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Sample records for intrahepatic portosystemic venous

  1. Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts: diagnosis by Doppler ultrasound; Cortocircuitos venosos portosistemicos intrahepaticos: diagnostico mediante ecografia Doppler

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    Garofano, M. P.; Medina, A.; Lopez, G.; Garrido, C. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts are venous vascular lesions that allow intrahepatic portal vessels to communicate with hepatic veins. They may present in patients with portal hypertension or b discovered incidentally; it is considered that the latter may be congenital or acquired. A noninvasive methods. Doppler ultrasound aids in the diagnosis of these anomalous communications by providing images of the vessels and the direction, velocity and volume of the blood flow through the shunt. We present four cases of intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Asymptomatic Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: To Treat or Not To Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvanov, Arkadiy; Marder, Ruth Leah; Siegel, David

    2016-09-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPSVSs) are rare vascular malformations. They can be asymptomatic or present with various symptoms including encephalopathy. We present two cases of IPSVS, one involving a patient presenting with altered mental status and the other discovered incidentally. While there is no question that patients presenting with symptomatic IPSVS should undergo definitive treatment, there is no consensus regarding elective therapy for asymptomatic lesions.

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Maintenance of Portal Venous Patency in Liver Transplant Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Charles Gaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of portal venous patency is vital to liver transplant candidates, as the presence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT adversely impacts clinical outcomes by increasing surgical complexity and decreasing postoperative survival. By enhancing portal venous blood flow, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation may enable clearance of PVT and preservation of portal venous patency in cirrhotic patients. Herein, we describe four cases in which TIPS produced and sustained an open portal venous system in liver transplant candidates with partial PVT. All patients demonstrated rapid and effective flow-enabled clearance of clot and intermediate to long-term preservation of portal venous flow. On this basis, we propose that maintenance of portal venous patency in liver transplant candidates with partial PVT represents a developing indication for TIPS.

  4. Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Successful Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

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    Lee, Young Ju; Shin, Byung Seok; Lee, In Ho; Ohm, Joon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A 67-year-old woman presented with memory impairment and behavioral changes. Brain MRI indicated hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal CT scans revealed an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that consisted of two shunt tracts to the aneurysmal sac that communicated directly with the right hepatic vein. The large tract was successfully occluded by embolization using the newly available AMPLATZERTM Vascular Plug II and the small tract was occluded by using coils. The patient's symptoms disappeared after shunt closure and she remained free of recurrence at the 3-month follow-up evaluation.

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy due to Congenital Multiple Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunts Successfully Treated by Percutaneous Transhepatic Obliteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Takenaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPSVS in a non-cirrhotic condition is rare. Here we report a rare case of a patient with congenital multiple IPSVS successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration. The patient was a 67-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with progressive episodes of consciousness disorder and vomiting. Laboratory tests revealed hyperammonemia (192.0 μg/dL, and computed tomography revealed multiple IPSVS in both lobes. There was no evidence of underlying liver disease or hepatic trauma. Transcatheter embolization for IPSVS was performed because conservative therapy was not sufficiently effective. After endovascular shunt closure, hepatic encephalopathy improved. The serum ammonia level normalized during the 5-year follow-up period. Thus, transcatheter embolization may be an effective therapy for patients with symptomatic and refractory IPSVS. Careful follow-up is necessary for portal hypertension-related complications after transcatheter embolization for IPSVS.

  6. Combination therapy using PSE and TIO ameliorates hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt in idiopathic portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Kojima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old woman treated for anemia and ascites exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT showed communication between the portal vein and the middle hepatic vein, indicating an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (PSS. Since hepatic encephalopathy of the patient was resistant to medical treatment, interventional radiology was performed for the treatment of shunt obliteration. Hepatic venography showed anastomosis between the hepatic vein branches, supporting the diagnosis of idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH. To minimize the increase in portal vein pressure after shunt obliteration, partial splenic artery embolization (PSE was first performed to reduce portal vein blood flow. Transileocolic venous obliteration (TIO was then performed, and intrahepatic PSS was successfully obliterated using coils with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA. In the present case, hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic PSS in the patient with IPH was successfully treated by combination therapy using PSE and TIO.

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of TIPS? What is a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? A transjugular intrahepatic ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  8. Liver resection for the treatment of a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michail Papamichail; Amir Ali; Alberto Quaglia; John Karani; Nigel Heaton

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IPSS) are rare congenital anomalies arising from disordered portal vein em-bryogenesis. It has been described in both children and adults and may be asymptomatic or be associated with a variety of neurophysiological and pulmonary complications. When rec-ognized, early intervention to occlude the shunt will reverse the associated complications. Literature review reports of surgical and radiological occlusion of the shunt, but due to its rarity, a standard therapeutic protocol has not been established. A case of a 38-year-old woman with abdominal pain and low grade encephalopathy, diagnosed with an IPSS and treated by right hepatectomy was reported.

  9. Liver resection for the treatment of a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michail Papamichail; Amir Ali; Alberto Quaglia; John Karani; Nigel Heaton

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IPSS) are rare congenital anomalies arising from disordered portal vein em-bryogenesis. It has been described in both children and adults and may be asymptomatic or be associated with a variety of neurophysiological and pulmonary complications. When rec-ognized, early intervention to occlude the shunt will reverse the associated complications. Literature review reports of surgical and radiological occlusion of the shunt, but due to its rarity, a standard therapeutic protocol has not been established. A case of a 38-year-old woman with abdominal pain and low grade encephalopathy, diagnosed with an IPSS and treated by right hepatectomy was reported.

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Venography Images related to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Sponsored ...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... risks? What are the limitations of TIPS? What is a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? A transjugular ... bleeding from enlarged veins. top of page How is the procedure performed? Image-guided, minimally invasive procedures ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... vs. risks? What are the limitations of TIPS? What is a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? A ... likely to require a TIPS. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of TIPS? What is a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? A transjugular intrahepatic ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of TIPS? What is a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)? A transjugular intrahepatic ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  15. Simultaneous resection of liver cell adenomas and an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt with elevation of serum PIVKA-II level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Yasuji; Sano, Keiji; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2006-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman with no history of liver disease or oral contraceptive use presented with sudden abdominal pain. Laboratory data showed mild liver dysfunction with jaundice. Computed tomography and angiography revealed centrally located large liver cell adenomas (LCAs) and an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (IHPSS) in the left lobe. The serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (known as "protein induced by a lack of vitamin K or antagonist II," PIVKA-II) level was extremely high (6,647 mAU/ml), indicating malignant transformation of the tumors. Under the diagnosis of LCAs and IHPSS, the patient underwent simultaneous resection of the four liver tumors and portovenous shunt, and the hepatic vascular abnormality was resolved. The pathological diagnosis was LCAs without hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-PIVKA-II monoclonal antibody showed positive staining of the adenoma cells. This case shows that LCA without malignant transformation can produce PIVKA-II, leading to high serum levels of PIVKA-II. Simultaneous resection of multiple tumors and closure of the portosystemic shunt are strongly recommended in a patient with LCA associated with IHPSS.

  16. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

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    Owen, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Melbourne (Australia)], E-mail: andrewowen@doctors.org.uk; Stanley, A.J. [Department of Gastroenterology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vijayananthan, A. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Moss, J.G. [Department of Radiology, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The creation of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt via a transjugular approach (TIPS) is an interventional radiological procedure used to treat the complications of portal hypertension. TIPS insertion is principally indicated to prevent or arrest variceal bleeding when medical or endoscopic treatments fail, and in the management refractory ascites. This review discusses the development and execution of the technique, with focus on its clinical efficacy. Patient selection, imaging surveillance, revision techniques, and complications are also discussed.

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Transjugular Intrahepatic ... and esophagus in patients with cirrhosis. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein into ... TIPS procedure to make sure that it remains open and functions properly. top of page Who interprets ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... an interventional radiology suite or occasionally in the operating room. Some interventional radiologists prefer performing this procedure ... the hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... they have increased pressure in the portal vein system. This pressure buildup can cause blood to flow ... the hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein into ... TIPS procedure to make sure that it remains open and functions properly. top of page Who interprets ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an interventional radiology suite or occasionally in the operating room. Some interventional radiologists prefer performing this procedure ... the hepatic vein to identify the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein ...

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... they have increased pressure in the portal vein system. This pressure buildup can cause blood to flow backward from ... liver and into one of the hepatic veins. Pressures are measured in the hepatic ... the portal venous system. Access is then gained from the hepatic vein ...

  4. Transcaval transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: preliminary clinical results

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    Lee, Kwang Hun; Lee, Do Yun; Won, Jong Yoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Joon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyu; Yoon, Woong [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of transcaval transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in patients with unusual anatomy between the hepatic veins and portal bifurcation, and inaccessible or inadequate hepatic veins. Transcaval TIPS, performed in six patients, was indicated by active variceal bleeding (n=2), recurrent variceal bleeding (n=2), intractable ascites (n=1), and as a bridge to liver transplantation (n=1). The main reasons for transcaval rather than classic TIPS were the presence of an unusually acute angle between the hepatic veins and the level of the portal bifurcation (n=3), hepatic venous occlusion (n=2), and inadequate small hepatic veins (n=1). Technical and functional success was achieved in all patients. The entry site into liver parenchyma from the inferior vena cava was within 2 cm of the atriocaval junction. Procedure-related complications included the death of one patient due to hemoperitoneum despite the absence of contrast media spillage at tractography, and another suffered reversible hepatic encephalopathy. In patients with unusual anatomy between the hepatic veins and portal bifurcation, and inaccessible or inadequate hepatic veins, transcaval TIPS creation is feasible.

  5. RE: Endovascular Treatment of Congenital Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts with Amplatzer Plugs

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    Sierre, Sergio; Alonso, Jose; Lipsich, Jose [Hospital Nacional de Pediatria ' JP Garrahan' , Combate de los Pozos, Buenos (Argentina)

    2012-01-15

    In our paper entitled 'Endovascular treatment of congenital portal vein fistulas with the Amplatzer occlusion device' published in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology in 2004, we already reported the use of the AVP in the treatment of an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt. This situation does not undervalue the quality of the reported case, but for didactic purposes, we believe it is important to state that the work of Dr. Lee confirms, as was previously reported, that these devices are useful and safe for these rare situations.

  6. Radiation Exposure in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

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    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu; Cortis, Kelvin, E-mail: kelvincortis@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); D’Amico, Mario, E-mail: mdamico@ismett.edu [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Floridia, Gaetano, E-mail: gfloridia@ismett.edu; Gallo, Giuseppe, E-mail: ggallo@ismett.edu; Tafaro, Corrado, E-mail: ctafaro@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is considered as being one of the most complex procedures in abdominal interventional radiology. Our aim was twofold: quantification of TIPS-related patient radiation exposure in our center and identification of factors leading to reduced radiation exposure.Materials and methodsThree hundred and forty seven consecutive patients underwent TIPS in our center between 2007 and 2014. Three main procedure categories were identified: Group I (n = 88)—fluoroscopic-guided portal vein targeting, procedure done in an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS); Group II (n = 48)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in an IIDS; and Group III (n = 211)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in a flat panel detector-based system (FPDS). Radiation exposure (dose-area product [DAP], in Gy cm{sup 2} and fluoroscopy time [FT] in minutes) was retrospectively analyzed.ResultsDAP was significantly higher in Group I (mean ± SD 360 ± 298; median 287; 75th percentile 389 Gy cm{sup 2}) as compared to Group II (217 ± 130; 178; 276 Gy cm{sup 2}; p = 0.002) and Group III (129 ± 117; 70; 150 Gy cm{sup 2}p < 0.001). The difference in DAP between Groups II and III was also significant (p < 0.001). Group I had significantly longer FT (25.78 ± 13.52 min) as compared to Group II (20.45 ± 10.87 min; p = 0.02) and Group III (19.76 ± 13.34; p < 0.001). FT was not significantly different between Groups II and III (p = 0.73).ConclusionsReal-time ultrasound-guided targeting of the portal venous system during TIPS creation results in a significantly lower radiation exposure and reduced FT. Further reduction in radiation exposure can be achieved through the use of modern angiographic units with FPDS.

  7. Cardiac and renal effects of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Troels M; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Refractory ascites and recurrent variceal bleeding are among the serious complications of portal hypertension and cirrhosis for which a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can be used. Cirrhotic patients have varying degrees of haemodynamic derangement, mainly characterized...

  8. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in liver transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armin Finkenstedt; Ivo W Graziadei; Karin Nachbaur; Werner Jaschke; Walter Mark; Raimund Margreiter; Wolfgang Vogel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs) after liver transplantation (LT).METHODS: Between November 1996 and December 2005, 10 patients with severe recurrent hepatitis C virus infection ( n = 4), ductopenic rejection ( n = 5) or portal vein thrombosis ( n = 1) were included in this analysis. Eleven TIPSs (one patient underwent two TIPS procedures) were placed for management of therapy-refractory ascites ( n = 7), hydrothorax ( n = 2)or bleeding from colonic varices ( n = 1). The median time interval between LT and TIPS placement was 15(4-158) mo.RESULTS: TIPS placement was successful in all patients. The mean portosystemic pressure gradient was reduced from 12.5 to 8.7 mmHg. Complete and partial remission could be achieved in 43% and 29%of patients with ascites. Both patients with hydrothorax did not respond to TIPS. No recurrent bleeding was seen in the patient with colonic varices. Nine of 10patients died during the study period. Only one of two patients, who underwent retransplantation after the TIPS procedure, survived. The median survival period after TIPS placement was 3.3 (range 0.4-20) mo. The majority of patients died from sepsis with multiorgan failure.

  9. Bacteremia and "Endotipsitis" following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Roemi, Lilach; Shouval, Daniel; Adar, Tomer; Korem, Maya; Moses, Alon; Bloom, Alan; Shibolet, Oren

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify all cases of bacteremia and suspected endotipsitis after Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) at our institution and to determine risk factors for their occurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent TIPS in our institution between 1996 and 2009. Data included: indications for TIPS, underlying liver disease, demographics, positive blood cultures after TIPS, microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: 49 men and 47 women were included with a mean age of 55.8 years (range 15-84). Indications for TIPS included variceal bleeding, refractory ascites, hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Positive blood cultures after TIPS were found in 39/96 (40%) patients at various time intervals following the procedure. Seven patients had persistent bacteremia fitting the definition of endotipsitis. Staphylococcus species grew in 66% of the positive cultures, Candida and enterococci species in 15% each of the isolates, and 3% cultures grew other species. Multi-variate regression analysis identified 4 variables: hypothyroidism, HCV, prophylactic use of antibiotics and the procedure duration as independent risk factors for positive blood cultures following TIPS (P < 0.0006, 0.005, 0.001, 0.0003, respectively). Prophylactic use of antibiotics before the procedure was associated with a decreased risk for bacteremia, preventing mainly early infections, occurring within 120 d of the procedure. CONCLUSION: Bacteremia is common following TIPS. Risk factors associated with bacteremia include failure to use prophylactic antibiotics, hypothyroidism, HCV and a long procedure. Our results strongly support the use of prophylaxis as a means to decrease early post TIPS infections. PMID:21731907

  10. Covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus endoscopic therapy + beta-blocker for prevention of variceal rebleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holster, I.L.; Tjwa, E.T.; Moelker, A.; Wils, A.; Hansen, B.E.; Vermeijden, J.R.; Scholten, P.; Hoek, B. van; Nicolai, J.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Pattynama, P.M.; Buuren, H.R. van

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as well as a high rebleeding risk. Limited data are available on the role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with covered stents in patients receiving standard e

  11. Imaging findings of unusual intra- and extrahepatic portosystemic collaterals

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    Ito, K. [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)], E-mail: itokatsu@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Fujita, T.; Shimizu, A.; Sasaki, K.; Tanabe, M.; Matsunaga, N. [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We describe unusual portosystemic shunts demonstrated using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including gallbladder varices, aberrant left gastric vein to left portal vein collaterals, intrahepatic and transhepatic portosystemic venous shunt, and mesenteric varices. Familiarity with the CT and MRI features of unusual portosystemic shunts will help in making the correct diagnosis for affected patients.

  12. Shear Wave Elastography of the Spleen for Monitoring Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Function: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Zuo, Guo-Qing; Ran, Hai-Tao; Auh, Yong Ho; Waldron, Levi; Chan, Tiffany; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of splenic shear wave elastography in monitoring transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) function. We measured splenic shear wave velocity (SWV), main portal vein velocity (PVV), and splenic vein velocity (SVV) in 33 patients 1 day before and 3 days to 12 months after TIPS placement. We also measured PVV, SVV, and SWV in 10 of 33 patients with TIPS dysfunction 1 day before and 3 to 6 days after TIPS revision. Analyses included differences in portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG), PVV, SVV, and mean SWV before and after TIPS procedures; comparison of median SWV before and after TIPS procedures; differences in PVV, SVV, and SWV before and at different times up to 12 months after TIPS placement; accuracy of PVV, SVV, and SWV in determining TIPS dysfunction; and correlation between PPG and SWV. During 12 months of follow-up, 23 of 33 patients had functioning TIPS, and 10 had TIPS dysfunction. The median SWV was significantly different before and after primary TIPS placement (3.60 versus 3.05 m/s; P = .005), as well as before and after revision (3.73 versus 3.06 m/s; P = .003). The PPG, PVV, and SVV were also significantly different before and after TIPS placement and revision (P < .001). The PPG and SWV decreased, whereas PVV and SVV increased, after successful TIPS procedures. A positive correlation was observed between PPG and SWV (r = 0.70; P < .001), and a negative correlation was observed between PPG and PVV and SVV (r = -0.65; P < .001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PVV, SVV, and SWV in determining TIPS dysfunction were 0.82, 0.84, and 0.81, respectively. Splenic SWV is compatible with splenoportal venous velocity in quantitatively monitoring TIPS function and determining TIPS dysfunction. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Intrahepatic porto-hepatic venous shunts in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease: imaging demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shunro; Mori, Hiromu; Yamada, Yasunari; Hayashida, Tomoko; Hori, Yuzo; Kiyosue, Hiro [Department of Radiology, Oita Medical University, Idaigaoka 1-1, Hasama-machi, 879-5593, Oita (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    This study describes the imaging features of the intrahepatic portohepatic venous (PHV) shunt, which is a potential cause of portosystemic encephalopathy in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Six patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (two men, four women; age range 42-73 years) were retrospectively studied. There were two from one family and three from another family. Of these patients, one was diagnosed with definitive portosystemic encephalopathy because of a psychiatric disorder. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological examinations, including abdominal angiography (n=6), three-phase dynamic helical computed tomography (CT; n=3), and conventional enhanced CT (n=1). In one patient, CT during angiography and CT angioportography were also performed. Evaluation was placed on the imaging features of intrahepatic PHV shunts. On angiography, intrahepatic PHV shunts showing multiple and small shunts <5 mm in diameter in an apparent network were detected in all patents. In two patients, a large shunt with a size of either 7 or 10 mm was associated. These intrahepatic PHV shunts were predominantly distributed in the peripheral parenchyma. Intrahepatic PHV shunts would be characterized by small and multiple shunts in an apparent network on the periphery with or without a large shunt. (orig.)

  14. Current diagnosis and management of post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt refractory hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keith; Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Salsamendi, Jason; Doshi, Mehul; Yrizarry, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has evolved into an important option for management of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene covered stents enhances shunt patency. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains a significant problem after TIPS placement. The approach to management of patients with refractory hepatic encephalopathy typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Patient selection for TIPS requires careful evaluation of risk factors for HE. TIPS procedure-related technical factors like stent size, attention to portosystemic pressure gradient reduction and use of adjunctive variceal embolization maybe important. Conservative medical therapy in combination with endovascular therapies often results in resolution or substantial reduction of symptoms. Liver transplantation is, however, the ultimate treatment.

  15. Bilhemia after trans-jugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt and its management with biliary decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwani K Singal; Manoj K Kathuria; Advitya Malhotra; Richard W Goodgame; Roger D Soloway

    2009-01-01

    Bilhemia or bile mixing with blood is a rare clinical problem. The clinical presentation is usually transient self-resolving hyperbilirubinemia, progressive and rapidly rising conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, or recurrent cholangitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays an important role in diagnosis and management. Biliary decompression with endoscopic sphincterotomy is useful in treating these patients. If not recognized and treated in time, the condition can be fatal in a significant proportion of patients. This usually occurs after blunt or penetrating hepatic trauma due to a fistulous connection between the biliary radicle and portal or hepatic venous radical. Cases have been described due to iatrogenic trauma such as liver biopsy and percutaneous biliary drainage. However, the occurrence after trans-jugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) is very rare. We report a case of bilhemia presenting as rapidly rising bilirubin after TIPS. The patient was managed successfully with ERCP and removal of a blood clot from the common bile duct.

  16. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Christoph; Jung, Ernst Michael; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Trabold, Benedikt [Department of Anaesthesia, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Haimerl, Michael; Schreyer, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures.

  17. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Deepak, E-mail: deepakjain02@yahoo.com; Arora, Ankur, E-mail: aroradrankur@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Deka, Pranjal, E-mail: drpranjaldeka@gmail.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India); Mukund, Amar, E-mail: dramarmukund@gmail.com; Bhatnagar, Shorav, E-mail: drshorav@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Jindal, Deepti, E-mail: deepijindal@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Niteen, E-mail: drniteenkumar@gmail.com; Pamecha, Viniyendra, E-mail: viniyendra@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India)

    2013-08-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

  18. Ultrasonic Contrast Portography for Demonstration of Intrahepatic Porto-systemic Shunts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hong Chou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts (IHPSS can be disclosed with ultrasound (US and color Doppler ultrasound (CDU. However, direct evidence of the shunt on US or CDU may not be convincing. In this report we demonstrate the presence of IHPSS by ultrasonic contrast portography with intravenous injection of microbubble-based contrast agent (MBCA. With this technique, the MBCA was depicted to enter the hepatic vein through the shunt, and then flowed into the inferior vena cava.

  19. [Research advances in diagnosis and treatment of post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J F; Zhang, B Q

    2016-07-20

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become an important minimally invasive interventional technique for the treatment of complications of cirrhotic portal hypertension, and currently, it is often used in cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB), intractable ascites, hepatic hydrothorax, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. On one hand, TIPS can effectively reduce portal vein pressure and the risk of EVB and intractable ascites; on the other hand, it may reduce the blood flow in liver perfusion, aggravate liver impairment, and cause porto-systemic encephalopathy. Related influencing factors should be evaluated comprehensively in order to prevent the development of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnosis and treatment of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy is still a great challenge in current clinical practice. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy to enhance people's knowledge of this disease.

  20. Anatomy of Hepatic Venous and Portal Venous and Its Application in Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-systemic Shunt%肝静脉与门静脉的解剖及其在经颈静脉肝内门体分流术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灵军; 于洋; 李肖

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the anatomies and space structures of the hepatic vein and portal vein as well as its application in Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS).Methods:To search the litera-tures concerning normal anatomy and variation of hepatic vein and portal vein at home and abroad in recent years in the PubMed, Cnki and VIP database, to analyze and summarize them.Results:Hepatic venous system was composed of the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and the left hepatic vein .The variation happened mostly in the left he-patic vein, and relatively rare in the right hepatic vein and middle hepatic vein .Portal vein entered the liver at the hepatic hilum, and mostly type was divided into the left branch and the right branch from the trunk , which varied from region, race and other factors.The spatial relationship of hepatic and portal veins was forward down .Classic TIPS was punctured from 2 cm away from the opening of the right hepatic vein to the bifurcation or the right branch of the portal vein.Conclusions:Anatomies and spatial relationship of the hepatic vein and portal vein is essential to per -form TIPS successfully.Being familiar with anatomy and variations of hepatic vein and portal vein can improve the success rate of TIPS technique, with reducing and avoiding the related complications .%  目的:探讨肝静脉与门静脉的解剖及在经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(TIPS)中的应用。方法:在PUBMED、CNKI及维普等数据库中,查阅近年来国内外有关肝静脉、门静脉的正常解剖与变异及其在TIPS中应用的文献,进行分析总结。结果:肝静脉系统主要由肝右静脉、肝中静脉、肝左静脉3支组成,肝左静脉发生变异最多,肝中、右静脉变异相对少见。门静脉在肝门处进入肝脏,以分为左支和右支两主干这一类型居多,其解剖形态因地区、种族等因素而有差异。肝静脉和门静脉呈向后向上与向前向下的空

  1. Novel Image Guidance Techniques for Portal Vein Targeting During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Khashayar; Kaufman, John A

    2016-03-01

    The most challenging part of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is arguably the transvenous access from the hepatic vein to the portal vein. As experience and technology have evolved, the image guidance aspect of this critical step in the procedure has become more robust. Improved means to target the portal vein include both direct and indirect methods of portal vein opacification, cross-sectional imaging for both targeting and access, and novel use of transabdominal and intravascular ultrasound guidance. These techniques are described herein.

  2. Body composition changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan; Montomoli; Peter; Holland-Fischer; Giampaolo; Bianchi; Henning; GrФnbk; Hendrik; Vilstrup; Giulio; Marchesini; Marco; Zoli

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of transjugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) on malnutrition in portal hypertensive cirrhotic patients.METHODS: Twenty-one patients with liver cirrhosis and clinical indications for TIPS insertion were investigated before and 1, 4, 12, 52 wk after TIPS. For each patient we assayed body composition parameters [dry lean mass, fat mass, total body water (TBW)], routine liver and kidney function tests, and free fatty acids (FFA). Glucose and insulin were measured for t...

  3. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Seth J., E-mail: kleins@mir.wustl.edu; Saad, Nael [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  4. Recanalization of an Occluded Intrahepatic Portosystemic Covered Stent via the Percutaneous Transhepatic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chih Yang; Liang, Po Chin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2010-08-15

    A 41-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis had recurrent portal hypertension and bleeding from esophageal varices due to complete occlusion of a previously inserted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent. Because recanalization of the stent by the transjugular approach was unsuccessful, ultrasound-guided entry to the splenic vein and portal vein was used. After catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis, successful opening of the stent was achieved and a stent was placed. We herein report a rare case in which thrombolysis and recanalization of a TIPS stent were performed via a percutaneous transhepatic approach

  5. Endoscopic variceal ligation plus propranolol vs. transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt : A long-term randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, P; Hansmann, J; Richter, GM; Stremmel, W; Stiehl, A

    2002-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: After a first variceal bleeding episode in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) plus propranolol were compared, with regard to prevention of variceal rebleedin

  6. Tratamento da síndrome de Budd-Chiari por meio da colocação de tips e de "stent" venoso supra-hepático Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and suprahepatic venous stenting in the management of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi A. Bettio

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o uso do "shunt" intra-hepático portossistêmico (TIPS e do "stent" venoso supra-hepático no manejo da síndrome de Budd-Chiari, enfocando suas indicações, aspectos técnicos e benefícios do procedimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De janeiro de 1999 a março de 2002, nove casos de síndrome de Budd-Chiari foram encaminhados ao Serviço de Hemodinâmica do Hospital São Lucas, Porto Alegre, RS. A obstrução venosa supra-hepática foi constatada em todos os casos por meio de ultra-sonografia com Doppler em cores. A criação de TIPS foi realizada entre o sistema venoso supra-hepático ou a veia cava inferior e a veia porta, posicionando-se a endoprótese entre as duas abordagens. Doppler em cores pós-procedimento foi efetuado em todos os pacientes em períodos seriados. RESULTADOS: Três casos foram tratados inicialmente com inserção de "stent" venoso por apresentarem estenose preponderante em veias supra-hepáticas. Em dois desses casos ocorreu trombose do "stent", sendo necessária colocação de TIPS. Os demais seis casos foram tratados primariamente com TIPS. Dos oito "shunts" criados, trombose da endoprótese foi constatada em três casos, resolvidas com limpeza dos trombos e dilatação com balão em um caso e inserção de novas próteses nos demais. Embolização com molas de colaterais venosas ectasiadas foi efetuada em um paciente. CONCLUSÕES: A colocação de TIPS constitui-se numa estratégia terapêutica segura e efetiva na síndrome de Budd-Chiari, promovendo uma significativa melhora clínica e hemodinâmica dos pacientes, evitando procedimentos mais invasivos e podendo, em casos sem cirrose estabelecida, servir de tratamento definitivo da hipertensão portal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and suprahepatic venous stenting in the management of Budd-Chiari syndrome, emphasizing the indications, technical aspects and the advantages of the procedure

  7. Delayed liver laceration following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xu-Lin; He, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Jiang

    2012-12-28

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an acceptable procedure that has proven benefits in the treatment of patients who have complications from portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. Delayed liver laceration is a rare complication of the TIPS procedure. We describe a patient with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, who suddenly presented with abdominal hemorrhage and liver laceration 8 d after TIPS. Few reports have described complications after TIPS placement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing delayed liver laceration. This potential and serious complication appears to be specific and fatal for TIPS in portal hypertension. We advocate careful attention to the technique to avoid this complication, and timely treatment is extremely important.

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS Migration to the Heart Diagnosed by Emergency Department Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlan Wendler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old man presented to our emergency department with altered mental status. He had a past medical history significant for cirrhosis and previous placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS. On cardiac auscultation, a new heart murmur and an unexpected degree of cardiac ectopy were noted. On the 12-lead electrocardiogram, the patient was noted to have multiple premature atrial contractions, corroborating the irregular heart rhythm on physical exam. A focused bedside emergency ultrasound of the heart was then performed. This exam revealed an apparent foreign body in the right atrium. It appeared as if the patient’s TIPS had migrated from the heart into the right atrium. This case, as well as the literature describing thisunusual complication of TIPS placement, is reviewed in this case report

  9. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungbook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 {+-} 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 {+-} 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival.

  10. Portal flow and arterioportal shunting after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim; Trerotola, Scott O; Stavropoulos, S William; Patel, Aalpen; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Soulen, Michael C; Tuite, Catherine M; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Faust, Thomas W; Reddy, K Rajender; Solomon, Jeffrey A; Clark, Timothy W I

    2006-01-01

    It was postulated that a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) produces arterioportal shunting and accounts for reversed flow in the intrahepatic portal veins (PVs) after creation of the TIPS. This study sought to quantify this shunting in patients undergoing TIPS creation and/or revision with use of a direct catheter-based technique and by measuring changes in blood oxygenation within the TIPS and the PV. This prospective study consisted of 26 patients. Median Model for End-stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh scores were 13 and 9, respectively. Primary TIPS creation was attempted in 21 patients and revision of failing TIPS was undertaken in five. In two patients, TIPS creation was unsuccessful. All TIPS creation procedures but one were performed with use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts. Flow within the main PV (Q(portal)) was measured with use of a retrograde thermodilutional catheter before and after TIPS creation/revision, and TIPS flow (Q(TIPS)) was measured at procedure completion. The amount of arterioportal shunting was assumed to be the increase between final Q(portal) and Q(TIPS), assuming Q(TIPS) was equivalent to the final Q(portal) plus the reversed flow in the right and left PVs. Oxygen saturation within the TIPS and the PV was determined from samples obtained during TIPS creation and revision. Mean Q(portal) before TIPS creation was 691 mL/min; mean Q(portal) after TIPS creation was 1,136 mL/min, representing a 64% increase (P = .049). Mean Q(TIPS) was 1,631 mL/min, a 44% increase from final Q(portal) (P = .0009). Among cases of revision, baseline Q(portal) was 1,010 mL/min and mean Q(portal) after TIPS revision was 1,415 mL/min, a 40% increase. Mean Q(TIPS) was 1,693 mL/min, a 20% increase from final Q(portal) (P = .42). Arterioportal shunting rates were 494 mL/min after TIPS creation and 277 mL/min after TIPS revision, representing 30% of total Q(TIPS) after TIPS creation and 16% of Q(TIPS) after TIPS revision. No

  11. Hepatic and splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M; Añón, R; Palmero, J; Martínez, J; Garcés, R; Ripollés, T; Moreno-Osset, E; Alamán, G; Antón, M

    2000-04-01

    in patients with cirrhosis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) decreases the pressure in the portal vein by rerouting nearly all the portal blood flow to the systemic circulation. This may lead to hypoperfusion of the liver and worsening function. Our aim was to investigate whether TIPS actually reduced hepatic and splanchnic perfusion. we studied 25 patients who required placement of a TIPS (20 for variceal bleeding and 5 for refractory ascites). We evaluated the clinical condition, laboratory results, blood velocity in the portal vein and hepatic artery by echo-Doppler ultrasonography, systemic hemodynamic-oxygenation status and hemodynamic-oxygenation status in the portal and suprahepatic veins before TIPS, 15 min after the procedure, and 30 days later. Hepatic and splanchnic perfusion were evaluated as the arteriovenous difference in O2 content and as the O2 extraction rates in the hepatic and splanchnic territories. TIPS induced an immediate decrease in portal pressure, a significant increase in systemic hyperdynamic state, and an increase in blood flow velocity in the portal vein and hepatic artery. Thirty days after the procedure these changes persisted, although they were somewhat attenuated. Although splanchnic and liver perfusion were not changed 15 min or 30 days after TIPS, there was a slight tendency toward a decrease in liver perfusion during follow-up. TIPS increased the hyperdynamic state in the systemic side. However, portal blood shunting did not change liver or splanchnic perfusion.

  12. Duodenal variceal bleeding after balloon-occluded retrograde transverse obliteration: Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Joung Kim; Byoung Kuk Jang; Woo Jin Chung; Jae Seok Hwang; Young Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of duodenal varix bleeding as a long term complication of balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO),which was successfully treated with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).A 57-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room suffering from melena.He had undergone BRTO to treat gastric varix bleeding 5 mo before admission.Endoscopy and a computed tomography (cr) scan showed complete obliteration of the gastric varix,but the nodular varices in the second portion of the duodenum expanded after BRTO,and spurting blood was seen.TIPS was performed for treatment of duodenal variceal bleeding,because attempts at endoscopic varix ligation were unsuccessful.The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged without complications.A follow up CT scan obtained 21 mo after TIPS revealed a patent TIPS tract and complete obliteration of duodenal varices,but multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma had developed.He died of hepatic failure 28 mo after TIPS.

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement During Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingraham, Christopher R., E-mail: cringra@uw.edu; Padia, Siddharth A., E-mail: spadia@uw.edu; Johnson, Guy E., E-mail: gej@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Easterling, Thomas R., E-mail: easter@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); Liou, Iris W., E-mail: irisl@medicine.washington.edu [University of Washington, Department of Medicine (United States); Kanal, Kalpana M., E-mail: kkanal@uw.edu [University of Washington, Physics Section, Department of Radiology (United States); Valji, Karim, E-mail: kvalji@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Background and AimsComplications of portal hypertension, such as variceal hemorrhage and ascites, are associated with significant increases in both mortality and complications during pregnancy. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-established procedure for treating portal hypertension, but the safety of TIPS during pregnancy is largely unknown. In this series, we review five patients who underwent TIPS placement while pregnant and describe their clinical outcomes.MethodsFive pregnant patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension underwent elective TIPS for complications of portal hypertension (four for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding and one for refractory ascites). Outcomes measured were recurrent bleeding episodes or need for further paracenteses during pregnancy, estimated radiation dose to the fetus and gestational age at delivery. All patients were followed after delivery to evaluate technical and clinical success of the procedure.ResultsAll five patients survived pregnancy and went on to deliver successfully. When TIPS was performed for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding (n = 4), no patients demonstrated variceal bleeding after TIPS placement. When TIPS was performed for refractory ascites (n = 1), no further paracenteses were required. All patients delivered successfully, albeit prematurely. Average radiation dose estimated to the fetus was 16.3 mGy.ConclusionsThis series suggests that TIPS can be performed in selective pregnant patients with portal hypertension, with little added risk to the mother or fetus.

  14. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the management of acute variceal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffroy, Romaric; Estivalet, Louis; Cherblanc, Violaine; Favelier, Sylvain; Pottecher, Pierre; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick; Thouant, Pierre; Lefevre, Pierre-Henri; Krausé, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-07

    Acute variceal hemorrhage, a life-threatening condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective therapy, is defined as visible bleeding from an esophageal or gastric varix at the time of endoscopy, the presence of large esophageal varices with recent stigmata of bleeding, or fresh blood visible in the stomach with no other source of bleeding identified. Transfusion of blood products, pharmacological treatments and early endoscopic therapy are often effective; however, if primary hemostasis cannot be obtained or if uncontrollable early rebleeding occurs, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is recommended as rescue treatment. The TIPS represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Acute variceal hemorrhage that is poorly controlled with endoscopic therapy is generally well controlled with TIPS, which has a 90% to 100% success rate. However, TIPS is associated with a mortality of 30% to 50% in such a setting. Emergency TIPS should be considered early in patients with refractory variceal bleeding once medical treatment and endoscopic sclerotherapy failure, before the clinical condition worsens. Furthermore, admission to specialized centers is mandatory in such a setting and regional protocols are essential to be organized effectively. This review article discusses initial management and then focuses on the specific role of TIPS as a primary therapy to control acute variceal hemorrhage, particularly as a rescue therapy following failure of endoscopic approaches.

  15. Comparison of a new stent and Wallstent for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a porcine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jun Teng; Michael A. Bettmann; P. Jack Hoopes; Li Yang

    2001-01-01

    AIM To evaluate a new balloon-expandablestainless steel stent (Cordis stent ) in atransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) porcine model and compared withWallstent.METHODS TIPS was performed in 26 normaldomestic pigs weighing 20 kg-30 kg using aCordis stent or Wallstent (13 pigs in each stent).All pigs were sacrificed at the 14th day afterTIPS. The stent deployment delivery system,stent patency, and stent recoil after placementwere evaluated. Proliferative response inrepresentative histological sections from thecenter, hepatic and portal regions of the twostent designs were quantified.RESULTS The shunt was widely patent in 4pigs in the Cordis stent group (4/12, prematuredead in 1 pig), and in 5 pigs in the Wallstentgroup (5/13). All remaining stents of bothdesigns were occluded or stenotic. The meanquantified proliferation including thickness ofthe proliferation and the ratio of proliferation:total area in three assayed regions in Cordisstent and Wallstent was 2.18 mm:2.00 mm, and59.18 mm2: 51.66 mm2, respectively (P >0.05).The delivery system and mechanical propertiesof the Cordis stent fuctioned well.CONCLUSION The new Cordis stent isappropriate for TIPS procedure.

  16. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt-placement increases arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio in cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the change of dimethylarginine plasma levels in cirrhotic patients receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS: TO determine arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and nitric oxide (NO) plasma levels, blood samples were collected from the superior cava, hepatic, and portal vein just before, directly after, and 3 mo after TIPS-placement.RESULTS: A significant increase in the arginine/ADMA ratio after TIPS placement was shown. Moreover, TIPS placement enhanced renal function and thereby decreased systemic SDMA levels. In patients with renal dysfunction before TIPS placement, both the arginine/ ADMA ratio and creatinine clearance rate increased significantly, while this was not the case in patients with normal renal function before TIPS placement. Hepatic function did not change significantly after TIPS placement and no significant decline in ADMA plasma levels was measured.CONCLUSION: The increase of the arginine/ADMA ratio after TIPS placement suggests an increase in intracellular NO bioavailability. In addition, this study suggests that TIPS placement does not alter dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity and confirms the major role of the liver as an ADMA clearing organ.

  17. Association of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with embolization in the treatment of bleeding duodenal varix refractory to sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Smail, A; Azoulay, D; Castaing, D; Bismuth, H

    2000-01-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and duodenal varix embolization after failure of endoscopic sclerotherapy. The portosystemic pressure gradient droped from 16 to 9 mm Hg following TIPS. At 5 months from TIPS, the patient is well, with a patent shunt at Doppler ultrasound. The present report of successful control of duodenal varix, actively bleeding and refractory to sclerotherapy, by means of combined TIPS and embolization, supports the role of TIPS and suggests that its association to embolization can be valuably considered in the difficult setting of portal hypertension with bleeding duodenal varices. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Pathological Predictors of Shunt Stenosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuliang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS is an artificial channel from the portal vein to the hepatic vein or vena cava for controlling portal vein hypertension. The major drawbacks of TIPS are shunt stenosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE; previous studies showed that post-TIPS shunt stenosis and HE might be correlated with the pathological features of the liver tissues. Therefore, we analyzed the pathological predictors for clinical outcome, to determine the risk factors for shunt stenosis and HE after TIPS. Methods. We recruited 361 patients who suffered from portal hypertension symptoms and were treated with TIPS from January 2009 to December 2012. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of shunt stenosis was increased with more severe inflammation in the liver tissue (OR, 2.864; 95% CI: 1.466–5.592; P=0.002, HE comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141–12.501; P<0.001, or higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.298–1.731; P<0.001. Higher risk of HE was associated with shunt stenosis comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141–12.501; P<0.001, higher stage of the liver fibrosis (OR, 2.431; 95% CI, 1.355–4.359; P=0.003, and higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.711–2.406; P<0.001. Conclusion. The pathological features can predict individual susceptibility to shunt stenosis and HE.

  19. Prevention of potential complications related to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure: efficacy of polytetrafluoroethylene stent grfat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jae Hong; Seong, Chang Kyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Gab Chul [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Nak Kwan; Park, Young Chan [School of Medicine, Daegu Catholic Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stent graft for preventing potential complications related to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Between January 2002 and March 2003, seven patients (males: 5, females: 2, mean age: 44) underwent TIPS stent placement using the PTFE stent graft (Nitis,Taewoong, Seoul, Korea) to prevent potential complications such as life threatening hemoperitoneum, hemobilia and early stent occlusion. Three patients were admitted for esophageal varix bleeding, three patients were admitted for gastric varix bleeding and one patient was admitted for umbilical bleeding. The extrahepatic portal vein was punctured inadvertently in four patients (main portal vein: 1 case, portal vein bifurcation: 3 cases), but contrast media extravasation into the peritoneal cavity on the tractogram was noted only in two patients. Two of four patients had chronic portal vein occlusion with intra- and extrahepatic cavernous transformation. The bile duct was inadvertently punctured and visualized on the tractogram in three patients. All the identified biliary trees or contrast media extravasations observed on the tractograms were successfully sealed off on the post-procedure portograms. The immediate post-procedure clinical recovery courses were uneventful in all patients (no hemobilia or hemoperitoneum was noted). Bleeding control was successful in all patients. The one patient who had Child-Pugh cIass C disease died of hepatic encephalopathy 3 days after TIPS placement. Five of the six living patients have not shown any complications or rebleeding during the follow up periods (9-23 months). The one patient who had biliary communication on the tractogram rebled due to TIPS stent stenosis 25 days after TIPS, and this patient was successfully treated by TIPS revision. Potential complications related to TIPS procedure can be successfully prevented with PTFE stent graft placement.

  20. Effect of technical parameters on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts utilizing stent grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andring, Brice; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Sutphin, Patrick; Srinivasa, Rajiv; Anene, Alvin; Burrell, Marc; Xi, Yin; Pillai, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    To assess the effect of technical parameters on outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) created using a stent graft. The medical records of 68 patients who underwent TIPS placement with a stent graft from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the patient outcomes. Digital Subtraction Angiographic images with a measuring catheter in two orthogonal planes was used to determine the TIPS stent-to-inferior vena cava distance (SIVCD), hepatic vein to parenchymal tract angle (HVTA), portal vein to parenchymal tract angle (PVTA), and the accessed portal vein. The length and diameter of the TIPS stent and the use of concurrent variceal embolization were recorded by review of the patient's procedure note. Data on re-intervention within 30 d of TIPS placement, recurrence of symptoms, and survival were collected through the patient's chart. Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of these technical parameters on primary patency of TIPS, time to recurrence of symptoms, and all-cause mortality. There was no significant association between the SIVCD and primary patency (P = 0.23), time to recurrence of symptoms (P = 0.83), or all-cause mortality (P = 0.18). The 3, 6, and 12-mo primary patency rates for a SIVCD ≥ 1.5 cm were 82.4%, 64.7%, and 50.3% compared to 89.3%, 83.8%, and 60.6% for a SIVCD of technical parameters and time to recurrence of symptoms or all-cause mortality. Recurrence of symptoms was associated with stent graft stenosis (P = 0.03). TIPS stent-to-caval distance and other parameters have no significant effect on primary patency, time to recurrence of symptoms, or all-cause mortality following TIPS with a stent-graft.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jonathan K., E-mail: jonathan.park09@gmail.com [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Al-Tariq, Quazi Z., E-mail: qat200@gmail.com [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Zaw, Taryar M., E-mail: taryar.zaw@gmail.com; Raman, Steven S., E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu; Lu, David S.K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo assess radiofrequency (RF) ablation efficacy, as well as the patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Materials and MethodsRetrospective database review of patients with pre-existing TIPS undergoing RF ablation of HCC was conducted over a 159-month period ending in November 2013. TIPS patency pre- and post-RF ablation was assessed by ultrasound, angiography, and/or contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Patient demographics and immediate post-RF ablation outcomes and complications were also reviewed.Results19 patients with 21 lesions undergoing 25 RF ablation sessions were included. Child-Pugh class A, B, and C scores were seen in 1, 13, and 5 patients, respectively. Eleven patients (58 %) ultimately underwent liver transplantation. Immediate technical success was seen in all ablation sessions without residual tumor enhancement (100 %). No patients (0 %) suffered liver failure within 1 month of ablation. Pre-ablation TIPS patency was demonstrated in 22/25 sessions (88 %). Of 22 cases with patent TIPS prior to ablation, post-ablation patency was demonstrated in 22/22 (100 %) at immediate post-ablation imaging and in 21/22 (95 %) at last follow-up (1 patient was incidentally noted to have occlusion 31 months later). No immediate complications were observed.ConclusionAblation efficacy was similar to the cited literature values for patients without TIPS. Furthermore, TIPS patency was preserved in the majority of cases. Patients with both portal hypertension and HCC are not uncommonly encountered, and a pre-existing TIPS does not appear to be a definite contraindication for RF ablation.

  2. Outcomes of Locoregional Tumor Therapy for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padia, Siddharth A., E-mail: spadia@uw.edu; Chewning, Rush H., E-mail: rchewnin@uw.edu; Kogut, Matthew J., E-mail: kogutm@uw.edu; Ingraham, Christopher R., E-mail: cringa@uw.edu; Johnson, Guy E., E-mail: gej@uw.edu [University of Washington Medical Center, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Bhattacharya, Renuka, E-mail: renuka@uw.edu [University of Washington Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Kwan, Sharon W., E-mail: shakwan@uw.edu; Monsky, Wayne L., E-mail: wmonsky@uw.edu; Vaidya, Sandeep, E-mail: svaidya@uw.edu [University of Washington Medical Center, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Hippe, Daniel S., E-mail: dhippe@uw.edu [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Valji, Karim, E-mail: kvalji@uw.edu [University of Washington Medical Center, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeLocoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be challenging in patients with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). This study compares safety and imaging response of ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and supportive care in patients with both TIPS and HCC.MethodsThis retrospective study included 48 patients who had both a TIPS and a diagnosis of HCC. Twenty-nine of 48 (60 %) underwent treatment for HCC, and 19/48 (40 %) received best supportive care (i.e., symptomatic management only). While etiology of cirrhosis and indication for TIPS were similar between the two groups, treated patients had better baseline liver function (34 vs. 67 % Child-Pugh class C). Tumor characteristics were similar between the two groups. A total of 39 ablations, 17 chemoembolizations, and 10 yttrium-90 radioembolizations were performed on 29 patients.ResultsAblation procedures resulted in low rates of hepatotoxicity and clinical toxicity. Post-embolization/ablation syndrome occurred more frequently in patients undergoing chemoembolization than ablation (47 vs. 15 %). Significant hepatic dysfunction occurred more frequently in the chemoembolization group than the ablation group. Follow-up imaging response showed objective response in 100 % of ablation procedures, 67 % of radioembolization procedures, and 50 % of chemoembolization procedures (p = 0.001). When censored for OLT, patients undergoing treatment survived longer than patients receiving supportive care (2273 v. 439 days, p = 0.001).ConclusionsAblation appears to be safe and efficacious for HCC in patients with TIPS. Catheter-based approaches are associated with potential increased toxicity in this patient population. Chemoembolization appears to be associated with increased toxicity compared to radioembolization.

  3. Three-Dimensional Path Planning Software-Assisted Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Technical Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsauo, Jiaywei, E-mail: 80732059@qq.com; Luo, Xuefeng, E-mail: luobo-913@126.com [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Institute of Interventional Radiology (China); Ye, Linchao, E-mail: linchao.ye@siemens.com [Siemens Ltd, Healthcare Sector (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@gmail.com [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Institute of Interventional Radiology (China)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to report our results with a modified technique of three-dimensional (3D) path planning software assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).Methods3D path planning software was recently developed to facilitate TIPS creation by using two carbon dioxide portograms acquired at least 20° apart to generate a 3D path for overlay needle guidance. However, one shortcoming is that puncturing along the overlay would be technically impossible if the angle of the liver access set and the angle of the 3D path are not the same. To solve this problem, a prototype 3D path planning software was fitted with a utility to calculate the angle of the 3D path. Using this, we modified the angle of the liver access set accordingly during the procedure in ten patients.ResultsFailure for technical reasons occurred in three patients (unsuccessful wedged hepatic venography in two cases, software technical failure in one case). The procedure was successful in the remaining seven patients, and only one needle pass was required to obtain portal vein access in each case. The course of puncture was comparable to the 3D path in all patients. No procedure-related complication occurred following the procedures.ConclusionsAdjusting the angle of the liver access set to match the angle of the 3D path determined by the software appears to be a favorable modification to the technique of 3D path planning software assisted TIPS.

  4. Age-related Morbidity and Mortality After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Jimenez, Melissa; Viramontes, Matthew; Jamal, Naadir; Grotts, Jonathan; Elashoff, David; Lee, Edward W; Saab, Sammy

    2017-04-01

    To compare age-related morbidity and mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent TIPS at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center between 2008 to 2014. Elderly patients (65 y and older) were matched with nonelderly patients (controls, below 65 y) by model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (±3), indication for TIPS (refractory ascites vs. variceal bleeding), serum sodium level (±5), in a ratio of 1:1. Endpoints measures were hospital stay post-TIPS, rifaximin, or lactulose use, TIPS failure at 30 days, readmission at 90 days, MELD at 90 days, and mortality at 90 days. A total of 30 patient matches were included in this study: 30 control and 30 elderly patients. The median [interquartile (IQR)] MELD scores for controls and elderly were 11 (9, 13.8) for the controls and 11.5 (9, 14.8) for elderly patients (P=0.139). There were no significant differences in serum sodium and indication for TIPS. Thirty and 90-day follow-up laboratory test results were also similar between elderly and control patients. Event-free survival at 90 days was similar between controls and elderly patients [odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3-2.5; P>0.05]. There was a trend toward greater hospitalization (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 0.52-5.95; P=0.546) and mortality (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.3-14.01; P=0.182). The results of this study suggest event-free survival is similar between nonelderly and elderly patients. Although statistically significant, there is a tendency toward greater mortality and hospitalization in the elderly.

  5. Portal hypertensive enteropathy diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and demonstration of the ileal changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carella Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recent data suggest that mucosal abnormalities can occur even in the duodenum, jejunum, and distal ileum of cirrhosis patients. We present a case of portal hypertensive enteropathy in a cirrhosis patient shown by capsule endoscopy and the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on the ileal pictures. Case presentation An 83-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital for anemia and a positive fecal occult blood test. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed small varices without bleeding signs and hypertensive gastropathy. Colonoscopy was negative. To rule out any other cause of bleeding, capsule endoscopy was performed; capsule endoscopy revealed severe hyperemia of the jejunum-ileal mucosa with active bleeding. Because of the persistence of anemia and the frequent blood transfusions, not responding to β-blocker drugs or octreotide infusion, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. Anemia improved quickly after the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and no further blood transfusion was necessary in the follow-up. The patient developed portal encephalopathy two months later and was readmitted to our department. We repeated the capsule endoscopy that showed a significant improvement of the gastric and ileal mucosa without any signs of bleeding. Conclusion Hypertensive enteropathy is a rare condition, but it seems more common with the introduction of capsule endoscopy in clinical practice. This case shows that the jejunum can be a source of bleeding in cirrhosis patients, and this is the first demonstration of its resolution after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement.

  6. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt formedically refractory hepatic hydrothorax: A systematicreview and cumulative meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the effectiveness of transjugularintrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) inrefractory hepatic hydrothorax (RHH) in a systematicreview and cumulative meta-analysis.METHODS: A comprehensive literature searchwas conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMedcovering the period from January 1970 to August 2014.Two authors independently selected and abstracteddata from eligible studies. Data were summarized usinga random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessedusing the I 2 test.RESULTS: Six studies involving a total of 198 patientswere included in the analysis. The mean (SD) age ofpatients was 56 (1.8) years. Most patients (56.9%) hadChild-Turcott-Pugh class C disease. The mean duration offollow-up was 10 mo (range, 5.7-16 mo). Response toTIPSS was complete in 55.8% (95%CI: 44.7%-66.9%),partial in 17.6% (95%CI: 10.9%-24.2%), and absentin 21.2% (95%CI: 14.2%-28.3%). The mean change inhepatic venous pressure gradient post-TIPSS was 12.7mmHg. The incidence of TIPSS-related encephalopathywas 11.7% (95%CI: 6.3%-17.2%), and the 45-dmortality was 17.7% (95%CI: 11.34%-24.13%).CONCLUSION: TIPSS is associated with a clinicallyrelevant response in RHH. TIPSS should be consideredearly in these patients, given its poor prognosis.

  7. Liver perfusion scintigraphy prior to and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in patients with portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willkomm, P.; Schomburg, A.; Reichmann, K.; Bangard, M.; Overbeck, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Bonn (Germany); Brensing, K.A.; Sauerbruch, T. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: This investigation was performed to compare the hemodynamic results of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, a new interventional treatment for portal hypertension, with those observed after the established surgical shunt interventions. Methods: We examined 22 patients with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis before and after elective TIPS by liver perfusion scintigraphy. The relative portal perfusion was determined before and after the shunt procedure. Additionally, we measured the portal pressure gradient (PPG: Portal-central venous pressure, mmHg). Results: Prior to TIPS, the relative portal perfusion was significantly reduced to 22{+-}9.1%. After the intervention we calculated values of 23.1{+-}10.7% in the TIPS-group (p=0.67; not significant). In spite of unchanged portal perfusion, the portal pressure was significantly (p<0.001) reduced from 25.6{+-}5.3 to 14.8{+-}4 mm Hg. Conclusion: These results suggest that the reduction of portal hypertension by TIPS is effective. The portal perfusion is maintained by TIPS suggesting that liver perfusion is preserved to a higher degree. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Untersuchung war der Vergleich der haemodynamischen Ergebnisse nach transjugulaerem intrahepatischen portosystemischen Shunt, einem neuen interventionellen Verfahren bei portaler Hypertension, mit denen etablierter chirurgischer Verfahren. Methoden: Wir untersuchten 22 Patienten mit durch Leberzirrhose verursachter portaler Hypertension mittels Leberperfusionsszintigrahie vor und nach elektiver TIPS-Anlage. Die relative portale Perfusion wurde vor und nach der Shuntanlage bestimmt. Ausserdem wurde der portale Druckgradient (PPG: portal-central venoeser Druck, mmHg) gemessen. Ergebnisse: Vor TIPS-Anlage war die relative portale Perfusion signifikant auf 22{+-}9,1% reduziert. Nach der Intervention ermittelten wir Werte von 23,1{+-}10,7% in der TIPS-Gruppe (p=0.67; nicht signifikant). Trotz unveraenderter portaler Perfusion wurde der

  8. Recurrent thrombotic occlusion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt due to activated protein C resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elmar Siewert; Jan Salzmann; Edmund Purucker; Karl Schürmann; Siegfried Matern

    2005-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) has successfully been used in the management of refractory variceal bleeding and ascites in patients with portal hypertension. Major drawbacks are the induction of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt dysfunction. We present a 59-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who received a TIPS because of recurrent bleeding from esophageal varices. Stent occlusion occurred 4 mo after placement of the TIPS. Laboratory testing revealed resistance to activated protein C (APC). Combination therapy with low-dose enoxaparin and clopidogrel could not prevent her recurrent stent occlusion. Finally, therapy with high-dose enoxaparin was sufficient to prevent further shunt complications up to now (follow-up period of 1 year). In conclusion, early occlusion of a TIPS warrants testing for thrombophilia. If risk factors are confirmed,anticoagulation should be intensified. There are currently no evidence-based recommendations regarding the best available anticoagulant therapy and surveillance protocol for patients with TIPS.

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikolski, Steven G., E-mail: skikolski@ucsd.edu; Aryafar, Hamed, E-mail: haryafar@ucsd.edu; Rose, Steven C., E-mail: scrose@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C., E-mail: acroberts@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Kinney, Thomas B., E-mail: tbkinney@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  10. Transsplenic portal vein reconstruction–transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a patient with portal and splenic vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Salsamendi, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is a potential complication of cirrhosis and can worsen outcomes after liver transplant (LT. Portal vein reconstruction–transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PVR-TIPS can restore flow through the portal vein (PV and facilitate LT by avoiding complex vascular conduits. We present a case of transsplenic PVR-TIPS in the setting of complete PVT and splenic vein (SV thrombosis. The patient had a 3-year history of PVT complicated by abdominal pain, ascites, and paraesophageal varices. A SV tributary provided access to the main SV and was punctured percutaneously under ultrasound scan guidance. PV access, PV and SV venoplasty, and TIPS placement were successfully performed without complex techniques. The patient underwent LT with successful end-to-end anastomosis of the PVs. Our case suggests transsplenic PVR-TIPS to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional PVR-TIPS in patients with PVT and SV thrombosis.

  11. Transsplenic portal vein reconstruction-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a patient with portal and splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsamendi, Jason T; Gortes, Francisco J; Shnayder, Michelle; Doshi, Mehul H; Fan, Ji; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-09-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a potential complication of cirrhosis and can worsen outcomes after liver transplant (LT). Portal vein reconstruction-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PVR-TIPS) can restore flow through the portal vein (PV) and facilitate LT by avoiding complex vascular conduits. We present a case of transsplenic PVR-TIPS in the setting of complete PVT and splenic vein (SV) thrombosis. The patient had a 3-year history of PVT complicated by abdominal pain, ascites, and paraesophageal varices. A SV tributary provided access to the main SV and was punctured percutaneously under ultrasound scan guidance. PV access, PV and SV venoplasty, and TIPS placement were successfully performed without complex techniques. The patient underwent LT with successful end-to-end anastomosis of the PVs. Our case suggests transsplenic PVR-TIPS to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional PVR-TIPS in patients with PVT and SV thrombosis.

  12. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt vs endoscopic therapy in preventing variceal rebleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xue; Meng Zhang; Jack XQ Pang; Fei Yan; Ying-Chao Li; Liang-Shan Lv; Jia Yuan

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare early use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with endoscopic treatment (ET) for the prophylaxis of recurrent variceal bleeding.METHODS:In-patient data were collected from 190 patients between January 2007 and June 2010 who suffured from variceal bleeding.Patients who were older than 75 years; previously received surgical treatment or endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding; and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy or hepatic cancer,were excluded from this research.Thirty-five cases lost to follow-up were also excluded.Retrospective analysis was done in 126 eligible cases.Among them,64 patients received TIPS (TIPS group) while 62 patients received endoscopic therapy (ET group).The relevant data were collected by patient review or telephone calls.The occurrence of rebleeding,hepatic encephalopathy or other complications,survival rate and cost of treatment were compared between the two groups.RESULTS:During the follow-up period (median,20.7and 18.7 mo in TIPS and ET groups,respectively),rebleeding from any source occurred in 11 patients in the TIPS group as compared with 31 patients in the ET group (Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test,P=0.000).Rebleeding rates at any time point (6 wk,1year and 2 year) in the TIPS group were lower than in the ET group (Bonferroni correction o' =o/3).Eight patients in the TIPS group and 16 in the ET group died with the cumulative survival rates of 80.6% and 64.9%(Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test x2=4.864,P =0.02),respectively.There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to 6-wk survival rates (Bonferroni correction a' =a/3).However,significant differences were observed between the two groups in the 1-year survival rates (92% and 79%) and the 2-year survival rates (89% and 64.9%)(Bonferroni correction a' =o/3).No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups in the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (12 patients in TIPS

  13. The change of portal hemodynamics before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt according to variceal type: gastric and esophageal varix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sang; Kim, Jae Kyu; Koe, Eun Hae; Lim, Hyo Son; Cho, Yong Ho; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Sei Jong [Medical School, Chonnam University, Kwanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To investigae the changes occurring in portal hemodynamics in patients with esophageal and gastric varices, according to variceal type, before and after TIPS. Between January 1994 and after June 1999, we evaluated 22 of 44 patients who had undergone TIPS and endoscopy on admission. In these 22, hepatic venous and main portal venous pressure were measured. On the basis of endoscopic findings, the esophageal and gastric varices were classified as one of three types. Changes in portal hemodynamics in relation to the diameter of the portal vein, mean portosystemic gradient before and after TIPS, {delta}MPSG, and the presence of hepatic encephalopathy and gastrorenal shunt were all evaluated. Endoscopy indicated that there were ten Type-I cases, nine Type-II, and three Type-III. The diameter of the main portal vein was 14.95 {+-} 1.79 mm in Type I cases, and 13.35 {+-} 1.59 mm in Type II. Before TIPS, main portal venous pressure was 31.40 {+-} 6.79 mmHg (Type I) 22.80 {+-}4.26 mmHg (Type II), and the mean portosystemic gradient was 16.10 {+-} 7.0 mmHg (Type I), 11.20 {+-} 5.36 mmHg (Type II). After TIPS, the pressure readings were 25.70 {+-}7.60 mmHg (Type I) and 17.80 {+-} 6.52 mmHg (Type II), while those relating to were 10.80 {+-} 4.94 mmHg (Type I) and 5.25 {+-} 3.67 mmHg (Type II). {delta}MPSG was 6.04 {+-} 2.98 mmHg (Type I) and 5.91 {+-} 3.98 mmHg (Type II). Angiography revealed that the gastrorenal shunt was Type I in 10% of cases, Type II in 77%, and Type III in 33%. Hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS occured in three Type-I cases, three Type-II, and two Type-III. The diameter of the main portal vein was significantly smaller, and portal venous pressure and mean portosystemic gradient before and after TIPS significantly lower in patients with dominant gastric varices than in those with dominant esophageal varices (p less than 0.05). Gastrorenal shunt was more frequent amomg patients with dominant gastric varices. No difference in the incidence of hepatic

  14. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with esophagogastric variceal embolization in the treatment of a large gastrorenal shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin; Jiang; Ming-Quan; Wang; Guo-Bing; Zhang; Qiong; Wu; Jian-Ming; Xu; De-Run; Kong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) combined with stomach and esophageal variceal embolization(SEVE) in cirrhotic patients with a large gastrorenal vessel shunt(GRVS).METHODS: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with gastric variceal bleeding(GVB) associated with a GRVS were enrolled in the study and accepted TIPS combined with SEVE(TIPS + SEVE), by which portosystemic pressuregradient(PPG), biochemical, TIPS-related complications, shunt dysfunction, rebleeding, and death were evaluated. RESULTS: The PPGs before TIPS were greater than 12 mmH g in 81 patients. TIPS + SEVE treatment caused a significant decrease in PPG(from 37.97 ± 6.36 mmH g to 28.15 ± 6.52 mm Hg, t = 19.22, P < 0.001). The percentage of reduction in PPG was greater than 20%from baseline. There were no significant differences in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, prothrombin time, or Child-Pugh score before and after operation. In all patients, rebleeding rates were 3%, 6%, 12%, 18%, and 18% at 1,3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. Five patients(6.2%)were diagnosed as having hepatic encephalopathy. The rates of shunt dysfunction were 0%, 4%, 9%, 26%,and 26%, at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. The cumulative survival rates in 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo were100%, 100%, 95%, 90%, and 90%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results indicated that the efficacy and safety of TIPS + SEVE were satisfactory in cirrhotic patients with GVB associated with a GRVS(GVB + GRVS).

  15. Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Conor P.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Babyn, Paul S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, M5G 1X8, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    A congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS) is uncommon. A type 1 CEPS exists where there is absence of intrahepatic portal venous supply and a type 2 CEPS where this supply is preserved. The diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunt is important because it may cause hepatic encephalopathy. To describe the clinical and imaging features of three children with CEPS and to review the cases in the published literature. The diagnostic imaging and medical records for three children with CEPS were retrieved and evaluated. An extensive literature search was performed. Including our cases, there are 61 reported cases of CEPS, 39 type 1 and 22 type 2. Type 1 occurs predominantly in females, while type 2 shows no significant sexual preponderance. The age at diagnosis ranges from 31 weeks of intrauterine life to 76 years. Both types of CEPS have a number of associations, the most common being nodular lesions of the liver (n=25), cardiac anomalies (n=19), portosystemic encephalopathy (n=10), polysplenia (n=9), biliary atresia (n=7), skeletal anomalies (n=5), and renal tract anomalies (n=4). MRI is recommended as an important means of diagnosing and classifying cases of CEPS and examining the associated cardiovascular and hepatic abnormalities. Screening for CEPS in patients born with polysplenia is suggested. (orig.)

  16. Technical concepts for vascular electromagnetic navigated interventions: aortic in situ fenestration and transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Isfort, Peter; Na, Hong-Sik; Wilkmann, Christoph; Osterhues, Sabine; Besting, Andreas; Hänisch, Christoph; Bisplinghoff, Stefan; Jansing, Johannes; von Werder, Sylvie; Gooding, Jorge; de la Fuente, Mathias; Mahnken, Andreas H; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Kuhl, Christiane K; Bruners, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    This work presents concepts for complex endovascular procedures using electromagnetic navigation technology (EMT). Navigation software interfacing a standard commercially available navigation system was developed, featuring registration, electromagnetic field distortion correction, breathing motion detection and gating, and state-of-the-art 3D imaging post processing. Protocols for endovascularly placed, in-situ fenestrated abdominal aortic stent grafts and an EMT guided transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) creation have been designed. A dedicated set of interventional devices was developed for each of the procedures: For aortic in-situ fenestration a combination of high-porosity stentgrafts, steerable catheters and electromagnetically navigated guidewires was used, for TIPSS a dual-navigated (sheath and stylet) TIPSS-device was designed and manufactured. The developed devices underwent phantom testing, in preparation for animal experiments to prove the feasibility of the approach. Once established, these systems could aid in performing these challenging interventional radiology procedures, exploiting the unique characteristics of electromagnetic navigation and solving multiple of the problems associated with these interventions being performed under X-ray fluoroscopy, such as lacking real-time 3D information or extensive exposure to ionizing radiation.

  17. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keith; Carrion, Andres F; Salsamendi, Jason; Doshi, Mehul; Baker, Reginald; Kably, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3-7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a 'bridge' therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.

  18. Effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on pulmonary gas exchange in patients with portal hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graciela Martínez-Pallí; Britt B Drake; Joan-Carles García-Pagán; Joan-Albert Barberà; Miguel R Arguedas; Robert Rodriguez-Roisin; Jaume Bosch; Michael B Fallon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on pulmonary gas exchange and to evaluate the use of TIPS for the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS).METHODS: Seven patients, three of them with advanced HPS, in whom detailed pulmonary function tests were performed before and after TIPS placementat the University of Alabama Hospital and at the Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, were considered.RESULTS: TIPS patency was confirmed by hemodynamic evaluation. No changes in arterial blood gases were observed in the overall subset of patients. Transient arterial oxygenation improvement was observed in only one HPS patient, early after TIPS, but this was not sustained 4 mo later.CONCLUSION: TIPS neither improved nor worsened pulmonary gas exchange in patients with portal hypertension. This data does not support the use of TIPS as a specific treatment for HPS. However, it does reinforce the view that TIPS can be safely performed for the treatment of other complications of portal hypertension in patients with HPS.

  19. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with active variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Woong; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Sun; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with active variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis and pre-existing portal vein thrombosis. Of a total of 123 patients who underwent TIPS, 14 patients with intractable variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis were included in this study. Noncavernomatous portal vein occlusion was seen in eight patients, and complete portal vein occlusion with cavernomatous trans-formation in six. For all patients, the methods used for TIPS placement were the same as those used in patients with patents portal veins. In seven of eight patients with noncavernomatous occlusion, right hepatic vein-right portal vein shunting was performed; in one with knoncavernomatous occlusion, a shunt was created between the right hepatic and left portal vein. In five of six patients with cavernomatous occlusion, the right hepatic and main portal vein were connected via a collateral vein. The procedures were technically successful in all except one patient. Immediate hemostatis was achieved after all technically successful procedures, and no significant complications were encountered. Minor complications were noted in six patients (three biliary tree punctures, one transperitoneal puncture, one splenic vein perforation, one hepatic subcapsular hematoma). TIPS is a technically feasible and hemodynamically effective procedure, even in patients with active variceal bleeding due to cirrhosis and complete portal vein occlusion.

  20. Three-dimensional C-arm CT-guided transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement: Feasibility, technical success and procedural time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Groezinger, Gerd; Maurer, Michael; Grosse, Ulrich; Horger, Marius; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Syha, Roland [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lauer, Ulrich M. [University of Tuebingen, Internal Medicine I, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious disease, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Establishment of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) constitutes a standard procedure in patients suffering from portal hypertension. The most difficult step in TIPS placement is blind puncture of the portal vein. This study aimed to evaluate three-dimensional mapping of portal vein branches and targeted puncture of the portal vein. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from refractory ascites by liver cirrhosis were included in this retrospective study to evaluate feasibility, technical success and procedural time of C-arm CT-targeted puncture of the portal vein. As a control, 22 patients receiving TIPS placement with fluoroscopy-guided blind puncture were included to compare procedural time. Technical success could be obtained in 100 % of the study group (targeted puncture) and in 95.5 % of the control group (blind puncture). Appropriate, three-dimensional C-arm CT-guided mapping of the portal vein branches could be achieved in all patients. The median number of punctures in the C-arm CT-guided study group was 2 ± 1.3 punctures. Procedural time was significantly lower in the study group (14.8 ± 8.2 min) compared to the control group (32.6 ± 22.7 min) (p = 0.02). C-arm CT-guided portal vein mapping is technically feasible and a promising tool for TIPS placement resulting in a significant reduction of procedural time. (orig.)

  1. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Keith, E-mail: keithjppereira@gmail.com [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Carrion, Andres F., E-mail: andres.carrionmonsa@jhsmiami.org [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Hepatology (United States); Salsamendi, Jason, E-mail: JSalsamendi@med.miami.edu; Doshi, Mehul, E-mail: MDoshi@med.miami.edu; Baker, Reginald, E-mail: RBaker@med.miami.edu; Kably, Issam, E-mail: ikably@med.miami.edu [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3–7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a ‘bridge’ therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.

  2. Technical and clinical outcome of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt: Bare metal stents (BMS) versus viatorr stent-grafts (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Christof M., E-mail: cmsommer@gmx.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gockner, Theresa L.; Stampfl, Ulrike; Bellemann, Nadine [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sauer, Peter; Ganten, Tom [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Weitz, Juergen [Department of General, Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans U.; Radeleff, Boris A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Twelve month mean number of TIPS revisions per patient was significantly lower in VSG. ► First TIPS revision was performed significantly later in the VSG. ► There was no significant difference of hepatic encephalopathy in both study groups. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare retrospectively angiographical and clinical results in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) using BMS or VSG. Materials and methods: From February 2001 to January 2010, 245 patients underwent TIPS. From those, 174 patients matched the inclusion criteria with elective procedures and institutional follow-up. Group (I) consisted of 116 patients (mean age, 57.0 ± 11.1 years) with BMS. Group (II) consisted of 58 patients with VSG (mean age, 53.5 ± 16.1 years). Angiographic and clinical controls were scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, followed by clinical controls every 6 months. Primary study goals included hemodynamic success, shunt patency as well as time to and number of revisions. Secondary study goals included clinical success. Results: Hemodynamic success was 92.2% in I and 91.4% in II (n.s.). Primary patency was significantly higher in II compared to I (53.8% after 440.4 ± 474.5 days versus 45.8% after 340.1 ± 413.8 days; p < 0.05). The first TIPS revision was performed significantly later in II compared to I (288.3 ± 334.7 days versus 180.1 ± 307.0 days; p < 0.05). In the first angiographic control, a portosystemic pressure gradient ≥15 mmHg was present in 73.9% in I and in 39.4% in II (p < 0.05). Clinical success was 73.7–86.2% after 466.3 ± 670.1 days in I and 85.7–90.5% after 617.5 ± 642.7 days in II (n.s.). Hepatic encephalopathy was 37.5% in I and 36.5% in II (n.s.). Conclusion: VSG increased primary shunt patency as well as decreased time to and number of TIPS revisions. There was a trend of higher clinical success in VSG without increased hepatic encephalopathy.

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic variceal ligation in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis: a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a new therapeutic modality for variceal bleeding. In this study we compared the two year survival and rebleeding rates in cirrhotic patients treated by either variceal band ligation or TIPS for variceal bleeding.
METHODS—Eighty cirrhotic patients (Pugh score 7-12) with variceal bleeding were randomly allocated to TIPS (n=41) or ligation (n=39), 24 hours after control of bleeding.
RESULTS—Mean follow up was 581 day...

  4. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric variceal bleeding: its feasibility compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Kwon, Jong Won [Seoul Natioonal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Guk Myung [Cheju National University College of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To assess the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) in active gastric variceal bleeding, and to compare the findings with those of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Twenty-one patients with active gastric variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis were referred for radiological intervention. In 15 patients, contrast-enhanced CT scans demonstrated gastrorenal shunt, and the remaining six (Group 1) underwent TIPS. Seven of the 15 with gastrorenal shunt (Group 2) were also treated with TIPS, and the other eight (Group 3) underwent BRTO. All patients were followed up for 6 to 21 (mean, 14.4) months. For statistical inter-group comparison of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, Fisher's exact test was used. Changes in the Child-Pugh score before and after each procedure in each group were statistically analyzed by means of Wilcoxon's signed rank test. One patient in Group 1 died of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and persistent bleeding three days after TIPS, while the remaining 20 survived the procedure with immediate hemostasis. Hepatic encephalopathy developed in four patients (one in Group 1, three in Group 2, and none in Group 3); one, in Group 2, died while in an hepatic coma 19 months after TIPS. Rebleeding occurred in one patient, also in Group 2. Except for transient fever in two Group-3 patients, no procedure-related complication occurred. In terms of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). In Group 3, the Child-Pugh score showed a significant decrease after the procedure (p = 0.02). BRTO can effectively control active gastric variceal bleeding, and because of immediate hemostasis, the absence of rebleeding, and improved liver function, is a good alternative to TIPS in patients in whom such bleeding, accompanied by gastrorenal shunt, occurs.

  5. The usefulness of CO{sub 2} indirect portography in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hae Jum; Lee, Hae Giu; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Lee, Kyung Joo; Chung, Myung Hee; Yu, Won Jong; Yoon, Yeo Dong; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Young Sok; Han, Nam Ik [Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the usefulness of carbon dioxide(CO{sub 2}) indirect portography during TIPS procedure. We evalvated eight patients who had undergone TIPS due to variceal hemorrhage or ascites caused by portal hypertension. All patients but one with complete situs inversus underwent wedged right hepatic venography for visualization of the portal vein using CO{sub 2}. For CO{sub 2} indirect portal venography, 50cc of CO{sub 2} was injected by hand without prior injection of a small amount of CO{sub 2}. In three patients a 5-F angiographic catheter was wedged into the right hepatic vein, and in the other five a 9-F sheath from a Ring's transjugular access set was adjunctively wedged into the right hepatic vein over the 5-F catheter. The time required for portal vein puncture was defined as the time between the indirect portal venography procedure and the first procedure after successful portal vein puncture. All patients successfully underwent TIPS without any immediate complication. The portal vein was visualized by CO{sub 2} in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%). Two of three patients who underwent indirect portography with only a 5-F catheter wedging demonstrated opacification of the right portal vein;in the remaining patient the portal venous system was not visualized. Of the five patients who underwent indirect portography with an adjunctive 9-F sheath wedged in the right hepatic vein, four showed opacification from the peripheral to the main portal vein, and in the other, the only right peripheral portal vein was opacified. The mean time for portal vein puncture was 20.5 minutes. For visualization of the portal venous system during TIPS procedure, the use of CO{sub 2} indirect portography is feasible.

  6. Case report: massive lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices. Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS); Fallbericht: Massive untere gastrointestinale Blutung aus ilealen Varizen. Behandlung mittels transjugulaerem intrahepatischem portosystemischem Shunt (TIPSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Benitez, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Seidensticker, P.; Richter, G.M.; Stampfl, U.; Hallscheidt, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie

    2007-05-15

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis is associated with a high mortality. Ileal varices and collaterals from ectopic vessels are extremely rare, encountered in less than 5% of the cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis is frequently delayed because the regular diagnostic methods such as gastroscopy or colonoscopy are unsuccessful in accurate the source of bleeding in the majority of the cases. We report an unusual case of massive and uncontrollable lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices with right ovarian vein anastomosis in a 56 year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and previous history of abdominal and pelvic surgery. The accurate angiographic and computed tomography diagnosis allowed fast decompression of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. (orig.) [German] Akute gastrointestinale Blutungen sind bei Leberzirrhosepatienten mit einer hohen Mortalitaet verbunden. Ileale Varizen und Kollateralen aus anderen ektopen Gefaessen des Darms sind extrem selten und treten bei weniger als 5% aller Zirrhosepatienten auf. Die Diagnosestellung erfolgt oft verspaetet, da die ueblichen diagnostischen Untersuchungsmethoden wie Gastroskopie oder Koloskopie in den meisten Faellen die Blutungsquelle nicht ausreichend darstellen. Wir berichten ueber einen ungewoehnlichen Fall von massiver und unkontrollierbarer unterer gastroinstestinaler (GI-)Blutung aus ilealen Varizen mit Verbindung zur rechten V. ovarica einer 56-jaehrigen Frau, bei der anamnestisch eine Leberzirrhose und abdominelle Operationen sowie Operationen im Bereich des Beckens bekannt waren. Die genaue angiographische und computertomographische Diagnose erlaubte eine rasche Dekompression des Portalvenensystems mittels eines transjugulaeren portosystemischen Shunts. (orig.)

  7. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in children; Der transjugulaere intrahepatische portosystemische Shunt bei Kindern. Erste klinische Erfahrungen und Literaturuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppert, P.E.; Brambs, H.J.; Schott, U.; Pereira, P.; Duda, S.H.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Astfalk, W.; Schweizer, P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Kinderchirurgie; Dopfer, R.E. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Kinderheilkunde I

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: To present special methodical and clinical findings of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSS) in children and to discuss potential indications. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 1996, 6 children aged 2-13 years were treated by TIPSS-insertion. In four cases, the underlying disease was extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) and in two cases liver fibrosis secondary to treatment of neoplasms during early childhood. Indications for TIPSS insertion were variceal bleeding resistant to other treatment modalities in three patients, hypersplenism in one patient and both bleeding and hypersplenism in two. Portal vein punctures were performed using 16-gauge needles, because 19-gauge fine-needles showed insufficient stiffness. The mean follow-up was 24.5 months. Results: Shunt insertion succeeded in all children with a mean procedure time of 5.2 hours. Periportal fibrosis associated with EHBA, atypical course of hepatic veins and small diameters and distances of vessels were conditions making the procedure difficult. Bleeding ceased in all patients, peripheral platelet counts rose by a mean value of 58%. Procedure-related complications were minor extrahepatic bleeding in one child and temporary haemolysis in another child. Restenoses resulted in three patients and were treated successfully by means of transjugular interventions. 5 children remain free of symptoms to this day, one child underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 8 months after TIPSS. Conclusions: TIPSS insertion is technically more difficult in children and has to consider child growth and possible subsequent liver transplantation. Potential indications are recurrent variceal bleeding, also of intestinal origin, resistant to standard tretment and clinically significant hypersplenism. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Darstellung methodischer und klinischer Besonderheiten sowie potentieller Indikationen des transjugulaeren intrahepatischen portosystemischen Shunts (TIPSS) bei Kindern

  8. Brain regional homogeneity changes following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients support cerebral adaptability theory—A resting-state functional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Ling; Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Wu, Xingjiang; Fan, Xinxin [Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The exact neuro-pathophysiological effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on brain function remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with TIPS insertion using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Methods: Fifteen cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) planned for TIPS procedure and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Eleven of the 15 patients underwent repeated fMRI examinations at median 7-day following TIPS, 8 patients in median 3-month, and 7 patients in median 1-year follow-up duration, respectively. Regional homogeneity was calculated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) and compared between patients before TIPS and healthy controls with two-sample t test as well as pre-and post-TIPS patients with paired t test. Correlations between the pre- and post-TIPS changes of ReHo and the changes of venous blood ammonia level and number connection test type A (NCT-A)/digit symbol test (DST) scores were calculated by crossing subjects. Results: Compared with healthy controls, 15 cirrhotic patients before TIPS procedure showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and increased ReHo in the bilateral caudate. Compared with the pre-TIPS patients, 11 post-TIPS patients in the median 7-day follow-up examinations demonstrated decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus (MFG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), middle/superior temporal gyrus (M/STG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula. Eight post-TIPS patients in the median 3-month follow-up examinations showed widespread decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, ACC, caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula and precuneus/cuneus. In the median 1-year follow-up studies, seven post-TIPS patients displayed

  9. Transcatheter embolization of a congenital intrahepatic arterioportal venous malformation: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, T.M.Y.S.; Wong, K.P.; Young, N. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiaology; Le, S.D.V. [Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-08-01

    Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal venous malformations (APVM) are uncommon lesions. A congenital intrahepatic APVM found incidentally in a 51 -year-old man during pre-operative aortography for an abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported here. This was successfully treated by transcatheter embolization of the involved hepatic artery prior to surgical repair of the aortic aneurysm. A 51-year-old smoker was admitted for pre-operative aortography of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Liver function tests showed a mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase. There was no previous history of liver disease or trauma. Aortography demonstrated a large infra-renal AAA measuring 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. The coeliac axis was noted to be grossly dilated with tortuous veins seen to the right side of the lower thoracic spine on delayed images. Coeliac angiography revealed a dilated intrahepatic vascular abnormality in the left lobe of the liver with late opacification of the portal vein. Contrast abdominal CT demonstrated the AAA and the dilated coeliac axis feeding a large vascular malformation in the lateral aspect of the left lobe of the liver. The arterial inflow was via the left hepatic artery and a large vein was seen leading into the left portal vein. Endoscopy showed no oesophageal varices. (authors). 11 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Changes in cerebral blood flow after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can help predict the development of hepatic encephalopathy: An arterial spin labeling MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Ze [Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qi, Rong Feng; Shi, Donghong [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Fan, Xinxin [Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) are still unclear. Our aim is to assess the TIPS-induced CBF changes and their potential clinical significance using the arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Nine cirrhotic patients underwent ASL 1–8 days before and 4–7 days after TIPS. CBF was calculated at each voxel and mean CBF values were computed in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Changes of CBFs before and after TIPS were compared by paired t-test. Results: Voxel-wise results showed CBF diffusely increased in patients after TIPS, but no region with significant decrease in CBF was found, nor was any significant mean CBF difference detected in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Six patients out of nine showed a global CBF increase of 9–39%; one patient presented a global CBF decrease of 6%; another two showed a global CBF decrease of 16% and 31% respectively. Follow-up studies showed that the two patients with greatly decreased global CBF suffered from multiple episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) after TIPS and one died of OHE. Conclusions: CBF derived from noninvasive ASL MRI could be used as a useful biomarker to predict the development of OHE through consecutively tracking CBF changes in patients with inserted TIPS. Increased CBFs in many cortical regions could be common effects of the TIPS procedure, while decreased global CBF following TIPS might indicate the development of OHE.

  11. Efficacy of TACE in TIPS Patients: Comparison of Treatment Response to Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With and Without a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Yuo-Chen, E-mail: yuo-chen.kuo@ucsf.edu; Kohi, Maureen P., E-mail: maureen.kohi@ucsf.edu; Naeger, David M., E-mail: david.naeger@ucsf.edu; Tong, Ricky T., E-mail: ricky.tong@ucsf.edu; Kolli, K. Pallav, E-mail: kanti.kolli@ucsf.edu; Taylor, Andrew G., E-mail: andrew.taylor@ucsf.edu; Laberge, Jeanne M., E-mail: jeanne.laberge@ucsf.edu; Kerlan, Robert K., E-mail: robert.kerlan@ucsf.edu; Fidelman, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.fidelman@ucsf.edu [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment response after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent conventional TACE for HCC between January 2005 and December 2009 identified 10 patients with patent TIPS. From the same time period, 23 patients without TIPS were selected to control for comparable Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores. The two groups showed similar distribution of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer and United Network of Organ Sharing stages. Target HCC lesions were evaluated according to the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) guidelines. Transplantation rate, time to tumor progression, and overall survival (OS) were documented. Results: After TACE, the rate of complete response was significantly greater in non-TIPS patients compared with TIPS patients (74 vs. 30 %, p = 0.03). Objective response rate (complete and partial response) trended greater in the non-TIPS group (83 vs. 50 %, p = 0.09). The liver transplantation rate was 80 and 74 % in the TIPS and non-TIPS groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Time to tumor progression was similar (p = 0.47) between the two groups. OS favored the non-TIPS group (p = 0.01) when censored for liver transplantation. Conclusion: TACE is less effective in achieving complete or partial response using mRECIST criteria in TIPS patients compared with those without a TIPS. Nevertheless, similar clinical outcomes may be achieved, particularly in TIPS patients who are liver-transplantation candidates.

  12. Radiation doses to operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt using a flat-panel detector-based system and ultrasound guidance for portal vein targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Gerasia, Roberta; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Luca, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate effective dose (E) of operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in a single centre. Patients' radiation exposure was also collected. Between 8/2015 and 6/2016, 45 consecutive TIPS were performed in adult patients using a flat-panel detector-based system (FPDS) and real-time ultrasound guidance (USG) for portal vein targeting. Electronic personal dosimeters were used to measure radiation doses to the primary and assistant operators, anaesthesia nurse and radiographer. Patients' radiation exposure was measured with dose area product (DAP); fluoroscopy time (FT) was also collected. Mean E for the primary operator was 1.40 μSv (SD 2.68, median 0.42, range 0.12 - 12.18), for the assistant operator was 1.29 μSv (SD 1.79, median 0.40, range 0.10 - 4.89), for the anaesthesia nurse was 0.21 μSv (SD 0.67, median 0.10, range 0.03 - 3.99), for the radiographer was 0.42 μSv (SD 0.71, median 0.25, range 0.03 - 2.67). Mean patient DAP was 59.31 GyCm(2) (SD 56.91, median 31.58, range 7.66 - 281.40); mean FT was 10.20 min (SD 7.40, median 10.40, range 3.8 - 31.8). The use of FPDS and USG for portal vein targeting allows a reasonably low E to operators performing TIPS. • The operators' E vary according to the complexity of the procedure. • FPDS and USG allow a reasonably low E to TIPS operators. • FPDS and USG have an important role in reducing the occupational exposure.

  13. Comparison of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with covered stent and ballon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in managing isolated gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lee, Kristen A.; Sauk, Steven; Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Although a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is commonly placed to manage isolated gastric varices, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has also been used. We compare the long-term outcomes from these procedures based on our institutional experience. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with isolated gastric varices who underwent either TIPS with a covered stent or BRTO between January 2000 and July 2013. We identified 52 consecutive patients, 27 who had received TIPS with a covered stent and 25 who had received BRTO. We compared procedural complications, re-bleeding rates, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. There were no significant differences in procedural complications between patients who underwent TIPS (7%) and those who underwent BRTO (12%) (p = 0.57). There were also no statistically significant differences in re-bleeding rates from gastric varices between the two groups (TIPS, 7% [2/27]; BRTO, 8% [2/25]; p = 0.94) or in developing new ascites following either procedure (TIPS, 4%; BRTO, 4%; p = 0.96); significantly more patients who underwent TIPS developed hepatic encephalopathy (22%) than did those who underwent BRTO (0%, p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in mean survival between the two groups (TIPS, 30 months; BRTO, 24 months; p = 0.16); median survival for the patients who received TIPS was 16.6 months, and for those who underwent BRTO, it was 26.6 months. BRTO is an effective method of treating isolated gastric varices with similar outcomes and complication rates to those of TIPS with a covered stent but with a lower rate of hepatic encephalopathy.

  14. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  15. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  16. Early and long-term clinical and radiological follow-up results of expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Thijs, Maria; Wilms, Guy [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Nevens, Frederik; Verslype, Chris [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Hepatology, Leuven (Belgium); Wilmer, Alexander [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy and immediate and long-term safety of expanded-tetrafluoroethylene covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in patients with portal hypertension-related complications. A cohort of 56 patients suffering from severe portal hypertension-related complications underwent implantation of an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-graft. All patients suffered from severe liver cirrhosis graded Child-Pugh A (n=8; 16%), B (n=13; 21%) or C (n=35; 63%). In 44 patients, the stent-graft was placed during the initial TIPS procedure (de novo TIPS); in the other 12 patients, the stent-graft was placed to repermeabilize the previously placed bare stent (TIPS revision). Follow-up was performed with clinical assessment, duplex ultrasound and, if abnormal or inconclusive, with invasive venography and pressure measurements. Per- en immediate post-procedural complications occurred in four patients (4/56, 7%). None of them was lethal. During follow-up, stent occlusion appeared in one patient and stenosis in two; no recurrence of bleeding was noted in all patients treated for variceal bleeding (n=28), and 24 of the 28 patients (86%) suffering from refractory ascites and/or hepatic hydrothorax were free of regular paracenteses and/or drainage of pleural effusion after shunt creation. The 30-day and global mortality for the total study population (n=56) was, respectively, 7% (n=4) and 28.5% (n=16). In the patient subgroup with variceal bleeding (n=28), 30-day mortality was 3.5% (n=1) and global mortality 14.2% (n=4). In the ascites and/or hydrothorax subgroup (n=28), 8.1% (n=3) mortality at 30 days was found and global mortality was 32.4% (n=12). In 10 patients of the 56 studied patients (18%), isolated hepatic encephalopathy occurred, which was lethal in 4 (Child C) patients (7%). Three of these four patients died within the 1st month after TIPS placement. A very high primary patency rate

  17. Long-term Outcome and Analysis of Dysfunction of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in Chronic Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Georges; Ronot, Maxime; Plessier, Aurélie; Sibert, Annie; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Zappa, Magaly; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Valla, Dominique; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2016-10-31

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term safety, technical success, and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in a series of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and to determine the predictors of shunt dysfunction. Materials and Methods From 2004 to 2013, all patients with primary BCS referred for TIPS placement were included in the study. The primary and secondary technical success rates and the number and types of early (ie, before day 7) complications were noted. Factors associated with dysfunction were analyzed with uni- and multivariate analyses. Survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results Fifty-four patients (34 women [63%]; mean age, 36 years ± 12 [standard deviation]) were included. Twenty-eight patients (52%) had myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 14.5 ± 4. The most frequent indication for TIPS was refractory ascites (50 of 54; 93%). Primary and secondary technical success rates were 93% and 98%, respectively. Early complications occurred in 17 patients (32%). After a mean follow-up of 56 months ± 41 (interquartile range, 22-92), 22 patients (42%) experienced at least one episode of TIPS dysfunction (median delay between administration of TIPS and first episode of dysfunction, 10.8 months). Cumulative 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year primary patency rates were 64%, 59%, 54%, 45%, and 45%, respectively. Dysfunction was associated with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (hazard ratio, 8.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.45, 46.18; P = .017), more than two initial stents (hazard ratio, 3.90; 95% confidence interval:1.16, 13.10; P = .027), and the occurrence of early complications (hazard ratio, 11.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 70.69; P = .009). The 10-year survival rate was 76%. Conclusion TIPS placement in patients with chronic primary BCS was associated with a nonnegligible rate of early complications and required endovascular revision or revisions in 42% of patients

  18. Congenital portosystemic shunts with and without gastrointestinal bleeding - case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ying; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qi; Ji, Min; Pa, Mier; Qiao, Zhongwei [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Hui [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Shan [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-15

    The clinical presentation of congenital portosystemic shunt is variable and gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon presentation. To describe the imaging features of congenital portosystemic shunt as it presented in 11 children with (n = 6) and without gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 5). We performed a retrospective study on a clinical and imaging dataset of 11 children diagnosed with congenital portosystemic shunt. A total of 11 children with congenital portosystemic shunt were included in this study, 7 with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts and 4 with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Six patients with gastrointestinal bleeding had an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and the imaging results showed that the shunts originated from the splenomesenteric junction (n = 5) or splenic vein (n = 1) and connected to the internal iliac vein. Among the five cases of congenital portosystemic shunt without gastrointestinal bleeding, one case was an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt and the other four were intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Most congenital portosystemic shunt patients with gastrointestinal bleeding had a shunt that drained portal blood into the iliac vein via an inferior mesenteric vein. This type of shunt was uncommon, but the concomitant rate of gastrointestinal bleeding with this type of shunt was high. (orig.)

  19. TIPS - anastomose portossistêmica intra-hepática transjugular. Revisão TIPS - transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson CARREIRO

    2001-01-01

    -expansiva.At the present time several therapeutic options are used for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension. We will review the main medical publications on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS, a procedure seldom used among us. TIPS works as a portocaval side-to-side shunt and decreases the risk of esophageal bleeding through lowering of the portal system pressure and a decrease of the portal hepatic pressure gradient. TIPS consists in the percutaneous insertion, through the internal jugular vein, of a metallic stent under fluoroscopic control in the hepatic parenchyma creating a true porta caval communication. There are several studies demonstrating the efficacy of TIPS, although only a few of them are randomized and control-matched to allow us to conclude that this procedure is safe, efficient and with a good cost benefit ratio. In this review, we search for the analysis of the TIPS utilization, its techniques, its major indications and complications. TIPS has been used in cases of gastroesophageal bleeding that has failed with pharmacologic or endoscopic treatment in patients Child-Pugh B and C. It can be used also as a bridge for liver transplantation. Others indications for TIPS are uncontrolled ascites, hepatic renal syndrome, and hepatic hydrotorax. The main early complications of TIPS using are related to the insertion site and hepatic encephalopathy and the stent occlusion is the chief late complication.

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of TIPS? ...

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    Full Text Available ... needle (a special long needle extending from the neck into the liver). A stent is then placed ... the procedure include: fever muscle stiffness in the neck bruising on the neck at the point of ...

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... for the procedure. You may or may not remain awake, depending on how deeply you are sedated. ...

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    Full Text Available ... in the chest or abdomen. This condition is most commonly seen in adults, often as a result ... minimally invasive procedures such as a TIPS are most often performed by a specially trained interventional radiologist ...

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... physician will numb an area just above your right collarbone with a local anesthetic . A very small ...

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ... a video display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based ...

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    Full Text Available ... neck at the point of catheter insertion delayed stenosis, or narrowing within the stent, which is less ... that could require a transfusion or urgent intervention heart arrhythmias or congestive heart failure radiation injury to ...

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to ...

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    Full Text Available ... feel anything. You will be positioned on your back. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line ...

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    Full Text Available ... is removed with it during a transplant operation. Studies have shown that this procedure is successful in ... complications, reported in fewer than five percent of cases, may include: occlusion, or complete blockage, of the ...

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    Full Text Available ... and patient consultation. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

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    Full Text Available ... local anesthetic medications, general anesthesia or to contrast materials containing iodine (sometimes referred to as "dye" or " ... the placement of the TIPS stent, a contrast material will be injected in the hepatic vein to ...

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    Full Text Available ... TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients with cirrhosis. Tell your ... the liver into the veins of the spleen, stomach, lower esophagus, and intestines, causing enlarged vessels, bleeding ...

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    Full Text Available ... Patients who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension , meaning they have increased pressure in the portal ... leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are ...

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    Full Text Available ... portal vein to the hepatic vein in the liver. A small metal device called a stent is ... bowel back to the heart while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the ...

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... for encephalopathy , which is an alteration of normal brain function that can lead to confusion. This is ...

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    Full Text Available ... the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are much less likely to require a TIPS. ... intentionally to solve the problem. Although extremely rare, children may also require a TIPS procedure. TIPS in ...

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    Full Text Available ... blood flow in the liver and reduces abnormally high blood pressure in the veins of the stomach, esophagus, bowel ... the liver to bypass the liver entirely, reducing high blood pressure in the portal vein and the associated risk ...

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    Full Text Available ... TIPS in children is their tremendous variability in size, physiology, and medical diseases. This can result in ... Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and ...

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    Full Text Available ... vascular anatomy. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Devices to monitor ... pathway is expanded by the balloon, you may experience discomfort. If you feel pain, you should inform ...

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    Full Text Available ... may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A nurse ... and after the procedure? Devices to monitor your heart rate and blood pressure will be attached to your body. You ...

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    Full Text Available ... who typically need a TIPS have portal hypertension , meaning they have increased pressure in the portal vein ... vascular anatomy. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Devices to monitor ...

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    Full Text Available ... carry blood from the liver back to the heart. top of page How should I prepare? You should report to your doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the accumulation of fluid in the chest or abdomen. This condition is most commonly seen in adults, ... severe ascites (the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen) and/or hydrothorax (in the chest). Budd-Chiari ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... placed to keep the connection open and allow it to bring blood draining from the bowel back ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... functions properly. top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get them? Prior to ... TIPS is designed to produce the same physiological results as a surgical shunt or bypass, without the ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the local anesthetic is injected. Most of the sensation is at the skin incision site which is ... of bleeding that can occur can sometimes be life threatening and those patients are monitored in intensive ...

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    Full Text Available ... taking. You may be advised to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners ... Your physician may advise you to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. You will likely be instructed ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A TIPS is designed to produce the ... skin that does not have to be stitched. Risks Any procedure where the skin is penetrated carries ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into ... patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... may be advised to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners several days prior ... may advise you to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners for a specified ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... depending on the complexity of the condition and vascular anatomy. top of page What will I experience ... that involves placement of a catheter inside a blood vessel carries certain risks. These risks include damage to ...

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ... a video display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based ...

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients with cirrhosis. Tell your ... the liver into the veins of the spleen, stomach, lower esophagus, and intestines, causing enlarged vessels, bleeding ...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the stent, which is less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined stents Serious complications, ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Other possible complications of the procedure include: fever muscle stiffness in the neck bruising on the neck ... lining abdominal bleeding that might require a transfusion laceration of the hepatic artery, which may result in ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... tube that is considerably smaller than a "pencil lead", or approximately 1/8 inch in diameter. The ... an alteration of normal brain function that can lead to confusion. This is because toxic substances in ...

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    Full Text Available ... advised to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners several days prior to ... you to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners for a specified period ...

  15. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... muscle stiffness in the neck bruising on the neck at the point of catheter insertion delayed stenosis, or narrowing within the stent, which is less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined stents Serious complications, reported in fewer than ...

  16. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... connect the portal vein to the hepatic vein in the liver. A small metal device called a ... the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients with cirrhosis. ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially ... which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    ... doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially ... which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... hepatic artery, which may result in severe liver injury or bleeding that could require a transfusion or ... intervention heart arrhythmias or congestive heart failure radiation injury to the skin is a rare complication (it ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... tube, often covered with a fabric made of GORE-TEX®. Other equipment that may be used during ... is less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined stents Serious complications, reported in fewer ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the liver using x-ray guidance to connect two veins within the liver. The shunt is kept ... examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions ... your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. ...

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    Full Text Available ... in creating the TIPS. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients ... site. Using ultrasound, the doctor will identify your internal jugular vein , which is situated above your collarbone, ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... is removed with it during a transplant operation. Studies have shown that this procedure is successful in ... risk of an allergic reaction to the contrast material used for venograms . Also, kidney failure (temporary or ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A ... and after the procedure? Devices to monitor your heart rate and blood pressure will be attached to your ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... effect than open surgical bypass on future liver transplantation surgery because the abdomen has not been entered, ... that could require a transfusion or urgent intervention heart arrhythmias or congestive heart failure radiation injury to ...

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... asked to wear a gown. Plan to stay overnight at the hospital for one or more days. ... in the morning. You should plan to stay overnight at the hospital for one or more days. ...

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... limitations of TIPS? Patients with more advanced liver disease are at greater risk for worsening liver failure ... who already has encephalopathy because of their liver disease may not be a good candidate for the ...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... through the TIPS. Pressure will be applied to prevent any bleeding and the opening in the skin ... are monitored in intensive care beforehand and during recovery. You should be able to resume your normal ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to best travel ... collarbone with a local anesthetic . A very small skin incision is made at the site. Using ultrasound, ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... on the complexity of the condition and vascular anatomy. top of page What will I experience during ... the vein or artery. If you receive a general anesthetic, you will be unconscious for the entire ...

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not ...

  15. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ... small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from ...

  16. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles ... by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single exam. The ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... complex and lengthy procedures requiring extended fluoroscopy use) death (rare) top of page What are the limitations ... for encephalopathy , which is an alteration of normal brain function that can lead to confusion. This is ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce internal bleeding in the stomach and esophagus in patients with ... stomach, lower esophagus, and intestines, causing enlarged vessels, bleeding and the accumulation of fluid in the chest ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... is removed with it during a transplant operation. Studies have shown that this procedure is successful in ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... Other possible complications of the procedure include: fever muscle stiffness in the neck bruising on the neck ... limitations of TIPS? Patients with more advanced liver disease are at greater risk for worsening liver failure ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies and medications you’re taking. You may be ... including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially to local anesthetic medications, general anesthesia or ...

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    Full Text Available ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with expertise ... not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | ...

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. top of page How does the procedure work? A TIPS reroutes blood flow in the liver ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ... with your prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... in the portal vein system. This pressure buildup can cause blood to flow backward from the liver ... to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are much ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... a specified period of time before your procedure. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... to make sure that it remains open and functions properly. top of page Who interprets the results ... a concern, particularly in patients with poor kidney function. Any procedure that involves placement of a catheter ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies and medications you’re taking. You ... with ascites or variceal bleeding resistant to traditional medical treatments. The greatest difference in performing TIPS in ...

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... through the TIPS. Pressure will be applied to prevent any bleeding and the opening in the skin ... are monitored in intensive care beforehand and during recovery. You should be able to resume your normal ...

  10. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... blood draining from the bowel back to the heart while avoiding the liver. TIPS may successfully reduce ... blood away from the liver back to the heart). A stent is then placed in this tunnel ...

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... advised to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners several days prior to ... you to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners for a specified period ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... procedure that uses imaging guidance to connect the portal vein to the hepatic vein in the liver. ... a tunnel through the liver to connect the portal vein (the vein that carries blood from the ...

  13. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... in children is their tremendous variability in size, physiology, and medical diseases. This can result in significant ...

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × ... Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From (your name): Your e-mail ...

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    Full Text Available ... a specified period of time before your procedure. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... physician will numb an area just above your right collarbone with a local anesthetic . A very small ...

  16. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... physician will numb an area just above your right collarbone with a local anesthetic . A very small ... Pressures are measured in the hepatic vein and right heart to confirm the diagnosis of portal hypertension, ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies and medications you’re taking. You may be advised to ... night before. Your doctor will tell you which medication to take in the morning. Leave jewelry at ...

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... or bypass, without the risks that accompany open surgery. TIPS is a minimally invasive procedure that typically has a shorter recovery time than surgery. Your TIPS should have less of an effect ...

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... cause severe bleeding. severe ascites (the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen) and/or hydrothorax (in the chest). Budd-Chiari syndrome , a blockage in one or more veins that carry blood from the liver back to the heart. top of page How should I prepare? You ...

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... placed to keep the connection open and allow it to bring blood draining from the bowel back ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A TIPS is used to treat the ... during the procedure. top of page What does the equipment look like? In this procedure, x-ray ...

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... taking. You may be advised to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners ... Your physician may advise you to stop taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners ...

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... hepatic artery, which may result in severe liver injury or bleeding that could require a transfusion or ... intervention heart arrhythmias or congestive heart failure radiation injury to the skin is a rare complication (it ...

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... stent, which is less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined stents Serious complications, reported ... an alteration of normal brain function that can lead to confusion. This is because toxic substances in ...

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not ...

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... abdomen. This condition is most commonly seen in adults, often as a result of chronic liver problems leading to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Portal hypertension can also occur in children, although children are ...

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... a TIPS. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A TIPS is used ... or narrowing within the stent, which is less common with the current generation of GORE-TEX-lined ...

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

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    Full Text Available ... This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed procedure with your doctor, the ...

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    Full Text Available ... and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies and medications you’re taking. You may be advised to ... prepare? You should report to your doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially to local ...

  10. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Hoekstra, L. T. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bennink, R. J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  11. 声触诊组织量化技术无创评价经颈静脉肝内门-腔分流术疗效的可行性研究%Study of virtual touch tissue quantification in noninvasive assessment of the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明琼; 冉海涛; 叶小萍; 朱叶锋; 张大志

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨声触诊组织量化(virtual touch tissue quantification,VTQ)技术无创评价经颈静脉肝内门-腔分流术(transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt,TIPSS)疗效的可行性.方法 应用VTQ技术对24例肝硬化门静脉高压预行TIPSS分流术患者分别测量手术前后肝、脾剪切波速度(shear wave velocity,SWV);并于手术时测量门静脉压力(portosystemic pressure gradient,PPG);比较手术前后肝、脾SWV值的变化及与PPG的相关性.同时对14例患者进行术后1个月的随访.结果 PPG 和脾SWV值在手术前为(27.87±4.68) mm Hg和(3.49±0.40) m/s,术后为(16.46±3.76) mm Hg和(3.08±0.39)rn/s,两者的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);肝SWV值在手术前后的差异无统计学意义(P=0.130).脾SWV值与PPG呈高度正相关(r=0.602,P=0.000);肝SWV值与PPG无相关性(r=0.154,P=0.296).14例随访患者术前、术后1周、术后1个月的脾SWV值两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);而肝SWV值两两比较差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 VTQ技术测量的脾SWV值可用于定量监测TIPSS分流术前后门静脉压力的变化,无创评价手术疗效,但目前还未发现肝SWV值可以用于评价其手术疗效.%Objective To explore the feasibility of virtual touch tissue quantification(VTQ) technique in noninvasive assessment of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS).Methods Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study.Shear wave velocity(SWV) of the liver and spleen were obtained by VTQ technique on one day before TIPSS insertion and one week after TIPSS placement,and the portal vein pressure was measured while placing the TIPSS.The correlation between SWV of the liver and spleen and portal venous pressure were analysed.In addition,fourteen patients were followed up for one month after TIPSS placement.Results There was significant difference in portal vein pressure pre [(27.82 ± 4.07) mm Hg] and post [(16.26-± 3

  12. Congenital Portosystemic Shunt: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Timpanaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital portosystemic venous malformations are rare abnormalities in which the portal blood drains into a systemic vein and which are characterized by extreme clinical variability. Case Presentations. The authors present two case reports of a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (Type II. In the first patient, apparently nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, proved to be secondary to hypoglycemic episodes related to the presence of a portosystemic shunt, later confirmed on imaging. During portal vein angiography, endovascular embolization of the portocaval fistula achieved occlusion of the anomalous venous tract. In the second patient, affected by Down’s syndrome, the diagnosis of a portosystemic malformation was made by routine ultrasonography, performed to rule out concurrent congenital anomalies. Because of the absence of symptoms, we chose to observe this patient. Conclusions. These two case reports demonstrate the clinical heterogeneity of this malformation and the need for a multidisciplinary approach. As part of a proper workup, clinical evaluation must always be followed by radiographic diagnosis.

  13. Congenital Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Spectrum of Findings on Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS is a rare disorder characterised by partial or complete diversion of portomesenteric blood into systemic veins via congenital shunts. Type I is characterised by complete lack of intrahepatic portal venous blood flow due to an end to side fistula between main portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Type II on the other hand is characterised by partial preservation of portal blood supply to liver and side to side fistula between main portal vein or its branches and mesenteric, splenic, gastric, and systemic veins. The presentation of these patients is variable. Focal liver lesions, most commonly nodular regenerative hyperplasia, are an important clue to the underlying condition. This pictorial essay covers imaging characteristics in abdominopelvic region.

  14. 组织结构声学定量技术无创评估TIPS联合PTVE疗效%Non-invasive evaluation on therapeutic effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and percutaneous transhepatic varices embolization using acoustic structure quantification method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓; 李思杰; 郭大静; 张萍; 冉海涛; 王志刚; 郑元义; 左国庆

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨组织结构声学定量分析(acoustic structure quantification,ASQ)技术在无创评价经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt,Tips)联合经皮肝穿胃冠状静脉栓塞术(percutaneous transhepatic varices embolization,PTVE)疗效的临床应用价值.方法:应用ASQ技术对30例正常人及30例肝硬化门静脉高压预行TIPS联合PTVE患者手术前后肝、脾分别定量分析,比较手术前后肝、脾的ASQ卡方值直方图和ASQ定量相关参数:众数、均值、标准差以及蓝红2色直方图曲线下面积比;并在手术过程中测量门静脉压(portosystemic pressure gradient,PPG);比较手术前后肝、脾ASQ定量参数值的变化及与PPG的相关性.结果:PPG术前组(28.71±4.81) mmHg与术后组(18.30±4.73) mmHg比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);脾脏Red Mode、Red Ave、Red SD、FD ratio、Blue Mode、Blue Ave、Blue SD各参数值正常对照组分别为(99.60±2.15)、(102.25±2.22)、(13.62±1.70)、(0.13±0.11)、(120.90±6.29)、(132.57±15.98)、(27.94±13.65),术前组上述参数值分别为(103.21±1.98)、(107.52±2.51)、(18.48±1.41)、(0.18±0.07)、(125.25±2.86)、(146.57±9.03)、(37.64±10.21),术前组脾ASQ各定量参数均大于正常对照组(P<0.05);术后组脾ASQ各定量参数分别为(101.66±1.97)、(105.24±2.04)、(16.56±1.49)、(0.15±0.09)、(122.96±5.56)、(137.96±14.46)、(31.45±12.49),术后各参数值均小于术前,各组之间具有统计学差异(P<0.05);肝ASQ各定量参数值在术前组分别为(117.81±3.23)、(120.70±3.27)、(19.70±1.07)、(0.67±0.28)、(136.05±4.62)、(148.68±7.03)、(33.68±7.36),术后组各参数值分别为(118.01±3.35)、(120.9±3.58)、(19.54±1.40)、(0.66±0.30)、(135.26±4.38)、(148.42±7.65)、(33.73±6.30),术前组与术后组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).脾ASQ各定量参数值与PPG呈高度正相关(r值分别为0.299、0.331、0.451、0.848、0.961、0

  15. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

    OpenAIRE

    Tripodi Francesca; Milan Graziella; de Leone Annalisa; Giaquinto Sabrina; Esposito Pasquale; Citro Vincenzo; Tarantino Giovanni; Cirillo Michele; Lobello Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presenc...

  16. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for gastrointestinal bleeding due to hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by portal vein embolus (report of 4 cases)%肝癌并门静脉栓子后消化道出血的经颈静脉肝内门体静脉分流术治疗(附4例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华; 李玉; 韩萍; 张金龙; 张弢

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on gastrointestinal bleed-ing due to advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by portal vein embolus. Methods Four patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed with portal vein cancer embolus by contrast-enhanced CT and MRI scanning of the abdomen, of whom 3 patients were complicated by wide embolus formation in superior mesenteric vein (including 1 patient with spleen vein embolus formation). Hemostatic treatment by TIPS was undertaken and the stents were placed where distal embolus could be observed by angiogra-phy. Results After undergoing TIPS, no re-bleeding was found in 3 patients followed up for 4-6 weeks and 1 patient followed up for 8 weeks, and abdominal symptoms were obviously relieved or disappeared. Conclusions TIPS is a safe and effective way to treat gas-trointestinal bleeding due to hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by portal vein embolus, and is worthy of promotion.%目的:探讨肝癌晚期合并门静脉栓子后消化道出血的经颈静脉肝内门体静脉分流术(transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS)治疗效果。方法4例急性上消化道出血患者经CT及核磁腹部增强扫描确诊为门静脉癌栓,其中3例合并肠系膜上静脉内广泛栓子形成(含1例脾静脉内栓子形成)。行TIPS止血治疗,将支架放置于造影所见栓子的远端。结果 TIPS治疗后,3例随访4~6周、1例随访8周未再发生出血,腹部不适症状明显减轻或消失。结论 TIPS治疗肝癌并门静脉栓子形成后的急性上消化道出血,安全可行,疗效可靠,值得推广。

  17. 经颈静脉肝内门体静脉分流术联合胃冠状静脉栓塞治疗门静脉高压症上消化道出血%Treatment of variceal hemorrhage with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with variceal embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仕睿; 丁鹏绪; 化召辉; 吴智慧; 黄必润; 徐鹏; 王志伟; 张文广; 李震

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较单独行经颈静脉肝内门体静脉分流术(transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt,TIPS)与TIPS联合胃冠状静脉栓塞术治疗食管胃底曲张静脉破裂出血的再出血率.方法 回顾分析2009年1月至2013年4月间77例因肝硬化门静脉高压上消化道出血行TIPS手术治疗的患者,全部应用8 mm直径金属裸支架配合8 mm直径覆膜支架.24例患者单独行TIPS治疗,53例患者行TIPS联合胃冠状静脉栓塞治疗.结果 所有TIPS手术操作均成功完成.栓塞组与非栓塞组门静脉压力分别下降l0 mmHg和11 mmHg,两组门体压力梯度变化之间相比差异无统计学意义.非栓塞组24例患者中5例发生再出血(21%),栓塞组53例患者中3例发生再出血(7%),两组相比差异有统计学意义,x2=4.085,P=0.043;两组死亡率比较差异无统计学意义,x2=0.194,P=0.659.结论 TIPS联合胃冠状静脉栓塞较单独行TIPS可降低门静脉高压上消化道出血患者的术后再出血率.%Objective To compare rebleeding rates following treatment of variceal hemorrhage with TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization in patients of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding.Methods In this retrospective study,77 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS insertion between 2009 and 2013.Generally,8 mm diameter TIPS were created using bare metal stents and covered stent-grafts simultaneously.A total of 24 patients underwent TIPS alone,while 53 patients underwent TIPS with variceal embolization.Results All TIPS were technically successful.Median portosystemic pressure gradient reductions were 10 mmHg versus 11 mmHg in the embolization and nonembolization groups.There were no statistically significant differences in portosystemic pressure gradients between the two groups.5/24(21%)patients in the TIPS alone group rebled while 3/53 (7%) patients in the TIPS with embolization group rebled during follow-up periods.A trend toward increased

  18. Three cases of digestive tract hemorrhage of portal hypertension combine portal vein wide embolism after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt treatment%颈静脉肝内门体分流术治疗门静脉高压并门静脉广泛栓子后消化道出血三例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华; 张金龙; 张弢; 张素静; 徐慧军; 李玉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(TIPS)治疗门静脉高压并门静脉内栓子广泛形成后消化道出血的治疗效果.方法 3例急性上消化道出血患者,均经CT明确诊断为门静脉、肠系膜上静脉内(含1例脾静脉内栓子形成)广泛栓子形成,行TIPS止血治疗,将支架放置于造影所见栓子的远端.结果 TIPS治疗后,随访4~6周3例患者均未再发生出血,不适症状消失.结论 TIPS治疗门静脉高压并门静脉内广泛栓子形成后消化道出血,安全可行,疗效可靠,值得推广.%Objective To investigate the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) on gastrointestinal bleeding after portal hypertension and portal vein wide embolism.Methods Three patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed by CT with wide embolus formation in portal vein and superior mesenteric vein,of which,1 case was with spleen vein embolism formation.TIPS hemostatic treatment was applied to stop bleeding,and stents was placed where distal embolus can be observed by angiography.Results After TIPS treatment,no patients were re-bleeding during following-up periods (4-6 weeks).Uncomfortable symptoms of 3 cases were disappeared.Conclusion TIPS was a safe and effective way to treat gastrointestinal bleeding caused by portal hypertension and wide embolus formation.

  19. Congenital portosystemic shunts: Imaging findings and clinical presentations in 11 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstas, Angelos A., E-mail: akonstas@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Digumarthy, Subba R.; Avery, Laura L. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Wallace, Karen L. [Department of Radiology, Mount Auburn Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 330 Mount Auburn St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lisovsky, Mikhail; Misdraji, Joseph [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Hahn, Peter F. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical anatomy and presentations of congenital portosystemic shunts, and determine features that promote recognition on imaging. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. The requirement for written informed consent was waived. Radiology reports were retrospectively reviewed from non-cirrhotic patients who underwent imaging studies from January 1999 through February 2009. Clinical sources reviewed included electronic medical records, archived images and histopathological material. Results: Eleven patients with congenital portosystemic shunts were identified (six male and five female; age range 20 days to 84 years). Seven patients had extrahepatic and four patients had intrahepatic shunts. All 11 patients had absent or hypoplastic intrahepatic portal veins, a feature detected by CT and MRI, but not by US. Seven patients presented with shunt complications and four with presentations unrelated to shunt pathophysiology. Three adult patients had four splenic artery aneurysms. Prospective radiological evaluation of five adult patients with cross-sectional imaging had failed prospectively to recognize the presence of congenital portosystemic shunts on one or more imaging examinations. Conclusions: Congenital portosystemic shunts are associated with splenic artery aneurysms, a previously unrecognized association. Portosystemic shunts were undetected during prospective radiologic evaluation in the majority of adult patients, highlighting the need to alert radiologists to this congenital anomaly.

  20. Assessment of surgical portosystemic shunts and associated complications: The diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: btaslakian@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid, E-mail: wf07@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalife, Mohammad, E-mail: mk12@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Merhi, Fadi, E-mail: fe19@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Saade, Charbel, E-mail: cs39@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Hallal, Ali, E-mail: ah05@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Haydar, Ali, E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Portal hypertension is the pathological increase in portal venous pressure. • Surgical portosystemic shunting is an accepted methods to decrease portal venous pressure. • Surgical portosystemic shunts are divided into selective and nonselective. • Shunt thrombosis is a serious complication, resulting in shunt dysfunction. • Imaging is essential in the assessment of the shunt function and anatomy. - Abstract: Surgical portosystemic shunting, the formation of a vascular connection between the portal and systemic venous circulation, has been used as a treatment to reduce portal venous pressure. Although the use of portosystemic shunt surgery in the management of portal hypertension has declined during the past decade in favour of alternative therapies, and subsequently surgeons and radiologists became less familiar with the procedure, it remains a well-established treatment. Knowledge of different types of surgical portosystemic shunts, their pathophysiology and complications will help radiologists improve communication with surgeons and enhance their understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiology in the assessment and management of these shunts. Optimal assessment of the shunt is essential to determine its patency and allow timely intervention. Both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities complement each other in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts. Interventional radiology plays an important role in the management of complications, such as shunt thrombosis and stenosis. This article describes the various types of surgical portosystemic shunts, explains the anatomy and pathophysiology of these shunts, illustrates the pearls and pitfalls of different imaging modalities in the assessment of these shunts and demonstrates the role of radiologists in the interventional management of complications.

  1. Imaging Diagnosis of Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT is a broad term that includes Budd-Chiari syndrome and occlusion of veins that constitute the portal venous system. Due to the common risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of these clinically distinct disorders, concurrent involvement of two different regions is quite common. In acute and subacute SVT, the symptoms may overlap with a variety of other abdominal emergencies while in chronic SVT, the extent of portal hypertension and its attendant complications determine the clinical course. As a result, clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is frequently reliant on imaging. Tremendous improvements in vascular imaging in recent years have ensured that this once rare entity is being increasingly detected. Treatment of acute SVT requires immediate anticoagulation. Transcatheter thrombolysis or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used in the event of clinical deterioration. In cases with peritonitis, immediate laparotomy and bowel resection may be required for irreversible bowel ischemia. In chronic SVT, the underlying cause should be identified and treated. The imaging manifestations of the clinical syndromes resulting from SVT are comprehensively discussed here along with a brief review of the relevant clinical features and therapeutic approach.

  2. Predictive factors for improved ascites after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with refractory ascites%肝硬化合并顽固性腹水患者TIPS 术后腹水改善的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎洲; 李兴; 宋杰; 蒋天鹏; 吴晓萍; 周石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive factors for the improved response of ascites to the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.Methods Forty-seven consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent TIPS for the treatment of refractory ascites were studied retrospectively.The mean follow-up period was (61 5±566)days.Results 36 patients (77%)responded well to the TIPS after 4 weeks,and 40 (85%)responded to that after 8 weeks.Of the 1 1 patients without response after 4 weeks,four showed decreasing ascites after 8 weeks.Multivariate analysis showed that only the serum creatinine level before TIPS was an independent predictor for the early response.The cumulative survival rate of the patients with early response was significantly higher than that of the patients without response.The survival of patients with serum creatinine ≤1 68 μmol/L was better than that with the creatinine > 1 68 μmol/L.Conclusion Low serum creatinine lev-el in patients with refractory ascites is associated with the early response to TIPS,which shows a better survival.Patients with ser-um creatinine less than 1 68 μmol/L respond well to TIPS.%目的:探讨经颈静脉肝内门腔静脉分流术(TIPS)后腹水改善的效果和影响肝硬化顽固性腹水改善的相关因素。方法回顾性分析47例接受 TIPS 治疗肝硬化合并顽固性腹水患者的临床资料,平均随访时间为(615±566)d。结果36例患者(77%) TIPS 术后4周腹水开始缓解(早期有效),40例患者(85%)TIPS 术后8周有效,其中11例患者术后4周无效,4例患者在术后8周腹水改善。多变量分析提示 TIPS 术前血清肌酐水平是预测腹水缓解早期有效的独立预测因子。依据血清肌酐水平分组,血清肌酐不超过168μmol/L 组患者的生存率较血清肌酐>168μmol/L 组明显升高,TIPS 术后早期有效患者生存率较无效患者有明显提高。结论肝硬化合并顽固性

  3. Assessment of surgical portosystemic shunts and associated complications: The diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Faraj, Walid; Khalife, Mohammad; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Saade, Charbel; Hallal, Ali; Haydar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Surgical portosystemic shunting, the formation of a vascular connection between the portal and systemic venous circulation, has been used as a treatment to reduce portal venous pressure. Although the use of portosystemic shunt surgery in the management of portal hypertension has declined during the past decade in favour of alternative therapies, and subsequently surgeons and radiologists became less familiar with the procedure, it remains a well-established treatment. Knowledge of different types of surgical portosystemic shunts, their pathophysiology and complications will help radiologists improve communication with surgeons and enhance their understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiology in the assessment and management of these shunts. Optimal assessment of the shunt is essential to determine its patency and allow timely intervention. Both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities complement each other in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts. Interventional radiology plays an important role in the management of complications, such as shunt thrombosis and stenosis. This article describes the various types of surgical portosystemic shunts, explains the anatomy and pathophysiology of these shunts, illustrates the pearls and pitfalls of different imaging modalities in the assessment of these shunts and demonstrates the role of radiologists in the interventional management of complications.

  4. Application of digitized virtual anatomical techniques in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt and direct intrahepatic portacaval shunt%数字化虚拟解剖学技术在经颈静脉肝内门腔静脉分流术和直接性门腔分流术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑华; 周庭永; 张本斯; 吕发金; 许俊峰; 唐艳隆; 张秀君

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To validate feasibility of digitized virtual anatomical techniques applied in transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) and direct intrahepatic protacaval shunt (DIPS). Methods: Based on the smart tracking technology (Smart Prep), 64-MSCT scan of the upper abdomens of 40 individuals without liver diseases and 16 patients suffered from cirrhosis were performed. The data were analyzed using GE ADW4. 2 workstation. Results: In groups of normal and cirrhosis graded as Child-Pugh A and B, the angles between the vertical line and simulated puncture line of TIPSS were decreased, excluding those performed at 3 cm apart from the middle hepatic vein and 1 cm apart from the right hepatic vein.As to DIPS, the angles between the vertical line and simulated puncture line through the lower bisecting line were greater than those corresponding angles that performed through the upper bisecting line. Statistical difference was found in the angles between vertical line and the simulated puncture line from the point that 1 cm apart from the left branch of portal hepatic vein to the upper bisecting line in cases with liver diseases and patients suffered from cirrhosis graded as Child-Pugh A and B. Conclusion: Digitized virtual anatomic technology is an effective way to provide morphological data for TIPS and DIPS in vivo. The curvature of the puncture trocar should be adjusted in vitro according to the angles between the vertical line and simulated puncture line.%目的:利用影像数字化虚拟解剖学技术,经颈静脉肝内门腔静脉分流术(TIPSS)、直接性门腔静脉分流术(DIPS)模拟穿刺途径与水平垂线间角度进行测量,以期为临床TIPSS、DIPS术提供解剖学资料.方法:选取上腹部64-MSCT扫描正常组共40例,肝硬化组16例.用智能追踪技术启动扫描,并将所得数据在GE ADW4.2工作站进行处理.结果:正常组与肝硬化Child-Pugh A、B分级组TIPSS模拟穿刺途径与

  5. Intrahepatic ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur L. Wozniak, HBSc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic ovaries are a rare finding in the literature, with fewer than 50 published cases to date. This phenomenon has been found in the omentum, bladder, mesentery, and uterus; attached to the colon; inside the left labia majora; and in the kidney. Various etiologies have been proposed, including postsurgical or postinflammatory transplantation, malignant origins, and abnormal embryologic development. We report the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic (CT, and magnetic resonance (MR imaging of, what is to the best of our knowledge, the first case of an intrahepatic ectopic ovary.

  6. Transient Hemolytic Anemia after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt

    OpenAIRE

    Sagrario Garcia-Rebollo; Emilio González-Reimers; Francisco Santolaria-Fernández; Francisco Diaz-Romero; Fermin Rodriguez-Moreno; Antonio Martinez-Riera

    1996-01-01

    Management of variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension constitutes a challenging issue, particularly in child's C cirrhotic patients. Recently, transjugular placement of self-expanding metallic stents in the liver (TIPS), creating a shunt between the portal and hepatic branches has provided a safe and promising therapeutic approach in this clinical situation. We report here the case of a 66-year-old male cirrhotic patient who developed a moderately severe clinical picture of a Coomb...

  7. Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt associated with heterotaxy and polysplenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Feinstein, Jeffrey A. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford (United States); Cohen, Ronald A.; Patel, Hitendra [Children' s Hospital and Research Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Feingold, Brian; Kreutzer, Jacqueline [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chan, Fandics P. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Heterotaxy with polysplenia is associated with many cardiovascular anomalies including the occasional occurrence of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPS). Missing this anomaly can lead to inappropriate and ineffective therapy. To emphasize the importance and associated anatomy of CEPS in conjunction with heterotaxy with polysplenia. Review of three young children who presented with cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension without a cardiac etiology. They were known (1) or discovered (2) to have heterotaxy with polysplenia. There was absence of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos or hemiazygos continuation in all three cases. In spite of normal liver function, they were discovered to have large portosystemic shunts, splenorenal in location, along with diffuse peripheral pulmonary arterial dilatation suggestive of CEPS (Abernethy malformation) with hepatopulmonary or, more accurately, portopulmonary syndrome. All CEPS were ipsilateral to the spleens. Patency of the portal veins in these cases allowed for percutaneous shunt closure with resolution of cyanosis. CEPS is associated with heterotaxy with polysplenia and can be symptomatic because of pulmonary arteriovenous (AV) shunting. Portal and hepatic vein patency are critical for determining feasibility of CEPS closure. (orig.)

  8. 经颈静脉途径介入干预经颈静脉肝内门体静脉分流术分流后肝性脊髓病的临床疗效%Clinical effects of transjugular interventional stent-shunt therapy in hepatic myelopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪伟; 刘福全; 岳振东; 王磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of transjugular interventional therapy for patients with hepatic myelopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).Methods Sixteen patients with hepatic myelopathy afte TIPS were treated with interventional therapy again.Four patients who were treated with drugs through shunt previously had poor prognosis,then the remaining 12 patients treated with current limited shunt had better prognosis,which were analyzed in this study.Activities of daily living were assessed by Barthel index,limb muscle strength scores were assessed by Lovette scoring system.The changes of liver function and portal vein pressure were analyzed by paired t-test,while other data such as serum ammonia level,Barthel index,Lovette scores before and after transjugular interventional therapy were compared by analysis of variance with repeated measurements.Results All the patients had no complication after operations.The liver function and portal vein pressure of 12 patients had no significan change before and after operation.Blood ammonia value were (77.9 ± 17.9) mmol/L after TIPS,(77.9 ± 14.8),(73.4 ± 21.5),(59.5 ± 14.5),(52.0 ± 16.5) mmol/L 1,3,6,12 months after current limited shunt.Compared with that of preoperation(F =6.45,P <0.05),it decreased significantly at the 6th and 12th month.Limb muscle strength scores were 2.1 ± 0.7 before current limited shunt,2.3 ± 0.8,3.1 ± 1.0,3.2 ± 1.1,2.8 ± 0.9 1,3,6,12 months after the operation.Compared with preoperation (F =4.97,P < 0.05),muscle strength grading improved significantly at the 3rd,6th and 12th month.Activities of daily living Barthel index were 42.1 ± 10.5 before current limited shunt,47.1 ± 11.0,45.0 ± 8.8 3,6 months after the operation.Compared with preoperation (F =5.05,P < 0.05),activities of daily living had improvement.There were 3,6,2,1 cases of hepatic encephalopathy of Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ stage after TIPS.Three months after current limited shunt there were 7

  9. Ultrasonography of portosystemic shunting in dogs : Doppler studies before, during and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V.

    2004-01-01

    Portosystemic shunting occurs when anomalous veins allow the portal blood to enter the systemic veins directly without first flowing through the hepatic sinusoids. Portosystemic shunting can occur via acquired portosystemic collaterals or via congenital portosystemic shunts and may result in

  10. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi Francesca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presence of esophageal varices in order to reduce the number of endoscopy screening, we came back to determine whether there was a correlation between blood ammonia concentrations and the detection of portosystemic collateral veins, also evaluating splenomegaly, hypersplenism (thrombocytopenia and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods One hundred and fifty three consecutive patients with hepatic cirrhosis of various etiologies were recruited to participate in endoscopic and ultrasonography screening for the presence of portosystemic collaterals mostly esophageal varices, but also portal hypertensive gastropathy and large spontaneous shunts. Results Based on Child-Pugh classification, the median level of blood ammonia was 45 mcM/L in 64 patients belonging to class A, 66 mcM/L in 66 patients of class B and 108 mcM/L in 23 patients of class C respectively (p The grade of esophageal varices was concordant with venous ammonia levels (rho 0.43, p Conclusion Identifying cirrhotic patients with high blood ammonia concentrations could be clinically useful, as high levels would lead to suspicion of being in presence of collaterals, in clinical practice of esophageal varices, and pinpoint those patients requiring closer follow-up and endoscopic screening.

  11. Risk factors and countermeasures of shunt dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt%经颈静脉肝内门体分流术后分流道失功和肝性脑病发生的危险因素及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡炜; 诸葛宇征; 仇毓东; 张峰; 李振磊; 张明; 贺奇彬; 张建武

    2013-01-01

    生分流道失功的独立危险因素(RR=0.762,0.650,0.952,P>0.05).年龄及肝功能CTP分级是TIPS术后发生肝性脑病的独立危险因素(RR=2.641,2.510,P<0.05).脾切除手术史是TIPS术后短期内发生分流道失功的危险因素(RR=0.168,P<0.05).结论 肝功能CTP分级、CTP评分、TBil是TIPS术后发生分流道失功的危险因素,年龄及肝功能CTP分级是TIPS术后发生肝性脑病的独立危险因素.脾切除后患者TIPS术后抗凝治疗应得到充分重视.术前积极改善肝功能,强化术后3个月内肝性脑病的预防,脾切除患者术后充分抗凝,对减少TIPS术后并发症,提高患者生命质量有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the risk factors of shunt dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS),and explore the preventive strategies.Methods The clinical data of 116 patients with esophagus and gastric varices bleeding (EGVB) who were admitted to the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from August 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.All patients received TIPS,including 39 patients treated with bare stents,32 with coated stents and 45 with combined stents.Gender,age,causes of hepatic cirrhosis,Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification and scores,history of EGVB treatment,timing of operation,types of stents,location of puncture in the portal vein were recorded.Follow-up began from the day of TIPS.Patients received color Doppler ultrasonography examination of the shunt at post-TIPS day 5,month 1,3,6,and every 6 months thereafter.All the patients were followed up till March 2013.Risk factors influencing the incidence of shunt dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy were screened out using the COX regression model,and then related factors were processed with multivariate analysis.Results Shunt dysfunction was detected in 18 patients at post-TIPS day 5 to month 36.Of the 18 patients with shunt dysfunction,10 patients were treated

  12. Value of portal venous system radiological indices in predicting esophageal varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaduputi V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Gaduputi,1 Harish Patel,1 Sailaja Sakam,1 Srivani Neshangi,1 Rafeeq Ahmed,1 Michael Lombino,2 Sridhar Chilimuri11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center New York, NY, USAIntroduction: Portal hypertension results from increased resistance to portal blood flow and has the potential complications of variceal bleeding and ascites. The splenoportal veins increase in caliber with worsening portal hypertension, and partially decompress by opening a shunt with systemic circulation, ie, a varix. In the event of portosystemic shunting, there is a differential decompression across the portal vein and splenic vein (portal vein > splenic vein, with a resultant decrease in the ratio of portal vein diameter to that of splenic vein. Portal vein to splenic vein diameter ratio and gradient could be valuable tools in predicting the presence of portosystemic shunting.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with cirrhosis who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD for variceal screening and had a computerized tomogram (CT of the abdomen within 6 months of the index endoscopic study, between January 2009 and December 2013. Patients on nonselective beta blockers, patients with presinusoidal portal hypertension (portal vein thrombosis or extrinsic compression, and patients who had undergone portosystemic shunting procedures (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS] or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO were excluded from the study. Splenic and portal vein diameters were measured (in mm just proximal and distal to the splenomesenteric venous confluence, respectively.Results: A total of 164 patients were included in the study; of these, 60% (n=98 were male and 40% (n=66 were female. The mean age of the study population was 58.7 years. A total of 126 patients (77% had varices, while 38 patients (33% did not. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score was 5.9 for those

  13. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Catherine; Geenes, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common pregnancy-specific liver disease that typically presents in the third trimester. The clinical features are maternal pruritus in the absence of a rash and deranged liver function tests, including raised serum bile acids. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm delivery, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, and stillbirth. It is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has a lasting influence on both maternal and fetal health. We review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of this intriguing condition.

  14. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geenes, Victoria; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus in the third trimester, raised serum bile acids and increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes...

  15. Observation of the clinical effects of ornithine aspartate and lactulose on the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy after modified transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt treatment%门冬氨酸鸟氨酸联合乳果糖对改良经皮经肝穿刺改良式肝内门体静脉分流术后肝性脑病预防和治疗效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡越飞; 马燕华; 王有枝; 钟胜; 谭小明; 梁俊生

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察门冬氨酸鸟氨酸(OA)联合乳果糖对预防和治疗改良经皮经肝穿刺改良式肝内门体静脉分流术(TiPS)后肝性脑病的临床疗效.方法 选择因肝硬化门静脉高压行改良TIPS治疗的56例患者,术后均给予静脉滴注OA及口服乳果糖,观察术后肝性脑病的发生及血氨变化情况.对发生肝性脑病的患者,静脉滴注治疗剂量的OA及口服乳果糖,观察OA联合乳果糖治疗肝性脑病的效果及治疗前后血氨的变化.结果 56例患者在改良TIPS术后预防性使用OA及乳果糖情况下,均未见肝性脑病发生.停用OA及乳果糖后,有5例发生肝性脑病,发病率为8.93%(5/56).改良TIPS术后患者的血氨较术前升高[(88.2±23.0)μmol/L比(43.1±19.2)μmol/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).5例肝性脑病患者经OA联合乳果糖治疗(联合用药平均治疗时间7d)后,均治愈,5例患者应用OA联合乳果糖治疗后血氨较治疗前显著降低[(69.1±14.1)μmol/L比(139.2±15.8)μmol/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 OA联合乳果糖可以预防和治疗改良TIPS后肝性脑病,其机制与降低血氨有关.%Objective To observe the clinical effects of ornithine aspartate (OA) and lactulose on the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy for patients with portal hypertension after modified transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).Methods Fifty-six patients with portal hypertension were treated by modified TIPS,OA and lactulose after the operation were given,the incidence of postoperative hepatic encephalopathy and the changes of blood ammonia were observed.Patients with hepatic encephalopathy after modified TIPS accepted therapeutic dosage of OA and lactulose,and the clinical effects of combined OA and lactulose on treatment of the hepatic encephalopathy after modified TIPS and changs of blood ammonia were evaluated as well.Results Prophylactic use of combined OA and lactulose after modified TIPS,there was no

  16. Ultrasonography of portosystemic shunting in dogs : Doppler studies before, during and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V.

    2004-01-01

    Portosystemic shunting occurs when anomalous veins allow the portal blood to enter the systemic veins directly without first flowing through the hepatic sinusoids. Portosystemic shunting can occur via acquired portosystemic collaterals or via congenital portosystemic shunts and may result in clinica

  17. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19­60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22-41%, and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  18. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuers Ulrich

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by (i pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, (ii elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and (iii spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4–1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America, while in Chile and Bolivia as well as Scandinavia and the Baltic states roughly 5–15% and 1–2%, respectively, of pregnancies are associated with ICP. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19–60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22–41%, and fetal loss (0.4–4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels > 40 μmol/L. The hydrophilic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (10–20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  19. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria Geenes; Catherine Williamson

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus in the third trimester, raised serum bile acids and increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes. The etiology of ICP is complex and not fully understood, but it is likely to result from the cholestatic effects of reproductive hormones and their metabolites in genetically susceptible women. Equally unclear are the mechanisms by which the fetal complications occur. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, etiology and management of ICP.

  20. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buettner S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Buettner, Jeroen LA van Vugt, Jan NM IJzermans, Bas Groot Koerkamp Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC is the second most common malignancy arising from the liver. ICC makes up about 10% of all cholangiocarcinomas. It arises from the peripheral bile ducts within the liver parenchyma, proximal to the secondary biliary radicals. Histologically, the majority of ICCs are adenocarcinomas. Only a minority of patients (15% present with resectable disease, with a median survival of less than 3 years. Multidisciplinary management of ICC is complicated by large differences in disease course for individual patients both across and within tumor stages. Risk models and nomograms have been developed to more accurately predict survival of individual patients based on clinical parameters. Predictive risk factors are necessary to improve patient selection for systemic treatments. Molecular differences between tumors, such as in the epidermal growth factor receptor status, are promising, but their clinical applicability should be validated. For patients with locally advanced disease, several treatment strategies are being evaluated. Both hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with floxuridine and yttrium-90 embolization aim to downstage locally advanced ICC. Selected patients have resectable disease after downstaging, and other patients might benefit because of postponing widespread dissemination and biliary obstruction. Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, diagnosis, treatment, developments 

  1. Liver CT with portal-venous contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mildenberger, P.; Schweden, F.; Eckmann, A.; Nagel, K.; Knuth, A.; Boerner, N.; Thelen, M.; Junginger, T.

    1987-12-01

    Contrast administration through the superior mesenteric or splenic arteries provided additional information in 22 out of 31 patients, when compared with intravenous contrast bolus for CT of the liver. In 11 patients, the demonstration of a tumour lead to a change in treatment. False positive findings occurred in four of the 31 patients. In 2 patients intrahepatic lesions were overlooked, but were found during angiography carried out at the same examination. The diagnosis of intrahepatic space-occupying lesions is discussed as well as the CT appearances of portal-venous liver perfusion.

  2. Hybrid technique coil embolisation for intrahepatic arterioportal fistula in a cat: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Uemura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-month-old, female, mixed breed, 4.0 kg cat was referred with a 6 month history of decreased appetite, loss of vigour and intermittent vomiting. Physical examination revealed no cyanosis or wasting, and no audible heart murmur was auscultated. Blood profile revealed mild anaemia and mildly elevated postprandial serum ammonia (109 µg/dl. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed dilation of an intrahepatic portal vein branch and an intrahepatic aneurysm, with splenomegaly and ascites. Hepatic arteriovenous fistula/hepatic artery–portal vein fistula with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts was strongly suspected. Medical control was achieved using antibiotics, liver-protecting agents, a low-protein diet and blood transfusions. However, because medical treatment proved ineffective, coil embolisation was performed on day 11, using a hybrid approach via the mesenteric vein. Subsequent follow-up showed good appetite, with no signs of diarrhoea or ascites. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the mosaic pattern around the site of coil placement in the portal vein branch had improved and pulsatility had disappeared. Relevance and novel information Intrahepatic arterioportal fistula involves a circulatory shunt between the hepatic artery and the hepatic or portal vein within the liver, and may be congenital or acquired. Both forms have been reported in humans, but most cases in cats have been congenital. Few reports have described treatment methods or prognosis in cats. We report here that coil embolisation using a hybrid approach is a procedure offering easy, effective treatment by blocking hepatofugal blood flow.

  3. Neumatosis intestinal asociada a neumatosis portal intrahepática por oclusión intestinal: presentación de un caso Pneumatosis intestinalis and intrahepatic portal venous gas associated with small bowel occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas E Granero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La neumatosis intestinal es una entidad muy infrecuente asociada a varias patologías, como el infarto intestino-mesentérico, la enterocolitis necrotizante y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Se caracteriza por la presencia de gas en la subserosa o submucosa a través del tracto gastrointestinal. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 63 años de edad que consultó por dolor en abdomen superior, vómitos y fiebre elevada (39º nueve días después de una gastrectomía total por cáncer. La radiografía directa de abdomen constató distensión intestinal y la tomografía computada (TC demostró distensión intestinal, edema mesentérico, neumatosis intestinal a través del intestino delgado y neumatosis portal, preferentemente en el lóbulo hepático izquierdo. Se realizó una laparotomía de urgencia que reveló únicamente distensión intestinal por adherencias, sin evidenciar necrosis intestinal. El paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente, falleciendo posteriormente. Reportamos un nuevo caso y revisamos la literatura de la neumatosis intestinal asociada con neumatosis portal.The pneumatosis intestinalis is a very infrequent condition associated with a number of diseases, such as mesenteric infarction, necrotizing enterocolitis, and obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by the presence of subserosal or submucosal gas cyst throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A 63- year- old man complained of upper abdominal pain, vomiting and high fever (39º C on the nine day after total gastrectomy for cancer. Abdominal X-ray revealed intestinal distension. The abdominal Computed Tomography (CT showed intestinal dilatation, mesenteric oedema, diffuse pneumatosis throughout the small intestine and gas in the portal venous system predominantly in the left hepatic lobe. It was performed emergency activity that revealed intestinal distension secondary to adhesion without intestinal necrosis. The patient had a downhill course

  4. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-03-14

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management.

  5. Procedure-related complications of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Han; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Gwon; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Yong Joo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    The purpose who to evaluate the procedure-related complications of the TIPS and its clinical significance. The materials consisted of 52 patients who had 57 TIPS procedures for the management of variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension. To detect the occurrence of complications during transhepatic needle puncture (from hepatic vein to the portal vein), contrast material was injected with the with drawl of the puncture needle. Procedure-related complications occurred in 28 patients (54%) among 52 patients. The complications were biliary tree puncture (15 cases), transperitoneal puncture (14 cases), stent malposition (3 cases), stent migration (1 case), hepatic arteries puncture (1 case), splenic vein perforation (1 case), and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (1 case). Three patients had acute stent thrombosis with rebleeding immediately after the procedure. The procedure was repeated in two patients. One patient was expired due to rebleeding. The procedure related complications were clinically insignificant in most instances, except when stent thrombosis or proxysmal ventricular tachycardia was developed.

  6. Intrahepatic cholestasis without jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Namdar; Andreas Raffel; Stefan Andreas Topp; Jan Schulte am Esch; Günther Fürst; Wolfram Trudo Knoefel; Claus Ferdinand Eisenberger

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC), the most common biliary tract malignancy, is frequently seen in advanced unresectable stages and is typically localized extrahepatically. Early diagnosis is unusual because of nonspeciifc symptoms. Painless jaundice is usually the ifrst sign of tumor. METHOD: We present a patient with a CC (Klatskin tumor) with a complete biliary drainage by an aberrant bile duct without jaundice. RESULTS: A 67-year-old woman presented with persisting elevation of liver parameters. Diagnostic tests showed a Klatskin tumor typeⅡ. A curative right hepatic trisegmentectomy was performed after liver volume augmentation by preoperative vein embolization. CONCLUSIONS: A direct drainage of the right posterior bile duct into the common bile duct as an aberrant hepatic duct is a rare variation and is present in less than 5% of the population. In case of persistently perturbed liver function tests, an aberrant bile duct can cover up severe intrahepatic cholestasis and even obscure the diagnosis of a Klatskin tumor. Up to now it has not been described in the literature.

  7. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  8. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  9. Familial cholestasis: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; van Mil, Saskia W C; Stapelbroek, Janneke M; Klomp, Leo W J; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2010-10-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 1, 2 and 3 are due to mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4, respectively. Each of these genes encodes a hepatocanalicular transporter, which is essential for the proper formation of bile. Mutations in ABCB4 can result in progressive cholestatic disease, while mutations in ATP8B1 and ABCB11 can result both in episodic cholestasis, referred to as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) type 1 and 2, as well as in progressive cholestatic disease. This suggests a clinical continuum and these diseases are therefore preferably referred to as ATP8B1 deficiency and ABCB11 deficiency. Similarly PFIC type 3 is designated as ABCB4 deficiency. Heterozygous mutations in each of these transporters can also be associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical features and current as well as future therapeutic options for progressive familial- and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis as well as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Portosystemic pressure reduction achieved with TIPPS and impact of portosystemic collaterals for the prediction of the portosystemic-pressure gradient in cirrhotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grözinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Wiesinger, Benjamin; Schmehl, Jörg; Kramer, Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Mehra, Tarun [Department of Dermatology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Grosse, Ulrich; König, Claudius [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The portosystemic pressure gradient is an important factor defining prognosis in hepatic disease. However, noninvasive prediction of the gradient and the possible reduction by establishment of a TIPSS is challenging. A cohort of patients receiving TIPSS was evaluated with regard to imaging features of collaterals in cross-sectional imaging and the achievable reduction of the pressure gradient by establishment of a TIPSS. Methods: In this study 70 consecutive patients with cirrhotic liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received either CT or MR imaging before invasive pressure measurement during TIPSS procedure. Images were evaluated with regard to esophageal and fundus varices, splenorenal collaterals, short gastric vein and paraumbilical vein. Results were correlated with Child stage, portosystemic pressure gradient and post-TIPSS reduction of the pressure gradient. Results: In 55 of the 70 patients TIPSS reduced the pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg. The pre-interventional pressure and the pressure reduction were not significantly different between Child stages. Imaging features of varices and portosystemic collaterals did not show significant differences. The only parameter with a significant predictive value for the reduction of the pressure gradient was the pre-TIPSS pressure gradient (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Conclusions: TIPSS allows a reliable reduction of the pressure gradient even at high pre-interventional pressure levels and a high collateral presence. In patients receiving TIPSS the presence and the characteristics of the collateral vessels seem to be too variable to draw reliable conclusions concerning the portosystemic pressure gradient.

  11. Sarcomatoid Change in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Zhang, Da; Abdulkarim, Bashar;

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy...

  12. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Perysinakis

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy.

  13. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baussan Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP. Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3, impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation

  14. Endovascular interventions for traumatic portal venous hemorrhage complicated by portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh; Kumar; Sundarakumar; Crysela; Mirta; Smith; Jorge; Enrique; Lopera; Matthew; Kogut; Rajeev; Suri

    2013-01-01

    Life-threatening hemorrhage rarely occurs from the portal vein following blunt hepatic trauma.Traditionally,severe portal bleeding in this setting has been controlled by surgical techniques such as packing,ligation,and venorrhaphy.The presence of portal hypertension could potentially increase the amount of hemorrhage in the setting of blunt portal vein trauma making it more difficult to control.This case series describes the use of indirect carbon dioxide portography to identify portal hemorrhage.Furthermore,these cases illustrate attempted endovascular treatment utilizing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in one scenario and transmesocaval shunt coiling of a jejunal varix in the other.

  15. Splenosis simulating an intrahepatic mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁明; 徐宏伟

    2004-01-01

    Splenosis is the autotransplantation of splenic tissue that usually follows traumatic rupture of the spleen. Splenic implants may be seeded within or beyond the peritoneal cavity.1 The most frequent locations of splenosis in the descending order are the serosal surface of the small intestine, the greater omentum, parietal peritoneum, surface of the large intestine, mesentery, undersurface of the diaphragm and the thorax.1,2 However, intrahepatic splenosis is very rare. We recently encountered a patient in whom results of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) revealed an intrahepatic mass that consisted of ectopic splenic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the fifth report of ectopic splenic tissue in the liver in the English-language literature. We present the imaging findings of the splenic implants in the liver and discuss the diagnosis and its practical significance.

  16. SARCOMATOID CHANGE IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Wewer Albrechtsen; Da Zhang; A. Bashar Abdulkarim; Damjanov Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy. The proper diagnosis of the tumor was suggested by finding the expression of cytokeratin 7 in the sarcomatous spindle cells. The surgically resected tumor comprised a spindle cell sarcomatous and a...

  17. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  18. Sarcomatoid change in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrechtsen Wewer Nicolai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy. The proper diagnosis of the tumor was suggested by finding the expression of cytokeratin 7 in the sarcomatous spindle cells. The surgically resected tumor comprised a spindle cell sarcomatous and an adenocarcinomatous component accounting for approximately 30% and 70% of the total tumor mass respectively

  19. Liver size, bodyweight, and tolerance to acute complete occlusion of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Ivan P; Barr, Frances J; Hotston Moore, Alasdair; Knowles, Toby G; Holt, Peter E

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between preoperative liver size, bodyweight, and tolerance to shunt occlusion in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt(s) (CPSS). Longitudinal cohort study. Dogs with CPSS (n=35). Ultrasonography was used to measure preoperative maximum transverse dimension of the liver (TS) of each dog. Intraoperative portal pressures were measured, before and after CPSS occlusion, via a jejunal vein catheter. Tolerance to shunt occlusion was judged on gross visceral observations, and on changes in portal pressure, central venous and mean arterial pressures. TS was significantly related to bodyweight (P7 were more likely to tolerate CPSS occlusion than dogs with a TS/bodyweight ratio of portal pressure rise after shunt occlusion, based on liver dimensions and bodyweight (R=0.668). Intestinal oxygenation did not correlate significantly with tolerance to CPSS occlusion (P=.29). In dogs with CPSS, liver size (relative to bodyweight) is significantly greater (P=.025) in dogs that are tolerant of full ligation than intolerant of occlusion. Preoperative measurement of bodyweight and liver size help indicate the likelihood of tolerance to acute complete occlusion of CPSS in dogs.

  20. Persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus with Scimitar syndrome: description of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M Santiago; Aldoss, Osamah; Ng, Benton

    2015-06-01

    Persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus is an anomaly of the systemic venous return characterised by postnatal persistence of the foetal intrahepatic venous drainage. Scimitar syndrome is a condition that consists of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return of the right pulmonary venous drainage into the systemic veins, associated with pulmonary artery hypoplasia with the underdeveloped right lung, pulmonary sequestration, and cardiac malposition. Both conditions are rare and together have been rarely described in the literature. We report the first case of this combination of lesions imaged by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with a three-dimensional reconstruction and reviewed the literature to characterise this uncommon combination.

  1. Staged Transcatheter Treatment of Portal Hypoplasia and Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan, E-mail: elchananb@bezeqint.net; Dagan, Tamir [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel); Atar, Eli; Schwartz, Michael [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Radiology (Israel); Kachko, Ludmila [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Anesthesiology (Israel); Superina, Riccardo; Amir, Gabriel [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel); Shapiro, Rivka [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Gastroenterology (Israel); Birk, Einat [Schneider Children' s Medical Center Israel, Section of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) with portal venous hypoplasia cause hyperammonemia. Acute shunt closure results in portal hypertension. A transcatheter method of staged shunt reduction to afford growth of portal vessels followed by shunt closure is reported. Methods: Pressure measurements and angiography in the CPSS or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during temporary occlusion of the shunt were performed. If vessels were diminutive and the pressure was above 18 mmHg, a staged approach was performed, which included implantation of a tailored reducing stent to reduce shunt diameter by {approx}50 %. Recatheterization was performed approximately 3 months later. If the portal pressure was below 18 mmHg and vessels had developed, the shunt was closed with a device. Results: Six patients (5 boys, 1 girl) with a median age of 3.3 (range 0.5-13) years had CPSS portal venous hypoplasia and hyperammonemia. Five patients underwent staged closure. One patient tolerated acute closure. One patient required surgical shunt banding because a reducing stent could not be positioned. At median follow-up of 3.8 (range 2.2-8.4) years, a total of 21 procedures (20 transcatheter, 1 surgical) were performed. In all patients, the shunt was closed with a significant reduction in portal pressure (27.7 {+-} 11.3 to 10.8 {+-} 1.8 mmHg; p = 0.016), significant growth of the portal vessels (0.8 {+-} 0.5 to 4.0 {+-} 2.4 mm; p = 0.037), and normalization of ammonia levels (202.1 {+-} 53.6 to 65.7 {+-} 9.6 {mu}mol/L; p = 0.002) with no complications. Conclusion: Staged CPSS closure is effective in causing portal vessel growth and treating hyperammonemia.

  2. Clinical grading of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pradhan, Meena; Shao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the pregnancy induced liver disorder causing intense itching of palm, sole or even whole body especially in the evening at late second and third trimester...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Close All Description Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is characterized by episodes of liver dysfunction called ... a lack of appetite. A common feature of BRIC is the reduced absorption of fat in the ...

  4. Molecular profiling of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Douglas V N P; Zhang, Shanshan; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most frequent primary tumor of the liver and a highly lethal disease. Therapeutic options for advanced iCCA are limited and ineffective due to the largely incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this deadly tumor....... Areas covered: The present review article outlines the main studies and resulting discoveries on the molecular profiling of iCCA, with a special emphasis on the different techniques used for this purpose, the diagnostic and prognostic markers identified, as well as the genes and pathways that could...... be potentially targeted with innovative therapies. Expert commentary: Molecular profiling has led to the identification of distinct iCCA subtypes, characterized by peculiar genetic alterations and transcriptomic features. Targeted therapies against some of the identified genes are ongoing and hold great promise...

  5. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  6. Multiple intrahepatic pseudocysts in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Casado; Luis Sabater; Julio Calvete; Empar Mayordomo; Luis Aparisi; Juan Sastre; Salvador Lledo

    2007-01-01

    Liver pseudocysts are a very rare complication in acute pancreatitis with only a few cases previously described. The lack of experience and literature on this condition leads to difficulties in the differential diagnosis and management. We report herein a case of acute pancreatitis who developed multiple intrahepatic pseudocysts. After complete imaging evaluation, the diagnosis was still unclear and the patient was operated on. The presence of liver lesions in patients with acute pancreatitis should raise the possibility of intrahepatic pseudocysts.

  7. Spleno-adrenal shunt: a novel alternative for portosystemic decompression in children with portal vein cavernous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Song; Chang, Shirong; Chu, Jun; Xu, Min; Yan, Zhilong; Liu, Donald C; Chen, Qimin

    2012-12-01

    Children with portal vein cavernous transformation (PVCT) can develop life-threatening variceal hemorrhage from progressive portal hypertension. While spleno-renal shunt ± splenectomy is the most common portosystemic decompression surgery performed in children, we have adopted a modified spleno-adrenal (SA) shunt for complicated PVCT. We describe our 10 year experience focusing on technique evolution and treatment efficacy. Between 2001 and 2011, 15 children (9 girls and 6 boys, ages 3-11 years, median: 6 years) with PVCT, portal hypertension, and hypersplenism were treated with SA shunt with splenectomy in Shanghai Children's Medical Center. All children in the study had endoscopy proven active esophageal variceal bleeding requiring multiple transfusions (mean: 4.2 units) with failed sclerotherapy (mean: 2.6 times). Greater omental vein pressure (GVP) approximating portal venous pressure was measured pre- and post-SA shunt. Pre- and post-operative ammonia levels were obtained. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean: 4.2 ± 2 years). Intra-operative adrenal vein diameter and length ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 cm and 2 to 3 cm, respectively. Intra-operative GVPs pre-and post-SA shunt were (30 ± 11) and (22 ± 7) mmHg, respectively (pappropriate neurodevelopment (Bayley's assessment). Barium swallow and/or upper endoscopy showed interval resolution of esophageal varices in all children, and vascular ultrasound showed patent shunt anastomosis without stricture in 14 (93%). The left adrenal vein is a viable conduit for effective selective portosystemic decompression. Similar to the more traditional spleno-renal shunt, SA appears also to have the advantage of preventing hepatic encephalopathy preserving neurodevelopment, although the rise in post-operative ammonia levels was unexpected. Longer follow-up is needed to look for late signs of encephalopathy assessing neurodevelopment long term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.

  9. Pruritus and dermographism due to intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Beer, W; Davies, R

    1978-04-01

    A case report of intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy presenting with chronic severe pruritus is described. This presentation is compared with similar cases attending this unit. Intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy and the pathogenesis of puritus associated with cholestasis are briefly discussed.

  10. Custom-made covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in an infant with trisomy 22 and biliary atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlapoutaki, Chrysanthi Emmanouil; Franchi-Abella, Stephanie; Pariente, Daniele [Bicetre Hospital University Paris XI, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Habes, Dalila [Bicetre Hospital University Paris XI, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Pediatric Hepatology and National Reference Center for Biliary Atresia, Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    We report an 8-month-old girl with portal hypertension secondary to biliary atresia. The decision to treat with TIPS was made at the age of 8 months due to recurrent variceal bleeding. The procedure was carried out with a 6-mm bare stent due to her small size. Radiological follow-up with Doppler US showed gradual stenosis and finally occlusion of the stent 80 days after implantation. Revision was performed with placement of an additional 6-mm expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) stent-graft that had remained patent for 9 months, proving that in small children with a portal vein diameter less than 8 mm, the combination of a bare stent and stent-graft can provide excellent results. (orig.)

  11. The relationship between the internal oxidation-reduction system and fetal distress on pregnant patients with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Wang, C-H; Ding, R-B; Chen, J-G; Che, Y-H; Deng, Y-X

    2015-10-01

    To discuss the relationship between the internal oxidation-reduction system and fetal distress in pregnant patients with intrahepatic cholestasis in order to provide a new basis for clinical treatment and research. From March 2012 to March 2015, eighty patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) were selected and divided into two groups: the distressed group (n = 31) and non-distressed group (n = 49). We compared the two groups for differences in MDA, SOD, NO level, GSH level, venous blood and total bile acid level. The relevance of the oxidation-reduction system indicators and the venous blood and total bile acid levels, as well as the differences in the delivery outcome and fetal distress, were compared between the two groups. The serum MDA level of the distressed group was higher than the non-distressed group while the SOD, NO, and GSH levels were lower than the non-distressed group. All differences were statistically significant (p intrahepatic cholestasis, which are MDA, SOD, NO and GSH levels, may contribute to the occurrence of fetal distress.

  12. Unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestatic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elias E Mazokopakis; John A Papadakis; Diamantis P Kofteridis

    2007-01-01

    We report five cases with unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestasis,including consumption of Teucrium polium (family Lamiaceae) in the form of tea,Stauffer's syndrome,treatment with tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer,infection with Coxiella Burnetii (acute Q fever),and infection with Brucella melitensis (acute brucellosis).

  13. The role of interleukin-17 in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ayse; Biberoglu, Ebru; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Dikmen, Asiye Ugras; Koca, Cemile; Erdinc, Seval; Uygur, Dilek; Caglar, Turhan; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2016-03-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common pregnancy-specific liver disease, is characterized by pruritus, abnormal liver function and elevated serum bile acid levels. The main cause of ICP has not yet been identified. We aimed to provide a new perspective to the pathogenesis of by investigating the possible association of circulating interleukin-17 (IL-17) that is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine levels with ICP. In this controlled cross-sectional study, maternal venous blood samples were obtained from 33 consecutive pregnant women with ICP (15 with mild and 18 with severe forms of the disease) and 25 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies (as the control group) and IL-17 levels were compared among the groups. Although serum IL-17 levels were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p = 0.022), there were no significant differences between the mild and severe ICP groups or between the control and mild ICP groups. Explaining the mechanisms of hepatocyte injury might contribute to the existing therapeutic strategies for treating cholestatic diseases. Changes in IL-17 levels may shed light on the pathogenesis of ICP.

  14. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy for salvage of TIPSS via successful -clearance of occlusive porto-splenic venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavare, A N; Wigham, A J; Goode, A

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPSS) is increasingly used to treat chronic portal vein thrombosis. However shunt thrombosis is a recognised early complication, particularly in those with thrombophilia. We outline a case of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension secondary to chronic portal vein occlusion where TIPSS was successfully performed but rapidly complicated by shunt thrombosis with extension into the portal and splenic veins. Mechanical thrombectomy and low dose systemic pharmacological thrombolysis were of limited benefit. Combined pharmacomechanical thrombectomy with the Trellis system restored -patency of the TIPSS, portal and splenic veins, with resultant good flow into the TIPSS. The patient remains well three months post-procedure. We describe the first case where the Trellis system has been successfully used to clear occlusive porto-splenic thrombus and restore flow through a blocked TIPSS.

  15. Colectomy for porto-systemic encephalopathy: is it still topical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Ennaifer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common long term complication of porto-systemic shunt. We report herein the case of a 59-year-old man with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis treated successfully 9 years earlier with distal splenorenal shunt for uncontrolled variceal bleeding. In the last year, he developed a severe and persistent hepatic encephalopathy secondary to the shunt, which was resistant to medical therapy. As liver transplantation was not available and obliteration of the shunt was hazardous, we performed subtotal colectomy in order to reduce ammonia production. This therapeutic option proved successful, as the grade of encephalopathy decreased and the patient improved. Our experience indicates that colonic exclusion should be considered as an option in the management of HE refractory to medical treatment in highly selected patients when liver transplantation is not available or even as a bridge given the long waiting time on lists.

  16. Portal-venous gas unrelated to mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Ros, Pablo R. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Glickman, Jonathan N. [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report on 8 patients with all different non-ischemic etiologies for portal-venous gas and to discuss this rare entity and its potentially misleading CT findings in context with a review of the literature. The CT examinations of eight patients who presented with intrahepatic portal-venous gas, unrelated to bowel ischemia or infarction, were reviewed and compared with their medical records with special emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical impact of portal-venous gas caused by non-ischemic conditions. The etiologies for portal-venous gas included: abdominal trauma (n=1); large gastric cancer (n=1); prior gastroscopic biopsy (n=1); prior hemicolectomy (n=1); graft-vs-host reaction (n=1); large paracolic abscess (n=1); mesenteric recurrence of ovarian cancer superinfected with clostridium septicum (n=1); and sepsis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1). The clinical outcome of all patients was determined by their underlying disease and not negatively influenced by the presence of portal-venous gas. Although the presence of portal-venous gas usually raises the suspicion of bowel ischemia and/or intestinal necrosis, this CT finding may be related to a variety of non-ischemic etiologies and pathogeneses as well. The knowledge about these conditions may help to avoid misinterpretation of CT findings, inappropriate clinical uncertainty and unnecessary surgery in certain cases. (orig.)

  17. Adjuvant therapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the debate continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andrew X; Knox, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of the Case A 37-year-old woman presented at 35 weeks of gestation with her third child with failure to adequately gain weight and was noted by her obstetrician to have delay in the growth of her baby. Ultrasound of the abdomen incidentally revealed the presence of a liver lesion. After additional evaluation, she ultimately delivered her daughter at 36 weeks uneventfully. She subsequently underwent additional evaluation. Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 5-cm solitary solid mass in segment 4A of the liver, concerning for malignancy. Serum α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen (CA)19-9, CA15-3, and CA125 were all normal. Liver biopsy was positive for adenocarcinoma. The tumor cells demonstrated a phenotype suggesting a possible breast primary, although the immunohistochemistry did not support that diagnosis and the tumor was negative for mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) (Table 1). The tumor was also CDX2 and cardiotrophin-1 negative, but cytokeratin (CK) 19 positive. Her endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, breast mammogram, and breast MRI were completely normal. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed a fluorodeoxyglucose-avid 5.8-cm × 6.0-cm hypoattenuating lesion with peripheral enhancement involving segment 4 and segment 8 at the dome. In addition, central necrosis within the lesion was noted. The left main portal vein was mildly attenuated by the mass. She eventually underwent a left hepatectomy en bloc with caudate resection, portal lymphadenectomy, cholecystectomy, and omental pedicle flap. On exploration of the abdomen, no additional disease was noted. The final pathology revealed a 9.4-cm moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Venous invasion was present. Perineural invasion was absent. The margins were negative. Thirteen

  18. The C57BL/6J mouse exhibits sporadic congenital portosystemic shunts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cudalbu

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice are the most widely used strain of laboratory mice. Using in vivo proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1H MRS, we have repeatedly observed an abnormal neurochemical profile in the brains of both wild-type and genetically modified mice derived from the C57BL/6J strain, consisting of a several fold increase in cerebral glutamine and two fold decrease in myo-inositol. This strikingly abnormal neurochemical "phenotype" resembles that observed in chronic liver disease or portosystemic shunting and appeared to be independent of transgene, origin or chow and was not associated with liver failure. As many as 25% of animals displayed the abnormal neurochemical profile, questioning the reliability of this model for neurobiology. We conducted an independent study to determine if this neurochemical profile was associated with portosystemic shunting. Our results showed that 100% of the mice with high brain glutamine displayed portosystemic shunting by concomitant portal angiography while all mice with normal brain glutamine did not. Since portosystemic shunting is known to cause alterations in gene expression in many organs including the brain, we conclude that portosystemic shunting may be the most significant problem associated with C57BL/6J inbreeding both for its effect on the central nervous system and for its systemic repercussions.

  19. Autophagy in intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jing Li; Hezel, Aram F.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a primary cancer of the liver that shares histological features with the hepatic bile ducts from which it is thought to arise. The incidence of this disease is increasing, possibly related to increased inflammatory liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis (commonly called “fatty liver”), induced by obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic derangements. Its prognosis is generally poor with early metastasis and presently there are limit...

  20. Intrahepatic chemoembolization in unresectable pediatric liver malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcement, C.M.; Towbin, R.B.; Meza, M.P.; Kaye, R.D.; Carr, B.I. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gerber, D.A.; Mazariegos, G.V.; Reyes, J. [Department of Transplant Surgery, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of a new miltidisciplinary approach using neoadjuvant intrahepatic chemoembolization (IHCE) and liver transplant (OLTx) in patients with unresectable hepatic tumors who have failed systemic chemotherapy. Materials and methods. From November 1989 to April 1998, 14 children (2-15 years old) were treated with 50 courses of intra-arterial chemotherapy. Baseline and post-treatment contrast-enhanced CT and alpha-fetoprotein levels were performed. Seven had hepatoblastoma, and 7 had hepatocellular carcinoma (1 fibrolamellar variant). All patients had subselective hepatic angiography and infusion of cisplatin and/or adriamycin (36 courses were followed by gelfoam embolization). The procedure was repeated every 3-4 weeks based on hepatic function and patency of the hepatic artery. Results. Six of 14 children received orthotopic liver transplants (31 courses of IHC). Pretransplant, 3 of 6 showed a significant decrease in alpha-fetoprotein, while only 1 demonstrated a significant further reduction in tumor size. Three of 6 patients are disease free at this time. Three of 6 patients died of metastatic tumor 6, 38, and 58 months, respectively post-transplant. One of 14 is currently undergoing treatment, has demonstrated a positive response, and is awaiting OLTx. Three of 14 withdrew from the program and died. Four of 14 patients developed an increase in tumor size, developed metastatic disease, and were not transplant candidates. Two hepatic arteries thrombosed, and one child had a small sealed-off gastric ulcer as complications of intrahepatic chemoembolization. Conclusion. The results of intrahepatic chemoembolization are promising and suggest that some children who do not respond to systemic therapy can be eventually cured by a combination of intrahepatic chemoembolization orthotopic liver transplant. Alpha-fetoprotein and cross-sectional imaging appear to be complementary in evaluating tumor response. IHCE does not appear to convert

  1. Heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Glaser; Heather Francis; Sharon DeMorrow; Gene LeSage; Giammarco Fava; Marco Marzioni; Julie Venter; Gianfranco Alpini

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the recent findings related to the morphological heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium and the heterogeneous pathophysiological responses of different sized bile ducts to liver gastrointestinal hormones and peptides and liver injury/toxins with changes in apoptotic, proliferative and secretory activities. The knowledge of biliary function is rapidly increasing because of the recognition that biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) are the targets of human cholangiopathies, which are characterized by proliferation/damage of bile ducts within a small range of sizes. The unique anatomy, morphology, innervation and vascularization of the biliary epithelium are consistent with function of cholangiocytes within different regions of the biliary tree. The in vivo models [e.g., bile duct ligation (BDL), partial hepatectomy, feeding of bile acids,carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)] and the in vivo experimental tools [e.g., freshly isolated small and large cholangiocytes or intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDU) and primary cultures of small and large murine cholangiocytes] have allowed us to demonstrate the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium.These models demonstrated the differential secretory activities and the heterogeneous apoptotic and proliferative responses of different sized ducts. Similar to animal models of cholangiocyte proliferation/injury restricted to specific sized ducts, in human liver diseases bile duct damage predominates specific sized bile ducts.Future studies related to the functional heterogeneity of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium may disclose new pathophysiological treatments for patients with cholangiopathies.

  2. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts.

  3. Three-dimensional colour Doppler of ductus venous agenesis in the first trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ductus venosus (DV has a pivotal role in the fetal circulation. It serves as a conduit connecting the fetal umbilical and portal venous system with the inferior vena cava (IVC. The absence of DV is an uncommon anomaly. In case of agenesis of DV, the umbilical vein joins the fetal systemic venous circulation via the intra-hepatic or extra-hepatic route. We report a case of absent DV with associated anomaly diagnosed in the first trimester using three-dimensional (3D colour Doppler.

  4. Intrahepatic Vascular Anatomy in Rats and Mice--Variations and Surgical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Sänger

    Full Text Available The intra-hepatic vascular anatomy in rodents, its variations and corresponding supplying and draining territories in respect to the lobar structure of the liver have not been described. We performed a detailed anatomical imaging study in rats and mice to allow for further refinement of experimental surgical approaches.LEWIS-Rats and C57Bl/6N-Mice were subjected to ex-vivo imaging using μCT. The image data were used for semi-automated segmentation to extract the hepatic vascular tree as prerequisite for 3D visualization. The underlying vascular anatomy was reconstructed, analysed and used for determining hepatic vascular territories.The four major liver lobes have their own lobar portal supply and hepatic drainage territories. In contrast, the paracaval liver is supplied by various small branches from right and caudate portal veins and drains directly into the vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy were observed in terms of branching pattern and distance of branches to each other. The portal vein anatomy is more variable than the hepatic vein anatomy. Surgically relevant variations were primarily observed in portal venous supply.For the first time the key variations of intrahepatic vascular anatomy in mice and rats and their surgical implications were described. We showed that lobar borders of the liver do not always match vascular territorial borders. These findings are of importance for the design of new surgical procedures and for understanding eventual complications following hepatic surgery.

  5. Cholangiopathy in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.; Singh, K. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate cholangiographic abnormalities resulting from extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). Material and Methods: Forty-three patients with an established diagnosis of EHPVO were subjected to duplex Doppler sonography and ERCP. Of these, 8 patients had obstructive jaundice. Results: Dilated common bile duct with pericholedochal varices showing a continuous type of flow pattern was seen in 5 EHPVO patients with obstructive jaundice. ERCP revealed cholangiographic abnormalities in 40 patients (93%). Extrahepatic bile ducts were involved in 100% of cases compared to intrahepatic bile ducts (57%). Abnormalities noted were contour irregularity with indentations, displacement and angulation, strictures and filling defects in the extrahepatic ductal system. Intrahepatic bile ducts showed dilatation with areas of narrowing and filling defects. Conclusion: Cholangiographic abnormalities are very common in patients with EHPVO, even without clinical manifestations of biliary disease. Extrahepatic bile ducts are far more often involved compared to intrahepatic bile ducts. Extrinsic compression with contour irregularity is the most common cholangiographic finding. Sonographic findings are not diagnostic. Dilated common bile duct with pericholedochal varices was seen in only 5 patients.

  6. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration of portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonathan K; Cho, Sung-Ki; Kee, Stephen; Lee, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    While balloon-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been used for two decades in Asia for the management of gastric variceal bleeding, it is still an emerging therapy elsewhere. Given the shunt closure brought about by the procedure, BRTO has also been used for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy with promising results. Modified versions of BRTO have been developed, including plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO), where a vascular plug is deployed within a portosystemic shunt. To our knowledge, we present the first North American case of PARTO in the setting of a large splenorenal shunt for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy.

  7. New Insights on Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreani, Annarosa; Gervasi, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by maternal pruritus, and elevated serum transaminases and bile acids. Genetic defects in at least 6 canalicular transporters have been found. Association studies stress the variability of genotypes, different penetrance, and influence of environmental factors. Serum autotaxin is a sensitive, specific, and robust diagnostic marker. Elevated maternal bile acids correlate with fetal complications. Long-term sequelae for mothers include the gallstone risk and chronic liver disease. There is an association between ICP and hepatitis C. Current treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid, owing to benefits on pruritus, liver function, safety, and decreased rates of adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Caroline; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, also known as obstetric cholestasis, is a pruritic condition of pregnancy characterized by an underlying elevation in circulating bile acids and liver derangement, and associated with adverse fetal outcomes, such as preterm labor and stillbirth. Limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and mechanisms involved in adverse outcomes has previously restricted treatment options and pregnancy management. Recent advances in these research fields provide tantalizing targets to improve the care of pregnant women affected by this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sepsis as a cause of intrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The causes of intrahepatic cholestasis include cholestatic viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, benign recurrent cholestasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and sepsis. During sepsis, proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide cause cholestasis by impairing hepatocellular and ductal bile formation. Case Outline. We report a 48-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital due to malaise, jaundice, fever and pain in the neck. Physical examination revealed jaundice, tachycardia (pulse rate was 120/min, hypotension 90/60 mm Hg. Laboratory findings showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, inflammatory syndrome and abnormal liver function tests indicating cholestasis and hepatocellular necrosis. Abdominal ultrasonography detected hepatosplenomegaly. Chest computed tomography showed bronchopneumonic infiltrates. Percutaneous liver biopsy was performed using a Menghini needle of 1.4 mm. Pathohystological analysis of the liver tissue confirmed reactive, intrahepatic cholestasis. Blood cultures isolated Staphylococcus aureus. After the diagnosis was established the treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was carried out, resulting in the improvement of general condition of the patient, regression of inflammatory syndrome, disappearance of cholestasis and regression of pulmonary infiltrates. Abdominal ultrasonography after antibiotic treatment did not show hepatosplenomegaly. Conclusion. Concerning patients with cholestasis of uncertain origin, we should always think of sepsis as a possible cause in order to start antibiotic treatment in time.

  10. Menopause after a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Helander, Kristiina; Mattila, Kari J; Sumanen, Markku

    2013-11-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a hormone-provoked disorder that fades quickly after parturition. The aim of this study was to establish whether a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy reduces the use of hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms and, irrespective of hormone therapy, whether intrahepatic cholestasis is associated with other health aspects after menopause. In 2010, questionnaires were sent to a cohort of women who delivered in Tampere University Hospital, Finland, from 1969 to 1988. The study population comprised postmenopausal women with a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (n = 189) and their controls (n = 416). The main outcome measures were the use of hormone therapy and other means of alleviating menopausal symptoms, and the diseases the women reported. There were no differences in the use of hormone therapy between the two groups. Of the diseases reported, breast cancer, hepatobiliary diseases, and hypothyroidism were more frequent among women with a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, whereas cardiac arrhythmia was less frequent. With respect to other diseases, there were no differences. A history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy does not reduce the use of hormone therapy. However, when physicians prescribe hormone therapy for these women, a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy calls for attention in view of its association with gallstones.

  11. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS PAUCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Iryshkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinica-morphological features of syndromatic and nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods and results. The clinical records were analyzed and histological studies of native livers of 20 children, who had suffered from paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and to whom liver transplantation were made, were completed. The obtained data indicate higher levels of AST in patients with nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,023. Ductopenia was the more frequent indication of syndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01, while ductular proliferations, which form «ductular structure», were discovered more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,03. The extent of inflammatory-destructive changes was more expressed in nonsyndromatic pauci- ty of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01. Fibrosis or cirrhosis was formed more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,008. Conclusion. Our results indicate more severe clinical and morphological manifestations in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. These findings may suggest about heavier liver condition in patient with nonsyndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. 

  12. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR imaging for management of hemorrhagic esophageal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Hideaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Aikata, Hiroshi, E-mail: aikata@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Takaki, Shintaro; Azakami, Takahiro; Katamura, Yoshio; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Takahashi, Shoichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide [Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To study the correlation between changes in portosystemic collaterals, evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography imaging using multiplanar reconstruction (MDCT-MPR), and prognosis in patients with hemorrhagic esophageal varices (EV) after endoscopic treatment. Methods: Forty-nine patients with primary hemostasis for variceal bleeding received radical endoscopic treatment: endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Patients were classified according to the rate of reduction in feeding vessel diameter on MDCT-MPR images, into the narrowing (n = 24) and no-change (n = 25) groups. We evaluated changes in portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR before and after treatment, and determined rebleeding and survival rates. Results: The left gastric and paraesophageal (PEV) veins were recognized as portosystemic collaterals in 100 and 80%, respectively, of patients with EV on MDCT-MPR images. The rebleeding rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after endoscopic treatment were 10, 15, 23, and 23%, respectively, for the narrowing group, and 17, 24, 35, and 67%, respectively, for the no-change group (P = 0.068). Among no-change group, the rebleeding rate in patients with large PEV was significantly lower than that with small PEV (P = 0.027). The rebleeding rate in patients with small PEV of the no-change group was significantly higher than that in the narrowing group (P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in rebleeding rates between the no-change group with a large PEV and narrowing group (P = 0.435). Conclusion: Changes in portosystemic collaterals evaluated by MDCT-MPR imaging correlate with rebleeding rate. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in this manner would provide useful information for the management of hemorrhagic EV.

  13. Clinical grading of Intrahepatic Cholestasis Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Pradhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is the pregnancy induced liver disorder causing intense itching of palm, sole or even whole body especially in the evening at late second and third trimester. This disease categorized into mild and severe ICP according to raised level of LFT including serum level of Bile acid and Cholic acid. ICP has less morbidity to mother but significant risk for fetus in uterus. The predisposing element to cause intense pruritus is because of high amount of bile acid in maternal serum. Toxic bile acids affect fetal cardiomyocytes that retained in fetus body causing sudden intrauterine fetal death. ICP is commonly found in winter months and mostly itching of body occurs in the evening after sunset. Fetus in uterus is unsafe if mother’s bile acid exceeds normal value. ICP is successfully treated with Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, S-adenosyl methionine (SAME, Dexamethasone and vitamin K. Keywords: itching; bile acid; obstetric cholestasis; Ursodeoxycholic cholic acid.

  14. Management of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disease during pregnancy, characterized by otherwise unexplained pruritus in late second and third trimester of pregnancy and elevated bile acids and/or transaminases. ICP is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus and the later development of hepatobiliary disease for the mother. Bile acids should be monitored throughout pregnancy since fetal risk is increased at serum bile acids >40 µmol/l. Management of ICP consists of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, which reduces pruritus. Early elective delivery is common practice but should be performed on an individualized basis as long as strong evidence supporting this practice is lacking. Mothers should be followed-up for normalization of liver function tests 6-12 weeks after delivery. Future research in large-scale studies is needed to address the impact of ursodeoxycholic acid and early elective delivery on fetal outcome.

  15. Clinical grading of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Meena; Shao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the pregnancy induced liver disorder causing intense itching of palm, sole or even whole body especially in the evening at late second and third trimester. This disease is categorized into mild and severe ICP according to raised level of LFT including serum level of bile acid and cholic acid. ICP has less morbidity to mother but significant risk to fetus in uterus. The predisposing element to cause intense pruritus is because of high amount of bile acid in maternal serum. Toxic bile acids affect fetal cardiomyocytes retained in fetus body causing sudden intrauterine fetal death. ICP is commonly found in winter months and mostly itching of body occurs in the evening after sunset. Fetus in uterus is unsafe if mother's bile acid exceeds normal value. ICP is successfully treated with Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), S-adenosyl methionine (SAME), Dexamethasone and vitamin K.

  16. [Risks of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolier, A Ruth; Jebbink, Jiska M; van der Post, Joris A M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Beuers, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is defined as pruritus during pregnancy in the absence of primary skin lesions, combined with an increase in serum total bile salts and/or abnormal serum liver tests. This article provides an insight into the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations by presenting two cases. ICP usually presents around 34 weeks of gestation, but can be present early in pregnancy as described in a 32-year-old patient pregnant after in-vitro fertilization. DNA analysis showed a mutation in the ABCB4 gene, causing MDR3 deficiency. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment seems to alleviate maternal pruritus and possibly reduces perinatal risks related to the severe form of ICP, defined as fasted serum bile salt levels of ≥ 40 μmol/l at any point during the pregnancy. Short-term rifampicin treatment can be considered in patients with persistent pruritus. Induction of labour is advised only after 37 weeks of gestation in patients with severe ICP.

  17. Lifestyle and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, Elisabeth Rebekka

    2008-01-01

    In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA study), a large population-based case-control study, we investigated lifestyle factors as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Overweight, smoking and alcohol consumption were addressed and pregnancy and

  18. Surgical attenuation of spontaneous congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs resolves hepatic encephalopathy but not hypermanganesemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Adam G; Frowde, Polly E; Elwood, Clive M; Burton, Carolyn A; Powell, Roger M; Tappin, Simon W; Foale, Rob D; Duncan, Andrew; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Hypermanganesemia is commonly recognized in human patients with hepatic insufficiency and portosystemic shunting. Since manganese is neurotoxic, increases in brain manganese concentrations have been implicated in the development of hepatic encephalopathy although a direct causative role has yet to be demonstrated. Evaluate manganese concentrations in dogs with a naturally occurring congenital shunt before and after attenuation as well as longitudinally following the changes in hepatic encephalopathy grade. Our study demonstrated that attenuation of the shunt resolved encephalopathy, significantly reduced postprandial bile acids, yet a hypermanganasemic state persisted. This study demonstrates that resolution of hepatic encephalopathy can occur without the correction of hypermanganesemia, indicating that increased manganese concentrations alone do not play a causative role in encephalopathy. Our study further demonstrates the value of the canine congenital portosystemic shunt as a naturally occurring spontaneous model of human hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Dynamic CT and MRA findings of a case of portopulmonary venous anastomosis (PPVA) in a patient with portal hypertension: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jeong Min; Ahn, Myeong Im; Han, Dae Hee; Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: ami@catholic.ac.kr

    2011-06-15

    Portopulmonary venous anastomosis (PPVA), which has been rarely reported in conventional CT and MR studies, is an unusual collateral pathway in patients with portal hypertension. It has clinical implications related to right-to-left shunt that are different from the clinical implications related to other more usual portosystemic shunts in portal hypertensive patients. Here, we report the dynamic CT and MRA findings of a case of PPVA in a patient with portal hypertension, directly demonstrating the shunt flow from the paraesophageal varix to the left atrium via the right inferior pulmonary vein

  20. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts using Oil Red O staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G B; Luff, J A; Daniel, L; Van den Bergh, R

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to quantify steatosis in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts (CPS) using a fat-specific stain, to compare the amount of steatosis in different lobes of the liver, and to evaluate intra- and interobserver variability in lipid point counting. Computer-assisted point counting of lipid droplets was undertaken following Oil Red O staining in 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts and 9 control dogs. Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts had significantly more small lipid droplets (dogs (P = .0013 and .0002, respectively). There was no significant difference in steatosis between liver lobes for either control dogs and CPS dogs. Significant differences were seen between observers for the number of large lipid droplets (>9 μ) and lipogranulomas per tissue point (P = .023 and .01, respectively). In conclusion, computer-assisted counting of lipid droplets following Oil Red O staining of liver biopsy samples allows objective measurement and detection of significant differences between dogs with CPS and normal dogs. This method will allow future evaluation of the relationship between different presentations of CPS (anatomy, age, breed) and lipidosis, as well as the impact of hepatic lipidosis on outcomes following surgical shunt attenuation.

  1. Idiopathic venous thromboembolism and thrombophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinescu, C; Hostiuc, M; Bartos, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade idiopathic venous thromboembolism has become a separate entity, a chronic illness which has required prolonged anticoagulation and other prevention strategies to avoid recurrences. This article reviews recent developments regarding unprovoked venous thromboembolism and its relation with thrombophilia. In the beginning, the latest definition of idiopathic venous thromboembolism is presented. The article continues with statistics about thrombophilia, related venous thromb...

  2. [Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy : Rare but important].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A E; Wolf, K; Ständer, S

    2017-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver-specific disorder occurring in approximately 0.5-2.0% of all pregnancies with a considerable variation in certain ethnic groups. ICP usually runs a benign course for the mother and is characterized by maternal pruritus mainly in the third trimester, elevated transaminases and fasting total serum bile salts and increased fetal adverse events. The etiology of ICP is only partially understood but seems to be multifactorial. Cholestasis-inducing effects of certain female sex hormones and their metabolites play an important role in genetically susceptible women. The mechanisms resulting in fetal complications such as spontaneous preterm labour, antepartum passage of meconium, asphyxia events, still birth and fetal death are not well understood. Certain sulfated progesterone metabolites are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of pruritus in ICP. In contrast to pregnancy-related dermatoses, pruritus does not present with primary skin alterations. However, intense scratching may cause secondary skin changes such as abrasions, excoriations and sometimes prurigo nodularis. Treatment is based on ursodeoxycholate treatment to reduce pruritus and hepatic impairment as well as elective delivery between gestation week 37-38 to pre-empt potential stillbirths. This article reviews clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and in particular pathogenesis of pruritus in ICP.

  3. The pathophysiology of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter H; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    A number of liver disorders are specific to pregnancy. Amongst these, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis (OC), is the commonest, affecting approximately 1 in 140 UK pregnancies. Patients commonly present in the third trimester with severe pruritus and deranged serum liver tests; bile acids are elevated, in severe cases >40 μmol/L. Although the disease is considered relatively benign for the mother, increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes, including stillbirth, are associated with ICP. As our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying bile acid homeostasis has advanced in the last 15 years our understanding of ICP has grown, in particular with respect to genetic influences on susceptibility to the disease, the role of reproductive hormones and their metabolites and the possible identity of the pruritic agents. In this review, we will describe recent advances in the understanding of this condition with a particular emphasis on how aspects of genetic and reproductive hormone involvement in pathophysiology have been elucidated. We also review recent developments regarding our knowledge of placental and fetal pathophysiology and the long-term health consequences for the mother and child. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrahepatic arterioportal shunt: helical CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, S.; Sebastia, M.C.; Moreiras, M.; Pallisa, E.; Rius, J.M.; Alvarez-Castells, A. [I. D. I. Hospital General i Universitari Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain). Servei de Radiodiagnostic

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the appearance of intrahepatic arterioportal shunts (APS) on two-phase helical CT, with emphasis on the importance of the hepatic arterial-dominant phase (HAP) to demonstrate perfusion disorders. We review eight cases of APS diagnosed by helical CT in our institution from January 1996 to March 1997 and describe the CT findings that established diagnosis. Five of them were confirmed by angiography. In seven (87.5 %) cases of APS we found early enhancement of the peripheral portal branches during the HAP of helical CT, whereas the superior mesenteric and splenic veins remained unenhanced. In five (62.5 %) cases of APS, transient, peripheral, triangular parenchymal enhancement was depicted during the HAP of helical CT; in four of these cases there was associated early enhancement of the portal branches. Helical CT can show perfusion alterations that might remain undiagnosed with conventional CT. An understanding of the hemodynamic changes that occur in APS can help in the interpretation of focal transient hepatic parenchymal enhancement and to differentiate APS from hypervascular tumors. We believe that the helical CT findings described herein are characteristic enough to suggest the diagnosis of APS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  5. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: current management and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemai-Azar, Amir A; Weisbrod, Allison B; Dillhoff, Mary; Schmidt, Carl; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-05-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a malignancy with an increasing incidence and a high-case fatality. While surgery offers the best hope at long-term survival, only one-third of tumors are amenable to surgical resection at the time of the diagnosis. Unfortunately, conventional chemotherapy offers limited survival benefit in the management of unresectable or metastatic disease. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA and the use of next-generation sequencing techniques have provided a chance to identify 'target-able' molecular aberrations. These novel molecular therapies offer the promise to personalize therapy for patients with iCCA and, in turn, improve the outcomes of patients. Area covered: We herein review the current management options for iCCA with a focus on defining both established and emerging therapies. Expert commentary: Surgical resection remains as an only hope for cure in iCCA patients. However, frequently the diagnosis is delayed till advanced stages when surgery cannot be offered; signifying the urge for specific diagnostic tumor biomarkers and targeted therapies. New advances in genomic profiling have contributed to a better understanding of the landscape of molecular alterations in iCCA and offer hope for the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and targeted therapies.

  6. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/22/2016 Updated by: ...

  7. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, Shelley [Frenchay Hospital, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive synopsis on cerebral venous thrombosis is presented. It emphasizes the various aetiologies, the wide clinical spectrum and the unpredictable outcome. Imaging techniques and pitfalls are reported and the therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  9. Intrahepatic haematoma in a patient on long-term haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K N; Disney, A P; Mathew, T H

    Spontaneous intrahepatic haematoma is an uncommon potentially fatal complication in uraemic patients receiving long-term haemodialysis, particularly in those taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Prompt diagnosis, withdrawal of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, cautious transfusion, and careful dialysis with regional heparinisation are essential in the management and may help to avoid surgical intervention in the presence of a tendency to bleed. Noninvasive organ imaging such as ultrasonography and computerised axial tomography are helpful in diagnosis and monitoring of progress. A case of intrahepatic haematoma in a 37-year-old man who had been receiving long-term haemodialysis since 1976 is described.

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for incidentally identified primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Witold Zgodzinski; N.Joseph Espat

    2005-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepato-biliary malignancy. The majority of patients with primary hepatic tumors are not suitable candidates for resection, due to advanced stage of the disease at presentation, anatomic limitations and medical comorbidities. At present, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may offer an alternative, feasible and safe therapy for selected patients with hepatic tumors, who are not otherwise candidates for hepatic resection. Herein, we present the case of successful RFA in a patient with a solitary, primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The patient remained free of disease 24 mo after the procedure, and is still followed up. This is the first report of RFA application inthe treatment of primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Early diet intervention to reduce the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis patients: post-Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling; Fu, Shiying; Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Jingxiang

    2016-01-01

    背景与目的:肝性脑病是肝硬化患者经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(TIPS)术后 常见的并发症。本研究目的是通过积极的饮食干预降低TIPS 术后肝性脑病的 发病率。方法与研究设计:选择2011 年8 月至2013 年2 月的99 例接受TIPS 术治疗的肝硬化患者作为对照组。 其中,术后28 例并发肝性脑病。采用回顾 性研究分析肝性脑病发生的可能原因和诱因,饮食不当为主要诱因,占 85.7%。2013 年5 月至2014 年9 月的83 例肝硬化TIPS 术后患者作为实验 组,针对饮食不当这一主要问题采取相应的干预措施:制定TIPS 术后护理常 规,培训护士关于营养和常见食物中蛋白质含量的知识,定制低蛋白膳食,培 训护士沟通技巧以提高对患者的营养知识教育,帮助建立家庭-社会支持系 统。结果:实验组中有10 例发生肝性脑病,发病率为12.1%,与对照组 (28.3%)相比发病率显著降低(p<0.01)。结论:早期积极的饮食干预能显 著提高肝硬化患者TIPS 术后低蛋白饮食的依从性,降低肝性脑病的发生率。.

  12. 经颈静脉肝内门体分流术的禁忌证及并发症%Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: contraindications and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承薇; 李肖

    2011-01-01

    @@ 门静脉高压症(portal hypertention,PH)是由门静脉压力增高引起的一组症候群,主要临床表现有脾脏肿大、门腔侧支循环形成及腹水.各种原因引起的肝硬化是PH最主要的病因,约占PH病因的90%以上.

  13. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-receptor levels in portal and hepatic vein of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis receiving elective transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Krag, Aleksander; Gansweid, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In cirrhosis portal hypertension can promote bacterial translocation and increase serum endotoxin levels. Vice versa, endotoxin aggravates portal hypertension by induction of systemic and splanchnic vasodilation, and by triggering hepatic inflammatory response via tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα......). However, the hepatic elimination of endotoxin in cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, in the absence of acute complications, has not been investigated so far....

  14. The clinical results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in treatment of gastric varices compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Jeon, Ung Bae; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Jo, Mong; Heo, Jeong [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To compare the clinical results of BRTO in the gastric varices with those of TIPS. From January 2004 to March 2006, eight patients who had been followed up for more than 1 month after BRTO were enrolled in this study. This study compared the clinical efficacy of BRTO with than of TIPS in 13 patients who had undergone TIPS from January 2000 to March 2006. The change in laboratory parameters before and after each procedure and the incidence of rebleeding, encephalopathy, asictes and varices were analyzed after each procedure. In the BRTO group, the level of albumin increased, and the levels of ammonia and the Child-Pugh score decreased. The TIPS group showed no improvement in the liver function. In the BRTO group, the gastric varices were eradicated in 7 patients. Gastric variceal rebleeding and encephalopathy did not occur. However, the esophageal varices worsened in 6 patients. In the TIPS group, rebleeding (n = 4), encephalopathy (n = 7) and a worsening of the gastric (n = 5) or esophageal varices (n = 2) occurred. BRTO improves the metabolic activity of the liver and has a lower incidence of encephalopathy. Hence, BRTO is a good alternative to TIPS in the gastric varices accompanied by a gastrorenal shunt although a treatment for a worsening of the esophageal varices may be needed after BRTO.

  15. [Homocysteine and venous thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, C; Hayoz, D

    1997-09-06

    Congenital homocysteinuria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder with early onset atherosclerosis and arterial and venous trombosis. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is more frequently encountered and is recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Several case-control studies demonstrate an association between venous thromboembolism and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. A patient with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia has a 2-3 relative risk of developing an episode of venous thromboembolism. The occurrence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in heterozygotes for the mutation of Leiden factor V involves a 10-fold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. The biochemical mechanism by which homocysteine may promote thrombosis is not fully recognized. Homocysteine inhibits the expression of thrombomodulin, the thrombin cofactor responsible for protein C activation, and inhibits antithrombin-III binding. Treatment with folic acid reduces the plasma level of homocysteinemia, but no study has demonstrated its efficacy in reducing the incidence of venous thromboembolism or atherosclerosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be included in the screening of abnormalities of hemostasis and thrombosis in patients with idiopathic thromboembolism, and mild hyperhomocysteinemia may justify a trial of folic acid.

  16. Ileofemoral venous thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, J; Haglund, M; Haglund, U; Holm, J; Scherstén, T

    1978-01-01

    Twentyeight patients with ileofemoral venous thrombosis were treated surgically. Five of the patients had moderate degree of venous congestion, 18 patients had phlegmasia alba dolens and five patients had phlegmasia coerulea dolens. The mean age was 54 years, range 15-80 years, and 15 were men and 13 were women. In all cases the thrombosis was verified by phlebography. Thrombectomy was performed with a Fogarty venous thrombectomy catheter. Peroperative phlebography was used in most cases to guarantee complete extraction of thrombotic material. No operative pulmonary embolism or mortality was encountered. Postoperative continuous heparin infusion in the thrombectomized segment was used for the first week followed by dicumarol treatment. The patients were followed from 6 months to 4 years postoperatively. In two patients thrombectomy was not possible to perform. One of these patients developed a pronounced postthrombotic syndrome, the other developed venous congestion of more moderate degree. Excellent long-term time results were obtained in 82% of the patients and satisfactory in 14%. Thrombectomy is an efficient treatment of ileofemoral venous thrombosis.

  17. Staging of portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts using dynamic nuclear medicine investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoteanu, Mircea; Balea, Ioan A; Dina, Liliana A; Piglesan, Cecilia D; Grigorescu, Ioana; Tamas, Stefan; Cotul, Sabin O

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts and to stage chronic liver disease (CLD) based on the pathophysiology of portal hemodynamics. METHODS: Per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) was performed on 312 patients with CLD and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS) on 231 of them. The control group included 25 healthy subjects. We developed a new model of PRPS interpretation by introducing two new parameters, the liver transit time (LTT) and the circulation time between right heart and liver (RHLT). LTT for each lobe was used to evaluate the early portal hypertension. RHLT is useful in cirrhosis to detect liver areas missing portal inflow. We calculated the classical per-rectal portal shunt index (PRSI) at PRPS and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) at LAS. RESULTS: The normal LTT value was 24 ± 1 s. Abnormal LTT had PPV = 100% for CLD. Twenty-seven non-cirrhotic patients had LTT increased up to 35 s (median 27 s). RHLT (42 ± 1 s) was not related to liver disease. Cirrhosis could be excluded in all patients with PRSI 30% had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis. Based on PRPS and LAS we propose the classification of CLD in 5 hemodynamic stages. Stage 0 is normal (LTT = 24 s, PRSI 30%. RHLT and HPI were used to subtype stage 4. In our study stage 0 had NPV = 100% for CLD, stage 1 had PPV = 100% for non-cirrhotic CLD, stages 2 and 3 represented the transition from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, stage 4 had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: LTT allows the detection of early portal hypertension and of opening of transhepatic shunts. PRSI is useful in CLD with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Our hemodynamic model stages the evolution of portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts. It may be of use in the selection of patients for interferon therapy. PMID:18609707

  18. Staging of portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts using dynamic nuclear medicine investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mircea Dragoteanu; Ioan A Balea; Liliana A Dina; Cecilia D Piglesan; Ioana Grigorescu; Stefan Tamas; Sabin O Cotul

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts and to stage chronic liver disease (CLD)based on the pathophysiology of portal hemodynamics.METHODS: Per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) was performed on 312 patients with CLD and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS) on 231 of them.The control group included 25 healthy subjects.We developed a new model of PRPS interpretation by introducing two new parameters,the liver transit time (LIT) and the circulation time between right heart and liver (RHLT).LTT for each lobe was used to evaluate the early portal hypertension.RHLT is useful in cirrhosis to detect liver areas missing portal inflow.We calculated the classical per-rectal portal shunt index (PRSI) at PRPS and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) at LAS.RESULTS: The normal LTT value was 24 ±1 s.Abnormal LTT had PPV = 100% for CLD.Twenty-seven noncirrhotic patients had L-IT increased up to 35 s (median 27 s).RHLT (42 ±1 s) was not related to liver disease.Cirrhosis could be excluded in all patients with PRSI< 5% (P < 0.01).PRSI > 30% had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis.Based on PRPS and LAS we propose the classification of CLD in 5 hemodynamic stages.Stage 0 is normal (LIT = 24 s,PRSI < 5%).In stage 1,LIT is increased,while PRSI remains normal.In stage 2,LIT is decreased between 16 s and 23 s,whereas PRSI is increased between 5% and 10%.In stage 3,PRSI is increased to 10%-30%,and LTT becomes undetectable by PRPS due to the portosystemic shunts.Stage 4 includes the patients with PRSI > 30%.RHLT and HPI were used to subtype stage 4.In our study stage 0 had NPV = 100% for CLD,stage 1 had PPV = 100% for non-cirrhotic CLD,stages 2 and 3 represented the transition from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis,stage 4 had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: LTT allows the detection of early portal hypertension and of opening of transhepatic shunts.PRSI is useful in CLD with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.Our hemodynamic model stages the evolution of portal hypertension

  19. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: When should you look further?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardikar, W.; Kansal, S.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Angus, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pruritis with abnormal liver function tests is the classical presentation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a condition associated with significant fetal complications. Although the etiology of ICP is unclear in many cases, certain features of the clinical presentation should alert the

  20. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: When should you look further?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardikar, W.; Kansal, S.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Angus, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pruritis with abnormal liver function tests is the classical presentation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a condition associated with significant fetal complications. Although the etiology of ICP is unclear in many cases, certain features of the clinical presentation should alert the

  1. Calcified Klatskin tumor mimicking intrahepatic stone: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Han, J K; Lee, H S; Lee, K H; Kim, S H; Kim, K W; Kim, Y J; Kim, H-C; Choi, B I

    2005-01-01

    Calcification is a relatively uncommon manifestation of malignant liver neoplasm. Calcifications in peripheral cholangiocarcinomas but not in Klatskin tumor have been reported. We present a rare case of Klatskin tumor that had dystrophic calcification mimicking a intrahepatic stone in a 65-year-old man.

  2. An Exceptional Case of Spontaneous Fistulization of an Intrahepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    larger intrahepatic ducts Caroli's disease develops.But, when the entire ... Biliary cysts are associated with significant complications such as stone formation, cholangitis, secondary biliary .... Caroli's disease usually remains asymptomatic during the first 20 years, and may also remain ... Though not common, spontaneous.

  3. Iron Deficiency Impairs Intra-Hepatic Lymphocyte Mediated Immune Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani

    Full Text Available Hepatic expression of iron homeostasis genes and serum iron parameters predict the success of immunosuppression withdrawal following clinical liver transplantation, a phenomenon known as spontaneous operational tolerance. In experimental animal models, spontaneous liver allograft tolerance is established through a process that requires intra-hepatic lymphocyte activation and deletion. Our aim was to determine if changes in systemic iron status regulate intra-hepatic lymphocyte responses. We used a murine model of lymphocyte-mediated acute liver inflammation induced by Concanavalin A (ConA injection employing mice fed with an iron-deficient (IrDef or an iron-balanced diet (IrRepl. While the mild iron deficiency induced by the IrDef diet did not significantly modify the steady state immune cell repertoire and systemic cytokine levels, it significantly dampened inflammatory liver damage after ConA challenge. These findings were associated with a marked decrease in T cell and NKT cell activation following ConA injection in IrDef mice. The decreased liver injury observed in IrDef mice was independent from changes in the gut microflora, and was replicated employing an iron specific chelator that did not modify intra-hepatic hepcidin secretion. Furthermore, low-dose iron chelation markedly impaired the activation of isolated T cells in vitro. All together, these results suggest that small changes in iron homeostasis can have a major effect in the regulation of intra-hepatic lymphocyte mediated responses.

  4. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang Hesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Johnson, Timothy D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hussain, Hero [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  5. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  6. Coenzyme Q in pregnant women and rats with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinefski, Manuela R; Contin, Mario D; Rodriguez, Myrian R; Geréz, Estefanía M; Galleano, Mónica L; Lucangioli, Silvia E; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Tripodi, Valeria P

    2014-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a high-risk liver disease given the eventual deleterious consequences that may occur in the foetus. It is accepted that the abnormal accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in maternal serum are responsible for the disease development. Hydrophobic bile acids induce oxidative stress and apoptosis leading to the damage of the hepatic parenchyma and eventually extrahepatic tissues. As coenzyme Q (CoQ) is considered an early marker of oxidative stress in this study, we sought to assess CoQ levels, bile acid profile and oxidative stress status in intrahepatic cholestasis. CoQ, vitamin E and malondialdehyde were measured in plasma and/or tissues by HPLC-UV method whereas serum bile acids by capillary electrophoresis in rats with ethinyl estradiol-induced cholestasis and women with pregnancy cholestasis. CoQ and vitamin E plasma levels were diminished in both rats and women with intrahepatic cholestasis. Furthermore, reduced CoQ was also found in muscle and brain of cholestatic rats but no changes were observed in heart or liver. In addition, a positive correlation between CoQ and ursodeoxycholic/lithocholic acid ratio was found in intrahepatic cholestasis suggesting that increased plasma lithocholic acid may be intimately related to CoQ depletion in blood and tissues. Significant CoQ and vitamin E depletion occur in both animals and humans with intrahepatic cholestasis likely as the result of increased hydrophobic bile acids known to produce significant oxidative stress. Present findings further suggest that antioxidant supplementation complementary to traditional treatment may improve cholestasis outcome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Idiopathic non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension: common cause of cryptogenic intrahepatic portal hypertension in a Southern Indian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Kadiyala; Avinash, Balekuduru; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Eapen, C E; Shyamkumar, N K; Zachariah, Uday; Chandy, George; Kurian, George

    2009-01-01

    Patients with intrahepatic portal hypertension and negative etiological work-up for liver disease are often labeled as having cryptogenic cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate causes of liver disease in patients with unexplained intrahepatic portal hypertension. We retrospectively analyzed cause of liver disease in all patients with cryptogenic intrahepatic portal hypertension who underwent liver biopsies between June 2005 to June 2007 in our center. Five hundred and seventeen patients underwent liver biopsies of whom 227 had portal hypertension. Of these, the cause of liver disease could not be detected prior to liver biopsy in 62 patients. Causes of liver disease identified after liver biopsy in these 62 patients were: idiopathic non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) (30 patients, 48%), cirrhosis (14), fatty liver disease (7) and other causes (11). Initial presentations in idiopathic NCIPH patients were splenomegaly and anemia (18 patients), variceal bleed (9) and ascites (3). Median age (range) of patients at first presentation was 32 (15-57) years, and 19 were male. Majority (90%) were in Child's class A. Hepatic vein pressure gradient was <5 mmHg in 2 of 7 NCIPH patients tested. We identified 30 patients with idiopathic NCIPH at our center over the 2 year study period. The clinical presentation and investigations of NCIPH closely mimic cryptogenic cirrhosis. Idiopathic NCIPH should be considered as a differential diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis in India.

  8. Models of the venous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J

    2000-01-01

    of the venous system require at least three elements: a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor, with the latter being of more importance in the venous than in the arterial system. Non-linearities must be considered in pressure/flow relations in the small venules, during venous collapse, or low flow conditions...

  9. Venous thromboembolism: The intricacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE has been a subject of great interest of late. Since Rudolph Virchow described the famous Virchow′s triad in 1856, there have been rapid strides in the understanding of the pathogenesis and factors responsible for it. Discovery of various thrombophilic factors, both primary and acquired, in the last 40 years has revolutionized prognostication and management of this potentially life-threatening condition due to its associated complication of pulmonary thromboembolism. Detailed genetic mapping and linkage analyses have been underlining the fact that VTE is a multifactorial disorder and a complex one. There are many gene-gene and gene-environment interactions that alter and magnify the clinical picture in this disorder. Point in case is pregnancy, where the risk of VTE is 100-150 times increased in the presence of Factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation (Prothrombin 20210A and antithrombin deficiency. Risk of VTE associated with long-haul air flight has now been well recognized. Thrombotic events associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are 70% venous and 30% arterial. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common venous events, though unusual cases of catastrophes due to central vein thrombosis like renal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (catastrophic APS may occur.

  10. Chronic venous disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluated by clinical assessment and duplex ultrasound. The rate ... History and physical examination. The most common ... deep venous thrombosis or phlebitis, use of anticoagulation therapy, unexplained ... veins and pulsed Doppler assessment of the direction of ... effective in healing ulcers and preventing recurrences ...

  11. Venous oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  13. Jugular venous oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of saturation of venous blood as it drains out of brain by sampling it from the jugular bulb provides us with an estimate of cerebral oxygenation, cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic requirement. Arterio-jugular venous difference of the oxygen content (AVDO 2 and jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjVO 2 values per se helps clinicians in identifying the impairment of cerebral oxygenation due to various factors thereby prompting implementation of corrective measures and the prevention of secondary injury to the brain due to ischaemia. SjVO 2 values are also used for prognostication of patients after traumatic brain injury and in other clinical situations. Sampling and measuring SjVO 2 intermittently or continuously using fibreoptic oximetry requires the tip of the catheter to be placed in the jugular bulb, which is a relatively simple bedside procedure. In the review below we have discussed the relevant anatomy, physiology, techniques, clinical applications and pitfalls of performing jugular venous oximetry as a tool for measurement of cerebral oxygenation.

  14. Venous Thromboembolism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永强

    2005-01-01

    @@ Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are two manifesttions of venous thromboembolism (VTE) . Although the controversy remained,it has been widely accepted for many years that Chinese people have lower incidence of VTE than Caucasians with the different etiology and clinical features.

  15. Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R N; Parry, A T

    2016-05-01

    To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats. Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts. For inclusion a shunt involving the left colic vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography along with direct gross surgical observations at the time of surgery was required. Six dogs and three cats met the inclusion criteria. All cases had a shunt which involved a distended left colic vein. The final communication with a systemic vein was variable; in seven cases (five dogs, two cats) it was via the caudal vena cava, in one cat it was via the common iliac vein and in the remaining dog it was via the internal iliac vein. In addition, two cats showed caudal vena cava duplication. The morphology of this shunt type appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between either the left colic vein or the cranial rectal vein and a pelvic systemic vein (caudal vena cava, common iliac vein or internal iliac vein). This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Samia Ben; Touati, Nahla; Baccouche, Hela; Drissi, Cyrine; Romdhane, Neila Ben; Hentati, Fayçal

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding cerebral venous thrombosis in North Africa are scarce. This study aims to identify the clinical features, risk factors, outcome, and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia. Data of 160 patients with radiologically confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis, hospitalized in Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology (Tunis, Tunisia), were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean age was 37.3 years with a female predominance (83.1%). The mode of onset was subacute in most cases (56.2%). Headache was the most common symptom (71.3%), and focal neurologic symptoms were the main clinical presentation (41.8%). The most common sites of thrombosis were the superior sagittal sinus (65%) and the lateral sinus (60.6%). More than 1 sinus was involved in 114 (71.2%) patients. Parenchymal lesions observed in 85 (53.1%) patients did not correlate with cerebral venous thrombosis extent. Major risk factors were obstetric causes (pregnancy and puerperium) found in 46 (38.6% of women aged <50 years) patients, followed by anemia (28.1%) and congenital or acquired thrombophilia (16.2%). Mortality rate was of 6.6%. Good outcome at 6 months (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) was observed in 105 (87.5%)of 120 patients available for follow-up. Predictors of poor outcome were altered consciousness and elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels. Clinical and radiologic presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia was quite similar to other parts of the world with, however, a particularly high frequency of obstetric causes. Plasma C-reactive protein level should be considered as a prognostic factor in CVT.

  17. Immunological basis in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Spencer P; Kovilam, Oormila; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy poses a great risk to both maternal and fetal health. Despite extensive research, much of the pathogenesis of this disorder is unknown. The increase in bile acids observed in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been noted to cause a change in the immune system from the normally mediated TH2 response to one that is more oriented towards TH1. In this literature review, we have critically reviewed the current literature regarding the changes in the immune system and the potential effects of immunological changes in the management of the patient. The current treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, is also discussed along with potential combination therapies and future directions for research.

  18. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas.

  19. Venous thromboembolism and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella D’Uva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maristella D’Uva1, Pierpaolo Di Micco2, Ida Strina1, Giuseppe De Placido1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Human Reproduction, “Federico II” University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Buonconsiglio Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment to prevent vascular complication such as venous thromboembolism (VTE during pregnancy. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered also for pregnant subjects carriers of molecular thrombophilia or that previously experienced VTE, in order to prevent VTE during pregnancy, while antithrombotic treatment for VTE should be performed during all pregnant periods.Keywords: thrombophilia, venous thromboembolism, recurrent pregnancy loss, factor V Leiden

  20. Venous thromboembolism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Venous thromboembolism is rare among children and has a multi-factorial aetiology. It’s important to establish the diagnosis and evaluate the functional prognosis. Case report: A previously healthy 11 year old adolescent was observed in the emergency room with clinical signs of superficial venous thrombosis of the upper limb. Laboratorial evaluation showed a sedimentation rate, coagulation study, autoimmune antibodies and homocysteine with normal values. Testing for heritable thrombophilia revealed prothrombin mutation (G20210A, heterozigosity and mutation of PAI-1 (4G e -844A, both of which are associated with hypercoagulable state and indication to do prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin in higher risk situations. Discussion/Conclusion: The rarity of thromboembolic events at this age and the atypical localization lead to an exhaustive laboratorial evaluation. Thrombophilia mutations may clinically become evident in adolescence, and its detection is important because of children’s lifestyle and the need of prophylactic treatment in some situations.

  1. Septic candidasis with intrahepatic cholestasis and immunoglobuline deficiency after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazgornik, J; Schmidt, P; Kopsa, H; Fill, W; Deutsch, E

    1975-10-01

    Two renal allograft recipients with acquired immunoglobulin deficiency had a disseminated infection with candida albicans. Septic fever, intrahepatic cholestasis and pulmonary mycotic disease were the prominent clinical symptoms. Recurrence of septic fever during the clinical course was associated with increase of intrahepatic cholestasis. On the other hand there was an amelioration of cholestasis when effective antimycotic therapy was instituted. In our patients there was no evidence that intrahepatic cholestasis was drug-related. It was assumed that toxic metabolits of candida albicans were responsible for intrahepatic cholestasis.

  2. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  3. Primary amyloidosis presenting intrahepatic cholestasis and fulminant hepatic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Ates

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old man noticed abdominal pain located on right upper quadrant. Physical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly and icteric discoloration of sclera. On evaluation, patient was diagnosed to have hepatic amyloidosis related monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome with intrahepatic cholestasis. In this case report we emphasize fulminant hepatic failure due to primer amyloidosis in diagnosed with MGUS patient.

  4. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a critical clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Schlaeger, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common liver disease of pregnancy. It is characterized by pruitus, elevated levels of maternal serum bile salts, and normal or mildly elevated liver enzymes occurring after 30 weeks of pregnancy. The primary risks associated with this condition include preterm delivery, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and stillbirth. Management of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy utilizes a 2-prong approach of oral medications and comfort measures along with active management close to term. The goal of active management has been to deliver women between 37 and 39 weeks of gestation in order to prevent the risk of stillbirth. Currently, expert opinions vary as to recommendations for fetal surveillance and induction of labor. Controversy exists as to whether there is an increased incidence of stillbirth between 37 and 39 weeks of gestation. This critical clinical review is a comprehensive overview of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, including background, controversies, and care of the pregnant woman with this condition and how to provide appropriate follow-up care later after delivery.

  5. Sonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Mingan [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: Liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu Xiaoling; Cheng Zhigang; Han Zhiyu; Liu Fangyi; Yu Jie [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma. Materials and methods: From May 2006 to March 2010, 15 patients (11 men, 4 women; mean age, 57.4 years) with 24 histologically proven intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma lesions (mean tumor size, 3.2 {+-} 1.9 cm; range, 1.3-9.9 cm) were treated with microwave ablation. Results: Thirty-eight sessions were performed for 24 nodules in 15 patients. The follow-up period was 4-31 months (mean, 12.8 {+-} 8.0 months). The ablation success rate, the technique effectiveness rate, and the local tumor progression rate were 91.7% (22/24), 87.5% (21/24), and 25% (6/24) respectively according to the results of follow-up. The cumulative overall 6, 12, 24 month survival rates were 78.8%, 60.0%, and 60.0%, respectively. Major complication occurred including liver abscess in two patients (13.3%) and needle seeding in one patient (6.7%). Both complications were cured satisfied with antibiotic treatment combined to catheter drainage for abscess and resection for needle seeding. The minor complications and side effects were experienced by most patients which subsided with supportive treatment. Conclusion: Microwave ablation can be used as a safe and effective technique to treat intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  7. Noncirrhotic Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Causing Adult-Onset Encephalopathy Treated with Endovascular Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Elnekave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of episodic confusion and progressive ataxia. A comprehensive metabolic panel was notable for elevated values of alkaline phosphatase (161 U/L, total bilirubin (1.5 mg/dL, and serum ammonia of 300 umol/L (normal range 9–47. Hepatitis panel, relevant serological tests, tumor markers (CA-19-9, CEA, and urea cycle enzyme studies were unrevealing. Lactulose and rifaximin therapy failed to normalize serum ammonia levels. Imaging revealed a structural vascular abnormality communicating between an enlarged inferior mesenteric vein and the left renal vein, measuring 16 mm in greatest diameter. The diagnosis of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt was made and endovascular shunt closure was performed using a 22 mm Amplatzer II vascular plug. Within a day, serum ammonia levels normalized. Lactulose and rifaximin were discontinued, and confusion and ataxia resolved.

  8. Understanding Guyton's venous return curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Daniel A; Feigl, Eric O

    2011-01-01

    ...) was experimentally increased the right atrial pressure decreased, Arthur Guyton and coworkers proposed an interpretation that right atrial pressure represents a back pressure restricting venous return...

  9. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration.

  10. Models of the venous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac output is largely controlled by venous return, the driving force of which is the energy remaining at the postcapillary venous site. This force is influenced by forces acting close to the right atrium, and internally or externally upon the veins along their course. Analogue models....... The venous capacitance is also non-linear, but may be considered linear under certain conditions. The models have to include time varying pressure sources created by respiration and skeletal muscles, and if the description includes the upright position, the partly unidirectional flow through the venous...

  11. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with regard to non-healing and recurrence rates. Annually 6% of the total healthcare costs are spent on the treatment of venous diseases. CVD results from ambulatory venous hypertension and is the conse...

  12. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Hailu; Pesavento, Patricia A; Loretti, Alexandre P; Adaska, John M; Barr, Bradd C; Moore, Janet D; Anderson, Mark L; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Hill, Ashley E; Jones, Megan E B

    2014-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2012, 11 cases of congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy were diagnosed in goat kids necropsied at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and at the Department of Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis. Affected animals included 6 females and 5 males of various breeds including Boer (5/11), Nigerian Dwarf (1/11), Saanen (1/11), Toggenburg (1/11), and mixed-breed (3/11) aged between 1.5 months and 11 months, submitted live (2/11) or dead (9/11) for necropsy. The most frequent clinical signs in these goats were ataxia, blindness, tremors, head bobbing, head pressing, seizures, circling, weakness, and ill thrift. Bile acids were measured in 2 animals, and were elevated in both cases (134 and 209 µmol/l, reference interval = 0-50 µmol/l). Necropsy findings were poor to fair body condition. Grossly, the livers of 4 animals were subjectively small. Microscopic lesions included portal spaces with increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplastic or absent portal veins, diffuse atrophy of the hepatic parenchyma with the presence of small hepatocytes and, in some cases, multifocal hepatocellular macrovesicular vacuolation. In the brain and spinal cord of all animals, there was bilateral and symmetric spongy degeneration affecting the cerebrum, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. In all cases, the brain lesions were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Congenital portosystemic shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young goats with a history of ill thrift, and nonspecific neurological signs.

  13. PARTIAL PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNTING BY CARBON-COATED ePTFE GRAFTS FOR PORTAL HYPERTENSION IN CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Porshennikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our first experience gained in use of polytetrafluoroethylene carbon-coated grafts for partial portosystemic shunting in three cirrhotic patients. The results obtained indicate that these grafts in mesocaval position can function as a long-term «bridge» to hepatic transplantation in patients with uncontrolled gastroesophageal varices. The different options of portal hypertension treatment and the current role of shunting procedures in the era of liver transplantation are discussed in short literature review. 

  14. Intrahepatic Pseudoaneurysms Complicating Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Liver Transplantation Patients: Three Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung Won; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    An intrahepatic pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication following transjugular liver biopsy. Transarterial embolization is considered a safe and effective treatment for treating pseudoaneurysms. Herein we report three cases of intrahepatic pseudoaneurysms following transjugular liver biopsies. The three pseudoaneurysms were managed by the following methods: transarterial embolization, percutaneous transhepatic embolization, and close observation

  15. Elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural Yilmaz, Zehra; Gencosmanoglu Turkmen, Gulenay; Daglar, Korkut; Yılmaz, Elif; Kara, Ozgur; Uygur, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common pregnancy specific liver disease and related with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Red blood cell distribution width, an anisocytosis marker in a complete blood count, has been used as an inflammation marker in various diseases. However the association of red blood cell distribution width with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between red blood cell distribution width and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Ninety pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and ninety healthy pregnant women were included in the study. Their clinical and laboratory characteristics including red blood cell distribution width, liver function tests, fasting and postprandial bile acid concentrations were analyzed. Serum red blood cell distribution width cell levels were significantly higher in pregnants with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy than healthy pregnants. We also demonstrated that red blood cell distribution Width levels were higher in severe disease than mild disease and was significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial bile acid concentration in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group. Our study showed that red blood cell distribution width, an easy and inexpensive marker; were associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

  16. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  17. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  18. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  19. Models of the venous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J

    2000-01-01

    . The venous capacitance is also non-linear, but may be considered linear under certain conditions. The models have to include time varying pressure sources created by respiration and skeletal muscles, and if the description includes the upright position, the partly unidirectional flow through the venous...

  20. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  1. Impaired fetal myocardial deformation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuemei; Zhou, Qichang; Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Yiling

    2014-07-01

    To investigate changes in fetal myocardial deformation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy were divided into 2 groups according to the total maternal serum bile acid concentration: mild cholestasis (10-40 μmol/L) and severe cholestasis (>40 μmol/L). Fetal echocardiography and velocity vector imaging were performed on women with cholestasis and control patients. The left ventricular global longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Clinical characteristics, maternal serum bile acid levels, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in umbilical vein blood were compared between groups. The relationships among fetal myocardial deformation, maternal total bile acids, and cord NT-proBNP were analyzed. Twenty women with mild cholestasis, 20 with severe cholestasis, and 40 control patients were enrolled. There were no significant differences in maternal and gestational ages between the case and control groups. Maternal bile acids and NT-proBNP were significantly higher in fetuses of mothers with cholestasis than control fetuses. The left ventricular longitudinal strain (-10.56% ± 1.83% versus -18.36% ± 1.11%; P cholestasis compared with control fetuses. There were positive correlations between fetal myocardial deformation and maternal total bile acids (r = 0.705, 0.643, and 0.690, respectively; P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Further investigation is needed to determine whether fetal echocardiography and velocity vector imaging can help predict which fetuses of mothers with cholestasis are likely to have poor outcomes. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Mucins and NCAM (CD56 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Telles Esperança

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the hepatobiliary system. During cholangiocarcinogenesis phenotypic changes occur in the ductal epithelium, including the expression of mucins (MUC. However, the evaluating studies of the expression of mucins in the different stages of cholangiocarcinogenesis are scarce. CD56 has also contributed in differentiating benign ductal proliferation and cholangiocarcinoma; however, its expression has not been evaluated in dysplastic epithelium of the bile duct yet. Objective: To assess immunohistochemical profile of (MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 in cholangiocarcinoma, pre-neoplastic and reactive lesions in the epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts. Material and methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 were studied for 11 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 83 intrahepatic bile ducts (67 reactive and 16 dysplastic. Variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: The expression of MUC1 occurred in about 90% of the cholangiocarcinomas, contrasting with the low frequency of positive cases in reactive and dysplastic bile ducts (p < 0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the expression of MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 between the reactive or dysplastic lesions and cholangiocarcinoma. The anti-MUC2 antibody was negative in all cases. Conclusions: MUC1 contributed for the differential diagnosis between cholangiocarcinoma and pre-neoplastic and reactive/regenerative lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts, and it should compose the antibodies panel aiming at improvement of these differential diagnoses. In contrast, MUC2, MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 were not promising in differentiating all the phases of cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts with biliary peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Coker, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts is a rare cause of acute abdomen due to biliary peritonitis. We report a 92-year-old woman with 48-h history of upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and peritoneal signs. CT scan showed free fluid in the abdomen and mild dilatation of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy showed bile in the abdominal cavity with leak-age from a ruptured bile duct radicle in segment 3, as confirmed on intraoperative cholangiography. She underwent cholecystectomy, choledochotomy with removal of gallstones, repair of the perforation with primary suture and placement of a T-tube. She had an uneventful recovery.

  4. Etiological and clinicopathologic characteristics of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in young patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence,risk factors,and clinicopathologic characteristics of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC)in young patients.METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed in ICC patients referred to the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai,China.Among 317 consecutively enrolled patients,40 patients were aged ≤40 years(12.61%).We compared the risk factors and clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients(groupⅠ:n=40)with those aged>40 years(group Ⅱ:n=277).RESULTS:Group I...

  5. Management of venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Gresham T; Braswell, Leah

    2012-12-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) frequently occur in the head and neck with a predilection for the parotid gland, submandibular triangle, buccal space, muscles of mastication, lips, and upper aerodigestive tract. They are composed of congenitally disrupted ectatic veins with inappropriate connections and tubular channels. Because VMs have poorly defined boundaries and a tendency to infiltrate normal tissue, they require calculated treatment decisions in the effort to preserve surrounding architecture. Sclerotherapy, surgical excision, neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser therapy, or a combination of these modalities is employed in the management of VMs. Although many small VMs can be cured, the objective is often to control the disease with periodic therapy. Location, size, and proximity to vital structures dictate the type of therapy chosen. Vigilance with long-term follow up is important. This review outlines current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to simple and extensive cervicofacial VMs. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Overview of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-14

    Thrombosis occurs at sites of injury to the vessel wall, by inflammatory processes leading to activation of platelets, platelet adherence to the vessel wall and the formation of a fibrin network. A thrombus that goes on to occlude a blood vessel is known as a thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism begins with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which forms in the deep veins of the leg (calf) or pelvis. In some cases, the DVT becomes detached from the vein and is transported to the right-hand side of the heart, and from there to the pulmonary arteries, giving rise to a pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain factors predispose patients toward the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including surgery, trauma, hospitalization, immobilization, cancer, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, major medical illness and previous VTE; in addition, there may also be a genetic component to VTE. VTE is responsible for a substantial number of deaths per annum in Europe. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of both VTE treatment and VTE prevention, and many professional organizations have published guidelines on the appropriate use of anticoagulant therapies for VTE. Treatment of VTE aims to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, and any long-term complications such as VTE recurrence or post-thrombotic syndrome. Generally, guidelines recommend the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH) or fondaparinux for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of VTE, with the duration of therapy varying according to the baseline characteristics and risk profile of the individual. Despite evidence showing that the use of anticoagulation prevents VTE, the availability of several convenient, effective anticoagulant therapies and the existence of clear guideline recommendations, thromboprophylaxis is underused, particularly in patients not undergoing surgery. Greater adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, such as LMWH, which can be

  8. Extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a 8 month-old female maltese dogShunt portossistêmico extra-hepático em cadela maltês de 8 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Cristina Reginatto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The shunt portosystemic or portosystemic deviation (PSD are unique or multiples vascular communications between the systemic circulaton and the portal circulation, that permit blood flow reaches the circulatory system without first passing trhought the hepatic metabolization. May be acquired or congenital and can also be classified as intrahepatic located within the liver or extrahepatic located outside the liver parenquima. The acquired form is usually associated with intra-hepatic disorders. They usually suggest tortuous vessels that communicate with the caudal vena cava in the region of the left kidney. The congenital form is associated with genetic lineage and one of the most affected is Maltese breed. This case report describes the diagnostis and treatment of a eight year-old female Maltese dog presenting extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. The patient showed signs of hepatic encephalopathy, such as restlessnees, weakness, deambulation, head tremor and impaired visual. Complementary exam demonstrated: postprandial glicemia near the lower limit of reference, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT increased and hipoalbuminemia. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of vesical calculus and bilateral kidney, liver decreases and increased echogenicity, gallbladder with anechoic content and high cellularity may suggest liver/ colangiohepatopatia and extrahepatic DPS was detected. The use of Doppler assisted in identifying the location of the bypass communication and the turbulence detecting the extrahepatic DPS. Protein-restricted diet and antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin achieved good results. The clinical treatment was decided make only the clinical and maintain the quality of life of the patient.O shunt portossistêmico ou desvio portossistêmico (DPS são comunicações vasculares únicas ou múltiplas entre a circulação sistêmica e a circulação portal, que permite que o sangue portal chegue ao sistema circulat

  9. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 translocations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Pestova, Ekaterina; Schulz, John; Sitailo, Leonid A; Vasmatzis, George; Murphy, Stephen J; McWilliams, Robert R; Hart, Steven N; Halling, Kevin C; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Couch, Fergus J; Zhang, Lizhi; Borad, Mitesh J; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Patients with cholangiocarcinoma often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. There is a need for effective therapeutic strategies for advanced stage cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, FGFR2 translocations have been identified as a potential target for tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies. This study evaluated 152 cholangiocarcinomas and 4 intraductal papillary biliary neoplasms of the bile duct for presence of FGFR2 translocations by fluorescence in situ hybridization and characterized the clinicopathologic features of cases with FGFR2 translocations. Thirteen (10 women, 3 men; 8%) of 156 biliary tumors harbored FGFR2 translocations, including 12 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (12/96; 13%) and 1 intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. Histologically, cholangiocarcinomas with FGFR2 translocations displayed prominent intraductal growth (62%) or anastomosing tubular glands with desmoplasia (38%). Immunohistochemically, the tumors with FGFR2 translocations frequently showed weak and patchy expression of CK19 (77%). Markers of the stem cell phenotype in cholangiocarcinoma, HepPar1 and CK20, were negative in all cases. The median cancer-specific survival for patients whose tumors harbored FGFR2 translocations was 123 months compared to 37 months for cases without FGFR2 translocations (P = .039). This study also assessed 100 cholangiocarcinomas for ERBB2 amplification and ROS1 translocations. Of the cases tested, 3% and 1% were positive for ERBB2 amplification and ROS1 translocation, respectively. These results confirm that FGFR2, ERRB2, and ROS1 alterations are potential therapeutic targets for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  11. Giant Intrahepatic Portal Vein Aneurysm: Leave it or Treat it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagdeesh S; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2017-03-01

    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare vascular dilatation of the portal vein. It is a rare vascular anomaly representing less than 3% of all visceral aneurysms and is not well understood. Usually, PVA are incidental findings, are asymptomatic, and clinical symptoms are proportionally related to size. Patients present with nonspecific epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding with underlying portal hypertension. PVA may be associated with various complications such as biliary tract compression, portal vein thrombosis/rupture, duodenal compression, gastrointestinal bleeding, and inferior vena cava obstruction. Differential diagnoses of portal vein aneurysms are solid, cystic, and hypervascular abdominal masses, and it is important that the radiologists be aware of their multi-modality appearance; hence, the aim of this article was to provide an overview of the available literature to better simplify various aspects of this rare entity and diagnostic appearance on different modality with available treatment options. In our case, a 55-year-old male patient came to the gastroenterology OPD for further management of pancreatitis with portal hypertension and biliary obstruction with plastic stents in CBD and PD for the same. In this article, we have reported a case of largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and its management by endovascular technique. As per our knowledge, this is the largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and first case where the endovascular technique was used for the treatment of the same.

  12. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed.

  13. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and venous stenoses in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Akeson, P; Sillesen, H;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional view that multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease has recently been challenged by the claim that MS is caused by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). Although several studies have questioned this vascular theory, the CCSVI controversy is still ongoing. Our...... aim was to assess the prevalence of CCSVI in Danish MS patients using sonography and compare these findings with MRI measures of venous flow and morphology....

  14. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The etiology of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: towards solving a monkey puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwilym J; Elsharkawy, Ahmed M; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological findings implicate genetic predisposition and the effects of elevated steroids in pregnancy in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. To date, a number of studies have identified polymorphisms encoding biliary canalicular transporters, including those encoded by ABCB4 and ABCB11, which are associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Questions remain regarding divergent findings between populations and the relative contributions of these polymorphisms. In a large study of Western European women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Dixon et al. (this issue) provide further insights into the genetics of this cholestatic syndrome, which contribute to ongoing evaluation of cholestasis generally.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Controversy over the ASSLD Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Hang Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC are both regarded as primary liver cancers, having different biological behaviors and prognoses. Correct differentiation between them is essential for surgical planning and prognosis assessment. In 2005, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD recommended that noninvasive diagnosis of HCC is achievable by a single dynamic technique (including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS showing intense arterial uptake followed by washout of contrast in the venous-delayed phases. However, CEUS has been dropped from the diagnostic techniques in the latest AASLD guideline according to the opinion of some authors from Europe that CEUS may offer false positive HCC diagnosis in patients with ICC. Since the update of AASLD guideline has been released, increased attention has been paid to this interesting topic. Remarkable controversy over this issue is present and this removal was not well received in Europe and Asia. This commentary summarized the opinions for the role of CUES in differentiation between HCC and ICC in recent years. It is concluded that prospective studies with strict design and large case series are mandatory to solve the controversies and stratification of ICC in terms of tumor size and liver background is also essential.

  17. Maternal and fetal serum levels of caspase-cleaved fragments of cytokeratin-18 in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Kirbas, Ayse; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ebru; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Ergin, Merve; Erkaya, Salim; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and caspase-cleaved fragments of cytokeratin-18, also referred to as M30, a marker of apoptosis. In this case-control study, maternal and umbilical cord blood venous samples were obtained from 21 pregnant women with ICP and 22 healthy pregnant women as a control group. M30 levels were compared among the groups. Maternal serum M30 levels were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control (p < 0.001) and mild ICP groups (p = 0.006). The values were comparable between the mild ICP and the control groups. The umbilical cord serum M30 levels were also significantly greater in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p = 0.001). Changes in M30 levels, as an apoptosis marker, may shed light on the pathogenesis of ICP. Explaining the mechanisms of bile acid (BA)-induced hepatocyte injury may contribute further therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human cholestatic diseases.

  18. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: ...

  19. Venous Thromboembolism and Atherosclerosis link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2011-01-01

    @@ Past always venous thrombosis and arterial thrombo-sis as a separate system to be discussed, the main reason is because there is between the anatomical and pathologi-cal physiological differences, the clinical manifestations are very different.

  20. Venous complications of pancreatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2015-01-31

    Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose a system to classify pancreatitis associated venous complications.

  1. Neonatal Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Haley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE, and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults. Platelet function, pro- and anticoagulant proteins concentrations, and fibrinolytic pathway protein concentrations are developmentally regulated and generate a hemostatic homeostasis that is unique to the neonatal time period. The clinical picture of a critically ill neonate combined with the physiologically distinct neonatal hemostatic system easily fulfills the criteria for Virchow’s triad with venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury and puts the neonatal patient at risk for VTE development. The presentation of a VTE in a neonate is similar to that of older children or adults and is dependent upon location of the VTE. Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool employed in identifying neonatal VTE, but relatively small vessels of the neonate as well as frequent low pulse pressure can make ultrasound less reliable. The diagnosis of a thrombophilic disorder in the neonatal population is unlikely to change management or outcome, and the role of thrombophilia testing in this population requires further study. Treatment of neonatal VTE is aimed at reducing VTE-associated morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for treating, though, cannot be extrapolated from guidelines for older children or adults. Neonates are at risk for bleeding complications, particularly younger neonates with more fragile intracranial vessels. Developmental alterations in the

  2. Assessment of the attenuation of an intra-abdominal vein by use of a silicone-polyacrylic acid gradual venous occlusion device in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mandy L; Ellison, Gary W; Giglio, Robson F; Batich, Christopher D; Berry, Clifford R; Case, J Brad; Kim, Stanley E

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the closure rate and completeness of closure for a silicone-polyacrylic acid gradual venous occlusion device placed around an intra-abdominal vein to simulate gradual occlusion of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. ANIMALS 3 purpose-bred cats and 2 purpose-bred dogs. PROCEDURES The device was surgically placed around an external (cats) or internal (dogs) iliac vein. Computed tomographic angiography was performed at the time of surgery and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. Ultrasonographic examinations of blood flow through the vein within the device were performed at the time of surgery and at weekly intervals thereafter. Dogs were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery, and the external iliac veins were harvested for histologic examination. RESULTS The prototype gradual venous occlusion device was successfully placed in all animals, and all animals recovered without complications following the placement procedure. The vessel was completely occluded in 2 cats by 6 weeks after surgery, as determined on the basis of results of CT and ultrasonography; there was incomplete occlusion with a luminal diameter of 1.5 mm in the other cat by 6 weeks after surgery. The vessel was completely occluded in both dogs by 6 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the external iliac veins obtained from the dogs revealed minimal inflammation of the vessel wall and no thrombus formation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prototype device induced gradual attenuation of an intra-abdominal vessel over a 6-week period. This device may provide another option for gradual occlusion of extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

  3. Distant skeletal muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh Sung Kwon; Young Sook Park; Jong Eun Joo; Dae Won Jun; Sang Heum Kim; Mee Yeon Chung; Nam In Kim; Moon Hee Song; Han Hyo Lee; Seung Hwan Kim; Yoon Ju Jo

    2007-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the biliary epithelium, which frequently invades adjacent organs or metastasizes to other visceral organs such as the lungs, bones, adrenals, and brain. However, distant skeletal muscle metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma has never been described before to the best of our knowledge and, furthermore, Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also extremely rare. Here we present the first case overall of distant muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome. A 44-year-old man admitted to the hospital with complaints of abdominal distension, edema of both legs, back pain and anorexia of 30 o" duration. Computed tomography and ultrasonography-guided percutaneous muscle biopsy established intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with disseminated thrombosis from inferior vena cava to bilateral iliac and femoral veins, and multiple skeletal muscle metastases in bilateral buttock and erector spinal muscle.

  4. [Study on the relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Kuang, Jingxia; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and the perinatal prognosis, as well as the characteristics of perinatal situations. A retrospective study on the clinical data of 88 cases intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and prognosis that were treated in our hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2014 was carried out. Relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis, together with the epidemiological features of infants were analyzed. The incidence rates of perinatal meconium stained amniotic fluid, asphyxia neonatorum, premature and fetal distress were significantly higher in the study group than those in the controls, with differences statistically significant (P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, with most frequently seen as meconium stained amniotic fluid. It was necessary to monitor the level of prenatal CG, ALT, AST, TBIL and TBA in puerperant in predicting the perinatal prognosis.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter S; Jelnes, Peter; Hopkinson, Branden M

    2011-01-01

    biliary tree forms through several developmental stages involving an initial transition of primitive hepatocytes into cholangiocytes shaping the ductal plate followed by a process of maturation and remodeling where the intrahepatic biliary tree develops through an asymmetrical form of cholangiocyte...

  6. Transcriptomic and histopathological analysis of cholangiolocellular differentiation trait in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Hyungjin; Ko, Jung Eun; Chung, Taek

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a heterogeneous entity with diverse etiologies, morphologies, and clinical outcomes. Recently, histopathological distinction of cholangiolocellular differentiation (CD) of iCCA has been suggested. However, its genome-wide molecular feat...

  7. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yasuda

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis.

  8. Simultaneous intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage in antiphospholipid syndrome following anticoagulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Chul; Baek, Yang-Hyun; Han, Sang-Young; Lee, Sung-Wook; Chung, Won-Tae; Lee, Sung-Won; Kang, Sang-Hyeon; Cho, Duk-Song

    2013-10-14

    Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant. Interindividual differences in drug response, a narrow therapeutic range and the risk of bleeding render warfarin difficult to use clinically. An 18-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome received long-term warfarin therapy for a recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Six years later, she developed right flank pain. We diagnosed intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhages secondary to anticoagulation therapy. After stopping oral anticoagulation, a follow-up computed tomography showed improvement in the hemorrhage. After restarting warfarin because of a recurrent thrombosis, the intrahepatic hemorrhage recurred. We decided to start clopidogrel and hydroxychloroquine instead of warfarin. The patient has not developed further recurrent thrombotic or bleeding episodes. Intrahepatic hemorrhage is a very rare complication of warfarin, and our patient experienced intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage although she did not have any risk factors for bleeding or instability of the international normalized ratio control.

  9. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: When should you look further?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winita Hardikar; Shivani Kansal; Ronald P J Oude Elferink; Peter Angus

    2009-01-01

    Pruritis with abnormal liver function tests is the classical presentation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a condition associated with significant fetal complications. Although the etiology of ICP is unclear in many cases, certain features of the clinical presentation should alert the practitioner to the possibility of an underlying metabolic defect,which may not only affect subsequent pregnancies,but may be an indicator of more serious subsequent liver disease. We report a kindred of Anglo-Celtic descent, among whom many members present with ICP, gallstones or cholestasis related to use of oral contraception. Genetic studies revealed a novel mutation in the ABCB4 gene, which codes for a phospholipid transport protein. The clinical significance of this mutation and the importance of identifying such patients are discussed.

  10. A clinical approach to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Zaid; Usta, Ihab M; Nassar, Anwar H

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has a varying prevalence worldwide. The etiology behind this disease remains not fully understood with multiple factors influencing its development including genetic variations, dietary factors, hormonal changes, and environmental influences. Presenting mainly during the third trimester with generalized itching and resolving spontaneously postpartum, this condition is still associated with fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation in association with biochemical abnormalities. Elevation in total bile acid levels is the most frequent laboratory abnormality and seems to be the most important for gauging further management of the disease. The most appropriate gestational age for the delivery of women with ICP is yet to be determined. In this review we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, etiology, and management of ICP, trying to shed light on some controversial aspects of the disease.

  11. Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, R; Joypaul, B V

    2005-11-14

    Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one. We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis due to rupture of an intra-hepatic biliary radical. Unusual causes of peritonitis do interrupt our daily routine emergency surgical experience. Rapid recognition of the presence of peritonitis, adequate resuscitation, recognition of operative findings, establishment of biliary anatomy, and performance of a meticulous surgical procedure resulted in a good outcome.

  12. The molecular genetics of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P H; Williamson, C

    2008-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis, causes maternal pruritus and liver impairment, and may be complicated by spontaneous preterm labour, fetal asphyxial events and intrauterine death. Our understanding of the aetiology of this disease has expanded significantly in the last decade due to a better understanding of the role played by genetic factors. In particular, advances in our knowledge of bile homeostasis has led to the identification of genes that play a considerable role in susceptibility to ICP. In this review we consider these advances and discuss the disease in the context of bile synthesis and metabolism, focusing on the genetic discoveries that have shed light on the molecular aetiology and pathophysiology of the condition. PMID:27582788

  13. Rifampicin in the treatment of severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenes, Victoria; Chambers, Jenny; Khurana, Rshmi; Shemer, Elisabeth Wikstrom; Sia, Winnie; Mandair, Dalvinder; Elias, Elwyn; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Hague, William; Williamson, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the use of combined ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and rifampicin treatment in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A questionnaire survey of 27 women with 28 affected pregnancies identified via the UK and International Obstetric Medicine forum. The clinical case notes of women with ICP treated with combined UDCA and rifampicin therapy were reviewed, and data regarding maternal and perinatal outcomes extracted. Serum bile acids remained high whilst taking UDCA as monotherapy. In 14 pregnancies (54%) serum bile acids decreased following the introduction of rifampicin. In 10 pregnancies (38%), there was a 50% reduction in serum bile acids. There were no adverse effects reported with either drug. This is the first report of the use of rifampicin in ICP. The data suggest that combined treatment with UDCA and rifampicin is an effective way of treating women with severe ICP who do not respond to treatment with UDCA alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, I V; Andreev, D N; Dicheva, D T; Kaznacheeva, T V

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a relatively benign cholestatic pathology of the liver developing in II or III trimester of pregnancy and characterized by itchy skin and enhanced serum bile acid levels. The cause of ICP is unknown; it may have a multifactor nature involving genetic (ABCB4, EXR, ABCC2 genes), hormonal (estrogens, progesterone), and environmental factors. As a rule, ICP first manifests itself on weeks 28-30 of pregnancy in the form of pruritus especially pronounced at night time. Almost half of the patients develop jaundice, usually within 1-4 weeks after appearance of pruritus. The enhanced serum bile acid level is sometimes the first or the sole laboratory sign of the disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of ICP due to its confirmed effectiveness and safety.

  15. Evaluation of ventricular repolarization in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ozgur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kurmus, Ozge; Danisman, Nuri; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can induce arrhythmia by altering cardiomyocyte contractility or electrical conduction. The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of QT dispersion parameter detected by simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular repolarization changes in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study including 75 pregnant women with cholestasis and 35 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy cases, electrocardiographic QT interval durations and QT dispersion (QT-disp) parameters, corrected for the patients' heart rate using the Hodges formula, were investigated. Maximum corrected QT interval values were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p cholestasis when compared to the normal ones. This simple ECG parameter can be used to screen high-risk women, in order to better target counseling regarding lifestyle modifications and to conduct closer follow up and management of women with a history of ICP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: When should you look further?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Winita; Kansal, Shivani; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Angus, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Pruritis with abnormal liver function tests is the classical presentation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a condition associated with significant fetal complications. Although the etiology of ICP is unclear in many cases, certain features of the clinical presentation should alert the practitioner to the possibility of an underlying metabolic defect, which may not only affect subsequent pregnancies, but may be an indicator of more serious subsequent liver disease. We report a kindred of Anglo-Celtic descent, among whom many members present with ICP, gallstones or cholestasis related to use of oral contraception. Genetic studies revealed a novel mutation in the ABCB4 gene, which codes for a phospholipid transport protein. The clinical significance of this mutation and the importance of identifying such patients are discussed. PMID:19266607

  17. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy-current achievements and unsolved problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrackiene, Jurate; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2008-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common pregnancy-related liver disorder. Maternal effects of ICP are mild; however, there is a clear association between ICP and higher frequency of fetal distress, preterm delivery, and sudden intrauterine fetal death. The cause of ICP remains elusive, but there is evidence that mutations in genes encoding hepatobiliary transport proteins can predispose for the development of ICP. Recent data suggest that ursodeoxycholic acid is currently the most effective pharmacologic treatment, whereas obstetric management is still debated. Clinical trials are required to identify the most suitable monitoring modalities that can specifically predict poor perinatal outcome. This article aims to review current achievements and unsolved problems of ICP. PMID:18855975

  18. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  19. Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Lochan; BV Joypaul

    2005-01-01

    Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one.We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis due to rupture of an intra-hepatic biliary radical. Unusual causes of peritonitis do interrupt our daily routine emergency surgical experience. Rapid recognition of the presence of peritonitis, adequate resuscitation, recognition of operative findings, establishment of biliary anatomy, and performance of a meticulous surgical procedure resulted in a good outcome.

  20. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy-current achievements and unsolved problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jurate Kondrackiene; Limes Kupcinskas

    2008-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common pregnancy-related liver disorder. Maternal effects of ICP are mild; however, there is a clear association between ICP and higher frequency of fetal distress, preterm delivery, and sudden intrauterine fetal death. The cause of ICP remains elusive, but there is evidence that mutations in genes encoding hepatobiliary transport proteins can predispose for the development of ICP. Recent data suggest that ursodeoxycholic acid is currently the most effective pharmacologic treatment, whereas obstetric management is still debated. Clinical trials are required to identify the most suitable monitoring modalities that can specifically predict poor perinatal outcome. This article aims to review current achievements and unsolved problems of ICP.

  1. The miRNAome of Opisthorchis viverrini induced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC is an aggressive cancer, arising in the biliary ducts that extend into the liver. The highest incidence of ICC occurs in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Mekong River Basin countries of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, where it is strongly associated with chronic infection by the food-borne liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV, one of only three eukaryote pathogens considered Group one carcinogens. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, with a poor prognosis and survival often less than 24 months. Hence, biomarkers that enable the early detection of ICC would be desirable and have a potentially important impact on the public health in the resource-poor regions where this cancer is most prevalent. As microRNAs (miRNAs remain well preserved after formalin fixation, there is much interest in developing them as biomarkers that can be investigated using tumor biopsy samples preserved in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tumor blocks. Recently, we reported the first comprehensive profiling of tissue-based miRNA expression using FFPE from the three most common subtypes of OV-induced ICC tumors: moderately differentiated ICC, papillary ICC, and well-differentiated ICC. We observed that each subtype of OV-induced ICC exhibited a distinct miRNA profile, which suggested the involvement of specific sets of miRNAs in the progression of this cancer. In addition, non-tumor tissue adjacent to ICC tumor tissue on the same FFPE block shared a similar miRNA dysregulation profile with the tumor tissue than with normal (non-tumor liver tissue (individuals without ICC or OV infection. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the microarray analysis procedures used to derive these findings.

  2. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Intrahepatic Biliary Cystadenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yue Xu; Xian-Jie Shi; Tao Wan; Yu-Rong gang; Hong-Guang Wang; Wen-Zhi Zhang; Lei He

    2015-01-01

    Background:Surgical resection is generally considered the main curative treatment for intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma (IBCA) or suspected IBCAs,but controversy exists regarding the prognosis for IBCAs.This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of IBCA and identify prognostic factors that may influence the survival of patients treated with surgical procedures.Methods:Thirty-four patients with histologically confirmed IBCA treated between January 2000 and June 2014 were included.The clinical characteristics of patients with IBCA were compared with those of 41 patients with intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma (IBC);factors that significant difference were analyzed for prognosis analysis of IBCA using multivariate/univariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.Results:IBCAs had a strong female predominance,and the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain or discomfort.Compared with IBCs,IBCAs occurred in older patients,in more male patients,and were associated statistically significant abnormal increase in alanine aminotransferase (P =0.01) and total bilirubin (P =0.04).Mural nodules were more frequently seen with IBCAs and may associate with malignancy.It was difficult to differentiate between IBC and IBCA based on laboratory examination and imaging findings.Although complete resection is recommended,enucleation with negative margins also achieved good outcomes.Median overall patient survival was 76.2 months;survival at 1,3,and 5 years was 88.0%,68.7%,and 45.8%,respectively.Radical resection and noninvasive tumor type were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.Conclusions:It remains difficult to distinguish between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas based on laboratory examination and image findings.Complete resection is recommended for curative treatment,and patients should be closely followed

  3. Contemporary diagnosis of venous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee BB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BB Lee,1 I Baumgartner21Department of Surgery, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 2Swiss Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Venous malformation is a congenital vascular malformation resulting from defective development during various stages of embryogenesis and selectively affecting the venous system. Depending on the embryologic stage when the developmental arrest occurred, the clinical presentation of venous malformation is extremely variable in location, extent, severity, natural progression, and hemodynamic impact. Extratruncular lesions occur in the earlier stages of embryonic life, and retain characteristics unique to mesenchymal cells (angioblasts, growing and proliferating when stimulated internally (eg, by menarche, pregnancy, and hormones or externally (eg, by trauma or surgery. These lesions also have a significant hemodynamic impact on the venous system involved, in addition to the risk of localized intravascular coagulopathy. However, truncal lesions, as defective developments along the late stage, no longer carry the risk of proliferation and recurrence due to lack of mesenchymal characteristics. Although, they often have serious hemodynamic consequences due to direct involvement of the main vein trunk. Therefore, a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination should be followed by an appropriate combination of noninvasive and less invasive tests (eg, Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography to confirm the clinical impression as well as to define the extent and severity of the venous malformation. Invasive tests, eg, phlebography or angiography, are seldom needed for the diagnosis per se. Additional evaluation for coagulation abnormalities, eg, D-dimer and fibrinogen levels, is generally recommended, especially for the treatment of surgery and endovascular candidates with extensive lesions to assess the localized intravascular

  4. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Is Hepatectomy Necessary in Dealing with Left Hepatolithiasis with Intrahepatic Duct Stricture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Franco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatolithiasis with intrahepatic biliary strictures, more common in Southeast Asia than elsewhere, remains a difficult problem to manage. Hepatic resection has recently been advocated as one of the treatment modalities for hepatolithiasis; however, this procedure is not without risk. This study was designed to achieve complete clearance of the stones, eliminate bile stasis, and avoid the potential risks of hepatic resection in the patient with hepatolithiasis and intrahepatic biliary stricture.

  6. Review to better understand the macroscopic subtypes and histogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuichi; Sanada; Yujo; Kawashita; Satomi; Okada; Takashi; Azuma; Shigetoshi; Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is macroscopically classified into three subtypes, mass-forming-type, periductal infiltrating-type, and intraductal growth-type. Each subtype should be preoperatively differentiated to perform the valid surgical resection. Recent researches have revealed the clinical, radiologic, pathobiological characteristics of each subtype. We reviewed recently published studies covering various aspects of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC), focusing especially on the macroscopic subtypes and stem cell features to better understand the pathophysiology of ICC and to establish the valid therapeutic strategy.

  7. Longitudinal profiles of 15 serum bile acids in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Rachel M; Dann, Anthony T; Kenyon, Anna P; Seed, Paul; Shennan, Andrew H; Mallet, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Increased maternal serum bile acids are implicated in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Individual bile acid profiles and their relationship with disease progression, however, remain unknown. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the temporal changes in bile acids in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and pruritus gravidarum. A validated method for the evaluation of 15 bile acids (conjugated and unconjugated) in a single serum sample was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) with an electrospray interface. Bile acid concentrations were assessed in samples (16 weeks of gestation to 4 weeks postpartum) from women with, or who later developed, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (n=63) and were compared with those from normal pregnant women (n=26) and from women with pruritus gravidarum (n=43). Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was associated with a predominant increase in cholic acid conjugated with taurine and glycine, from 24 weeks of pregnancy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment (> or =21 days, n=15) significantly reduced serum taurocholic and taurodeoxycholic acid concentrations (Ppregnancy and pregnancy associated with pruritus gravidarum. The bile acid profiles and effects of treatment by UDCA implicate a role for taurine-conjugated bile acids in the syndrome of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. [corrected] With regard to individual bile acid profiles, pruritus gravidarum is a disorder quite distinct from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

  8. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Nomi, Takeo; Hokuto, Daisuke; Yamato, Ichiro; Obara, Shinsaku; Yamada, Takatsugu; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) possesses a potential risk for spontaneous rupture, which leads to a life-threatening complication with a high mortality rate. In addition, a large HCC is frequently accompanied by intrahepatic metastases. We describe, the case of a 74-year-old woman with a huge extrahepatically expanding HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases who was treated by liver resection with repeated transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). To prevent tumor rupture or bleeding, we performed right hepatectomy. After the operation, TACE was applied for multiple intrahepatic metastases in the remnant liver. Furthermore, the elevated protein induced vitamin K absence (PIVKA II) level had decreased to limits within the normal range. Three months after the first TACE, computed tomography revealed several recurrences in the liver. TACE was applied for the second and third time and the tumors were well controlled. Although, liver resection is occasionally performed for patients with huge HCC to avoid spontaneous tumor rupture, only surgical approach might not be sufficient for such advanced HCC. To achieve long-term survival, it is necessary to control the residual intrahepatic tumors. We could control multiple intrahepatic metastases with repeated TACEs after hepatectomy. Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Byung Boong; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Myers, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    ). Their aim was to confirm or dispel long-held hemodynamic principles and to provide a comprehensive review of venous hemodynamic concepts underlying the pathophysiology of lower limb venous disorders, their usefulness for investigating patients and the relevant hemodynamic changes associated with various......There are excellent guidelines for clinicians to manage venous diseases but few reviews to assess their hemodynamic background. Hemodynamic concepts that evolved in the past have largely remained unchallenged in recent decades, perhaps due to their often complicated nature and in part due...... not provide the physiological basis for understanding the hemodynamics of flow, pressure, compliance and resistance. Hemodynamic investigations appear to provide a better correlation with post-treatment clinical outcome and quality of life than ultrasound findings. There is a far better prospect...

  10. Complications after surgical attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs can be prevented by intraoperative Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of portal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    Under normal circumstances the blood from the gastrointestinal tract flows via the portal vein to the liver. The detoxified blood leaves the liver via the hepatic veins to the caudal vena cava, which latter enters the heart. Portosystemic shunting occurs when an anomalous vein allows the portal bloo

  11. Side effects of budesonide in liver cirrhosis due to chronic autoimmune hepatitis: Influence of hepatic metabolism versus portosystemic shunts on a patient complicated with HCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Geier; Carsten Gartung; Christoph G.Dietrich; Hermann E. Wasmuth; Patrick Reinatz; Siegfried Matern

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the systemic availability of budesonide in a patient with Child A cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, who developed serious side effects.METHODS: Serum levels of budesonide, 6β-OH-budesonide and 16α-OH-prednisolon were measured by HPLC/MS/MS;portosystemic shunt-index (SI) was determined by 99mTc nuclear imaging. All values were compared with a matched control patient without side effects.RESULTS: Serum levels of budesonide were 13-fold increased in the index patient. The ratio between serum levels of the metabolites 6β-OH-budesonide and 16α-OHprednisolone, respectively, and serum levels of budesonide was diminished (1.0 vs. 4.0 for 6β-OH-budesonide, 4.2 vs.10.7 for 16α-OH-prednisolone). Both patients had portosystemic SI (5.7 % and 3.1%) within the range of healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: Serum levels of budesonide vary up to 13-fold in AIH patients with Child A cirrhosis in the absence of relevant portosystemic shunting. Reduced hepatic metabolism, as indicated by reduced metabolite-to-drug ratio, rather than portosystemic shunting may explain systemic side effects of this drug in cirrhosis.

  12. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  13. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates.

  14. A young man with nonhealing venous ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloedbeld, M. G.; Venema, A. W.; Smit, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with nonhealing ulcers at an atypical location on his left foot, caused by a combination of venous insufficiency (after deep venous thrombosis) and arterial insufficiency. The underlying cause was Buerger's disease.

  15. [Automatic regulator of venous pressure and venous outflow in the perfusion system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, L M; Levinskiĭ, M M; Kharnas, S Sh; Cherniak, V A

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for automatic regulation of the venous pressure and venous blood outflow during extracorporeal circulation is proposed. The system consists of a photoelectric sensor placed on a tube led out of the major venous trunkline, a converter and an electromechanical eccentric clamp that compresses the venous trunkline, all of which secures stabilization of the controlled values.

  16. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi; Hamid Zamani Moghadam Dolu; Elham Pishbin; Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central veno...

  17. Venous manifestations of spinal arteriovenous fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, T; van Dijk, JMC; Willinsky, RA

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of the spinal cord venous outflow may create symptoms caused by venous hypertension and congestion. This has been referred to as venous congestive myelopathy. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, as well as some of the epidural arteriovenous fistulas and perimedullary spinal cord arteriov

  18. Anomalous pulmonary venous return: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyeong Min; Kang, MinJin; Lee, Han Bee; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jaehe; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a type of congenital pulmonary venous anomaly. We present a rare type of partial pulmonary venous return, subaortic vertical vein drains left lung to superior vena cava, accompanying hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung and pulmonary artery. We also review the previous report and relationship of these structures.

  19. Extracorporal albumin dialysis (MARS) improves cholestasis and normalizes low apo A-I levels in a patient with benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, E; Franssen, CFM; Gouw, A; Staels, B; Boverhof, R; de Knegt, RJ; Stellaard, F; Bijleveld, CMA; Kuipers, F

    The familial cholestatic diseases Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC) and Progessive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) are characterized by intermittent or permanently elevated plasma bile salt levels, therapy-resistant extreme pruritus and peculiar biochemical

  20. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  1. Venous thrombosis : a patient's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korlaar, Inez van

    2006-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis had two main aims: 1) To study the quality of life of patients with venous thrombosis and to examine the role of illness perceptions in explaining the quality of life of these patients. 2) To assess the psychological consequences of genetic testing for thrombop

  2. Familial clustering of venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Østergaard, Louise Bruun; Gundlund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is of utmost importance to improve current prophylactic regimes and treatment guidelines. The extent to which a family history contributes to the risk of VTE needs further exploration. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative ...

  3. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thromb

  4. Venous thrombosis : a patient's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korlaar, Inez van

    2006-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis had two main aims: 1) To study the quality of life of patients with venous thrombosis and to examine the role of illness perceptions in explaining the quality of life of these patients. 2) To assess the psychological consequences of genetic testing for

  5. Venous thromboembolic disease. CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, L. R. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Pulmonary Medicine and Intensive Care, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Helical and multidetector CT has proven to be a valuable imaging modality for both pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. This paper will review the sensitivity and specificity of CT and discuss diagnostic algorithms utilizing CT and more established imaging technologies.

  6. Perinatal outcomes with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Landon, Mark B; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women delivered at a large tertiary obstetric center in Shanghai, China from January 2006 to May 2014. Delivery data were abstracted from medical records of all twin gestations delivered at the hospital. A total of 129/1922(6.7%) twin and 1190/92 273 singleton (1.3%) pregnancies were complicated by ICP. An increased risk of stillbirth among twin pregnancies was observed (3.9% and 0.8% in the ICP and non-ICP groups, respectively; aOR 5.75, 95% CI 2.00-16.6). Stillbirths with ICP and twins occurred between 33 and 35 weeks gestation compared to 36-38 weeks gestation among singletons. ICP in twins was also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (pregnancies complicated by ICP also had increased meconium staining of amniotic fluid and lower birth weight. Twin pregnancies with ICP have significantly increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirth and preterm birth. Stillbirth occurs at an earlier gestational age in twin gestation compared to singletons, suggesting that earlier scheduled delivery should be considered in these women.

  7. Role of inflammation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberoglu, Ebru; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kara, Ozgur; Karabulut, Erdem; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the most common liver disease in pregnancy, is characterized by elevated serum total bile acid and/or transaminase concentration, and pruritus. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key regulator of the immune response, hematopoiesis and inflammation. We examined both IL-6 and the frequently used inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at baseline in the same study population as for the primary endpoint, in order to provide a new perspective on the pathogenesis of ICP. In this controlled cross-sectional study 65 consecutive pregnant women with ICP (34 with mild and 31 with severe disease) and 40 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies (control group) were examined. IL-6 and hs-CRP were compared between the groups. While serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the mild ICP (P = 0.01) and severe ICP (P = 0.001) groups than in the control group, hs-CRP was similar between the groups. Interleukin-6 may have an essential role, apart from CRP, in the pathogenesis of ICP and, also, is a more sensitive marker of inflammation. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Placental proteome alterations in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pei; Wang, Furong; Jiang, Yan; Zhong, Yi; Lan, Yongfei; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-09-01

    To investigate differences in the placental proteomes of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and those with a normal pregnancy. Ten pregnant women diagnosed with ICP were recruited at the First People's Hospital of Yuhang District from October 2011 to September 2012; 10 age-matched healthy pregnant women acted as controls. Total placental proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in the two groups. In total, 37 protein spots with differentially expressed proteins were found. These comprised proteins involved in cytoskeleton activity, blood coagulation, and platelet activation as well as chaperones, heat shock proteins, RNA-binding and calcium-binding proteins, and various enzymes. The placentas of women with ICP displayed significant proteome differences compared with women with a normal pregnancy. The results indicate that a variety of mechanisms and proteins may contribute to the development of ICP. Further verification and research are required to elucidate the exact roles of these proteins in ICP pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: new insights into its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreani, Annarosa; Caroli, Diego; Lazzari, Roberta; Memmo, Alessia; Vidali, Elisa; Colavito, Davide; D'Arrigo, Antonello; Leon, Alberta; Romero, Roberto; Gervasi, Maria Teresa

    2013-09-01

    To search a specific gene expression profile in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and to evaluate the maternal and foetal outcome. We consecutively enrolled 12 women with ICP and 12 healthy pregnant controls. The gene expression profile was assayed with the microarray technique including a panel of 5541 human genes. Microarray data were validated by real-time PCR technique. Caesarean delivery was performed in eight patients with ICP versus three controls (p = 0.05). ICP women delivered at earlier gestational age than control (p < 0.001). Foetal distress was recorded in two babies, but we failed to find any correlation between bile salt concentration and foetal distress. Twenty genes potentially correlated with ICP were found differentially expressed (p < 0.05). Among these, three belong to genetic classes involved in pathogenic mechanisms of ICP: (1) pathophysiology of pruritus (GABRA2, cases versus controls = 2, upregulated gene); (2) lipid metabolism and bile composition (HLPT, cases versus controls = 0.6, down-regulated gene) and (3) protein trafficking and cytoskeleton arrangement (KIFC3, cases versus controls = 0.5, down-regulated gene). Different gene expression may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of ICP. An upregulation of GABRA2 receptor may indicate that GABA may play a role in the pathogenesis of pruritus in this condition.

  10. Review of a challenging clinical issue: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sebiha; Ceylan, Yasin; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Yildirim, Sule

    2015-06-21

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible pregnancy-specific cholestatic condition characterized by pruritus, elevated liver enzymes, and increased serum bile acids. It commences usually in the late second or third trimester, and quickly resolves after delivery. The incidence is higher in South American and Scandinavian countries (9.2%-15.6% and 1.5%, respectively) than in Europe (0.1%-0.2%). The etiology is multifactorial where genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors interact. Maternal outcome is usually benign, whereas fetal complications such as preterm labor, meconium staining, fetal distress, and sudden intrauterine fetal demise not infrequently lead to considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. Ursodeoxycholic acid is shown to be the most efficient therapeutic agent with proven safety and efficacy. Management of ICP consists of careful monitoring of maternal hepatic function tests and serum bile acid levels in addition to the assessment of fetal well-being and timely delivery after completion of fetal pulmonary maturity. This review focuses on the current concepts about ICP based on recent literature data and presents an update regarding the diagnosis and management of this challenging issue.

  11. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and timing of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Shaffer, Brian L; Allen, Allison J; Little, Sarah E; Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    We examined the morbidities from delivery at earlier gestational ages versus intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) for women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) to determine the optimal gestational age for delivery. A decision-analytic model was created to compare delivery at 35 through 38 weeks gestation for different delivery strategies: (1) empiric steroids; (2) steroids if fetal lung maturity (FLM) negative; (3) wait a week and retest if FLM negative; or (4) deliver immediately. Literature review identified 18 studies that estimated IUFD in ICP; we used the mean rate, 1.74%, and assumed a uniform distribution from 34 to 40 weeks gestation. Large cohort data was used to calculate neonatal morbidity rates at each gestational age. Maternal and neonatal quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were combined. Univariate sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses were performed to test for robustness. Immediate delivery at 36 weeks without FLM testing and steroid administration was the optimal strategy as compared to delivery at 36 weeks with steroids (+47 QALYs) and as compared to immediate delivery at 35 weeks (+210 QALYs). Our results were robust up to a 30% increase in the rate of IUFD. Immediate delivery at 36 weeks in women with ICP is the optimal delivery strategy.

  12. Intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: A comprehensive review

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    Sangita Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a cholestatic disorder characterized by i pruritus, with onset in the third trimester of pregnancy, without any primary skin lesions, ii elevated fasting serum bile acids > 10 μmol / L (and elevated serum transaminases, iii spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery, and iv absence of other disease that cause pruritus and jaundice. It is believed to be a multi-factorial disease with interplay between genetic, environmental and hormonal factors. Incidence is between 0.02% to 2.4% of all pregnancies; with wide geographical variations. Maternal prognosis is usually good but can result in adverse fetal outcomes like meconium staining of amniotic fluid, fetal bradycardia and even fetal loss. Response to anti-histaminic is poor. Of all the medical therapies that have been described for the treatment for IHCP, ursodeoxycholic acid has the best response in relieving pruritus in mother, and probably has a role in preventing even the perinatal complications. Timely diagnosis and treatment is urged in order to prevent fetal complications and an early delivery between 37 to 38 weeks should be contemplated in severe cases, especially once fetal lung maturity is attained.

  13. Intrahepatic synthese of immunoglobulin G in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, I J; Knopf, P M

    1980-04-01

    A method has been developed to measure the in vitro production of immunoglobulin (Ig) by liver biopsy specimens. Five to 30 mg of liver tissue was cultured for 24 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/10% foetal calf serum (FCS) containing radiolabelled leucine (L-[4,5-3H] leucine). The culture medium was collected, centrifuged and the supernatant dialysed to remove labelled leucine. The residual radioactivity was a measure of newly synthesized 3H-labelled proteins released into the medium. The quantity of IgG was determined by immunoprecipitation with monospecific antisera to IgG heavy chains. The presence of IgG in the supernatant was confirmed by chromatography on protein-A Sepharose column. In 6 biopsies without evidence of active inflammation (4 normal and 2 fatty liver by histological criteria) less than 1% of the protein synthesized was IgG. In contrast in the presence of active inflammation in 4 cases of alcoholic hepatitis the IgG percentage ranged from 2 to 6%. Maximal levels of IgG production were detected in 3 cases of chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and ranged from 5 to 30%. The increased Ig synthesis by the liver in alcoholic hepatitis and CAH is presumed to be an index of the intrahepatic host response and may have important implications for mechanisms of liver damage in these diseases.

  14. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: correlation of preterm delivery with bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pata, Ozlem; Vardarelı, Eser; Ozcan, Alihan; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Saruç, Murat; Unlü, Cihat; Tözün, Nurdan

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, obstetrical and fetal complication rates of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in patients managed actively around 38 weeks and evaluate the correlation of these results with liver function tests and bile acids. In this cohort study 3710 women were booked for delivery, of which 32 pregnant women were diagnosed as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. All data concerning obstetric- medical history, laboratory results, symptom onset time, pruritus degree, treatment response, and delivery time and infants information were recorded in the study protocol. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 12.0 version and correlations were assessed by Spearman Rank correlation analysis. The incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was 0.86%. The symptoms appeared around 32 weeks. 16.6% multiparas had a previously affected pregnancy and 21.8% of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients had family history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Symptom onset varied according to season (p<0.05). Most patients (69.5%) were diagnosed in winter and the beginning of spring. There were no reported cases of clinical maternal jaundice, bleeding tendency or stillbirth. Pruritus was decreased by ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. Total bile acids tended to be higher in patients with preterm delivery (r=0.409, p=0.038). Total bile acids are correlated with preterm delivery. An attempt to deliver at around 38 weeks may improve perinatal outcome.

  15. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is common among patients' first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Helander, Kristiina; Mattila, Kari J; Sumanen, Markku

    2013-09-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been shown to have a genetic predisposition. We studied whether Finnish women who had suffered from the disorder reported their first-degree relatives to have had liver dysfunction during their pregnancies. Questionnaires were sent in autumn 2010 to a total of 544 former intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients and 1235 controls, all having delivered during 1969-1988. The response rate was 66.2%. The incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis is 0.5-1.5% of pregnancies in Finland. In our survey, altogether 12.8% of mothers (odds ratio 9.2), 15.9% of sisters (odds ratio 5.3) and 10.3% of daughters (odds ratio 4.8) of women who had suffered from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy had had liver dysfunction during pregnancy. Our findings strengthen the earlier knowledge of the genetic component in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We suggest that all pregnant women are asked about their family history regarding liver dysfunction during pregnancy. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Alanine aminotransferase as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Ali; Kaya, Basak; Avci, Muhittin Eftal; Polat, Ibrahim; Dikmen, Selin; Yildirim, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and serum transaminase levels at the time of diagnosis in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized for evaluation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy from January 2013 to June 2014 in a tertiary center. Seventy-one patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (Group I) or absence of adverse perinatal outcomes (Group II). The mean aminotransferase levels and conjugated bilirubin levels at the time of diagnosis were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the alanine aminotransferase level could predict adverse perinatal outcomes with 76.47% sensitivity and 78.38% specificity, and the cut-off value was 95 IU/L. Among patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, those with adverse perinatal outcomes were significantly older, had an earlier diagnosis, and had higher alanine aminotransferase levels. Using the 95-IU/L cut-off value, patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy had a 3.54-fold increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and high alanineaminotransferase levels should be followed up for possible adverse perinatal outcomes.

  17. Clinical aspects of venous thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Fabris, Fabrizio; Girolami, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Venous thrombophilia is the result of clotting changes namely of a hypercoagulable state together with blood flow and vessel wall changes. There is no need for all these components to be present in order for thrombosis to occur. As the matter of fact, thrombosis may occur even if only one of these conditions is present. In clinical practice a combination of factors is usualy seen. In comparison with arterial thrombophilia, clotting changes and blood flow seen to play a major role in venous thrombosis. Venous thrombophilia may remain asynptomatic or may result in a series of clinical syndromes. The commonest of these are: 1. Superficial vein thrombosis, 2. Deep vein thrombosis of legs, 3. Deep vein thrombosis of arms, 4. Caval veins thrombosis, 5. Portal vein thrombosis, 6. Hepatic veins thrombosis, 7. Renal vein thrombosis, 8. Cerebral sinuses thrombosis, 9. Right heart thrombosis, 10. Miscellaneous (ovarian, adrenal veins thrombosis, etc.). Since the first two are widely and easily recognized, these is no need for an extensive discussion. Deep vein thromboses of upper limbs are not as frequent as those of lower limbs or of superficial phlebitis but they can still be recognized on clinical grounds and non invasive techniques. The remaining 7 syndromes are less common and therefore less frequently suspected and recognized. Of particular interest, among these less common manifestations of venous thrombophilia are hepatic vein and renal vein thrombosis. Hepatic veins thrombosis, sometimes part of inferior vena cava thrombosis is most frequently due to an isolated occlusion of hepatic veins thereby causing a form of venocclusive disease. Occasionally diagnosis may be difficult because of slow onset of symptoms (hepatomegaly, right flank pain, fever, ascites etc.). The same is true for renal vein thrombosis which may also be of difficult diagnosis since it causes proteinuria and flank pain. The proteinuria is often interpreted as due to a nephrotic syndrome which

  18. Radiologically-placed venous ports in children under venous anesthesia

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    Jang, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Ung Bae; Choo, Ki Seok; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Yun Jin; Nam, Sang Ool; Lim, Young Tak [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiologic venous port placement in children under venous anesthesia. Between April 2009 and July 2011, 44 ports were implanted in 41 children (24 boys, 17 girls). The age of patients ranged from 9 months to 19 years (mean, 6.5 years) and their body weights ranged from 6.8 kg to 56.3 kg (mean, 23.2 kg). Right internal jugular vein access was used in 42 ports, right subclavian vein in 1, and left subclavian in 1. Durability and complications of port implantation were reviewed. The technical success rate was 100%. The catheter life was 10-661 days (mean 246 days). Two patients died during the follow-up period, 21 and 6 ports were removed at the end of treatment or as a result of complications, respectively. One port was removed and replaced by a Hickmann catheter. Three ports were explanted due to port-related sepsis, one due to a catheter kink, and two for unexplained fever or insertion site pain. The overall port-related infection was 3 cases (6.8%, 0.28/1000 catheter days). Venous port placement by interventional radiologists in children under intravenous sedation is relatively safe, with a high rate of technical success and low rate of complications.

  19. Difference in hepatic tissue oxygenation between total vascular exclusion and inflow occlusion of the liver and the possible role of hepatic venous blood under liver ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Asanuma, Y; Kusano, T; Sasaki, N; Shindo, Y; Koyama, K

    1998-01-01

    The difference between total vascular exclusion (TVE) and inflow occlusion (IO) of the liver was assessed by the extent of DNA injury in rats and by hepatic tissue oxygen saturation (SahtO2) in pigs. Moreover, the role of hepatic venous blood under liver ischemia was discussed. Seventy percent of the rat livers were exposed to complete IO (hepatic artery + portal vein) or to TVE (IO + hepatic vein) for 30 or 60 min. DNA strand breaks following blood flow interception were measured using the in situ nick translation technique as an indicator of liver damage. IO/TVE were performed on pigs as well under portosystemic bypass, and the oxygen saturation of the hepatic venous blood (SahvO2) was altered by changing the fraction of inspiratory oxygen or by oxygenating the inferior caval blood using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator. The changes in SahtO2 were measured sequentially using near-infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: (1) DNA injury occurred more severely under TVE than under IO of the rat liver at the end of ischemia, as well as 30 min after revascularization. (2) SahtO2 during TVE was significantly lower than that during IO. (3) The increase in SahvO2 by oxygenation of the inferior caval blood resulted in the elevation of SahtO2 under IO. In conclusion, TVE could cause greater damage to the liver than IO due to the lack of the hepatic venous blood. Hepatic venous blood might play an important role in hepatic tissue oxygenation in the case of hepatic blood flow interception.

  20. Prediction of cardiovascular risk by electrocardiographic changes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Kirbas, Ozgur; Iskender, Cantekin; Daglar, Halil Korkut; Koseoglu, Cemal; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate P wave characteristics in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study, including 59 pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis and 28 with healthy uncomplicated pregnancies, electrocardiographic maximum (Pmax) and minimum (Pmin) P-wave durations and P-wave dispersion (Pd) parameters were investigated. While Pmin and Pd values were significantly lower in women both with mild and severe ICP when compared to healthy pregnant women (p Intrahepatic cholestasis predisposes to cardiovascular complications. P-wave durations and Pd constitute a recent contribution to the field of noninvasive electrocardiology. Our data clearly demonstrated that these parameters were significantly altered in pregnant women with ICP when compared to the normal ones. This important association can be used to screen for women with an increased risk to better target counseling on lifestyle modifications and to closer follow-up and management of women with a history of ICP.

  1. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  2. Two Anomalies in One: A Rare Case of an Intrahepatic Gallbladder with a Cholecystogastric Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F. Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The gallbladder can be situated in a variety of anomalous positions. An intrahepatic gallbladder – the second most common ectopic location of the gallbladder – is one that is completely embedded within the liver parenchyma. Described in the literature as early as 1935, intrahepatic gallbladders predominantly result from a developmental anomaly but in some instances have been reported to be secondary to chronic inflammation. The significance of an intrahepatic gallbladder lies in the fact that 60% of the cases are associated with gallstones and may present a challenge for the general surgeon during cholecystectomy and other biliary operations in addition to causing misdiagnosis on imaging. Intrahepatic gallbladders are unusual, but the incidence of an intrahepatic gallbladder with a cholecystogastric fistula is rare. Cholecystogastric fistulas commonly are a complication of long-term cholelithiasis or chronic cholecystitis with subsequent gallstone ileus. Herein, we present the case of an 80-year-old man who presented with 2 months of progressive weakness, fatigue, decreased appetite, and intermittent right-sided abdominal pain, and was found to have a markedly distended and irregular intrahepatic gallbladder measuring 12.2 × 11.5 × 13.4 cm on CT, as well as a cholecystogastric fistula on esophagogastroduodenoscopy. During esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the gallbladder was entered directly via the fistulous tract. The patient was on i.v. antibiotics with tube feeds via a nasojejunal tube initially, followed by p.o. which he tolerated. He was eventually discharged with referral for surgical evaluation. Given the potential for cholelithiasis and fistulation, physicians should have a high index of suspicion and recommend timely endoscopic and/or surgical management to avoid future complications.

  3. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2010 (prospectively since July 2006). Hydrocephalus was defined as a bicaudate index larger than the 95th percentile for age, and/or a radial width of the temporal horn of ≥ 5 mm. We excluded patients in whom hydrocephalus was caused by a disease other than CVT or if it was iatrogenic. 20 out of 99 patients with CVT had hydrocephalus. 6 patients with hydrocephalus were excluded from the analysis. Patients with hydrocephalus more often had focal neurological deficits (86 vs. 49%, p = 0.02) and were more frequently comatose (43 vs. 16%, p = 0.06), as compared to patients without hydrocephalus. Deep cerebral venous thrombosis (64 vs. 9%, p hydrocephalus. Intraventricular hemorrhage was present in 1 patient with hydrocephalus, compared to none among patients without hydrocephalus (7 vs. 0%, p = 0.15). Outcome at follow-up was worse in patients with hydrocephalus (mRS 0-1, 36 vs. 68%, p = 0.02; mortality 29 vs. 9%, p = 0.07). Hydrocephalus occurs more frequently in cerebral venous thrombosis than previously believed, especially in patients with deep cerebral venous thrombosis and edema of the basal ganglia. The presence of hydrocephalus is associated with a worse clinical outcome, but a direct causal relation is unlikely. Routine shunting procedures are not advisable.

  4. Bile Duct Leaks from the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree: A Review of Its Etiology, Incidence, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile leaks from the intrahepatic biliary tree are an important cause of morbidity following hepatic surgery and trauma. Despite reduction in mortality for hepatic surgery in the last 2 decades, bile leaks rates have not changed significantly. In addition to posted operative bile leaks, leaks may occur following drainage of liver abscess and tumor ablation. Most bile leaks from the intrahepatic biliary tree are transient and managed conservatively by drainage alone or endoscopic biliary decompression. Selected cases may require reoperation and enteric drainage or liver resection for management.

  5. Does bilioenteric anastomosis impair results of liver resection in primary intrahepatic lithiasis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo; Herman; Marcos; V; Perini; Vincenzo; Pugliese; Julio; Cesar; Pereira; Marcel; Autran; C; Machado; William; A; Saad; Luiz; AC; D; Albuquerque; Ivan; Cecconello

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the long-term results of liver resection for the treatment of primary intrahepatic lithiasis.Prognostic factors,especially the impact of bilioenteric anastomosis on recurrence of symptoms were assessed.METHODS:Forty one patients with intrahepatic stones and parenchyma fibrosis/atrophy and/or biliary stenosis were submitted to liver resection.Resection was associated with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in all patients with bilateral stones and in those with unilateral disease and dilation of...

  6. Maternal circulating levels of irisin in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Timur, Hakan; Biberoglu, Ebru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Kara, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Zehra; Turkmen, Gülenay; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-11-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the most common liver disease in pregnancy, is characterized by elevated serum total bile acid levels and pruritus. It has become clear that bile acids are no longer labeled as simple detergent-like molecules, but also represent complex hormonal metabolic regulators. ICP has also been associated with increased incidence rates of gestational diabetes mellitus. Irisin is a newly discovered myokine that is able to regulate glucose and lipid levels, thus improving insulin sensitivity. In this study, maternal serum irisin levels were analyzed in order to provide a new perspective on the pathogenesis of ICP. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 58 consecutive pregnant women with ICP (30 with mild and 28 with severe disease) and 30 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies (as the control group) were examined. The maternal irisin, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels of the two groups were compared. Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the mild ICP and control groups (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). At the best cut-off level of 908.875 pg/ml, irisin accurately predicted ICP [AUC = 0.827 (95% CI: 0.745-0.909; p < 0.001)] with sensitivity and specificity rates of 72.5 and 86.8%, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between irisin and fasting blood glucose levels (r = -0.399; p = 0.021). The results of this study indicate that serum irisin levels were significantly higher in women with ICP compared to healthy pregnant controls. However, it is difficult to infer whether high irisin level is a cause or effect of ICP.

  7. Differential intrahepatic phospholipid zonation in simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

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    Julia Wattacheril

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD occurs frequently in a setting of obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, but the etiology of the disease, particularly the events favoring progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH as opposed to simple steatosis (SS, are not fully understood. Based on known zonation patterns in protein, glucose and lipid metabolism, coupled with evidence that phosphatidylcholine may play a role in NASH pathogenesis, we hypothesized that phospholipid zonation exists in liver and that specific phospholipid abundance and distribution may be associated with histologic disease. A survey of normal hepatic protein expression profiles in the Human Protein Atlas revealed pronounced zonation of enzymes involved in lipid utilization and storage, particularly those facilitating phosphatidylcholine (PC metabolism. Immunohistochemistry of obese normal, SS and NASH liver specimens with anti-phosphatidylethanomine N-methyltransferase (PEMT antibodies showed a progressive decrease in the zonal distribution of this PC biosynthetic enzyme. Phospholipid quantitation by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS in hepatic extracts of Class III obese patients with increasing NAFLD severity revealed that most PC species with 32, 34 and 36 carbons as well as total PC abundance was decreased with SS and NASH. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS imaging revealed strong zonal distributions for 32, 34 and 36 carbon PCs in controls (minimal histologic findings and SS that was lost in NASH specimens. Specific lipid species such as PC 34:1 and PC 36:2 best illustrated this phenomenon. These findings suggest that phospholipid zonation may be associated with the presence of an intrahepatic proinflammatory phenotype and thus have broad implications in the etiopathogenesis of NASH.

  8. Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction

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    Ashish Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM or developmental venous anomaly (DVA. However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH. Digital substraction angiography (DSA revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ. Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 Χ 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion.

  9. Calf venous compliance measured by venous occlusion plethysmography: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Ewerman, Lea; Länne, Toste

    2015-02-01

    Calf venous compliance (C calf) is commonly evaluated with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) during a standard cuff deflation protocol. However, the technique relies on two not previously validated assumptions concerning thigh cuff pressure (P cuff) transmission and the impact of net fluid filtration (F filt) on C calf. The aim was to validate VOP in the lower limb and to develop a model to correct for F filt during VOP. Strain-gauge technique was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women and 10 age-matched men. A thigh cuff was inflated to 60 mmHg for 4 and 8 min with a subsequent decrease of 1 mmHg s(-1). Intravenous pressure (P iv) was measured simultaneously. C calf was determined with the commonly used equation [Compliance = β 1 + 2β 2 × P cuff] describing the pressure-compliance relationship. A model was developed to identify and correct for F filt. Transmission of P cuff to P iv was 100 %. The decrease in P cuff correlated well with P iv reduction (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Overall, our model showed that C calf was underestimated when F filt was not accounted for (all P < 0.01). F filt was higher in women (P < 0.01) and showed a more pronounced effect on C calf compared to men (P < 0.05). The impact of F filt was similar during 4- and 8-min VOP. P cuff is an adequate substitute for P iv in the lower limb. F filt is associated with an underestimation of C calf and differences in the effect of F filt during VOP can be accounted for with the correction model. Thus, our model seems to be a valuable tool in future studies of venous wall function.

  10. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

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    Ashima Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were secured surgically.

  11. The impact of obesity on venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A C; Belczak, C E Q; Campos, M B; Campos, R B; Harada, D S

    2015-08-01

    Association between chronic venous disease and obesity has recently been studied, with indications that it may worsen in obese patients. The aim of study was to correlate clinical classes of chronic venous disease according to Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification and body mass index, as well as to compare the severity of chronic venous disease in obese and nonobese patients. This retrospective cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted at the Maringá State University and Belczak Vascular Center along a period of 2 years, consisting of a random sample of 482 patients with complaints compatible with chronic venous disease. Data obtained from patient's files included gender, age, weight and height (for calculating body mass index), and clinical class (C) of chronic venous disease according to CEAP classification. Statistical analysis included Spearman's correlation coefficient, Chi-square test (for comparing frequencies), and Student's t-test (for comparing means). Significant positive correlation between body mass index and clinical classes was established for women (0.43), but not for men (0.07). Obesity (body mass index  : ≥  : 30.0) was significantly more frequent in patients with chronic venous disease in clinical classes 3 (p venous disease in clinical class 1 (p venous disease in women, but not in men. It also corroborated the negative impact of obesity on the clinical severity of chronic venous disease.

  12. Central vein stenosis masquerading as venous thrombosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagapriya Vellalacheruvu; Naresh Monigari; Tom Devasia; Hashir Kareem

    2014-01-01

    .... 3 Learning points Central venous stenosis (CVS), although rare, is a known complication in patients requiring maintenance haemodialysis but symptomatic CVS requiring intervention is not common...

  13. Central venous line complications and tip detection

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    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  14. Characterizing the Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients After Central Venous Line Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Wisecup, Sarah; Eades, Shannan; Turiy, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the apparent increase in venous thromboembolism noted in the pediatric population, it is important to define which children are at risk for clots and to determine optimal preventative therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for venous thromboembolism in pediatric patients with central venous line placement.

  15. CT动态增强扫描对周围型肝内胆管细胞癌的诊断价值%The Diagnostic Value of Contrast Enhanced CT Scan in the Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易建玮

    2013-01-01

      目的 探讨螺旋CT动态增强扫描对肝内胆管细胞癌的应用价值及表现特点。方法回顾性分析经手术病理证实或/和穿刺活检的肝内胆管细胞癌28例,所有病例均行CT平扫和动态增强扫描,所有病例均做甲胎蛋白( AFP)检查。结果15例动脉期病灶边缘呈花环样或不规则状强化,门脉期、静脉期及延时期逐渐向病灶中心强化,病灶周边随时间推移逐渐降低;12例动脉期边缘轻度强化,门脉期、静脉期及延时期向心性强化;2例表现为轻度不均匀强化,随时间延长病灶中央呈网格状强化;5例合并肝内胆管轻度扩张;6例合并胆管结石或小斑片状钙化灶;23例AFP检查为阴性,5例AFP检查为阳性。结论肝内胆管细胞癌的多层螺旋CT动态增强扫描影像表现具有一定特性,对肝内胆管细胞癌确诊有一定帮助。%Objective Investigate the dynamic enhanced spiral CT scan on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma application value and characteristics. Methods A retrospective analysis was proved by operation and pathology or/and biopsy of the intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in 28 cases, all cases underwent CT plain and dynamic enhanced scan, all cases were examined with alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) examination. Results 15 cases of arterial lesions in edge was rosette-like or irregular enhancement, portal venous phase delay period, and gradually to the center of the lesion enhancement, lesions of the peripheral with time gradually decreased;in 12 cases of arterial phase edge enhancement, portal venous phase and delay period, centripetal and strong;in 2 cases mild uneven enhancement, with extended time lesions of the central cancellate reinforcing;in 5 cases with intrahepatic bile duct mild dilatation;in 6 patients with calculus of bile duct;in 23 cases of AFP examination is negative, 5 patients tested positive for the AFP. Conclusion Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT

  16. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Giovannoni

    Full Text Available Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC. For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5'UTR- exon 18 in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission.

  17. HELLP syndrome preceded by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: one serious itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebbink, Jiska; Tabbers, Merit; Afink, Gijs; Beuers, Ulrich; Elferink, Ronald Oude; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; van der Post, Joris

    2014-01-01

    We present four women with seven ongoing pregnancies. Five pregnancies were complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome with uncommon maternal morbidity. The combination of ICP and HELLP syndrome has not previously been reported. Awareness is warranted to accurately identify this combination of pregnancy-specific diseases with severe maternal morbidity. PMID:24711473

  18. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy : Maternal and fetal outcomes associated with elevated bile acid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Laura; Koster, Maria P H; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L; Kemperman, Hans; Boon, Janine; Evers, Inge M.; Bogte, Auke; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pregnancy outcome and bile acid (BA) levels in pregnancies that were affected by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In addition, correlations between maternal and fetal BA levels were explored. Study Design

  19. Frequency of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in Punjab Pakistan: A single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Ansari, Asma; Parveen, Saima; Salamat, Amjad; Aijaz, Anjum

    2016-02-01

    To find out the frequency of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and its identification parameters. The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and the Department of Obstetrics, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from October 2013 to March 2014, and comprised all pregnant patients having symptoms suggestive of intrahepatic cholestasis which was confirmed after systemic inquiry, examination and biochemical analysis. Patients with cholestasis due to another reason, coagulopathies, thrombocytopenia and tumours were excluded. The patients were followed up till delivery to see the effects of cholestasis on mother and child. Out of 1001 obstetric patients, 31(3.1%) had intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Pruritus was the main symptom in 25 (85%) patients followed by rash in 20 (65%). In 20 (64%) patients, labour was induced. Mode of delivery was Caesarean Section in 18 (58%) patients and 9 (29%) had postpartum haemorrhage. Regarding neonatal complications, 22 (70%) required admission to neonatal intensive care and 15 (48%) had meconium aspiration. A high frequency of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was observed. It had significant impact on maternal and foetal health.

  20. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Leading to Severe Vitamin K Deficiency and Coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maldonado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is seldom associated with significant vitamin K deficiency. We report a case of a 16-year-old primigravid patient at 24 weeks and 3 days of gestation who presented with pruritus, hematuria, and preterm labor. Laboratory work-up showed severe coagulopathy with Prothrombin Time (PT of 117.8 seconds, International Normalized Ratio (INR of 10.34, and elevated transaminases suggestive of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Her serum vitamin K level was undetectable (<0.1 nMol/L. Initial therapy consisted of intramuscular replacement of vitamin K and administration of fresh frozen plasma. Her hematuria and preterm labor resolved and she was discharged. She presented in active labor and delivered at 27 weeks and 1 day. Her bile acids (93 μ/L and INR (2.32 had worsened. She delivered a male infant, 1150 grams with Apgar scores 7 and 9. The newborn received 0.5 mg of intramuscular vitamin K shortly after delivery but went on to develop bilateral grade III intraventricular hemorrhages by day 5. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy and nutrition issues were identified as the main risk factors for the severe coagulopathy of this patient. This case underlines the importance of evaluation of possible severe coagulopathy in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in order to avoid serious maternal or fetal adverse outcomes.

  1. Spontaneous perforation of gallbladder with intrahepatic biloma formation: sonographic signs and correlation with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollanda, Erick Sabbagh de; Torres, Ulysses dos Santos; Gual, Fabiana; Oliveira, Eduardo Portela de; Cardoso, Luciana Vargas; Criado, Divanei Aparecida Bottaro, E-mail: usantor@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base

    2013-09-15

    Spontaneous perforation of gallbladder is a severe and infrequent complication of acute cholecystitis that requires early and accurate diagnosis. Concomitant development of intrahepatic collections is rarely observed in such cases. The present report emphasizes the relevance of imaging studies in this setting, describing the typical sonographic and tomographic findings for the diagnosis of such condition. (author)

  2. Partial External Biliary Diversion in Children With Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis and Alagille Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huiqi; Porte, Robert J.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; De Langen, Zacharias J.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Partial external biliary diversion (PEBD) is a promising treatment for children with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) and Alagille disease. Little is known about long-term Outcomes. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing PEBD in

  3. Endoscopic transcystic stent placement for an intrahepatic abscess due to gallbladder perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung Soo Kang; Do Hyun Park; Ki Du Kwon; Jeong Hoon Park; Suck-Ho Lee; Hong-Soo Kim; Sang-Heum Park; Sun-Joo Kim

    2007-01-01

    Perforation of the gallbladder with cholecystohepatic communication is a rare cause of liver abscess. Because it is a rare entity, the treatment modality has not been fully established. We report for the first time a patient with an intrahepatic abscess due to gallbladder perforation successfully treated by endoscopic stent placement into the gallbladder who had a poor response to continuous percutaneous drainage.

  4. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Isabella; Callea, Francesco; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Torre, Giuliano; De Ville De Goyet, Jean; Francalanci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5’UTR- exon 18) in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission. PMID:26678486

  5. A fatal case of primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the intrahepatic bile ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Johan; Grunnet, Mie; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2014-01-01

    of diagnosis but expired 20 months after surgery with epidural, lung, and spine metastasis. In addition to the unusual clinical presentation, the diagnosis of the liver tumor was that of a primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts, an entity with only one previous report...

  6. Tumor Implantation into the Intrahepatic Bile Duct after Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tanaka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man who had undergone transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (Couinaud’s segment III/IV in April 2003 and percutaneous ethanol injection for recurrence at the same site in February 2006 was found to have dilation of the intrahepatic bile duct by computed tomography in October 2008. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a thrombosis occupying the left hepatic duct to the lateral branches with peripheral bile duct dilation. Serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. We performed a left hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct invasion. The cut surface of the resected specimen showed a tumor thrombosis occupying the region between the left hepatic duct and lateral branches, but no tumor in the liver parenchyma. Histologic examination showed that the thrombosis in the intrahepatic bile duct was hepatocellular carcinoma. Since part of the hepatocellular carcinoma in the region treated with percutaneous ethanol injection was adjacent to the tumor thrombosis in the intrahepatic bile duct in diagnostic imaging, we diagnosed implantation into the intrahepatic bile duct due to percutaneous ethanol injection. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well without recurrence 8 months after the operation.

  7. Predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Parikh, Laura I; Ramsey, Patrick S; Huang, Chun-Chih; Zeymo, Alexander; Fernandez, Miguel; Smith, Samuel; Iqbal, Sara N

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). This study was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of all women diagnosed with ICP across 5 hospital facilities from January 2009 through December 2014. Obstetric and neonatal complications were evaluated according to total bile acid (TBA) level. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to evaluate predictors of composite neonatal outcome (neonatal intensive care unit admission, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, mechanical ventilation use, oxygen by nasal cannula, pneumonia, and stillbirth). Predictors including TBA level, hepatic transaminase level, gestational age at diagnosis, underlying liver disease, and use of ursodeoxycholic acid were evaluated. Of 233 women with ICP, 152 women had TBA levels 10-39.9 μmol/L, 55 had TBA 40-99.9 μmol/L, and 26 had TBA ≥100 μmol/L. There was no difference in maternal age, ethnicity, or prepregnancy body mass index according to TBA level. Increasing TBA level was associated with higher hepatic transaminase and total bilirubin level (P < .05). TBA levels ≥100 μmol/L were associated with increased risk of stillbirth (P < .01). Increasing TBA level was also associated with earlier gestational age at diagnosis (P < .01) and ursodeoxycholic acid use (P = .02). After adjusting for confounders, no predictors were associated with composite neonatal morbidity. TBA 40-99.9 μmol/L and TBA ≥100 μmol/L were associated with increased risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (adjusted odds ratio, 3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-8.68 and adjusted odds ratio, 4.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-14.08, respectively). In women with ICP, TBA level ≥100 μmol/L was associated with increased risk of stillbirth. TBA ≥40 μmol/L was associated with increased risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  8. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed. PMID:28168186

  9. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed.

  10. Postpartum Blood Loss in Women Treated for Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Romana; Winter, Katharina; Schäffer, Leonhard; Zimmermann, Roland; Burkhardt, Tilo; Haslinger, Christian

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate postpartum blood loss in women with treated intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In a retrospective case-control study, 15,083 deliveries including 348 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (2.3%) were analyzed from 2004 to 2014. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, a propensity analysis was performed and women in the control group were matched to the women in the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group in a 5:1 ratio. Blood loss was analyzed by estimated blood loss and Δ hemoglobin (Hb, difference between prepartum and postpartum Hb). A subgroup analysis regarding severity of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy based on maximum bile acid level (mild [less than 40 micromoles/L], moderate [40-99 micromoles/L], and severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy [100 micromoles/L or greater]) was performed. Differences in estimated blood loss, ΔHb, and meconium staining between subgroups were analyzed. A Spearman rank correlation was performed to evaluate the association of bile acid levels and blood loss within subgroups. Estimated blood loss (median 400 [300-600] mL compared with 400 [300-600] mL, P=.22), ΔHb (14.0 [5.0-22.0] compared with 12.0 [4.0-21.0] g/L, P=.09), meconium staining (14.5% compared with 11.4%, P=.12), and number of stillbirths after 26 weeks of gestation (0.6% compared with 1.8%, P=.10) were not significantly different in the study compared with the control group. In moderate and severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, meconium staining was observed significantly more often compared with that in a control group (23.0% and 32.3% compared with 11.4%, Pintrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In our cohort of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy who are treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and have planned delivery (induction of labor or planned cesarean delivery) at 38 weeks of gestation, no differences in postpartum blood loss were seen.

  11. Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:24185509

  12. Gelatin sponge particle embolization of spontaneously putured intrahepatic arterial aneurysms in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Myung Jin; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Young Jun; Jeon, Doo Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Multiple intrahepatic arterial aneurysms and spontaneous aneurysmal rupture associated with polyarteritis nodosa leading to hemoperitoneum are extremely rare occurrences, but the conditions can be life-threatening if left untreated because of the risk of massive hemorrhage. We report a case of a high-risk surgical patient with polyarteritis nodosa complicated by spontaneous rupture of multiple intrahepatic arterial aneurysms. He was initially treated with emergency gelatin sponge particle embolization, followed by maintenance steroid treatment. Complete resolution of intrahepatic arterial aneurysms was observed at follow-up.

  13. Construction of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Bare Metal Stent/Stent-graft Combination versus Single Stent-graft, a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study with Long-term Patency and Clinical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The construction of a TIPS with either the single stent-graft or BMS/stent-graft combination is effective for controlling variceal bleeding. The BMS/stent-graft combination technique is superior to the stent-graft technique in terms of hepatic function preservation indicated by the Child-Pugh score. However, considering the clinical results of the TIPS, the two techniques are comparable in their primary shunt patency, incidence of encephalopathy and patient survival during the long-term follow-up.

  14. Metallothionein overexpression and its prognostic relevance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Klaus Jürgen; Lang, Hauke; Kaiser, Gernot; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Sotiropoulos, Georgios Charalambos; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Jasani, Bharat; Schmid, Kurt Werner

    2009-12-01

    Metallothionein is a group of small molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins with a broad variety of functions. Metallothionein has been shown to regulate apoptosis and proliferation. Overexpression of metallothionein frequently occurs in human tumors and is related to prognosis as well as therapy response. However, metallothionein expression and its clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma have not been investigated. The present study aimed to analyze metallothionein over-expression and its possible prognostic impact in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors). We investigated the relationship of immunohistochemically demonstrated metallothionein expression with various clinicopathological parameters in a series of 56 intrahepatic and 56 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In noncancerous bile duct epithelia metallothionein was only occasionally weakly expressed; strong metallothionein overexpression (>50% metallothionein -positive tumor cells) was noted in 7 (12.5%) of 56 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 14 (25%) of 56 Klatskin tumors, which was associated with poor clinical outcome in univariate Kaplan-Meier testing in both intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (P = .002) and Klatskin tumors (P = .034). Moreover, strong metallothionein expression was identified as an independent prognostic parameter in multivariate Cox regression analysis in both intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (P = .005) and Klatskin tumors (P = .035). In contrast, cholangiocarcinoma with a papillary phenotype (8/112; 7.1%) exhibited a significant lack of strong metallothionein expression in all 8 of 8 cases. Strong metallothionein expression is identified as an independent poor prognostic parameter, and determination of the metallothionein expression may serve as an additional tool for the therapeutic management of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. In comparison, lack of metallothionein expression seems to be associated with cholangiocarcinoma with a

  15. Neonatal Outcomes in Fetuses With a Persistent Intrahepatic Right Umbilical Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Timothy P; Hill, Lyndon M

    2016-10-01

    A fetal persistent intrahepatic right umbilical vein has been linked to anomalies and genetic disorders but can be a normal variant. We conducted a retrospective review to determine other sonographic findings that can stratify fetuses for further evaluation. A total of 313 fetuses had a persistent intrahepatic right umbilical vein identified on 17- to 24-week sonography. The outcome was any major congenital anomaly or an adverse neonatal outcome, which was defined as aneuploidy, fetal demise, or neonatal death. A total of 217 patients (69.3%) had a normal neonatal outcome. Sixty-nine patients (22.0%) were lost to follow-up. Five fetuses (2.1%) had aneuploidy; 4 of the 5 had additional sonographic findings, and 1 had an isolated persistent intrahepatic right umbilical vein. Twenty-four fetuses had a major anomaly in association with the persistent right umbilical vein; 26 additional fetuses had soft sonographic markers associated with karyotypic abnormalities but were chromosomally normal. Of those with adverse neonatal outcomes, 12 had a congenital heart defect (57%). An additional sonographic finding with a persistent intrahepatic right umbilical vein was predictive of a congenital anomaly or an adverse neonatal outcome (P right umbilical vein had a 0.4% risk for a congenital anomaly or an adverse neonatal outcome. A persistent intrahepatic right umbilical vein should prompt an extended anatomic survey and a fetal cardiac evaluation. If the survey and cardiac anatomy are reassuring, no further follow-up is needed. If additional findings are identified, genetic counseling and invasive testing should be considered.

  16. Myelopathy-mimicking symptoms of epidural venous engorgement and syringomyelia due to inferior vena cava stenosis at the thoracolumbar junction in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Wook-Jae; Kang, Kyung-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Epidural venous engorgement can result from various lesions, such as arteriovenous malformation, thrombosis or occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), or an abdominal masslike lesion. Most patients with these problems complain of low-back pain, radicular pain, or neurogenic claudication, which are symptoms suggestive of disc herniation or spinal stenosis. However, these patients rarely exhibit neurological deficits or cauda equina syndrome. The authors encountered a case of a 60-year-old man presenting with lower-extremity weakness and voiding difficulty for a period of 1 year. To investigate the patient's myelopathy-mimicking symptoms, a lumbar spine MRI scan was performed. The MR images exhibited tortuous and dilated spinal vessels compressing the spinal cord and thecal sac at the T11-L3 level, which were concurrent with syringomyelia evidenced by a 22 × 2.5-mm cyst at the T11-12 level. 3D CT scanning of the whole aorta revealed total occlusion and regression of the IVC in the intrahepatic region 3 cm inferior to the right atrium and dilation of multiple collateral veins. The patient was diagnosed with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome Type I. The authors performed venography, followed by intrahepatic IVC recanalization via stent placement under fluoroscopic and ultra sonographic guidance and without surgical exploration. After this treatment, there was a marked decrease in epidural venous engorgement and the patient's symptoms resolved almost completely. This case indicates that epidural venous engorgement at thoracolumbar levels may cause symptoms suggestive of myelopathy and can be successfully treated by minimally invasive procedures to eliminate the underlying causes.

  17. [Central venous blood gas analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Guiotto, Giovanna; Schiraldi, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The hemodialysis might interfere with patients hemodynamic, as the technique allows a sophisticated game with extra and intravascular fluids. As the cardiocirculatory response could sometimes be unpredictable, it is interesting to collect valuable information by reaching a deep understanding of the tissue metabolism which is mirrored by the blood gas analysis of variations in arterial and central venous blood samples. Particularly interesting are the time course variations of the central venous hemoglobin saturation (ScvO2), which are directly related to the patient with O2-demand as well as to the O2-Delivery (DO2). The ScvO2 is determined by four parameters (cardiac output, Hb concentration, arterial Hb saturation and O2 consumption): If the fluids subtraction during dialysis was about to determine an occult hypoperfusion, the ScvO2 reduction would be a timely warning sign to be considered. Moreover, while the normal veno-arterial PCO2 difference is 2-4 mmHg, whenever a mismatch between O2-demand and DO2arise, a larger v-aPCO2 difference should be observed.

  18. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Eren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major complication of cancer and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VTE is 0.6-7.8% in patients with cancer more than double the incidence of VTE in patients without cancer. The risk of VTE which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE is increased two to seven fold in patients with cancer. VTE risk is especially high among certain groups such as hospitalized patients with cancer and those receiving active antineoplastic therapy. Also cancer patients, who undergoing major surgery, are increased risk of VTE. Trauma, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, previous VTE and genetic component are also predisposing factors for VTE. Patients with cancer who develop VTE should be managed multidisciplinary treatment guidelines. The primary goal of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer is to prevent VTE. The large majority of cancer patients should be treated with therapeutic doses of unfractioned heparin (UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Prophylaxis should include cancer patients who underwent major surgery for cancer and patients with a history of VTE.

  19. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome.

  20. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    Science.gov (United States)

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  1. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren; Seraj, Samina

    2010-04-15

    Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. The primary risk factors for venous ulcer development are older age, obesity, previous leg injuries, deep venous thrombosis, and phlebitis. On physical examination, venous ulcers are generally irregular, shallow, and located over bony prominences. Granulation tissue and fibrin are typically present in the ulcer base. Associated findings include lower extremity varicosities, edema, venous dermatitis, and lipodermatosclerosis. Venous ulcers are usually recurrent, and an open ulcer can persist for weeks to many years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant change. Poor prognostic factors include large ulcer size and prolonged duration. Evidence-based treatment options for venous ulcers include leg elevation, compression therapy, dressings, pentoxifylline, and aspirin therapy. Surgical management may be considered for ulcers that are large in size, of prolonged duration, or refractory to conservative measures.

  3. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  4. Sex-specific aspects of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roach, Rachel Elizabeth Jo

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a disease that occurs in 1-2 per 1000 people per year. At the time of their first venous thrombosis, approximately 50% of women are exposed to reproductive risk factors (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, pregnancy and the puerperium). In this thesis, we showed

  5. U turn to venous air embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harsimran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a definitive risk of venous air embolism when the fluid infusion is complete and the drip set is still open in a glass bottle.We have devised a novel way of preventing the chances of air embolism when the fluid in the glass bottle finishes. It really gives a "U" turn to the chances of venous air embolism.

  6. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  7. Prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways in patients with portal hypertension: demonstration by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography; Vias colaterais porto-sistemicas exuberantes em portadores de hipertensao portal: demonstracao pela angiografia por ressonancia magnetica com gadolinio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Bezerra, Alexandre Araujo Sergio; Cecin, Alexnadre Oliveira; Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Goldman, Susan Menasce; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: rogercal@uol.com.br

    2003-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. We reviewed the images from 40 patients with portal hypertension studied with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and selected illustrative cases of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. The scans were performed using high field equipment (1.5 Tesla) and a 3 D volume technique. Image were obtained after intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast media using a power injector. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated with precision the porto-systemic collateral pathways, particularly when investigating extensive territories or large vessels. The cases presented show the potential of this method in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension and prominent collateral pathways. (author)

  8. Intrahepatic distribution of hepatitis B virus antigens in patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaie, Parham; Poongkunran, Mugilan; Kuang, Ping-Ping; Javaid, Asad; Jacobs, Carl; Pohlmann, Rebecca; Nasser, Imad; Lau, Daryl TY

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the intrahepatic expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in chronic hepatitis B patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: A total of 33 chronic hepatitis B patients (mean age of 40.3 ± 2.5 years), comprising of 14 HBeAg positive and 19 HBeAg negative patients; and 13 patients with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (mean age of 49.6 ± 4.7 years), were included in our study. Immunohistochemical staining for HBcAg and HBsAg was done using standard streptavidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase technique on paraffin-embedded liver biopsies. The HBcAg and HBsAg staining distributions and patterns were described according to a modified classification system. RESULTS: Compared to the HBeAg negative patients, the HBeAg positive patients were younger, had higher mean HBV DNA and alanine transaminases levels. All the HBeAg positive patients had intrahepatic HBcAg staining; predominantly with “diffuse” distribution (79%) and “mixed cytoplasmic/nuclear” pattern (79%). In comparison, only 5% of the HBeAg-negative patients had intrahepatic HBcAg staining. However, the intrahepatic HBsAg staining has wider distribution among the HBeAg negative patients, namely; majority of the HBeAg negative cases had “patchy” HBsAg distribution compared to “rare” distribution among the HBeAg positive cases. All but one patient with HCC were HBeAg negative with either undetectable HBV DNA or very low level of viremia. Intrahepatic HBcAg and HBsAg were seen in 13 (100%) and 10 (77%) of the HCC patients respectively. Interestingly, among the 9 HCC patients on anti-viral therapy with suppressed HBV DNA, HBcAg and HBsAg were detected in tumor tissues but not the adjacent liver in 4 (44%) and 1 (11%) patient respectively. CONCLUSION: Isolated intrahepatic HBcAg and HBsAg can be present in tumors of patients with suppressed HBV DNA on antiviral therapy; that may predispose them to cancer development

  9. Haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemoptysis is a potentially life-threatening condition with the need for prompt diagnosis. In about 10–20% of all cases the bleeding source remains unexplained with the standard diagnostic approach. The aim of this article is to show the necessity of widening the diagnostic approach to haemoptysis with consideration of pulmonary venous stenosis as a possible cause of even severe haemoptysis and haemoptoe. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline/PubMed database with the terms: “pulmonary venous stenosis”, “pulmonary venous infarction” and “haemoptysis”. Further references from the case reports were considered. 58 case reports and case collections about patients with haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis were detected. This review gives an overview about the case reports and discusses the underlying pathophysiology and the pros and cons of different imaging techniques for the detection of pulmonary venous stenosis. Several conditions predispose to the obstruction of the mediastinal pulmonary veins. Clinical findings are unspecific and may be misleading. Pulmonary venous stenosis can be detected using several imaging techniques, yet three-dimensional magnetic resonance-angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced computed tomography are the most appropriate. Pulmonary venous stenosis should be considered in patients with haemoptysis.

  10. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  11. Transjugular Retrograde Obliteration prior to Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Hyperammonemia due to Spontaneous Portosystemic Shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Chikamori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC measuring 3.7 cm at S8 of the liver with hyperammonemia due to a spontaneous giant mesocaval shunt. Admission laboratory data revealed albumin, 2.9 g/dL; total bilirubin, 1.3 mg/dL; plasma ammonia level (NH3, 152 g/dL; total bile acid (TBA 108.5 μmoL/L; indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG15, 63%. Superior mesenteric arterial portography revealed a hepatofugal giant mesocaval shunt, and the portal vein was not visualized. Before surgery, transjugular retrograde obliteration (TJO for the mesocaval shunt was attempted to normalize the portal blood flow. Via the right internal jugular vein, a 6 F occlusive balloon catheter was inserted superselectively into the mesocaval shunt. The mesocaval shunt was successfully embolized using absolute ethanol and a 50% glucose solution. Eleven days after TJO, NH3, TBA, and ICG15 decreased to 56, 44, and 33, respectively. Superior mesenteric arterial portography after TJO revealed a hepatopetal portal flow. Partial hepatectomy of S8 was performed 25 days after TJO. The subsequent clinical course showed no complications, and the woman was discharged on postoperative day 14. We conclude that the combined therapy of surgery and TJO is an effective means of treating HCC with hyperammonemia due to a spontaneous portosystemic shunt.

  12. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  13. [Use of mesoglycan in venous pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scondotto, G; Catena, G; Aloisi, D

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-five female patients suffering from primary venous insufficiency of the lower limbs underwent parenteral and oral treatment with mesoglycan for 3 months. In addition to an evaluation of the subjective and objective parameters linked to venous insufficiency, all patients underwent lower limb venous echo colour-Doppler and videocapillaroscopy using an optic probe in a perimalleolar or periulcerous site. At the end of treatment, all patients reported an improvement in subjective parameters, which was confirmed by a reduction of distal edema in 22 out of 25 cases. There was also an improvement in capillaroscopic findings (reduction of edema of pericapillary connective tissue, reduction of capillary and venular ectasia.

  14. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzier, Régis; Rougé, Pierre; Pierre, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    International guidelines advocate the use of first-line ultrasound for central venous catheter, particularly for the internal jugular vein. The role of ultrasound in peripheral venous access remains questionable. In some specific situations, such as pediatrics, obesity and patients with poor venous network, problems to cannulate peripheral vein may occur. Success rate of peripheral intravenous access increases with the diameter of the vein and for a depth of the vein between 0.3 and 1.5 cm. The type of puncture (long-axis or short-axis) and the type of catheters have little influence on the success rate. Specific considerations have to be taken concerning infection control.

  15. Current opinion on iliofemoral venous thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G L

    1976-02-01

    Iliofemoral venous thrombosis is discussed and a technique of iliofemoral venous thrombectomy is presented. Operative phlebography is recommended. The personal recommendations of leading American vascular surgeons in treating the patient with acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis are presented. I recommend thrombectomy for phlegmasia cerulea dolens, and in previously healthy, young ambulatory patients with phlegmasia alba dolens who are seen within 48 hours following thrombosis and have failed to show clinical improvement after a trial of bed rest, elevation of the lower extremities, and intravenous heparin. The majority of patients seen with phlegmasia alba dolens will best be served with nonoperative treatment.

  16. Current perspective of venous thrombosis in the upper extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, L.E.; Meer, van der F.J.M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Venous thrombosis of the upper extremity is a rare disease. Therefore, not as much is known about risk factors, treatment and the risk of recurrence as for venous thrombosis of the leg. Only central venous catheters and strenuous exercise are commonly known risk factors for an upper extremity venous

  17. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: A risk factor for cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinger, Serge

    2016-04-01

    The authors show, in an elegant population-based study, a significant association between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and liver and biliary cancer. This association is most probably related to the high frequency of hepatitis C and gallstone disease in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, both being risk factors for liver and biliary cancer. In addition, the study clearly shows an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and autoimmune diseases, such as thyroid diseases, psoriasis, autoimmune arthropathies and Crohn's disease, and a small increase in cardiovascular diseases. In practice, a follow-up of liver function tests 6-12 weeks after delivery is strongly recommended to detect a possible associated liver disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a diagnostic marker of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ayse; Biberoglu, Ebru; Daglar, Korkut; İskender, Cantekin; Erkaya, Salim; Dede, Hülya; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and total bile acid (TBA) concentration in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Fasting and postprandial TBA, NLR, and aminotransferase (AST/ALT) levels in the blood samples of 65 pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis were examined in this prospective case-control study. Thirty-three of the patients had mild disease and 32 had severe disease; 70 healthy women in uncomplicated pregnancies served as the control group. Not only was the mean NLR elevated in the pregnant women with cholestasis when compared to the controls, but it also predicted the severity of the cholestasis. The correlation between fasting TBA and NLR was significant. Although TBA is still the diagnostic standard, NLR can be used as an initial screening tool due to its high specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful Outcome of Chronic Intrahepatic Cholestasis in an Adult Patient with Sickle Cell/β+ Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymia Vlachaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell/β+ thalassemia (Hb S/β+thal is considered as a variant form of sickle cell disease. Acute episodes of vasoocclusive pain crisis are characteristic for sickle cell disorders and may be complicated by an acute or chronic life-threatening organ dysfunction. Chronic intrahepatic cholestasis is a rare and severe complication in sickle cell disease, characterized by marked hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatic failure with an often fatal course. Despite the fact that patients with Hb S/β+thal usually have a mild type of disease, herein we describe an interesting case of chronic intrahepatic cholestasis with successful outcome in an adult patient with Hb S/β+thal.

  20. Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine;

    The cholestatic disorders progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1, also referred to as Byler’s disease) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1. The substrate of ATP8B1 is very likely to be phosphatidylserine...... families have been investigated, and more than 50 distinct disease mutations have been identified, with roughly half being missense mutations. In this project we try to answer the question whether PFIC1 mutations are generally more disturbing than BRIC1 mutations with respect to expression, structural...... stability and function. We investigate the mutations in our well functioning system of ATP8A2, being expressed in mammalian HEK293T cells, affinity-purified, and reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Well-known mutations from both groups of patients have been selected for study. I91P in ATP8A2 (L127P in ATP8B1...