Critics, however, hold objectivity is impossible and urge reporters simply to reveal their biases. For educators, teaching objectivity is challenging. Some, seeking a middle ground, instead urge fairness and…

  12. Challenges in Learning to Speak Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…

  13. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  14. Continuing challenges in nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear facilities is heavily dependent upon the adequate performance of air cleaning systems. Although many problems have been solved, new questions and new challenges continue to arise. These are well illustrated by weaknesses in air cleaning and ventilating systems revealed by the Browns Ferry fire, and the need to develop additional data on the reliability of such systems, particularly under emergency conditions, as revealed by the Reactor Safety Study. Assessments of the degree to which engineered safety features can compensate for deficiencies in nuclear power plant sites continue to challenge those involved in risk/benefit evaluations. Additional challenges are being generated by the air cleaning requirements associated with the commercial development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

  15. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  16. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  17. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  18. Challenges in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-11-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  19. Challenges in Fingertip Replantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-01-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  20. Challenge and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges…

  1. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  2. The Cosmonauts challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Blatchford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the experience of working with Russia’s cultural, industrial and political sectors, this paper investigates how the development of new contacts and partnerships has contributed not only to the loan of material of historic significance to the Science Museum’s exhibition, but more broadly changes perceptions about Russia and its space programme in the western world. Addressing the multiple challenges involved – legal, political and security, among others – it reveals the importance of many of the space objects themselves as well as demonstrating how the Science Museum has helped to maintain a dialogue with Russia even during the most testing times. In September 2015 the Science Museum opened the most ambitious special exhibition it had ever undertaken: Cosmonauts: birth of the space age. Whilst the creation of a ‘blockbuster’ exhibition might be the normal expectation of a great art museum, the fact that a science museum should undertake such an endeavour is equally worthy of comment, and this article seeks to illustrate the exceptional curatorial, museological, logistical, legal and political hurdles that this project had to overcome. Indeed, they would astonish even the grandest and most experienced of the international art museums. Art museums are delighted when they can display the acclaimed works of Monet, but even the most valuable paintings cannot be said to be have been official state secrets in the way that so much Russian space technology has been. The curatorial team kept its nerve because of a compelling sense that while the project delivery was high stress, the intellectual rewards would be considerable, and especially the opportunity to present a story of human endeavour in which cultural and scientific excellence are so intertwined. When the project team started out they could never have anticipated that they would be seeking to deliver an audacious exhibition set against a background of very serious strains

  3. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...... that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: The daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have...... their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working...

  4. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  5. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  6. The challenges of library automation in Nigerian universities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of library automation in Nigerian universities of technology: the example of ... library functions in Federal University of Technology library, Owerri, Imo State. ... Findings reveal that insufficient power supply, poor funding, poor ...

  7. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    weather events, drought, and desertification; threatened food supplies; water pollution, air pollution, and soil contamination; and the connection of these to disease, violence, and terrorism. Wicked challenges are discussed in relation to enterprise excellence, sustainability, resilience and robustness...

  8. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  9. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  10. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  12. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  13. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  14. The boomer challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and the rest of health care will have to make some major adjustments to meet the needs of the aging baby boom generation. The first article in our year-long series inventories the many challenges that lie ahead.

  15. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  16. Challenges in obesity research

    OpenAIRE

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...

  17. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://challenge.wpi.edu . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  18. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-079)] Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://wp.wpi.edu/challenge/ . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  19. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a work in progress on Crowdsourcing. First, its concepts and importance are discussed and then its value for citizenship and urban planning. The motivation for participation and the display of geo-tagged information, as well as its possible applications in dynamic spatial temporal issues are presented, as well as its different approaches and applications. Furthermore, Crowdsourcing is discussed when the “ONVCêVIU”, a VGI case study, is presented, revealing its origin, objective, free platform comparison - to select the proper tool to implement, the project’s main challenges, results so far and further steps to be taken. To conclude a short review of the author’s vision about what is to come in the future research.

  20. Knowledge and challenges of serodiscordant couples living among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression (51.4%) was the major challenge outlined by respondents followed by social isolation (37.1%). Despite these challenges the respondents exhibited relatively good knowledge on prevention measures as 69.2% resorted to the use of condoms and 92.3% did not share sharp objects. It was also revealed that there ...

  1. Moral forces: interpreting ethical challenges in military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this dissertation reveal three broad types of ethical challenges during military operations at an individual level that are caused by social interactions of military personnel, regardless of rank. The first encompasses ethical challenges related to encounters with other

  2. Theory Challenges of the Accelerating Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the universe presents an exciting, fundamental challenge to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. I highlight some of the outstanding challenges in both developing theoretical models and interpreting without bias the observational results from precision cosmology experiments in the next decade that will return data to help reveal the nature of the new physics. Examples given focus on distinguishing a new component of energy from a new law of gravity, and the effect of early dark energy on baryon acoustic oscillations

  3. The challenges of amblyopia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D.E. Maconachie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction and/or strabismic (turn of one eye amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  5. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  7. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  8. Centennial Challenges Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Sam; Eberly, Eric

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Centennial Challenges Program was initiated in 2005 to directly engage the public in the process of advanced technology development. The program offers incentive prizes to generate revolutionary solutions to problems of interest to NASA and the nation. The program seeks innovations from diverse and nontraditional sources. Competitors are not supported by government funding and awards are only made to successful teams when the challenges are met. In keeping with the spirit of the Wright Brothers and other American innovators, the Centennial Challenge prizes are offered to independent inventors including small businesses, student groups, and individuals. These independent inventors are sought to generate innovative solutions for technical problems of interest to NASA and the nation and to provide them with the opportunity to stimulate or create new business ventures.

  9. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  10. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  11. The challenge of conceiving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    the perspective of engineering design challenges where the need for problem identification is obvious to avoid the pitfall to reproduce and piecemeal engineer already existing product or service concepts. Problem identification is not a simple desk research task as it often involves a multitude of actors having......One of the big challenges in the CDIO approach to engineering education is the first part focusing on conceiving problems to be handled and eventually solved. Traditional engineering education has been dominated by its focus on technical disciplines emphasising their individual tool box of problem...

  12. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue and ch....... Additionally, the results represent comprehensive goat mammary transcriptome information and demonstrate the applicability of the comparative genomics approach for annotation of goat data, using transcriptome information of a closely related species (Bos taurus) as a reference....

  13. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue......, steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis signalling, transcription regulation, and cell cycle regulation. Based on the results we suggest that mammary epithelial cells in vivo contribute to the immune system by the induced expression of cytokines and other chemotactic agents, activation...

  14. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  16. A Challenge to Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same…

  17. Challenging and valuable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging and valuable Inaugural speech given on May 7th 2008 at the occasion of the acceptance of the position of Professor Sustainable Housing Transformation at the faculty of Architeeture of the Delft University of Technology by Prof. J.D.M. van Hal MSc PhD.

  18. The energy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter addresses the challenge of switching US energy dependency from fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy for economic and environmental reasons. The topics discussed include the role of fossil fuels in the US economy, the role of chlorofluorocarbons and fossil fuel combustion on the greenhouse effect, energy choices, and the role of energy efficiency and nuclear energy

  19. The diesel challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article is focused on the challenges being faced by the diesel producer and these include a number of interesting developments which illustrate the highly competitive world of the European refiner. These include: The tightening quality requirements being legislated coupled with the availability of the ''city diesel'' from Scandinavia and elsewhere which is already being sold into the market. For a time there will be a clear means of product differentiation. One of the key questions is whether the consumer will value the quality difference; a growing demand for diesel which is outstripping the growth in gasoline demand and causing refiners headaches when it comes to balancing their supply/demand barrels; the emergence of alternative fuels which are challenging the traditional markets of the refiner and in particular, the niche markets for the higher quality diesel fuels. All of this at a time of poor margins and over-capacity in the industry with further major challenges ahead such as fuel oil disposal, tighter environmental standards and the likelihood of heavier, higher sulphur crude oils in the future. Clearly, in such a difficult and highly-competitive business environment it will be important to find low-cost solutions to the challenges of the diesel quality changes. An innovative approach will be required to identify the cheapest and best route to enable the manufacture of the new quality diesel. (Author)

  20. The Moon Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  1. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  2. Hopes and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tops the medal tally again at the Asian Games but still faces challenges in some events The curtain of the 16th Asian Games has fallen, but the 15 days of exciting competitions will be recorded in the history of the Games.

  3. Communication Challenge Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tom; Vance, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Communication Challenge Softball is a developmentally appropriate game for middle school students. The game allows them to develop new communication skills using American Sign Language (signing). Traditional softball has been a part of physical education for years, and remains a popular sport played by children in community leagues throughout the…

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  6. BPI Challenge 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    BPI Challenge 2014: Similar to other ICT companies, Rabobank Group ICT has to implement an increasing number of software releases, while the time to market is decreasing. Rabobank Group ICT has implemented the ITIL-processes and therefore uses the Change-proces for implementing these so called

  7. The Challenges in Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Challenges in Communication. The conflict between connection oriented and connectionless. The seamless integration needs of broadcast, unicast and multicast in the midst growing security concerns. Like Indian roads – need to carry voice, internet traffic, video ...

  8. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-04-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held on 18th October 2012, at Heidelberg University, Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the 'Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a 'World Café' style event.

  9. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-01-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held in October at Heidelberg University in Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the ‘Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a ‘World Café' style event.

  10. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  11. Challenge Beginning Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, John K.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2013-01-01

    As beginning teachers start to recognize the complexity of teaching mathematics in elementary school classrooms and how their new vision for teaching mathematics creates new challenges, they experience discomfort--a healthy awareness that much is to be learned. Brousseau (1997) notes that changes in the roles that are implicitly assigned to the…

  12. Asia's new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliana; Vang, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries are currently undergoing significant changes with respect to their role in and interaction with the international economy. Despite their heterogeneity, Asian countries share the common aim to upgrade capacities, skills and capabilities. This paper aims at unpacking the challenges ...

  13. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  14. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  15. 76 FR 41526 - Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-063)] Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong... scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize... NASA Centennial Challenges Program please visit: http://www.nasa.gov/challenges . General questions and...

  16. 78 FR 19742 - Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night Rover Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-032] Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night... Centennial Challenges 2014 Night Rover Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 51 U.S.C.... Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in technologies of interest...

  17. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-093] Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample... Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with... compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in...

  18. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. CE Challenges : Work to Do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stjepandic, J; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Wognum, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    CE has been used for more than two decades now. Despite many successes and advantages, there are still many challenges to be addressed. These challenges are both technical and organisational. In the paper we will address the current challenges of CE. Many challenges

  20. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  1. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  2. Mathematical olympiad challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical Olympiad Challenges is a rich collection of problems put together by two experienced and well-known professors and coaches of the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad Team. Hundreds of beautiful, challenging, and instructive problems from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, combinatorics, and number theory were selected from numerous mathematical competitions and journals. An important feature of the work is the comprehensive background material provided with each grouping of problems. The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-e...

  3. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  4. Characterizing challenged Minnesota ballots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Lopresti, Daniel; Barney Smith, Elisa H.; Wu, Ziyan

    2011-01-01

    Photocopies of the ballots challenged in the 2008 Minnesota elections, which constitute a public record, were scanned on a high-speed scanner and made available on a public radio website. The PDF files were downloaded, converted to TIF images, and posted on the PERFECT website. Based on a review of relevant image-processing aspects of paper-based election machinery and on additional statistics and observations on the posted sample data, robust tools were developed for determining the underlying grid of the targets on these ballots regardless of skew, clipping, and other degradations caused by high-speed copying and digitization. The accuracy and robustness of a method based on both index-marks and oval targets are demonstrated on 13,435 challenged ballot page images.

  5. Challenges in Request Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2014-01-01

    and its customers. The study provides an insight into a new area of supply chain management, including the process activity flow and challenges involved across the process. Furthermore, the method is dyadic including the customer in the case study, which is rare in related research....... profitability. This research study seeks to investigate the challenges of RQM in practice. Existing demand chain management literature is used as a basis for developing a RQM framework. RQM is investigated through an explorative research design in a dyadic B2B case study including a global industrial company......Request management (RQM) is a new term used for managing customer requests for new products. It is the counterpart to typical product development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. It is essential to manage customer requests in a structured and efficient way to obtain...

  6. US Cyber Challenge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    tactics to prevent future attacks. This project will develop, test, evaluate and assess alternative methods for identifying computer security talent ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON FRANCES ROSE a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...is ever increasing. Meeting the demand for top technical cybersecurity talent is one of the continuing challenges facing military and civilian

  7. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  8. The Terawatt Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegel, Nancy

    In response to concerns about accelerating climate change, the world is uniting to both envision and enable a global energy system that supports a sustainable environment and broad economic prosperity. Growth in the technology and the deployment of renewable energy has been dramatic. Evidence can be seen in the growth of photovoltaics (PV) and wind as contributors to worldwide electricity production over the last decade. PV and wind provided 1.2% and 3.7% of global electricity production in 2015, compared to 0.1% and 1.3% respectively in 2005. These numbers indicate both the rapid increase in the rate of deployment, as well as the remaining work to be done to extend this trend to transform a massive energy system and provide a significant fraction of the world's future energy demand with renewable energy. Based on recent trends, it is highly likely that global cumulative PV installation will reach terawatt scale in the next few decades. The challenges, as well as the resulting impact, vary greatly depending on whether we envision 1 TW ( 15% of 2015 global electricity capacity), 3 TW ( 50% of 2015 global electricity capacity) or 10 TW, a level that could drive electrification of transportation and industrial sectors and production of solar fuels. This presentation will draw upon the work of the 2016 GA-SERI (Global Alliance of Solar Energy Research Institutes) Terawatt Workshop to assess the feasibility and summarize the challenges for PV as a primary energy source. These challenges include the continuing demand for improved efficiency and reliability, the required magnitude of capital expenditure, the need for a sustainable industry (both financially and environmentally), as well as needs for grid modernization and consistent policies that support global climate goals. Physicists can play important roles in addressing this full range of challenges, from materials science to public policy, as well as in education of the public and its future leaders.

  9. Challenges in paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technique, knowledge and expertise have brought about rapid advances in the fields of paediatric neurosurgery and anaesthesia, and many procedures limited earlier to adults are now being increasingly attempted in neonates and small children, with good outcomes. This article highlights the challenges faced by the operating team while handling some of the technically complex procedures like awake craniotomy, interventional neuroradiology, minimally invasive neurosurgery, procedures in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suites, and neonatal emergencies in the paediatric population.

  10. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  11. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  12. US Cyber Challenge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Computers (General Term), Information Systems or Information Technology 0 6 5 1 1 13 Criminal Justice 0 0 0 1 0 1 Economics 0 0 1 0 0 1 Electrical...Assurance or Computer Security 8 6 15 10 7 46 Information Technology 4 1 9 1 4 19 Nanotechnology 0 1 0 0 0 1 Networking or Network Security 7 1 2 2 4...FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE US CYBER CHALLENGE RESEARCH CENTER FOR INTERNET SECURITY, INC FEBRUARY

  13. EDMS implementation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Marta

    2002-08-01

    The challenges faced by facilities wishing to implement an electronic medical record system are complex and overwhelming. Issues such as customer acceptance, basic computer skills, and a thorough understanding of how the new system will impact work processes must be considered and acted upon. Acceptance and active support are necessary from Senior Administration and key departments to enable this project to achieve measurable success. This article details one hospital's "journey" through design and successful implementation of an electronic medical record system.

  14. The Challenges of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtle, Robert C

    Perhaps in no other period in recent times have the challenges leaders face been so profound. In these times of uncertainty and turbulence, we look to leaders who create a sense of purpose, who generate feelings of trust and optimism, and who tap the passion, talent, and efforts of those so essential to the success of the organization and of the people it serves. Our research suggests that becoming the leader whom people look to and admire requires an active commitment to responding to 5 essential leadership challenges. These are (1) creating a sense of purpose, (2) devising means for aligning the actions of the followers with that sense of purpose, (3) establishing a context that enables others to behave in a way that is consistent with the vision and values of the organization, (4) ensuring that the work that is done provides meaning to those engaging in the work activities, and (5) adding to the sum of everyone's knowledge through learning through reflective actions. In this article, we describe these challenges and offer suggestions that you can take to become a more effective and respected leader.

  15. Patients who challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael; Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    Individuals have different values. They seek to express their individuality even when receiving medical care. It is a part of modern medical practice and respect for patient autonomy to show respect for different values. We give an account of what it means to respect different values and challenging patients in medical practice. Challenging choices are often choices which are perceived by many to be either irrational or against a person's interests, such as engaging in harmful or excessively risky activities. When the medical profession is involved in such choices, the basic medical principle of acting in a person's best interests is challenged. Often doctors refuse to respect controversial choices on paternalistic grounds. We should all respect and facilitate the controversial choices of competent individuals, subject to resource limitations, our own and others well-being and autonomy, and the public interest. But more importantly, sometimes such choices make for a better, more autonomous life. Sometimes, such choices reflect considerations of global well-being or altruism, or idiosyncratic attitudes to risk. Sometimes, they reflect unusual values. However, in some other cases, controversial choices are irrational and are not expressions of our autonomy. Doctors should assist patients to make rational if individual choices. The patient also bears the responsibility for bringing his beliefs to the attention of the clinician.

  16. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian natural gas industry were discussed. The greatest opportunity is that the industry will become part of a fully functioning continental gas market for the first time in history. The challenge will be to ensure that the access to continental markets, which the Alliance project would provide, moves forward in a timely way, especially if the proposed merger between Canada's two dominant natural gas pipelines occurs. The second challenge is to find ways to deal with global warming in a more sensible and knowledgeable way. In the view of this author, the implications of the Kyoto greenhouse gas emission protocol could be potentially devastating to the competitiveness of the North American economy. According to the author, the emission stabilization policy will save the Earth only 0.05 degree C of warming in 2025 based on projected planetary temperature rise from 1990 to 2050. By 2050, the stabilization of emissions will have resulted in savings of only 0.10 degrees C, still a negligible amount. The impact of the Canadian Kyoto obligation was analyzed using federal Department of the Environment data. It was noted that in order for Canada to meet its commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 6 per cent by 2008-2012, actual annual reduction in emission would have to amount to 20-25 per cent. To achieve that would require unimaginably drastic measures. 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  18. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  19. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  20. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides essential insights into Bhutan’s developmental challenges. It analyzes and scrutinizes the sovereign state’s developmental approach, including the idea of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which has replaced Gross National Product (GNP) as a measurement of prosperity. The authors...... also explore and deconstruct ideational and cultural aspects of knowledge production and present a critical overall assessment of the political economy of education policy, health, ICT and migration in Bhutan. The book is divided into five parts all taking a critical approach towards inequality: Part...

  1. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries.......The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...

  2. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  3. Biotechnology: challenges and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, A.

    1985-04-01

    Rapidly occurring technological breakthroughs in the wake of numerous discoveries in different fields, such as biochemistry, genetic engineering as well as cellular and molecular biology as described in this paper have a variety of industrial applications, and forcasts covering these and various other fields have been made. The emerging bio-industry, covering diverse industries, such as chemical, food, pharmaceutical, etc., as well as the domains of health, environmental protection and abatement of pollution present challenging prospects. Several biotechnology processes relating to bioenergy, fermentation, waste transformation, vaccines, etc. are of particular interest to the developing countries. The 'functioning systems' resulting from the breakthrouth in genetic engineering, entailing extraordinary refinement of analytical techniques and technological progress, pose the challenging task of harnessing them to the advantage of mankind. Providing effective legal protection, conducive to the development of biotechnologies-their innovative process and technological change-is a matter of serious concern, involving practical and economical considerations. Several other issues and questions, such as risk prevention and management of potential dangers and hazards in genetic recombination operation by way of safety regulations and necessary guidelines, questions relating to the clinical trials of the interferons-the wonder drug-as well as questions of professional ethics are raised by biotechnologies. Industry-funded research in biotechnology, where scientific and commercial imperatives are interlocked, has for instance, its repercussions on the traditional thrust of university system, specially the sanctity of autonomy for basic research.

  4. Résultats challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de pétanque

    2015-01-01

    C'est avec un temps magnifique que se disputait pour la deuxième année le Challenge de notre cher ami Patrick DURAND le jeudi 30 juillet 2015. Vingt-six personnes formées en doublettes s'affrontaient pour trois parties .Après des parties très serrées le juge arbitre Claude JOUVE épaulé par Alain PHILIPONA déclarait  vainqueur l'imbattable Claude MACARI suivi de très près par Eric DARMEDRU et à la troisième place Christian JOUVE. La première féminine était Mireille ROCHE. La soirée se clôturait par une succulente paëlla préparée par Jennifer et sa maman Sylvie JOUVE. Rendez-vous à tous pour le jeudi 27 août 2015 pour le challenge Jean-Claude FROT Nos concours sont ouverts à tous les amateurs de pétanque.

  5. [Challenges of Digital Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Jürg

    2018-06-01

    Challenges of Digital Medicine Abstract. Digitization is increasingly covering more and more sectors, including medicine. To ensure medical operation 365 × 24 hours, progressively more human and financial resources are necessary. The transformation of patient histories from paper into electronic patient records focused initially on documentation. Today, hospital information systems are increasingly used as a platform for the communication of all professionals involved in the patient process - in Switzerland, however, so far without providing patients direct access to their data. Digititizing processes intend to increase efficiency, but also to enhance clinical and administrative decision support and quality assurance. The introduction of the electronic patient record in Switzerland in 2020 is expected to provide cross-company, more complete documentation of patient care. Multimorbid patients, often treated in different institutions and by different specialists, should benefit from this in particular. Advances in artificial intelligence offer new opportunities in medicine. Challenges include ensuring reliable data protection, and better interoperability of the systems involved. Semantically structured, machine-readable data exchange is a necessity for both networked services and internationally competitive research.

  6. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA's limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  7. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  8. Managing the Fukushima Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident raises a fundamental question: Can science and technology prevent the inevitability of serious accidents, especially those with low probabilities and high consequences? This question reminds us of a longstanding challenge with the trans-sciences, originally addressed by Alvin Weinberg well before the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. This article, revisiting Weinberg's issue, aims at gaining insights from the accident with a special emphasis on the sociotechnical or human behavioral aspects lying behind the accident's causes. In particular, an innovative method for managing the challenge is explored referring to behavioral science approaches to a decision-making process on risk management; such as managing human behavioral risks with information asymmetry, seeking a rational consensus with communicative action, and pursuing procedural rationality through interactions with the outer environment. In short, this article describes the emerging need for Japan to transform its national safety management institutions so that these might be based on interactive communication with parties inside and outside Japan. PMID:24954604

  9. Challenges in Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2017-01-24

    Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ATLAS Data Challenge 1

    CERN Document Server

    Poulard, G

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the ATLAS experiment started a series of Data Challenges (DC) of which the goals are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. A major feature of the first Data Challenge (DC1) was the preparation and the deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger (HLT) and physics communities, and the production of those samples as a world-wide distributed activity. The first phase of DC1 was run during summer 2002, and involved 39 institutes in 18 countries. More than 10 million physics events and 30 million single particle events were fully simulated. Over a period of about 40 calendar days 71000 CPU-days were used producing 30 Tbytes of data in about 35000 partitions. In the second phase the next processing step was performed with the participation of 56 institutes in 21 countries (~ 4000 processors used in parallel). The basic elements of ...

  11. The ALICE data challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, J.P.; Collignon, M.; Collin, F.; Durand, J.; Jarp, S.; Jouanigot, J.M.; Panzer, B.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Divia, R.; Rademakers, F.; Saiz, P.; Schossmaier, K.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vascotto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises: the ALICE data challenges. The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acquisition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure. The authors report on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001. The data used during the ADC III are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC, produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot. The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system. The data, after event building, were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQL was established. The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR. Different software tools have been used to monitor the performances. DATE has demonstrated performances of more than 500 MByte/s. An aggregate data throughput of 85 MByte/s was sustained in CASTOR over several days. The total collected data amounts to 100 TBytes in 100.000 files

  12. Challenges of Combining Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Maria; Titelman, David; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2018-02-23

    Asylum seekers have increased risk of suicide and suicidal behavior, with differences related to origin, gender, and age. There are barriers to communication in clinical encounters between asylum seekers and clinicians. There is insufficient knowledge about how communication in the clinical encounter affects the suicide risk in female asylum seekers. To explore the documented communication between female asylum-seeking suicide attempters and clinicians and how it affects treatment. The medical records of 18 asylum-seeking women who had attempted suicide were analyzed with content analysis. Communication between patients and clinicians was affected by: the unbearable realities of the women; difficulties for clinicians in decoding languages of distress, and understanding trauma and subjective meanings of suicide; challenges of combining patients' and clinicians' perspectives; and a sense of shared powerlessness. The medical records did not give direct access to the patient's experience, only to the patient as documented by the clinician. The results suggest that clinicians working with asylum seekers who have attempted suicide need to develop an understanding of social and cultural factors and of trauma issues. A question for further study is how an enhanced integration of context and subjectivity in psychiatric practice would equip clinicians for the specific challenges encountered.

  13. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge... teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to..., please visit: http://www.spaceward.org/elevator2010-ts . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  14. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge

  15. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  16. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  17. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...... to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader...

  18. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  19. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  20. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  1. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  2. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  3. Energy a planetary challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Souviron, J.P

    1996-01-01

    After explaining that nuclear energy as well fossil fuel energy are a problem for environment, in radioactive wastes for the first one and for the greenhouse effect for the second one, a new energy policy for France and for the whole countries in the world is described here. Technological and financial arguments in support of this demonstration, it is possible to live better on making the right choices; The energy future is built on the exploitation of two richnesses the energy economies and the renewable energies, as solar energy or wind energy. Technologies exist, they have to be improved and to be applied with judgment according to areas. This challenge is, above all, a question of policy will. (N.C.)

  4. The challenge of implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Heide Hauge

    2016-01-01

    of the paper: which factors influence the degree of implementation of innovation and entrepreneurship in the individual lecturers’ daily teaching? The paper questions the common approach taken by higher educational institutions whereby lecturers are urged to teach innovation and entrepreneurship with minor...... these concepts in daily teaching, as it is strongly encouraged by policy makers and educations. This paper aims to discuss how lecturers experience the challenge of teaching their own discipline while being imposed to embrace and promote innovation and entrepreneurship teaching. Through a single study case...... of the BATCoM education at VIA University College, Denmark, the paper shows that the knowledge, use and implementation of the concepts is far from anchored in the lecturers’ daily practices. Through qualitative interviews the paper highlights different aspects considered, to determine the research question...

  5. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    “Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  6. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  7. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  8. Multicore Programming Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Michael

    The computer industry is facing fundamental challenges that are driving a major change in the design of computer processors. Due to restrictions imposed by quantum physics, one historical path to higher computer processor performance - by increased clock frequency - has come to an end. Increasing clock frequency now leads to power consumption costs that are too high to justify. As a result, we have seen in recent years that the processor frequencies have peaked and are receding from their high point. At the same time, competitive market conditions are giving business advantage to those companies that can field new streaming applications, handle larger data sets, and update their models to market conditions faster. The desire for newer, faster and larger is driving continued demand for higher computer performance.

  9. Changing times, similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    With IHEEM celebrating its 70th Anniversary this month, HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, recently met the Institute's oldest surviving Past-President, Lawrence Turner OBE, who, having in 1964 established a small engineering business producing some of the NHS's earliest nurse call systems from the basement of his three-storey West Midlands home, has since seen the company, Static Systems Group, grow to become one of the U.K. market-leaders in its field. The Institute's President from 1979-1981, he looked back, during a fascinating two-hour discussion, at his time in the role, talked through some of the key technological and other changes he has seen in the past five decades, reflected on an interesting and varied career, and considered some of the very different current-day challenges that today's IHEEM President, and the Institute as a whole, face.

  10. [Ambulatory pediatrics: a challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, V; Gevers, B; Landsberg, M

    2006-01-01

    Ambulatory paediatrics in University hospitals has remarkably evolved during the past decade, along with technological progress and the current need for undelayed information and attention; demand for hospital medical advice increases consequently, either directly in outpatients wards or indirectly by phone or e-mails. Specific medico-social aspects linked essentially to populations' migration, poverty, chronic stress and family splitting are regularly encountered. Hospital architecture and adequacy of medical and nursing staff must both be adjusted to these changing medical demands including medical teaching. We now face the ever-growing challenge of providing an adequate management of actual medico-psycho-social aspects and integrating up-to-date paediatrics in our daily practices.

  11. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: "What...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Hydropower Modeling Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andrade, Juan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Hydropower facilities are important assets for the electric power sector and represent a key source of flexibility for electric grids with large amounts of variable generation. As variable renewable generation sources expand, understanding the capabilities and limitations of the flexibility from hydropower resources is important for grid planning. Appropriately modeling these resources, however, is difficult because of the wide variety of constraints these plants face that other generators do not. These constraints can be broadly categorized as environmental, operational, and regulatory. This report highlights several key issues involving incorporating these constraints when modeling hydropower operations in terms of production cost and capacity expansion. Many of these challenges involve a lack of data to adequately represent the constraints or issues of model complexity and run time. We present several potential methods for improving the accuracy of hydropower representation in these models to allow for a better understanding of hydropower's capabilities.

  13. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    and Libya creating headlines like “the Facebook revolution”. On the other hand, several scholars argue that it is naive to believe that social media in themselves create change: they may at the best facilitate already existing social and political movements (Downing 2008, Christakis & Fowler 2010...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian......Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran...

  14. Challenges for nuclear regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses issues that will present particular challenges to the nuclear industry, during the next decade, that should be addressed in order to achieve increased public acceptance of the industry. The issues of safety culture, peer review of safety, severe accidents, transport accidents and public communication are suggest as meriting special consideration. The need for nuclear regulatory agencies to establish credibility and for operating organisations to demonstrate accountability is emphasised, and the Australian experiences are reviewed. Increased collaboration by nuclear regulatory agencies in the Asian-pacific region is suggested, in order to encourage consistency of regulatory safety standards for the nuclear safety issues identified. Methods whereby this could be achieved within the framework of existing agreements and arrangements are suggested. 2 refs

  15. Some Challenges to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Conard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The word “sustainability” is often used in business in the belief that the current ways of doing things will be able to be continued with only minor changes to balance economic development with related environmental and social issues. There are, however, immense challenges that threaten the very sustainability of our global society, let alone individual businesses or developments. A few of the most important of these challenges—population growth, clean energy supply, fresh water availability, and global climate change—are discussed. As humanity forms its collective response to these threats, it is concluded that all intelligent people, but especially scientists, have important roles to play, not only in technical innovation, but also in catalyzing political action.

  16. The WCET Tool Challenge 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanxleden, Reinhard von; Holsti, Niklas; Lisper, Björn

    Following the successful WCET Tool Challenges in 2006 and 2008, the third event in this series was organized in 2011, again with support from the ARTIST DESIGN Network of Excellence. Following the practice established in the previous Challenges, the WCET Tool Challenge 2011 (WCC'11) dened two kin...

  17. WCET Tool Challenge 2011: Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonenfant, Armelle; Cassé, Hugues; Bünte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Following the successful WCET Tool Challenges in 2006 and 2008, the third event in this series was organized in 2011, again with support from the ARTIST DESIGN Network of Excellence. Following the practice established in the previous Challenges, the WCET Tool Challenge 2011 (WCC’11) defined two k...

  18. Active and adaptive Legionella CRISPR-Cas reveals a recurrent challenge to the pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chitong; Guyard, Cyril; Pelaz, Carmen; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Dewar, Ken; Ensminger, Alexander W

    2016-10-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with CRISPR-associated gene (CRISPR-Cas) systems are widely recognized as critical genome defense systems that protect microbes from external threats such as bacteriophage infection. Several isolates of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila possess multiple CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-C, type I-F and type II-B), yet the targets of these systems remain unknown. With the recent observation that at least one of these systems (II-B) plays a non-canonical role in supporting intracellular replication, the possibility remained that these systems are vestigial genome defense systems co-opted for other purposes. Our data indicate that this is not the case. Using an established plasmid transformation assay, we demonstrate that type I-C, I-F and II-B CRISPR-Cas provide protection against spacer targets. We observe efficient laboratory acquisition of new spacers under 'priming' conditions, in which initially incomplete target elimination leads to the generation of new spacers and ultimate loss of the invasive DNA. Critically, we identify the first known target of L. pneumophila CRISPR-Cas: a 30 kb episome of unknown function whose interbacterial transfer is guarded against by CRISPR-Cas. We provide evidence that the element can subvert CRISPR-Cas by mutating its targeted sequences - but that primed spacer acquisition may limit this mechanism of escape. Rather than generally impinging on bacterial fitness, this element drives a host specialization event - with improved fitness in Acanthamoeba but a reduced ability to replicate in other hosts and conditions. These observations add to a growing body of evidence that host range restriction can serve as an existential threat to L. pneumophila in the wild. © 2016 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Multiple measures reveal antiretroviral adherence successes and challenges in HIV-infected Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Haberer

    Full Text Available Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART among children in developing settings is poorly understood.To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2-10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS. Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥ 48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.04. Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with <90% MEMS adherence: hospitalization of child (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-5.5; p = 0.001, liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0; p = 0.04, and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8-5.2; p<0.0001. Child's use of co-trimoxazole (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.009, caregiver's use of ART (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.03, possible caregiver depression (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; p = 0.001, and caregiver feeling ashamed of child's HIV status (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.6; p<0.0001 were protective against <90% MEMS adherence. Change in drug manufacturer (AOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.5; p = 0.009 and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 5.5, 95%CI 2.8-10.7; p<0.0001 were associated with ≥ 48-hour interruptions by MEMS, while second-line ART (AOR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.99; p = 0.049 and increasing assets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9; p = 0.0007 were protective against these interruptions.Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development.

  20. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  1. Listening to Sentences in Noise: Revealing Binaural Hearing Challenges in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Noor Alaudin; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Wahab, Suzaily

    2017-11-01

    The present, case-control, study investigates binaural hearing performance in schizophrenia patients towards sentences presented in quiet and noise. Participants were twenty-one healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal peripheral auditory functions. The binaural hearing was examined in four listening conditions by using the Malay version of hearing in noise test. The syntactically and semantically correct sentences were presented via headphones to the randomly selected subjects. In each condition, the adaptively obtained reception thresholds for speech (RTS) were used to determine RTS noise composite and spatial release from masking. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated significantly higher mean RTS value relative to healthy controls (p=0.018). The large effect size found in three listening conditions, i.e., in quiet (d=1.07), noise right (d=0.88) and noise composite (d=0.90) indicates statistically significant difference between the groups. However, noise front and noise left conditions show medium (d=0.61) and small (d=0.50) effect size respectively. No statistical difference between groups was noted in regards to spatial release from masking on right (p=0.305) and left (p=0.970) ear. The present findings suggest an abnormal unilateral auditory processing in central auditory pathway in schizophrenia patients. Future studies to explore the role of binaural and spatial auditory processing were recommended.

  2. Multiple Measures Reveal Antiretroviral Adherence Successes and Challenges in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Kiwanuka, Julius; Nansera, Denis; Ragland, Kathleen; Mellins, Claude; Bangsberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; passets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions. Conclusions/Significance Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development. PMID:22590600

  3. Brazilian Microbiome Project: revealing the unexplored microbial diversity--challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Ortega, José Miguel; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Hirsch, Penny Ruth; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; da Costa da Silva, Artur Luiz; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Duarte, Gabriela Frois; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Seldin, Lucy; Lambais, Márcio Rodrigues; Hungria, Mariangela; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-02-01

    The Brazilian Microbiome Project (BMP) aims to assemble a Brazilian Metagenomic Consortium/Database. At present, many metagenomic projects underway in Brazil are widely known. Our goal in this initiative is to co-ordinate and standardize these together with new projects to come. It is estimated that Brazil hosts approximately 20 % of the entire world's macroorganism biological diversity. It is 1 of the 17 countries that share nearly 70 % of the world's catalogued animal and plant species, and is recognized as one of the most megadiverse countries. At the end of 2012, Brazil has joined GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility), as associated member, to improve the access to the Brazilian biodiversity data in a free and open way. This was an important step toward increasing international collaboration and clearly shows the commitment of the Brazilian government in directing national policies toward sustainable development. Despite its importance, the Brazilian microbial diversity is still considered to be largely unknown, and it is clear that to maintain ecosystem dynamics and to sustainably manage land use, it is crucial to understand the biological and functional diversity of the system. This is the first attempt to collect and collate information about Brazilian microbial genetic and functional diversity in a systematic and holistic manner. The success of the BMP depends on a massive collaborative effort of both the Brazilian and international scientific communities, and therefore, we invite all colleagues to participate in this project.

  4. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  5. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  6. Concentração mínima inibitória de dez antimicrobianos para amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecção intramamária bovina Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ten antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus from bovine intramammary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e tilosina para 112 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecções intramamárias bovina, em 33 rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram isoladas 24 amostras de infecção clínica, 66 de subclínica e 22 de infecção crônica. As amostras de infecção crônica foram isoladas repetidas vezes dos mesmos quartos mamários de nove vacas de um rebanho, no período de 13 meses. A CMI foi realizada em ágar Mueller Hinton, com concentrações entre 0,015 e 128µgml-1 de cada antimicrobiano. As amostras da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC recomendadas para controle de qualidade, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, foram incluídas em cada teste. Cem por cento das amostras foram susceptíveis à cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, norfloxacina e oxacilina, 91% à tetraciclina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 e à tilosina (CMI50: 2,0µgml-1, 65% à ampicilina (CMI50: 0,125µgml-1 e à penicilina G (CMI50: 0,06µgml-1. Todas foram susceptíveis à neomicina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 exceto uma amostra que apresentou um padrão intermediário. O nível de resistência para ampicilina e penicilina foi maior nas amostras isoladas de casos clínicos e nas de infecção subclínica com escores positivos no CMT (P ou = 0,125µgml-1 para penicilina foram positivas para produção de beta-lactamase.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, penicillin G, tetracycline and tylosin against 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine intramammary infections were determined. The strains were originated from 33 dairy herds located in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State. Twenty-four strains were isolated from clinical

  7. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  8. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  9. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  10. VISIR: Experiences and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tawfik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of crucial importance the integration of practical sessions in engineering curricula owing to their significant role in understanding engineering concepts and scientific phenomena. However, the lack of practical sessions due to the high costs of the equipment and the unavailability of instructors has caused a significant declination in experimentation in engineering education. Remote laboratories have tackled this issues providing online reusable and shared workbenches unconstrained by neither geographical nor time considerations. Thereby, they have extremely proliferated among universities and integrated into engineering curricula over the last decade. This contribution compiles diverse experiences based on the deployment of the remote laboratory, Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR, on the practices of undergraduate engineering grades at various universities within the VISIR community. It aims to show the impact of its usage on engineering education concerning the assessments of students and teachers as well. In addition, the paper address the next challenges and future works carried out at several universities within the VISIR community.

  11. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  12. Whiplash Continues Its Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Gwendolen

    2016-10-01

    There have been many advances in the management of neck pain disorders, but a personal frustration as a clinician and researcher in the field is that the incidence of full recovery following a whiplash injury as a result of a motor vehicle crash has not increased and, subsequently, the rate of transition to chronic neck pain has not lessened. The commentaries in this special issue reflect the multifaceted nature of whiplash-associated disorders and the wide-ranging research in the field. While management of whiplash, especially the challenge of lessening the rate of transition to chronicity, has yet to be achieved, the picture is becoming clearer. This should give great confidence and some hope to individuals with whiplash-associated disorders who have long-term pain and functional disability that after the next decade of research and clinical development, the outcomes following whiplash are likely to be vastly improved. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):815-817. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0112.

  13. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  14. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Auerbach-Nevo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  15. Challenges in Regulating Ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, P.

    2016-01-01

    Finland has recent experience in regulating design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Also decommissioning is topical as the research reactor will enter a decommissioning phase in the near future. From regulator’s point of view, the paper discusses potential challenges related to ageing management at the Finnish nuclear facilities throughout their lifetime. Based on the experience the most important decisions to ensure adequate provisions against adverse effects of various ageing phenomena and mechanisms are made much earlier than operation starts, namely during design, construction and manufacturing of systems, structures and components (SSC). Early consideration of ageing management resulting in good engineering including ageing-proof manufacturing and construction practices is of particular importance for new reactors. Elongated design lifetime of new reactors underlines the need of all available means to minimize progress of ageing beforehand and to create prerequisites for well-established condition monitoring and maintenance up to decommissioning. Furthermore, continuous research and development in order to understand various types of ageing and to detect degradation before SSC’s failure is expected as soon as a facility has been put in service. All these activities have to be supported by proper information and knowledge management in each phase of the facility’s life span. (author)

  16. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  17. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  18. 'Scrap yard challenge'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollick, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Plutonium'. The word evokes deep reactions outside of the nuclear industry. Although the majority of Plutonium currently in existence is man-made and therefore perceived as being unnatural, plutonium has been found as a product of the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon. This paper seeks to challenge two concepts, that of the Nuclear Control Institute that Plutonium is unnatural, 'fiendishly toxic' and one of the 'substances most hazardous to man' and the second image that a high security Plutonium store is merely a 'scrapyard' containing a material which has little use. The nuclear industry has often been accused of treating Plutonium and its accumulation casually in proportion to the risks perceived by those outside the industry. As a result this paper seeks to demonstrate that the industry is aware of the concerns of the public and is actively seeking viable solutions. The paper looks at Plutonium itself and explores the issues surrounding military and civil Plutonium in adding to the current stockpiles. It also suggests three possible alternatives for dealing with these Plutonium stockpiles and arrives at a conclusion as to which solutions currently appear most viable. (authors)

  19. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  20. Intercultural challenge to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Muñoz de Cote

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field  may be used.

  1. Extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    of the study). Mild mucosal reddening and flecks of pus characterized the gross lesions, while diffuse, catarrhal colitis was revealed microscopically in all animals. Intestinal spirochaetosis with moderate to densely packed end-attached B. pilosicoli organisms was revealed extensively on the mucosal surface...... of the large intestines by light microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. This study is the first to report extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with B. pilosicoli....

  2. Bio-economic modeling of bovine intramammary infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.H.B.

    2009-01-01

    The research of this thesis was directed to support decision making in relation to mastitis control with special focus on the dry period. First, a guideline to cost factors associated with mastitis was set, and a comprehensive literature review was conducted to evaluate literature estimates of the

  3. Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections and its implications in public health

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes, Helena; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, são apresentados os principais problemas decorrentes das infecções intramamárias (mastites) causadas por Staphylococcus aureus e as conseqüências para a saúde humana da veiculação de suas toxinas através do leite. o S. aureus destaca-se como um dos microorganismos mais importantes que podem ser transmitidos através dos alimentos. Assim, discute-se a possibilidade de veiculação de gastroenterite estafilocócica, não somente através do consumo de leite cru contaminado, mas também...

  4. 21 CFR 526.88 - Amoxicillin trihydrate for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of subclinical infectious bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus... last treatment. Do not slaughter treated animals for food purposes within 12 days after the last treatment. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [57 FR...

  5. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... until a maximum of three treatments has been given. (2) Indications for use. Treating acute, chronic, or subclinical bovine mastitis in lactating cows caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus agalactiae... taken from animals during treatment and for 72 hours (6 milkings) after the latest treatment must not be...

  6. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  7. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  8. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  9. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  10. WANO. Development, programs, challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the accident at the Soviet RBMK reactor unit 4 in Chernobyl the nuclear industry founded the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). To this day, the purpose of the organization has been to enhance worldwide cooperation of nuclear industry and, in this way, strengthen the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. Following some first steps after 1986, the charter of the organization was signed at the WANO constituent assembly in Moscow on May 15 and 16, 1989. The member companies thus committed themselves to support WANO's mission. WANO was established for these purposes: ''The mission of WANO is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information, and emulation of best practices.'' The WANO programs developed speedily thereafter. The focus was on peer reviews. In 2000, the first interim objective had been reached: Fifty percent of all member nuclear power plants had undergone peer reviews. In addition, plant-related peer reviews were extended throughout all operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The other WANO programs as well, i.e. exchanges of experience, technical support, and performance indicators, exerted more and more influence on industry. Peer reviews covered entire operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The worldwide paradigm shift in evaluating the use of nuclear power, and the associated construction programs for new nuclear power plants already in their implementation phase, assigned a new quality to the work of WANO. The organization is preparing a long-term strategy in the face of the challenges to be expected. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to support member organizations from the first preparations of a nuclear power plant project to the end of commercial operation. (orig.)

  11. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  12. The Repack Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Daniele Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Physics data stored in CERN tapes is quickly reaching the 100 PB milestone. Tape is an ever-changing technology that is still following Moore's law in terms of capacity. This means we can store every year more and more data in the same amount of tapes. However this doesn't come for free: the first obvious cost is the new higher capacity media. The second less known cost is related to moving the data from the old tapes to the new ones. This activity is what we call repack. Repack is vital for any large tape user: without it, one would have to buy more tape libraries and more floor space and, eventually, data on old non supported tapes would become unreadable and be lost forever. In this paper we describe the challenge of repacking 115 PB before LHC data taking starts in the beginning of 2015. This process will have to run concurrently with the existing experiment tape activities, and therefore needs to be as transparent as possible for users. Making sure that this works out seamlessly implies careful planning of the resources and the various policies for sharing them fairly and conveniently. To tackle this problem we need to fully exploit the speed and throughput of our modern tape drives. This involves proper dimensioning and configuration of the disk arrays and all the links between them and the tape servers, i.e the machines responsible for managing the tape drives. It is also equally important to provide tools to improve the efficiency with which we use our tape libraries. The new repack setup we deployed has on average increased tape drive throughput by 80%, allowing them to perform closer to their design specifications. This improvement in turn means a 48% decrease in the number of drives needed to achieve the required throughput to complete the full repack on time.

  13. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  14. Our biggest challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, P; Ray, S

    1994-06-01

    womanhood without children. Women do not believe they have child-bearing choices. Differential AIDS mortality for women will decrease the young female population, which will increase pressure on women to bear children. The greatest challenge is to make women feel valued and believe in themselves.

  15. Survival tactics within thermally-challenging roosts: heat tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microclimates were thermally challenging, being very hot (>40°C) for several hours daily in summer and autumn, and cold (<10°C) for much of the night in winter Thermal preference tests revealed that the bats actively selected temperature zones (35°- 42°C) in which basal metabolic rate could be maintained, and above the ...

  16. How Augmented Reality Enables Conceptual Understanding of Challenging Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Elinich, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Research on learning about science has revealed that students often hold robust misconceptions about a number of scientific ideas. Digital simulation and dynamic visualization tools have helped to ameliorate these learning challenges by providing scaffolding to understand various aspects of the phenomenon. In this study we hypothesize that…

  17. Socio-economic challenges of rural telecommunication access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been growing interest on how to provide universal telecommunication access in developing countries. The trend in digital divide between the rural and urban areas for developing countries reveals a growing gap. In this paper, we discussed from a socioeconomic perspective, the various challenges facing the ...

  18. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  19. Contemporary issues and challenges of health sector in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper utilised primary data by interacting with randomly selected medical doctors, pharmacists, image scientists and nurses to elicit facts and information on issues, challenges and problems they experience in their hospitals. The findings of their experiences revealed that constellation of social, economic and ...

  20. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  1. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  2. The Challenge of the Deanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Joni; Wolverton, Mimi

    This paper addresses the evolution of the kinds of challenges that deans have met over time and examines perceptions of today's deans concerning their ability to deal effectively with current challenges. A sample of deans (n=695) in the colleges of education, business, liberal arts, and nursing at 360 public and private institutions was surveyed…

  3. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  4. Statistics Poster Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brad; Freeman, Jenny; Stillman, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of data are important life skills. A poster challenge for schoolchildren provides an innovative outlet for these skills and demonstrates their relevance to daily life. We discuss our Statistics Poster Challenge and the lessons we have learned.

  5. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  6. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  7. Some Challenges of Deep Mining†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fairhurst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An increased global supply of minerals is essential to meet the needs and expectations of a rapidly rising world population. This implies extraction from greater depths. Autonomous mining systems, developed through sustained R&D by equipment suppliers, reduce miner exposure to hostile work environments and increase safety. This places increased focus on “ground control” and on rock mechanics to define the depth to which minerals may be extracted economically. Although significant efforts have been made since the end of World War II to apply mechanics to mine design, there have been both technological and organizational obstacles. Rock in situ is a more complex engineering material than is typically encountered in most other engineering disciplines. Mining engineering has relied heavily on empirical procedures in design for thousands of years. These are no longer adequate to address the challenges of the 21st century, as mines venture to increasingly greater depths. The development of the synthetic rock mass (SRM in 2008 provides researchers with the ability to analyze the deformational behavior of rock masses that are anisotropic and discontinuous—attributes that were described as the defining characteristics of in situ rock by Leopold Müller, the president and founder of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM, in 1966. Recent developments in the numerical modeling of large-scale mining operations (e.g., caving using the SRM reveal unanticipated deformational behavior of the rock. The application of massive parallelization and cloud computational techniques offers major opportunities: for example, to assess uncertainties in numerical predictions; to establish the mechanics basis for the empirical rules now used in rock engineering and their validity for the prediction of rock mass behavior beyond current experience; and to use the discrete element method (DEM in the optimization of deep mine design. For the first time, mining

  8. Between Concealing and Revealing Intersexed Bodies: Parental Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike

    2017-08-01

    Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.

  9. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  10. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  11. Expressive communication of children with autism: the use of challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2008-11-01

    There is a lack of empirical research investigating challenging behaviour in children with autism with severe speech impairments in naturalistic settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate challenging behaviour among Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who are non-verbal or have limited speech (i.e. less than five functional words) in school settings and to address the following questions: (1) What are the communicative characteristics (e.g. communicative functions, partners, activities and partner's responses) of challenging behaviour? (2) Do sample characteristics (e.g. age, severity of autism, adaptive behaviour level, the use of graphic symbols, the use of non-symbolic acts, the use of speech) associate with the amount of challenging behaviour? (3) Do cultural differences exist in communicative variables of challenging behaviour? Naturalistic observations were used to investigate challenging behaviour in children with autism. A total of 32 (17 Australian and 15 Taiwanese) children with autism who were non-verbal or had limited speech participated in the current study and each participant was videotaped for 2 h during his/her everyday school routines. Sixteen out of 32 children had challenging behaviour. Challenging behaviour was used for requesting and rejecting communicative functions. A paired-samples t-test revealed that no significant differences existed in the frequency of occurrence between request and reject. Challenging behaviour was directed to adults and peers. A paired-samples t-test revealed that challenging behaviour was directed to adults significantly more frequently than to peers. Communicative partners showed different responses (e.g. deny, no response, delivered, removed, acknowledge) to challenging behaviour. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a main effect for partner response. Deny was the most common response. Challenging behaviour occurred across a variety of classroom activities (e

  12. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  13. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D.W. Frost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data.

  14. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  15. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  16. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  17. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  20. PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR CORPORATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Proxy contest, Corporate governance, Prospects, Challenges, Nigeria ... this advantage, cumulative voting is rare in publicly traded firms and most ..... framework needs to be put in place in Nigeria, which will highlight the gains of ...

  1. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  2. Challenging environmental mythology: wrestling Zeus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, J. W; Lehr, Jay H

    2003-01-01

    .... At a time when the public can be thoroughly confused between fact and fiction regarding our environmental concerns, this book proposes to challenge our concerns in clear, jargon free language that we can...

  3. Presidential Transition. Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention to these themes will help the new administration successfully implement its agenda and address both long-standing and newly emerging management, fiscal, and other challenges that confront...

  4. Challenge of COPD: Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Getting Tested Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Getting Tested Everyone at risk for COPD who has cough, sputum production, or shortness of ...

  5. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  6. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  7. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maconachie, Gail D.E.; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 199...

  8. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  9. Hyperparathyroidism complicating pregnancy: A diagnostic challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Jibhkate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a rare etiology of hypercalcemia-induced pancreatitis, contributing about 0.4% to 1.5% of cases in the general population and up to 13% of cases during pregnancy. PHPT that occurs during pregnancy is a challenging diagnosis as the physiological changes in calcium homeostasis mask the symptoms of hypercalcemia. PHPT during pregnancy often remains undiagnosed and untreated, and may result in serious clinical implications for the mother and fetus. Most clinicians consider surgery within the second trimester of pregnancy as the treatment of choice in this group of patients. This article refers to a case of a 24-year married woman in whom PHPT was diagnosed for the first time in postpartum period. She succumbed to complications on Day 20 postpartum. Pathological findings revealed metastatic calcification in lungs, pancreas and uterine vessels, chronic pancreatitis and renal cortical necrosis.

  10. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from Challenge 1B to Challenge 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Porter, Edward K; Gair, Jonathan; Baker, John G; Arnaud, Keith; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Crowder, Jeff; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Larson, Shane L; Plagnol, Eric; Vecchio, Alberto; Barack, Leor; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Fairhurst, Stephen; Harry, Ian; Gong Xuefei; Khurana, Deepak; Krolak, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a programme to demonstrate and encourage the development of LISA data-analysis capabilities, tools and techniques. At the time of this workshop, three rounds of challenges had been completed, and the next was about to start. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the entries to the latest completed round, Challenge 1B. The entries confirm the consolidation of a range of data-analysis techniques for galactic and massive-black-hole binaries, and they include the first convincing examples of detection and parameter estimation of extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources. In this paper we also introduce the next round, Challenge 3. Its data sets feature more realistic waveform models (e.g., galactic binaries may now chirp, and massive-black-hole binaries may precess due to spin interactions), as well as new source classes (bursts from cosmic strings, isotropic stochastic backgrounds) and more complicated nonsymmetric instrument noise

  11. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-06-23

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Ubeda, 18-22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes.

  12. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  13. Preventing and managing challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Nutmeg

    2018-02-21

    Patients exhibiting challenging behaviour, which includes any non-verbal, verbal or physical behaviour, is a significant issue in healthcare settings. Preventing such behaviour and the harm it can cause is important for healthcare organisations and individuals, and involves following a public health model comprised of three tiers: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of challenging behaviour occurring in the first instance; secondary prevention involves reducing the risk associated with imminent challenging behaviour and its potential escalation; and tertiary prevention focuses on minimising the physical and emotional harm caused by challenging behaviours, during and after an event. De-escalation should be the first-line response to challenging behaviour, and healthcare staff should use a range of techniques - maintaining safety, self-regulation, effective communication, and assessment and actions - to reduce the incidence of challenging behaviour. In some situations, physical interventions may be required to protect the safety of the individual, healthcare staff and other individuals involved, and healthcare staff should be aware of local policies and procedures for this. Following a serious incident, where there was potential or actual harm to patients and healthcare staff, healthcare organisations should use post-incident reviews to learn from the situation, while healthcare staff should be offered the opportunity for debriefing. Positive responses to challenging behaviour at an organisational and individual level can lead to improved work environments for healthcare staff and optimal patient care and outcomes. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  14. Multicultural development in human services agencies: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20 practitioners experienced in MCOD. Qualitative analysis revealed four challenges--socioeconomic environment, organizational dynamics, conceptualization of the change effort, and consultant competence; and four solutions--collaborative environmental relations, leadership development, assessment and planning, and consultant selection. Results suggest the complexities of MCOD and ways that human services agencies can sustain such efforts.

  15. Strategic choices: China's challenges of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordqvist, Joakim

    2005-01-01

    China faces a multitude of fundamental challenges in its present state of transformation and development - in social, economic, technical, and administrative terms, etc. This paper focuses on the cross-section of three elements: (i) China's current and dramatically developing energy trends, profoundly different from projections made only a few years ago, (ii) implications, to the implementation of centrally adopted policy instruments and decrees, of China's transition from a planned to a market-based economic system, and (iii) global climate change. Putting the spot-light on the point of this cross-section reveals a turmoil of actors on a stage, where short- and long-term agendas clash, traditional governance systems fail, and different policy frameworks - local, provincial, central, regional and global - are in disarray and misalignment. On this chaotic stage, academics and policy planners apply their analytic skills to construct scenarios and to identify key conditions for the arrival at different futures, benign or less appealing in various degrees. This paper suggests how, in failing to account for the present, these futures are often inherently flawed. In consequence, it is argued that the logic of scenario- and policy-making needs to be adapted to the logic and incentives of actual stakeholders, rather than that of modelled ones, in order to better serve as guidance to a China that has to meet the challenges of rapid change on multiple fronts

  16. Challenges for nurse managers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet

    2010-07-01

    To critically review the challenges facing nurse leaders in China during healthcare reform. China is now undergoing a major reform aimed at enhancing the accessibility and quality of its healthcare at a level that is affordable to the people. Nurses have a key role to play in this reform. Key documents produced by the government of China were critically reviewed using the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) framework. A number of factors, including the insufficient number of nurses and the medical orientation of the health system, have hindered the development of nursing. However, healthcare reform has created new opportunities for nurses and nursing. This paper reviews the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by nurse managers in China. It identifies barriers but also possibilities for nurse leaders to advance nursing and make nurses visible in this era of transforming healthcare. Many of the issues identified in this review, such as the enhancement of quality and accessibility of care, are important to nurse leaders around the world. However, this article reveals the particular challenges faced by nurse leaders in China, with its unique social and historical background.

  17. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  18. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits, but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. Much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis is needed to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. There is a further oportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges must be overcome. The first step is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of three key technical challenges is plasma engineering - burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost

  19. Acting without seeing: Eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness Miriam Spering & Marisa Carrasco

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to part...

  20. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  3. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  4. Higgs Machine Learning Challenge 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Olivier, A-P; Bourdarios, C ; LAL / Orsay; Goldfarb, S ; University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been using Machine Learning (ML) techniques such as boosted decision trees (paper) and neural nets since the 90s. These techniques are now routinely used for difficult tasks such as the Higgs boson search. Nevertheless, formal connections between the two research fields are rather scarce, with some exceptions such as the AppStat group at LAL, founded in 2006. In collaboration with INRIA, AppStat promotes interdisciplinary research on machine learning, computational statistics, and high-energy particle and astroparticle physics. We are now exploring new ways to improve the cross-fertilization of the two fields by setting up a data challenge, following the footsteps of, among others, the astrophysics community (dark matter and galaxy zoo challenges) and neurobiology (connectomics and decoding the human brain). The organization committee consists of ATLAS physicists and machine learning researchers. The Challenge will run from Monday 12th to September 2014.

  5. Success of Breast Cancer Startup Challenge Inspires Second Challenge | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Thomas Stackhouse, Joseph Conrad, and Michele Newton, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Sixty-one teams have been accepted into, and are now competing in, the Neuro Startup Challenge, a new collaboration established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with The Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI) and Heritage Provider Network, Inc.

  6. The medical leadership challenge in healthcare is an identity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the identity challenges that physicians with medical leadership positions face. Four qualitative case studies were performed to address the fact that identity is processual, relational and situational. Physicians with managerial roles were interviewed, as well as their peers, supervisors and subordinates. Furthermore, observations were made to understand how different identities are displayed in action. This study illustrates that medical leadership implies identity struggles when physicians have manager positions, because of the different characteristics of the social identities of managers and physicians. Major differences are related between physicians as autonomous individuals in a system and managers as subordinates to the organizational system. There are psychological mechanisms that evoke the physician identity more often than the managerial identity among physicians who are managers, which explains why physicians who are managers tend to remain foremost physicians. The implications of the findings, that there are major identity challenges by being both a physician and manager, suggest that managerial physicians might not be the best prerequisite for medical leadership, but instead, cooperative relationships between physicians and non-physician managers might be a less difficult way to support medical leadership. Acknowledging and addressing identity challenges can be important both in creating structures in organizations and designing the training for managers in healthcare (both physicians and non-physicians) to support medical leadership. Medical leadership is most often related to organizational structure and/or leadership skills, but this paper discusses identity requirements and challenges related to medical leadership.

  7. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  8. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ''ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop

  9. Security challenge to using smartphones for SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abueh, Yeka; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Pervasive smartphones have demonstrated great potential in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructures. Their sensing, processing, and communication capabilities along with crowdsourcing facility ease technical difficulties and reduce financial burdens of instrumentation and monitoring for SHM in civil infrastructures. However, smartphones are vulnerable to unintentional misuses and malicious attacks. This paper analyzes the vulnerabilities of smartphones in performing SHM and reveals the exploitation of those vulnerabilities. The work probes the attack surface of both devices and data. Device attack scenarios include hacking individual smartphones to modify the data stored on them and orchestrating smartphones to launch a distributed denial-of-service attack. Specifically, experiments are conducted to remotely access an Android smartphone and modify the sensing data of structural health stored on it. The work also presents a case study that reveals the sensitivity of a popular perturbation analysis method to faulty data delivered by a smartphone. The paper provides the direction of meeting the security challenge to using smartphones for SHM. As the first line of defense, device authentication is implemented in the smartphone to stop spoofing. Subsequently, message authentication is devised to maintain data integrity. There is a need to apply data science for the SHM immunity system against the sensitivity to data inaccuracy. The work also evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the proposed security measures, recommending varying levels of security to mitigate the adversaries to smartphones used in SHM systems. It calls for security solutions at the design stage of SHM systems rather than patching up after their implementations.

  10. Zero Energy Schools: The Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    School buildings have a lot of potential to achieve zero energy (ZE) in new construction as well as in retrofits. There are many examples of schools operating at ZE, and many technical resources available to guide school districts and their design and construction teams through the process. When school districts embark on the path to ZE, however, they often confront challenges related to processes and a perception that ZE buildings require 'new,' unconventional, and expensive technologies, materials, or equipment. Here are some of the challenges school districts and their design and construction teams commonly encounter, and the solutions they use to overcome them.

  11. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  12. Conclusion: challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, D W

    1993-12-01

    The title "Challenges for the Future" implies the challenge to summarize a very complex meeting. Of necessity, I will present a personal impression. My interest is in risk assessment, which I define as a process for summarizing science in support of decision making. Risk assessment is sometimes regarded as arcane numerology, a rigid process of computing risk numbers in which much available science is unused. I am a strong advocate for the broader definition of risk assessment. It is encouraging to learn how much science is becoming available for use in risk assessment for gasoline, its components, and alternative fuels.

  13. Challenge of the oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaidah, A M

    1981-11-01

    The oil market is experiencing a different environment in 1981 as demand for OPEC oil fades while customers run down their inventories. The oil-producing countries face a new challenge, but the need of consuming countries for secure oil supplies and the need of producing countries to broaden their economies and reduce dependence on a depleting resource continue. Two episodes 1973 to 1975 and late 1978 to the present, illustrate the current market situation. The impact of these episodes is the basis for recommended long-run goals that go beyond market management to the real challenge of converting oil resources into the real assets of economic development. (DCK)

  14. Challenges and opportunities for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Sun, Zhanli; Müller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is a promising mechanism of payments for ecosystem services with the aim to effectively reduce emissions in an efficient and equitable manner. REDD+ is part of the Paris-agreement reached at the UNFCCC COP21 in December 2015...... the opportunities and challenges of REDD+ for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes and co-benefits (3E+). We substantiate our survey results with a literature review. Results suggest that the challenges in achieving the 3E+ relate to the disproportionality between deforestation drivers...

  15. Single-Cell Transcriptomics Bioinformatics and Computational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Garmire

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emerging single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq technology holds the promise to revolutionize our understanding of diseases and associated biological processes at an unprecedented resolution. It opens the door to reveal the intercellular heterogeneity and has been employed to a variety of applications, ranging from characterizing cancer cells subpopulations to elucidating tumor resistance mechanisms. Parallel to improving experimental protocols to deal with technological issues, deriving new analytical methods to reveal the complexity in scRNA-Seq data is just as challenging. Here we review the current state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools and methods for scRNA-Seq analysis, as well as addressing some critical analytical challenges that the field faces.

  16. Collaboration challenges in systematic reviews: a survey of health sciences librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Nicholson

    2017-10-01

    Results: Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. Conclusions: These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  17. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  18. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L; Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt; Larson, Shane L; Mandel, Ilya; Porter, Edward K; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Vecchio, Alberto; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan; Cohen, Michael; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between ∼10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with Ω gw (f) ∼ 10 -11 , slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  19. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm bei Potsdam (Germany); Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Benacquista, Matthew J [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Larson, Shane L [Department of Physics, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Mandel, Ilya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Porter, Edward K [APC, UMR 7164, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75025 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vecchio, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Blaut, Arkadiusz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom); Cohen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gair, Jonathan R., E-mail: Michele.Vallisneri@jpl.nasa.go [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between approx10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with OMEGA{sub gw}(f) approx 10{sup -11}, slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  20. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  2. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  3. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  4. The Challenges of Digital Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Because digital devices and online environments can simultaneously be transformatively empowering and maddeningly disruptive, the work of integrating digital learning tools into schools is usually difficult and complex. Common challenges arise, however, and can be thoughtfully addressed by proactive leadership. In the end, technology change in…

  5. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Research Award: IDRC Challenge Fund

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  7. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  8. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  9. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the ... The conundrum of fee-free higher education is not an abstract concept floating ... You can choose to engage with the issue by expressing yourself in many ways. .... Africa today, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (SAQA, 2004), we very ...

  10. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  11. IPTV: Challenges and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.M. Bonastre; M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe move to IP Protocol Television (IPTV) has challenged the traditional television industry by opening the Internet to high quality real time television content delivery. Thus it has provided an enabling set of key technologies to understand and foster further innovations in the

  12. They rose to the challenge!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    The Challenge-Based Innovation programme is a Masters-level initiative developed at CERN in collaboration with many universities around the world. The first programme saw 45 students take part, and their final results were presented at an official "gala" held on 26 February.   On 26 February, after their official presentations, the six CBI teams presented their prototypes to the public in the IdeaSquare building.   As part of the IdeaSquare project, the Challenge-Based Innovation (CBI) programme is based on a very pragmatic question: can the tools and results produced by basic research (like that being carried out at CERN) be used to solve societal problems? If so, how? To answer this question, 45 students from very different professional and cultural backgrounds formed six teams, each with a specific societal challenge to solve (see here). Over a six-month period – from September 2014 to February 2015 – the six teams worked on the challenge in o...

  13. Accountability: new challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkum, C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  14. Neuroscience challenges to philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Orantos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a possible framework to critically define the concept of human nature and person in dialogue with Neuroscience. He tries to help meet the challenge of the naturalism in the current thought.

  15. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  17. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  18. Challenges to Vocational Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges to vocational teacher education include technological change that is sending large numbers of adults back to school; increasing numbers of women, minorities, and handicapped individuals who are seeking employment in nontraditional occupations; vocational preparation for jobs in the information economy; teacher recruitment; and creative…

  19. Challenges in a Physics Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carola Hernández; Ravn, Ole; Forero Shelton, Antonio Manu

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies and analyses some of the challenges that arose in a development process of changing from a content-based teaching environment to a student-centred environment in an undergraduate physics course for medicine and biology students at Universidad de los Andes. Through the use...

  20. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  1. Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy V.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

  2. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

  3. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruning, O

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex

  4. Toxaphene: a challenging analytical problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, H.J.; Wester, P.G.; Schelvis, A.; de Boer, J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of toxaphene, a highly complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and camphenes, is a challenging problem, especially as individual congeners are present at trace levels in biota and other relevant samples. The complicated nomenclature of the compounds of interest is briefly

  5. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Willy

    2016-01-01

    In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session, "Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity", and cognisant of the primary audience, I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address have however…

  6. Plain language and organisational challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Changing the language in an organization is a major organizational change. In this article, I discuss some of the organizational challenges for one specific language change implementation, taking the stance that language change must be treated as any other organizational change for it to have an ...

  7. Fostering Reflection through Challenging Practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Jodi; Sutherby, Linda; Garrow-Oliver, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes challenging practicum situations that provided three early childhood education students with leadership opportunities to promote best practices in child care centers. Using excerpts from student journals and meetings, the article documents students' initial discouragement at practices observed, inspiration through…

  8. Challenges in software ecosystems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serebrenik, A.; Mens, T.; Crnkovic, I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a meta-analysis of the research field of software ecosystems, by method of surveying 26 authors in the field. It presents a relevant list of literature and six themes in which challenges for software ecosystems can be grouped: Architecture and Design, Governance, Dynamics and Evolution,

  9. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Dowlen, Chris

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade agile methods have been a vast success in the domain of software development. This paper investigates whether these methods can be successfully transferred to the domain of physical product development in order to address the fundamental challenges of increased marked speed...

  10. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Grand challenges are among the most complex problems for modern societies. Many governments and foundations provide substantial resources to encourage the search for solutions. Due to the significance of these problems, organizations often form partnerships in what we call search consortia to eng...

  11. A Water-Service Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to let students see the value of mathematics in design--and how mathematics lends perspective to problem solving. In this article, the author describes a water-service challenge which enables students to design a water utility system that uses surface runoff into an open reservoir as the potable water source. This challenge…

  12. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness to e...

  13. Issues and Challenges on Venturing into Facebook Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Sumathi; Manimekalai Jambulingam; Gobindran Raj Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the challenges encountered by small entrepreneurs when venturing into Facebook commerce. Social media has revolutionized not only our daily lives, but also the business world. This study involved 50 small entrepreneurs and adopted mixed method of quantitative and qualitative designs to collect data. The study revealed that lack of IT knowledge and set of cost significantly affected the respondents ‘decision to venture into Facebook commerce. However, many small entrepreneur...

  14. CHALLENGES OF ATTENDING E-LEARNING STUDIES IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Z. BUGI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to find out what challenges the E-leaner faces in the Nigerian environment. Survey research design was used to obtain the opinion of 200 randomly selected E-learners in Kaduna metropolis. Their responses revealed that the most prominent challenges they face are, Inadequate Power supply, Internet connectivity problems, Efficacy of service providers, Affordability of computer hardware, Software and other accessories, Depth of knowledge and skills of internet operation, Cost of accessing internet and production of hard copy. Of all these problems, power supply and its inadequacy ranked highest while depth internet knowledge and skills ranked last. Recommendations were made on how to solve these challenges.

  15. First Nations people's challenge in managing coronary artery disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathryn M; Sanguins, Julianne; McGregor, Lisa; LeBlanc, Pamela

    2007-10-01

    First Nations peoples bring a particular history and cultural perspective to healing and well-being that significantly influences their health behaviors. The authors used grounded theory methods to describe and explain how ethnocultural affiliation and gender influence the process that 22 First Nations people underwent when making lifestyle changes related to their coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The transcribed interviews revealed a core variable, meeting the challenge. Meeting the challenge of CAD risk management was influenced by intrapersonal, interpersonal (relationships with others), extrapersonal (i.e., the community and government), sociodemographic, and gendered factors. Salient elements for the participants included their beliefs about origins of illness, the role of family, challenges to accessing information, financial and resource management, and the gendered element of body image. Health care providers need to understand the historical, social, and culturally embedded factors that influence First Nations people's appraisal of their CAD.

  16. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  17. Toward accountable land use mapping: Using geocomputation to improve classification accuracy and reveal uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Clarke, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of satellite imagery into land use/cover maps is a major challenge in the field of remote sensing. This research aimed at improving the classification accuracy while also revealing uncertain areas by employing a geocomputational approach. We computed numerous land use maps by

  18. Can weak-resilience-signals (WRS) reveal obstacles compromising (rail-)system resilience?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of accidents in socio-technical systems frequently reveals unnoticed obstacles, which have grown to become the main cause of incubation and surprise at failure (Dekker, 2011). Thus far, it has proven to be a challenge to identify those unnoticed obstacles upfront among the tremendous number

  19. Social media and physicians: Exploring the benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare professionals' use of social media platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking web sites has grown considerably in recent years. However, few studies have explored the perspectives and experiences of physicians in adopting social media in healthcare. This article aims to identify the potential benefits and challenges of adopting social media by physicians and demonstrates this by presenting findings from a survey conducted with physicians. A qualitative survey design was employed to achieve the research goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 physicians from around the world who were active users of social media. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed six main reasons and six major challenges for physicians adopting social media. The main reasons to join social media were as follows: staying connected with colleagues, reaching out and networking with the wider community, sharing knowledge, engaging in continued medical education, benchmarking, and branding. The main challenges of adopting social media by physicians were also as follows: maintaining confidentiality, lack of active participation, finding time, lack of trust, workplace acceptance and support, and information anarchy. By revealing the main benefits as well as the challenges of adopting social media by physicians, the study provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to better understand the scope and impact of social media in healthcare, and assists them to adopt and harness social media effectively, and maximize the benefits for the specific needs of the clinical community. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. An All-School Library Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Connie

    2005-01-01

    The library media center is hosting an all-school team challenge, designed to celebrate reading and library skills. Students could choose from the contest categories like "Lord of the Rings", "Harry Potter", Author Facts Challenge and Opening Lines Challenge for the competition and those students who read more challenging books show their…

  1. Unique Identification Project Issues and Challenges Unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiple authentication methods · UID adoption can help improve pro-poor delivery systems · Technology Challenges … Biometric Challenges · Rural Biometric Challenges · Biometric De-Duplication · Architecture Challenges · Network Infrastructure · Security, Fraud Detection · Managing multiple risks · UID goals can be ...

  2. Challenged assumptions and invisible effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Vitus, Kathrine; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    for the implementation—different from the assumed conditions—not only challenge the implementation of the intervention but also potentially produce unanticipated yet valuable effects. Research implications – Newly arrived immigrants represent a hugely diverse and heterogeneous group of people with differing values......Purpose – The objective of this study was to examine any unanticipated effects of an educational intervention among newly arrived adult immigrants attending a language school in Denmark. Methodology – A qualitative case study was conducted including interviews with nine informants, observations....... In particular, the assumed (power) relations inherent in immigrant-oriented educational health interventions, in which immigrants are in a novice position, are challenged, as the immigrants are experienced adults (and parents) in regard to healthcare. The paper proposes that such unexpected conditions...

  3. Embracing the challenge of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    1998-01-01

    The new and creative solutions that Edmonton Power is using to meet the challenges of deregulation, competition and demand for customer choice in the electric power industry are discussed. Among these creative initiatives, in 1997 Edmonton Power extended account management services to 850 accounts to deliver commercial and operational analysis of energy consumption and management. Another major focus of effort has been the introduction of time of use (TOU) pricing options to commercial and industrial customers above 150 kWh. This required the installation of the latest hourly metering technology and the establishment of new price plans and contracts. Two major challenges were highlighted: (1) the mismatch between the prices utilities pay at the power pool and what the customer pays at the meter, and (2) the increased volatility of hour to hour price changes are just some of the risks that will have to be resolved under the new market structure

  4. Challenges in pediatric endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed endothelial keratoplasty (EK in three eyes of two siblings (2.5 years, male and 3.5 years, female with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED and report the intraoperative and postoperative difficulties. Repeated iris prolapse, apprehension of crystalline lens touch due to positive vitreous pressure, and need for frequent air injections to attach the graft were intraoperative challenges in all three eyes. These were addressed by use of Sheet′s glide instead of Busin′s glide during graft insertion and suturing of main and side ports before air injection. One eye had graft dislocation on second postoperative day due to eye rubbing by the child. Graft was repositioned with air and a venting incision was created. Postoperative examination required repeated general anesthesia. Corneal edema resolved completely in all three eyes. Present case series highlights the possible intraoperative and postoperative challenges and their solutions in pediatric EK for CHED.

  5. Present challenges in hadrontherapy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Braccini, S.

    2011-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is a high-precision technique in cancer radiation therapy, which allows obtaining a superior conformal treatment with respect to photons used in conventional radiation therapy. To reach this ambitious goal without reducing the patient throughput needed in a hospital-based environment, the physical and radiobiological properties of charged hadrons, protons and carbon ions in particular, have to be exploited at best, making use of the most modern technologies issued from research in nuclear and particle physics. In the present days, we are assisting to a continuous technological challenge, leading to the conception and to the development of innovative methods and instruments. In this paper, the most relevant challenges in dose delivery systems, gantries, imaging, quality assurance and particle accelerators are reviewed.

  6. Transistor challenges - A DRAM perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Juergen W.; Henke, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Key challenges of the transistor scaling from a DRAM perspective will be reviewed. Both, array transistors as well as DRAM support devices face challenges that differ essentially from high performance logic device scaling. As a major difference, retention time and standby current requirements characterize special boundary conditions in the DRAM device design. Array device scaling is determined by a chip size driven aggressive node scaling. To continue scaling, major innovations need to be introduced into state-of-the-art planar array transistors. Alternatively, non planar device concepts will have to be evaluated. Support device design for DRAMs is driven by today's market demand for increased chip performances at little to no extra cost. Major innovations are required to continue that path. Besides this strive for performance increase, special limitations for 'on pitch' circuits at the array edge will come up due to the aggressive cell size scaling

  7. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion

  8. Challenges for Research on Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Hunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of research, the definition of the field is still inadequate. The biggest challenge we see is moving away from a de-factor definition of intelligence in terms of test scores, but at the same time making clear what the boundaries of the field are. We then present four challenges for the field, two within a biological and two within a social context. These revolve around the issues of the malleability of intelligence and its display in everyday life, outside of a formal testing context. We conclude that developments in cognitive neuroscience and increases in the feasibility of monitoring behavior outside of the context of a testing session offer considerable hope for expansion of our both the biological and social aspects of individual differences in cognition.

  9. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what ‘authenticity’ means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of ‘bodily authenticity...... self’. I scrutinise the staging techniques and the codes of appearance that bodies have to comply with in order to be deemed ‘authentic’ on the shows. To define them and place them in the history of the idea of ‘bodily authenticity’, I complement my study with an outline of how ‘authenticity...... and by a depiction of 'working hard'. But various techniques also mask the hard work, for example by showing a participant ‘having fun’ performing it. Contemporary works of dance and fashion challenge the problematic implications in the notion of ‘bodily authenticity’. I analyse three strategies of undermining...

  10. Challenges beyond elimination in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaz, Farah; Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Bansal, Avi Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Gupta, Umesh Datta

    2017-01-01

    Every year >200,000 new leprosy cases are registered globally. This number has been fairly stable over the past 8 years. The World Health Organization has set a target to interrupt the transmission of leprosy globally by 2020. It is important, in terms of global action and research activities, to consider the eventuality of multidrug therapy (MDT) resistance developing. It is necessary to measure disease burden comprehensively, and contact-centered preventive interventions should be part of a global elimination strategy. Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a drug such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. MDT has proven to be a powerful tool in the control of leprosy, especially when patients report early and start prompt treatment. Adherence to and its successful completion is equally important. This paper has reviewed the current state of leprosy worldwide and discussed the challenges and also emphasizes the challenge beyond the elimination in leprosy.

  11. Statistical Challenges in Military Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 APR2016 1. Your paper, entitled Statistical Challenges in Military Research presented at Joint...Statistical Meetings, Chicago, IL 30 July - 4 Aug 2016 and Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meetings with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned ...charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you are 59 MDW staff member, we can forward your request

  12. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  13. Diagnostic challenges in celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   1-The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not- performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be awared about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests 2-The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful. 3- The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing  for DQ8 and  DQ2 should be done. 4-The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN , positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea. 5-In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients. 6-In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients. 7-Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  

  14. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2005-10-15

    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  15. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

    2013-01-01

    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  16. Challenges of Aircraft Design Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    predicted by the conceptual stick model and the full FEM of the Challenger wing without winglets . Advanced aerodynamic wing design methods To design wings...Piperni, E. Laurendeau Advanced Aerodynamics Bombardier Aerospace 400 CMte Vertu Road Dorval, Quebec, Canada, H4S 1Y9 Fassi.Kafyeke @notes.canadair.ca Tel...514) 855-7186 Abstract The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics , controls, systems, propulsion

  17. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  18. The Challenge of the bespoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Quinn, Gregory; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2014-01-01

    The Dermoid project, a series of three plywood grid shells, navigates at the interface between parametrically designed architectural spaces and the efficiency and resourcefulness of the simulations that are necessary in order to build them. It highlights the increasingly common challenges...... and conflicts which occur in building practice ranging from design to fabrication and highlights approaches that facilitate implementation in multiple scales of material, element and structure....

  19. Management Challenges Fiscal Year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    address supply chain vulnerabilities and its strategic competitors. Office of Inspector General Management Challenges 48 │ FY 2016 Installations...has allowed U.S. firms to harness the creativity of the global market. However, these supply chains create vulnerabilities and are subject to...manipulation by strategic competitors. One of the vulnerabilities within the global supply chain is the widespread existence of counterfeit parts

  20. Engineering Education: Challenges for Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Restivo, Teresa; Alves, Gustavo R.

    2014-01-01

    “Engineering Education: Challenges for Innovation” is the scope of the 1st International Conference of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education (in Portuguese: Sociedade Portuguesa para a Educação em Engenharia, SPEE) [1]. SPEE is a young society now completing four years since its public presentation and launching by the Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, in February 19, 2010. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  1. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  2. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Retnowati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

  3. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  4. Ethical challenges related to next of kin - nursing staffs' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Siri; Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2016-11-01

    Patients in clinical settings are not lonely islands; they have relatives who play a more or less active role in their lives. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the ethical challenges nursing staff encounter with patients' next of kin and to discuss how these challenges affect clinical practice. The study is based on data collected from ethical group discussions among nursing staff in a nursing home. The discussions took place in 2011 and 2012. The data were analysed and interpreted by using hermeneutic methodology. All the data have been anonymised and handled with confidentiality. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Ethical challenges relating to patients' next of kin were found to be an issue frequently discussed in the groups. Our findings indicate that next of kin have different characteristics, categorised as 'the professionals' and 'the shadows'. In this article, we will describe the next of kin's characteristics and the ethical challenges and practical implications that nursing staff experience in this connection. We will discuss the findings in the light of the four basic principles of medical ethics and propose interventions to help nurses manage ethical challenges related to next of kin. The study reveals the need to enhance nursing staffs' communicative and ethical skills on an individual level, but most importantly, to establish routines in clinical settings for informing and following up next of kin in a systematic and structured way. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Biosensor reveals multiple sources for mitochondrial NAD⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Stewart, Melissa L; Kim, DongHo; Jones-Brunette, Amber M; Morgan, Rory K; Farrens, David L; Cohen, Michael S; Goodman, Richard H

    2016-06-17

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments. We found that the concentrations of free NAD(+) in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria approximate the Michaelis constants for sirtuins and PARPs in their respective compartments. Systematic depletion of enzymes that catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis revealed cell-specific mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial NAD(+) concentrations. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. KISWAHILI VERBS: A LEXICOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    reveals the non-correspondence between form and meaning in language. ... near mirror image of the lexicon claimed to be part of a native speaker's compe- .... cographers do not take much trouble in their study of the forms they enter into ...... The way we interpret somesha is 'make someone read' but actually the book is ...

  7. Dose-Response—A Challenge for Allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G.; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O.

    2005-01-01

    The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions. PMID:19330161

  8. Dose-response-a challenge for allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Hurle, Karl; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-04-01

    The response of an organism to a chemical depends, among other things, on the dose. Nonlinear dose-response relationships occur across a broad range of research fields, and are a well established tool to describe the basic mechanisms of phytotoxicity. The responses of plants to allelochemicals as biosynthesized phytotoxins, relate as well to nonlinearity and, thus, allelopathic effects can be adequately quantified by nonlinear mathematical modeling. The current paper applies the concept of nonlinearity to assorted aspects of allelopathy within several bioassays and reveals their analysis by nonlinear regression models. Procedures for a valid comparison of effective doses between different allelopathic interactions are presented for both, inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The dose-response applications measure and compare the responses produced by pure allelochemicals [scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one); DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one); BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one); MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one)], involved in allelopathy of grain crops, to demonstrate how some general principles of dose responses also relate to allelopathy. Hereupon, dose-response applications with living donor plants demonstrate the validity of these principles for density-dependent phytotoxicity of allelochemicals produced and released by living plants (Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Triticum L. spp.), and reveal the use of such experiments for initial considerations about basic principles of allelopathy. Results confirm that nonlinearity applies to allelopathy, and the study of allelopathic effects in dose-response experiments allows for new and challenging insights into allelopathic interactions.

  9. Energy challenges and strategic challenges in the 21. Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Prices of fossil fuels are still increasing in 2011. This trend should accentuate in the next years. Because natural resources are indeed limited and without any possibility of quickly reversing current consuming habits, world consumers must find a way to limit the impact of these bullish tendencies. This challenge must be confronted to the lack of credible alternative to fossil fuels. In fact, there is no energy with comparable qualities to oil and gas. Thus other resources will keep a low profile in the world energy balance in the next twenty years. This phenomenon of scarcity and a high level of dependency to hydrocarbons will have four consequences: redefinition of military and economic alliances; calling into questions the positions of established powers; implementation of policies which aim to reduce any external dependency; upholding of the Middle East as a key energy area, due to the amount of its natural reserves. In such a context, producing countries will try to preserve their resources from any external lust. For all, any energy policy based on abstinence should contribute to limit the risks of a possible world energy crisis. However, such a development seems to be unlikely on the mid term. Energy will stay one of the major challenges of the 21. century

  10. Challenges of locally manufactured vehicle supply chains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Locally manufactured vehicles are destined (partly for the export market and thus, global competitiveness  is  important.  This  article  explores  the  challenges  facing  supply  chains  of locally manufactured vehicles in South Africa. The automotive industry is perceived to be the most advanced in supply chain management practices in South Africa. It has embraced technology and management practices that have transformed the manufacturing environment by using cutting-edge design and visualisation tools. However, the industry has fragilities and faces new and emerging supply chain challenges. A survey research design was employed and  the  data  was  collected  through  face-to-face  semi-structured  interview  questionnaires based on the purposive sampling technique. Data analysis and interpretation was based on descriptive  statistics  using  SPSS  software.  The  findings  revealed  that  there  are  challenges hindering  best  supply  chain  practices  of  local  vehicle  manufacturers.  The  research  also revealed that there is a perceived difference in supply chain challenges between the different manufacturers of different origins in South Africa. Asian manufacturers felt much stronger about the adequacy of their information systems compared to the European manufacturers. Asian  manufacturers  tended  to  agree  more  than  their  European  counterparts  that  labour problems were a challenge. European manufacturers, on the other hand, tended to agree more that rail transport is unreliable. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on supply chain practices in South Africa.

  11. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Distribution challenges and workable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash G. Mulky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective distribution channel can be a source of strategic advantage for companies. However, little research exists about the distribution channel structure in India, which is largely traditional and quite unique. The first part of this round table article provides an overview of distribution channels, particularly their constituents and structure, with a special focus on distribution channels in India. The second part of the article reports on a panel discussion with eminent academic and industry experts on the challenges that companies in India face in designing, constructing, and managing distribution channels on the ground.

  14. Challenges for current University management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian university through a change of era, this complex pathway mediated by globalization imposes imminently. The aim of this paper is to present a review of literature on the main aspects of management that are generated for the interaction University - context. This scan was performed on secondary sources, and grounded in scienti?c data abstraction. College education is an information and training process that allows the scientific, technological, economic, political, social and cultural development of a region or country; however, some phenomena such as globalization, technological revolution or multiculturalism are key to this, same that can be considered as a problem or a challenge.

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. Cleaning Insertions and Collimation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010-2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  17. Challenge of superfund community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    Conducting a community relations effort in a community which is home to a Superfund site is a formidable challenge. Any education press, however appropriate, quickly falls victim to doubt, mistrust of fears of the very public intended to be served by the effort. While each site is uniquely different, the issues raised by affected communities in one part of the country are strikingly similar to those raised in other parts. Those most involved must join those most affected in seeking meaningful solutions and in building the trust that is so vital in moving forward with Superfund

  18. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  19. IAEA safeguards: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The history of the IAEA safeguards regime is described. New challenges and opportunities are discussed in connection with the discovery in Iraq of a clandestine nuclear weapons development programme, the difficulties experienced in the implementation of the safeguards agreement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the conclusion of a comprehensive safeguards agreement with Argentina, Brazil and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, recent developments in South Africa, the emergence of newly independent States that made up the former USSR. 2 figs

  20. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability......? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing...

  1. Contemporary challenges for intrafamilial relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GOTEA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we live in a time of rapid changes, from a social, industrial and technological standpoint. Profound mutations in family institution can be observed, regarding the family structure, lifestyle and the cycle of family life. Today’s tendencies reflect a clear distinction between marriage and the activity of raising children, as we can notice the increased number of marriages without children or the number of single-parent families. That is why, the present paper focus on these two types of intrafamily relationships: couple’s relationship and parent-child relation, pointing out some changes and challenges of contemporary period.

  2. The Kiki-Bouba Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Collins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We propose the “Kiki-Bouba Challenge” (KBC) for the re- search and development of content-based music informa- tion retrieval (MIR) systems. This challenge is unencum- bered by several problems typically encountered in MIR research: insufficient data, restrictive copyrights, imper- fect ground...... truth, a lack of specific criteria for classes (e.g., genre), a lack of explicit problem definition, and irrepro- ducibility. KBC provides a limitless amount of free data, a perfect ground truth, and well-specifiable and meaningful characteristics defining each class. These ideal conditions are made...

  3. Grand Challenges for Environmental Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosub, K. L.

    2009-05-01

    The development of new, inexpensive, and rapid geochemical methods for determining the ages of geologic materials, their elemental composition, and their isotopic ratios over a broad array of elements puts into sharp focus the question: What information can environmental magnetic methods provide that can't be obtained using these other methods? Because iron is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and because it exists in so many different forms, a discipline that looks in detail at iron-bearing minerals does have the potential to make significant contributions to the study of surficial processes. However, to reach that potential requires the development of new environmental magnetic methods. I would like to put forward three Grand Challenges for environmental magnetism that have the potential to move the field forward to a new level of scientific sophistication and that will allow environmental magnetists to compete successfully in a world increasingly dominated by geochemists. The first Grand Challenge is the development of new techniques that lead to the direct and unambiguous identification of the full suite of magnetic minerals. For many environmental magnetic applications, the key magnetic minerals are not just magnetite and hematite but also iron oxy-hydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, ferrihydrite), carbonates (siderite) and sulfides (pyrrhotite and greigite) as well as compounds involving iron and other transition metals (cobalt and nickel). The second Grand Challenge is the development of new analytical methods that provide specific quantitative values for the amount of each magnetic mineral present in a sample. One promising approach to this problem is the application of two- or three-component multivariate analysis to arrays of downcore environmental magnetic parameters. The third Grand Challenge is the development of new ways of determining, not just the average values, but the actual distributions of grain sizes and coercivities of each mineral

  4. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  5. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  6. Leadership Challenges in Music Education

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Margaretha; Öfverström, Christel

    2009-01-01

    This is an article about leadership in general, classroom leadership and leadership challenges in music education. The method that we have used is literature studies. One classical question is if leadership comes naturally or if it can be learned? Many authors mean that it is both. Lahdenpäre (2008) says that leadership is a social construction. It is not a quality in a person but how we can relate to other people. We have used ”The Leadership Diamond” by Koestenbaum (1991) that consists of f...

  7. Challenges of local water governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Bustamante, Rocio; Cissé, Abdoulaye

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of comprehensive inventories made of water-related conflict and cooperation occurring in five districts in Africa, Asia and Latin America between 1997 and 2007. Following a description of the conceptual and methodological framework developed for undertaking...... these inventories, the article documents the extent, nature and intensity of water-related conflict and cooperation in the five districts. The article concludes by identifying three challenges relating to the magnitude, complexity and invisibility of local-level conflict and cooperation about water, which efforts...... to improve local water governance would have to address....

  8. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  9. Current Challenges in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Guedes, Cristiano; Ponce, Santiago; Ferrer, Irene; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we highlight the current concepts and discuss some of the current challenges and future prospects in cancer therapy. We frequently use the example of lung cancer. We conducted a nonsystematic PubMed search, selecting the most comprehensive and relevant research articles, clinical trials, translational papers, and review articles on precision oncology and immuno-oncology. Papers were prioritized and selected based on their originality and potential clinical applicability. Two major revolutions have changed cancer treatment paradigms in the past few years: targeting actionable alterations in oncogene-driven cancers and immuno-oncology. Important challenges are still ongoing in both fields of cancer therapy. On the one hand, druggable genomic alterations are diverse and represent only small subsets of patients in certain tumor types, which limits testing their clinical impact in biomarker-driven clinical trials. Next-generation sequencing technologies are increasingly being implemented for molecular prescreening in clinical research, but issues regarding clinical interpretation of large genomic data make their wide clinical use difficult. Further, dealing with tumor heterogeneity and acquired resistance is probably the main limitation for the success of precision oncology. On the other hand, long-term survival benefits with immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-programmed death cell protein-1/programmed death cell ligand-1[PD-1/L1] and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibodies) are restricted to a minority of patients, and no predictive markers are yet robustly validated that could help us recognize these subsets and optimize treatment delivery and selection. To achieve long-term survival benefits, drug combinations targeting several molecular alterations or cancer hallmarks might be needed. This will probably be one of the most challenging but promising precision cancer treatment strategies in the future. Targeting single molecular

  10. Distributed analysis challenges in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Legger, Federica; Mitterer, Christoph Anton; Walker, Rodney [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS computing model has undergone massive changes to meet the high luminosity challenge of the second run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The production system and distributed data management have been redesigned, a new data format and event model for analysis have been introduced, and common reduction and derivation frameworks have been developed. We report on the impact these changes have on the distributed analysis system, study the various patterns of grid usage for user analysis, focusing on the differences between the first and th e second LHC runs, and measure performances of user jobs.

  11. University education: Demands and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pinos Vélez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the current situation prevailing in the Universities from the point of view of a teacher whose academic since its inception has been Salesian, which allows for a “best approach” to young students and where the passion for teaching is clearly influenced by the teachings of one of the greatest teachers, Don Bosco. Also, these teachings are still of great relevance in our time, seek to adopt these methodologies in our workspaces teaching is challenging, where you can suggest new strategies for communication and integration with students and in this way to service the needy, such as programs aid Persons with Disabilities.

  12. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  13. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  14. Gaussian graphical modeling reveals specific lipid correlations in glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nikola S.; Krumsiek, Jan; Theis, Fabian J.; Böhm, Christian; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    Advances in high-throughput measurements of biological specimens necessitate the development of biologically driven computational techniques. To understand the molecular level of many human diseases, such as cancer, lipid quantifications have been shown to offer an excellent opportunity to reveal disease-specific regulations. The data analysis of the cell lipidome, however, remains a challenging task and cannot be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. We have developed a method to identify a lipid correlation network which is entirely disease-specific. A powerful method to correlate experimentally measured lipid levels across the various samples is a Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM), which is based on partial correlation coefficients. In contrast to regular Pearson correlations, partial correlations aim to identify only direct correlations while eliminating indirect associations. Conventional GGM calculations on the entire dataset can, however, not provide information on whether a correlation is truly disease-specific with respect to the disease samples and not a correlation of control samples. Thus, we implemented a novel differential GGM approach unraveling only the disease-specific correlations, and applied it to the lipidome of immortal Glioblastoma tumor cells. A large set of lipid species were measured by mass spectrometry in order to evaluate lipid remodeling as a result to a combination of perturbation of cells inducing programmed cell death, while the other perturbations served solely as biological controls. With the differential GGM, we were able to reveal Glioblastoma-specific lipid correlations to advance biomedical research on novel gene therapies.

  15. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  16. Challenging case of horseshoe kidney double fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortese

    Full Text Available Introduction: Renal injuries occur in 10% of blunt abdominal traumas, 7% of these occur in kidneys with congenital or acquired disorders. Trauma of horseshoe kidney is an uncommon finding. Presentation of a case: We present the case of 31 year-old caucasian man with no remarkable personal records, who was brought to our Trauma Unit soon after being involved in a motorcycle collision. A Contrast Enhanced – Multi Detector Computed Tomography (ce-MDCT revealed a double disconnection of a horseshoe kidney. The patient was not aware of bearing such abnormality. Discussion: Trauma of horseshoe kidney is an uncommon finding. The abdominal ce-MDCT scan is the diagnostic tool of choice since the renal anatomy, injury grading and vascular or urinary tract abnormalities are well depicted and easily identified. The conservative management of these injuries is associated with a lower rate of nephrectomies and kidney failure while selective trans-catheter renal embolization is a challenging treatment option. However surgery can be a treatment of choice and should be aimed to preserve renal function. Conclusion: the interest in our case lies in the rarity and particular anatomical aspect of such injuries and the implication related to its management in an emergency setting. Keywords: Renal trauma, Horseshoe kidney, Renal anatomy

  17. Evolution of Altimetry Calibration and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Haines, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, altimetry calibration has evolved from an engineering-oriented exercise to a multidisciplinary endeavor driving the state of the art. This evolution has been spurred by the developing promise of altimetry to capture the large-scale, but small-amplitude, changes of the ocean surface containing the expression of climate change. The scope of altimeter calibration/validation programs has expanded commensurately. Early efforts focused on determining a constant range bias and verifying basic compliance of the data products with mission requirements. Contemporary investigations capture, with increasing accuracies, the spatial and temporal characteristics of errors in all elements of the measurement system. Dedicated calibration sites still provide the fundamental service of estimating absolute bias, but also enable long-term monitoring of the sea-surface height and constituent measurements. The use of a network of island and coastal tide gauges has provided the best perspective on the measurement stability, and revealed temporal variations of altimeter measurement system drift. The cross-calibration between successive missions provided fundamentally new information on the performance of altimetry systems. Spatially and temporally correlated errors pose challenges for future missions, underscoring the importance of cross-calibration of new measurements against the established record.

  18. Linkages at Tourism Destinations: Challenges in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wineaster Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores challenges facing the linkages between the tourism industry and local suppliers at the destinations. During 2010 surveys involving hotel and restaurant operators, local suppliers and tourists were conducted in Zanzibar. Qualitative analysis of the perspectives of the respondents reveals the multitude of constraints. From operators, the main constraints include poor quality of the locally supplied products, business informalities, high transaction costs and violation of agreements by local suppliers. Low production levels, low prices offered by hotels and restaurants coupled with late payments for the products delivered were the most serious problems cited by local suppliers. There is also a certain degree of mistrust between the local suppliers and the operators. However, the source of the tourism products consumed in the hotels or restaurants was not a point of concern, at least from the tourists’ perspective. Strategies to bridge the demandsupply gaps in order to maximize the benefits of tourism, among the tools for fighting the rampant poverty, have been recommended.

  19. Diagnostic challenges of tubercular lesions of breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Jetley, Sujata; Rana, Safia; Khetrapal, Shaan; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohammad Jaseem

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) in the developing countries presents with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. Breast TB, however, remains a rare presentation. Its importance lies in the fact that it may mimic malignancy or present as inflammatory lump/abscess. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to highlight the importance of breast TB and its diagnostic challenges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, over 2 years between 2013 and 2015 during which eight cases of breast lesions were diagnosed as of tubercular origin. RESULTS: Granulomas were seen in five cases while three cases revealed only few epithelioid cells, and necrosis was seen in all cases on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Histopathological evaluation was available in six out of the eight cases, while acid–fast bacilli were positive in three cases, the characteristic granulomas were seen in all the six cases evaluated. CONCLUSION: Significance of TB breast lies in the fact that it may masquerade as breast malignancy or pyogenic abscess. India is a developing country where TB is endemic, a high index of suspicion should be expressed in evaluating breast masses, and TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:29692584

  20. Ocean acidification challenges copepod phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vehmaa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is challenging phenotypic plasticity of individuals and populations. Calanoid copepods (zooplankton are shown to be fairly plastic against altered pH conditions, and laboratory studies indicate that transgenerational effects are one mechanism behind this plasticity. We studied phenotypic plasticity of the copepod Acartia sp. in the course of a pelagic, large-volume mesocosm study that was conducted to investigate ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. We measured copepod egg production rate, egg-hatching success, adult female size and adult female antioxidant capacity (ORAC as a function of acidification (fCO2  ∼  365–1231 µatm and as a function of quantity and quality of their diet. We used an egg transplant experiment to reveal whether transgenerational effects can alleviate the possible negative effects of ocean acidification on offspring development. We found significant negative effects of ocean acidification on adult female size. In addition, we found signs of a possible threshold at high fCO2, above which adaptive maternal effects cannot alleviate the negative effects of acidification on egg-hatching and nauplii development. We did not find support for the hypothesis that insufficient food quantity (total particulate carbon < 55 µm or quality (C : N weakens the transgenerational effects. However, females with high-ORAC-produced eggs with high hatching success. Overall, these results indicate that Acartia sp. could be affected by projected near-future CO2 levels.