Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M
The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....
P.A. in 't Veld; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); H.F. de France; P.L. Pearson; M.H. Pieters; R.J. van Kooij
textabstractAn infertile couple was referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of primary infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in the male. It was observed that although the sperm cells presented with an unusual head size and multiple
Full Text Available Objectives: With the adventure of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, great progresses have developed in the treatment of infertility. Concentration on the properties of male’s gamete has been encouraged by the increasing concerns about the causes of ICSI failure. We hence conducted this study to investigate the probable association of sperm parameters with ISCI outcome. Methods: A total of 523 couples referred to Isfahan Fertility and Sterility Center from January 2007 to June 2008 for ICSI. Semen analysis was performed before ICSI procedure according to the WHO criteria. Patients were assigned into successful ICSI (case and failed ICSI (control groups. Sperm parameters were then compared between the 2 groups. Results: One hundred and six patients (20% had successful ICSI results (case group compared with 417 couples (80% with undesirable ICSI outcomes (control group. Among evaluated factors, sperm agglutination (p = 0.007, sperm concentration (p = 0.043, leukocytospermia (p = 0.026 and head abnormality of sperm (p = 0.019 showed statistically significant differences between two groups with differing ICSI results. None of the other semen parameters revealed significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that some sperm parameters are associated with desirable ICSI outcome. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal.
Full Text Available Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI allows proper fertilization in most cases of male sub fertility, it is one of the most unphysiological techniques in assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have tried to improve sperm observation with higher-resolution microscopy techniques such as the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI technique. In order to identify literatures for this review, the PubMed database was searched from 2000 onwards using the terms IMSI, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME and sperm vacuole. Approximately 10 years after the introduction of the MSOME and IMSI procedures, several questions related to the prevalence, origin, location, and clinical consequences of sperm vacuoles have not yet been clarified. It seems that IMSI as a routine application is not state of the art and the only confirmed indications for IMSI are recurrent implantation failure following ICSI and severe male factor.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the management of male infertility. We report two cases that demonstrate the successful application of this technology in Nigeria in the management of both oligospermia and azoospermia. The first case relates to the treatment of a 31-year-old woman who required ...
Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.
Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744
Torki-Boldaji, B; Tavalaee, M; Bahadorani, M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H
Sperm genomic integrity has a significant effect on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes, especially post-implantation. Spermatozoa selected based on motility and morphology do not guarantee the genomic integrity of spermatozoa. Nearly fifty percentage of spermatozoa in infertile men with normal morphology present different degrees of DNA fragmentation. However, capacitated or hyperactivated spermatozoa show lower degrees of DNA fragmentation. Therefore, selection of hyperactivated spermatozoa may improve ICSI outcome. Routinely, for ICSI, fast-moving spermatozoa with A or B motility pattern are mainly selected for injection. The result of this study shows that in processed semen samples, hyperactivated spermatozoa are mainly observed in B motility pattern while, in viscous medium like polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hyperactivated spermatozoa are mainly present in spermatozoa with C pattern of motility (nonprogressive). Therefore, we propose spermatozoa with C motility pattern which contains the main population of physiological or hyperactivated spermatozoa should be selected for ICSI. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Huszar, Gabor; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Jakab, Attila; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Sati, G Leyla; Cayli, Sevil
The current concepts of sperm biochemical markers and the central role of the HspA2 chaperone protein, a measure of sperm cellular maturity and fertilizing potential, are reviewed. Because HspA2 is a component of the synaptonemal complex, low HspA2 levels and increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies are related in diminished maturity sperm. We also suggest a relationship between HspA2 expression in elongating spermatids and events of late spermiogenesis, such as cytoplasmic extrusion and plasma membrane remodeling that aid the formation of the zona pellucida binding and hyaluronic acid binding sites. The presence of hyaluronic acid receptor on the plasma membrane of mature sperm, coupled with hyaluronic acid coated glass or plastic surfaces, facilitates testing of sperm function and selection of single mature sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The frequencies of sperm with chromosomal disomy are reduced approximately fourfold to fivefold in hyaluronic acid selected sperm compared with semen sperm, comparable to the increase in such abnormalities in intracytoplasmic sperm injection offspring. Hyaluronic acid binding also excludes immature sperm with cytoplasmic extrusion, persistent histones, and DNA chain breaks. Hyaluronic acid mediated sperm selection is a novel technique that is comparable to sperm zona pellucida binding. Hyaluronic acid selected sperm will also alleviate the risks related to intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization with sperm of diminished maturity that currently cause worldwide concern.
Palermo, G D; O'Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z
Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
O’Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z
Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. PMID:29158352
Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the impact of oocyte denudation and microinjection timings on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes. Study Design. We included ICSI cycles with the following parameters: rank 1 or 2, female age <36 years, male factor infertility, long protocol using GnRH agonist and rFSH for ovarian stimulation, and use of freshly ejaculated sperm (=110. Several ICSI parameters were analyzed according to the time between oocyte retrieval and denudation (1 and the time between denudation and ICSI (2 using a statistical logistic regression analysis. Results. Neither 1 nor 2 had a significant influence on the Metaphase II (MII rate but the fertilisation rate (FR showed a significant improvement when 1 was longer (optimal results at 1=3 hours while FR significantly decreased with the increase of 2. Optimal implantation (IR and pregnancy (PR rates were obtained when 1 was around 2 hours. Conclusion. Incubation of oocytes around 2 hours between retrieval and denudation may not increase MII rate but appears to lead to the optimal combination of FR and IR.
Patrat, Catherine; Kaffel, Aida; Delaroche, Lucie; Guibert, Juliette; Jouannet, Pierre; Epelboin, Sylvie; De Ziegler, Dominique; Wolf, Jean-Philippe; Fauque, Patricia
Objectives. To analyze the impact of oocyte denudation and microinjection timings on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Study Design. We included ICSI cycles with the following parameters: rank 1 or 2, female age <36 years, male factor infertility, long protocol using GnRH agonist and rFSH for ovarian stimulation, and use of freshly ejaculated sperm (n = 110). Several ICSI parameters were analyzed according to the time between oocyte retrieval and denudation (T(1)) and the time between denudation and ICSI (T(2)) using a statistical logistic regression analysis. Results. Neither T(1) nor T(2) had a significant influence on the Metaphase II (MII) rate but the fertilisation rate (FR) showed a significant improvement when T(1) was longer (optimal results at T(1) = 3 hours) while FR significantly decreased with the increase of T(2). Optimal implantation (IR) and pregnancy (PR) rates were obtained when T(1) was around 2 hours. Conclusion. Incubation of oocytes around 2 hours between retrieval and denudation may not increase MII rate but appears to lead to the optimal combination of FR and IR.
Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio
To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moreira, Pedro N; Montoliu, Lluís
Over the years many well-described techniques for the introduction of transgene DNA into host organisms have been used, including pronuclear injection, in vitro fertilization-mediated transgenesis, transfection of ES and spermatogenic cells, nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei, and lentiviral vectors. The application of these techniques has been limited however either by the time and effort to be executed or by their narrow efficiency with large transgenes. The greatest advantage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated transgenesis is precisely its ability to stably introduce large DNA molecules into the genome of host organisms with relatively high efficiency, as compared to alternative procedures. In mice, this procedure has been shown to be a reproducible method to generate transgenic offspring with a high efficiency. Recently, it proved also to be a viable method to generate transgenic rats and pigs, and as such, it is foreseen with great interest for the production of transgenic farm animals, where it would constitute an important tool for the production of recombinant proteins and livestock improvement.
This thesis describes the Leiden Artificial Reproductive Techniques Follow-up Project. In this project, the potential long-term effects of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were assessed in 5 – 8-year-old singleton children. ICSI is the method of artificial reproduction in which a sperm cel is
Full Text Available Background: With introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular sperm extraction or precutaneouse epididymal sperm aspiration, effective treatment was provided for azoospermic men. The aim of present study was to compare clinical outcome following intracytoplasmic sperm injection using extracted testicular/epididymal sperm or ejaculated severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermic sperm. Methods: After retrospective evaluation of more than four hundred medical records of patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection Mehr medical institute (between 2011-2012, 45 cycles with severe eligoasthenoteratozoospermia and 34 cycles with azoospermia were included. Patients were treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist. The clinical characteristics and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome such as the rate of fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy were compared between the two groups. Results were presented as mean±standard deviation and number (percent. Differences between variables were analyzed using student's t test and the chi-square test was used to examine differences between categorical variables. P value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Mean of female age (29±4.9 vs. 30.2±5.8, body mass index (26.9±5.3 vs. 26.9±3.8, estradiol level on human chorionic gonadotropin administration day (1375.6±843.9 vs. 1181.8±673.1, total number of retrieved oocytes (9.7±5.3 vs. 9.2±5.9 and metaphase II oocytes (7.7±5.1 vs. 7.5±5.4 were similar between the two groups. Of 436 and 313 retrieved oocytes, respectively 232 and 163 oocytes were ferti-lized in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic and azoospermic groups (53.2% vs. 52.1%, P=0.214. There were not statistical differences between groups in number of trans-ferred top quality embryos (1.5±1.2 vs. 1±1.2, P=0.09, implantation rate (22.7% vs. 16.9%, P=0.238 and clinical pregnancy rate (21 (47.7% vs. 11 (35.4%, P=0.199. Conclusion
Full Text Available Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET, subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia. ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART, the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications
Conclusion: Even though fewer oocytes completed maturation in the small follicle group than in the other two groups, the quality of the embryos in all three groups was the same on days 2 and 3. These findings suggest that follicles of all sizes should be aspirated during the intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as follicles of every size were a good source of embryos.
Herbemont, C; Sifer, C
The selection of the individual spermatozoon in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is routinely performed by the observation of its motility and morphology. However, in case of severe oligoasthenozoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requiring the use of testicular sperm, other methods are necessary to help the embryologist making this choice. According to some authors, sperm processing before ICSI seems to limit the DNA fragmentation index, and in this way improves ICSI outcomes. Moreover, intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection is potentially a good option in some specific indications such as severe teratozoospermia, or repeated ICSI failures. Other methods based on sperm structure, as sperm head birefringence observation, or based on its function, like the hyaluronic acid or zona pellucida binding capacity, could be of interest, but still need to be evaluated. Finally, in case of akinetozoospermia, the use of functional tests, such as pentoxifylline test, HOS-test, or to a lesser extent laser touch, makes the selection of viable spermatozoa easier. Nevertheless, studies on larger series have to be conducted to evaluate and precise the interest of each of these methods and their indications, before considering an application on larger scale.
Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás
Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval. PMID:28440264
Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás
Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.
Krause, Iris; Pohler, Uwe; Grosse, Stefan; Shebl, Omar; Petek, Erwin; Chandra, Arvind; Ebner, Thomas
To quantify cytoplasmic maturity on the basis of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) injection funnel manifestation and to evaluate influence factors of the latter. Prospective study. Private fertility center. A total of 31 patients with good ovarian response. Mature and immature oocytes were injected intracytoplasmatically. Formation and persistence of an injection funnel was documented and measured. ICSI funnel size, persistence of injection funnel, rates of degeneration and fertilization, embryo quality. Funnel volume in germinal vesicle stage oocytes (prophase I [PI]) was significantly smaller than that of metaphase I (MI) and MII oocytes. Immature eggs (PI, MI) almost never showed a persistent funnel 2-4 minutes after ICSI, whereas in MII eggs the funnel was still observable in 35% (117/334) of the cases. Uni- and multivariate analysis revealed that pipette type and stimulation protocol significantly influenced appearance of injection funnel. Funnel volume in oocytes that fertilized regularly was significantly higher compared with three-polar body and degenerated oocytes. Oocyte maturation within the follicle is closely associated with a remarkable change in cytoplasm viscosity from an aqueous to a more viscous subtype. Precise evaluation of the injection funnel may help to explain deviations from expected ICSI outcome and could also assist in optimizing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Equine embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is currently effective enough to be used clinically. However, there are several factors that affect the efficiency of this procedure because, in addition to specialized equipment, skill in oocyte and embryo handling, and sperm preparation as well as knowledge of oocyte and embryo culture are required. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently only a couple of reports available on the expected efficiency of foal production by ICSI. Here we discuss the parameters that pertain to the Texas A&M Equine Embryo Laboratory only, as other laboratories may have different results.
Bradley, C K; McArthur, S J; Gee, A J; Weiss, K A; Schmidt, U; Toogood, L
Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs as an indicator for sperm quality, although there is still a lack of consensus as to its clinical utility. In this retrospective study, we examined intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of 1924 infertile patients who underwent SDF analysis using the sperm chromatin integrity test. ART patients were classified as having low [DNA fragmentation index (DFI) <29%] or high SDF (DFI ≥29%) and by whether or not an intervention [physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection (PICSI), intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), frequent ejaculation] was performed. High SDF patients who did not have an intervention had a lower fertilization rate and poorer clinical outcomes from blastocyst transfers as compared with low SDF patients; the fertilization rate was 66.0% vs. 70.2% (p = 0.042), single embryo transfer (SET) fetal heart pregnancy rate was 28.5% vs. 45.2% (p = 0.042), and SET live birth rate was 24.9% vs. 40.6% (p = 0.060), respectively. Furthermore, high SDF patients who had an intervention had significantly improved blastocyst transfer outcomes, similar to those of low SDF patients; the SET live birth rate for high SDF intervention patients was 43.8% as compared with 24.9% for high SDF no intervention patients (p = 0.037) and 40.6% for low SDF patients (p = 0.446). Analysis of the three main intervention subgroups for high SDF patients revealed that TESE/TESA patients had the highest SET live birth rate; in comparison with 24.2% for high SDF patients who did not have an intervention, PICSI patients had 38.3% (p = 0.151), IMSI patients had 28.7% (p = 0.680), and TESE/TESA patients had 49.8% (p = 0.020). Our data suggest that SDF results indicate ICSI outcomes and that patients who have high SDF benefit from an intervention. © 2016 American Society of
Rehman, R.; Hussain, Z.; Zahir, H.
Objective: To compare peak to mid estradiol ratio with the probability of successful conception after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Method: The quasi-experimental study was conducted in an infertility clinic at Islamabad from June 2010 till August 2011, and comprised couples subjected to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Down-regulation of ovaries was followed by calculated stimulation, ovulation induction, oocytes retrieval, intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro maturation of embryos and finally blastocysts transfer. Serum estradiol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on ovulation induction day and the day of embryo transfer. Failure of procedure was detected by beta human chorionic gonadotropin 5-25mIU/ml (Group I; non-pregnant). Females with beta human chorionic gonadotropin>25mIU/ml and no cardiac activity after 4 weeks of transfer were placed in Group II (pre-clinical abortion), and confirmation of foetal heart in the latter comprised Group III (clinical pregnancy). Data was analysed using SPSS 15. Results: Of the 323 couples initially enrolled, embryo transfer was carried out in 282(87.3%) females. Clinical pregnancy was achieved in 101(36%) of the cases, while 61(21.63%) had pre-clinical abortion, and 120(42%) remained non-pregnant. The peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio was low (2.3) in patients who had high oocyte maturity (p=0.001) and fertilisation rate (p=0.003) compared to non-pregnant patients with high peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio (2.56). Conclusion: High peak estradiol with maintenance of optimal levels in mid-luteal phase is required for implantation of fertilised ovum and accomplishment of clinical pregnancy. (author)
Woldringh, G.H.; Besselink, D.E.; Tillema, A.H.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.
BACKGROUND: For men with azoospermia, it is possible to father their own progeny by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with epididymal or testicular sperm. Some studies show that children born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are at increased risk of birth defects, other studies
Sanchez-Albisua, I; Borell-Kost, S; Mau-Holzmann, U A
control studies (21 males, 18 females; mean ages of 18 mo and 40 mo [SD 4 mo]; range 3 y-4 y 1 mo). Each child was assessed physically and tested in three development domains (fine motor, gross motor, and language). Five children born after ICSI versus two control children (p=0.2) had major congenital......The neurodevelopmental outcome of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is controversial. We compared the medical and developmental outcome of 34 singletons born after ICSI (20 males, 14 females; mean ages of 18 mo and 40 mo [SD 9 mo]; range 2 y 10 mo-4 y 8 mo) with 39 case...... hypoglycaemia of infancy (n=1). Karyotyping in 23 children born after ICSI revealed no abnormalities. An imprinting defect was found in the child with Angelman syndrome. Results of developmental assessment were in all cases normal at the age of 18 months except for the three children with Angelman and Hanhart...
Choe, Seung Ah; Tae, Jin Chul; Shin, Mi Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chung Hyon; Lee, Joong Yeup; Hwang, Doyeong; Kim, Ki Chul; Suh, Chang Suk
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sperm selection by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding could improve fertilization rate and embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Two hundred nineteen oocytes obtained from eighteen women were injected with either HA-bound (n = 107) or conventionally selected spermatozoa (n = 112) in a randomized way. All of the participants were infertile couples who had normal sperm parameters but low fertilization rate in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle (n = 5) or experienced multiple IVF failures (n = 13). Lower fertilization (75.7% vs 83.0%) and cleavage rate on day 2 (72.9% vs 83.0%) was observed in oocytes injected with HA-bound spermatozoa than the conventional group, but the difference was not significant. Significantly lower cleavage rate was observed on day 3 in HA group (56.0% vs 69.6%, P = 0.038). Blastocyst formation rate and the number of transferred embryos were similar in both groups. In multiple IVF failure patients, significantly reduced fertilization rate (71.8% vs 85.3%, P = 0.046) and cleavage rate on day 2 (70.4% vs 85.3%, P = 0.029) and day 3 (53.5% vs 77.3%, P = 0.002) were noticed in HA group. Five women achieved pregnancy continuing more than 12 weeks after transfer (27.8%). Success of ICSI was not related with the number of embryos fertilized by HA-bound spermatozoa. Application of ICSI by sperm selection using HA binding is not helpful in couples with repeated poor fertilization or implantation despite normal sperm parameters. PMID:23255860
Minor, Agata; Wong, Edgar Chan; Harmer, Karynn; Ma, Sai
The azoospermic factor (AZF) region is critical for normal spermatogenesis since microdeletions and partial deletions have been associated with infertility. We investigate the diagnostic ability of karyotyping in detecting clinically relevant Y chromosome deletions. The clinical significance of heterochromatin deletions, microdeletions and partial AZFc deletions is also evaluated. A patient with a Yq deletion, affected by severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) which resulted in the birth of a healthy baby boy. The patient, his father and his son underwent Y chromosome microdeletion and partial AZFc deletion screening. We also studied the aneuploidy rate in the sperm of the patient by fluorescent in situ hybridization. AZF microdeletions were absent in the family. However, microdeletion analysis confirmed that the Yq deletion was limited to the heterochromatin. We found a partial AZFc gr/gr deletion in all three family members. We observed an increased rate of sex chromosome aneuploidy in the infertile patient. Cytogenetic analysis was misleading in identifying the Yq breakpoint. Infertility observed in the patient was associated with the gr/gr partial deletion. However, because of the incomplete penetrance of gr/gr deletions, the consequence of the vertical transmission of the deletion through ICSI remains unknown. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.
Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University
He, Yongzhi; Li, Dawen; Cheng, Junping; Huo, Zhongchao; Huang, Hongyi; Xiao, Xin
Objective To explore the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate, acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on the outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 97 infertile couples receiving rescue ICSI due to failure of in vitro fertilization procedures in our Reproductive Medicine Center. Of these 97 women, 41 had clinical pregnancy and 56 did not, and the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate (estimated by DNA fragmentation index, DFI), acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on rescue ICSI outcomes were analyzed. No significant difference was found in paternal age, testosterone value, testicular volume, FSH, female patient' age or the number of eggs retrieved between the two groups (P>0.05), but the infertility years was significantly shorter in the pregnancy group than in the non-pregnancy group (Prate and cleavage rate were similar between the two groups (P>0.05), but the good embryo rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (Preaction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05), but the acrosome integrity rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (Prate, acrosome integrity or acrosome reaction rate were not correlated with the fertilization rate, cleavage rate or good embryo rate (P>0.05). The pregnancy rate, twin and single fetus rates were 42.3%, 10.3% and 32.0% in this cohort after recue ICSI, respectively. Rescue ICSI is an effective treatment after failed in vitro fertilization procedure, and sperm acrosome integrity rate is associated with the outcome of rescue ICSI.
A number of concerns have been raised about children conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this study, 75 babies in the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital ICSI programme were determined during pediatric follow-up to assess the growth, development and congenital malformations from April 1997 to December 2000. Male to female ratio was 1:1.27. Mean birth weight for singletons was not different from the general population. Thirty six per cent of the babies weighed less than 2,500 g, which was almost four times higher than naturally conceived babies. Approximately 27 per cent of deliveries were multiple pregnancies compared to 0.93 per cent from natural conception. Prematurity rate was 25 per cent and 85.7 per cent of deliveries were carried out by caesarian section. One baby (1.3%) had major congenital malformation and 37 babies (49.3%) had one or more minor defects. Most of the babies had weight, height, and head circumference within normal ranges. After correction for gestational age, all the premature babies caught up growth within the first year of life. Eleven babies (14.7%) had abnormal or questionable results or Denver II at different ages. Longer-term follow-up is necessary to properly assess the growth and developmental outcome of the ICSI babies.
Full Text Available Background: There is still concern about delayed mental development for children born through Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI. In the present study, the intelligence quotient (IQ of ICSI children at the age of 5–6 years was compared with that of the control group of naturally born (NB children. Outcome measure: Full-scale IQ of the mental development in children born through ICSI in 5–6 years. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Fatemehzahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center of Babol – Iran. Participants: 28 live-birth singleton children 5–6 years of the first generation born after ICSI treatment. Methods: The mental development of 28 born through ICSI children at 5–6 years compared with 32 naturally born children as control using intelligence quotient (IQ test obtained from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI (Iranian version. Results: The mean full-scale IQ was 105.9 ± 14 for ICSI and 107.2 ± 12.9 for NB children which showed no significant difference. The only significant possible predictors of slightly lower full-scale IQ in ICSI children were lower parental education level and longer childcare in day center. Conclusion: Our finding provides some reassurance for parents of children born through ICSI regarding the child’s preschool IQ.
Full Text Available Background The measurement of follicular output rate (FORT has been proposed as a good indicator for evaluating follicular response to the exogenous recombinant folliclestimulating hormone (rFSH. This places FORT as a promising qualitative marker for ovarian function. The objective of the study was to determine FORT as a predictor of oocyte competence, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out on a group of infer- tile females (n=282 at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples, Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2010 till August 2013. Downregulated females were stimulated in injection gonadotropins and on ovulation induction day, pre-ovulatory follicle count (PFC was determined using transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVUS, and FORT was determined as a ratio of PFC to antral follicle count (AFC×100. Group I consisted of females with a negative pregnancy test, while group II had a positive pregnancy test that was confirmed with the appearance of fetal cardiac activity. Linear regression analyses of categorical variables of clinical pregnancy along with other independent variables, including FORT, were performed using SPSS version 15.0. Results Pregnancy occurred in 101/282 women who were tested, recording a clinical pregnancy rate of about 35.8%. FORT values were higher in group II as compared to group I females (P=0.0001. In multiple regression analysis, 97.7, 87.1, 78.2, and 83.4% variations were explained based on the number of retrieved oocytes per patients, number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, number of fertilized oocytes, and number of cleaved embryos, respectively, indicating FORT as an independent predictor. Conclusion FORT is a predictor of oocyte competence in terms of a number of retrieved, mature and fertilized oocytes. It also gives information about the number of cleaved embryos and clinical pregnancy rate.
Povlsen, Betina B; Aw, Lin Da; Laursen, Rita J; Esteves, Sandro C; Humaidan, Peter
An intriguing yet perplexing case report of a successful pregnancy and live birth with intracytoplasmic sperm injection using normal testicular sperm, after the finding of azoospermia in the semen analysis and discovering only tail stump abnormal sperm in the epididymis. Case hypothesis: A tail stump sperm defect of genetic origin was suspected. However, after obtaining normal testicular sperm we concluded that obstructive azoospermia, either idiopathic or secondary to multiple minor genital trauma was the plausible scenario. This has rendered the search of previous reports on a similar condition, but none was found. However, it has raised scientific thoughts for future research. Promising future implications: The importance of reporting this case is to alert urologists performing sperm retrieval that healthy and morphologically normal sperm may be found in the testis of azoospermic men with 100% tail stump epididymal sperm. Retrieval of normal testicular sperm obviates the need of a more complex investigation, including sperm electron microscopy. It also offers the possibility of utilizing such gametes for sperm injections rather than abnormal tail stump sperm that may be associated with a poor reproductive outcome.
Greco, Ermanno; Scarselli, Filomena; Fabozzi, Gemma; Colasante, Alessandro; Zavaglia, Daniela; Alviggi, Erminia; Litwicka, Katarzyna; Varricchio, Maria Teresa; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Tesarik, Jan
To retrospectively evaluate whether sperm vacuoles influence clinical results, with a particular focus on live-birth rates, in 101 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles. Retrospective, observational study. Medical center. A total of 101 couples with at least two failed intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) attempts and impaired sperm morphology. Patients divided into two groups according to sperm morphology and vacuolization pattern: group A comprising patients with good quality spermatozoa (type I and/or type II spermatozoa) (n = 63 patients); group B comprising patients with low quality spermatozoa (type III and/or IV spermatozoa) (n = 38 patients). Fertilization rate, embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and live-birth rates. No statistically significant differences were observed between group A and B with regard to "early" assisted reproduction outcomes (fertilization rate and embryo quality). However, the "late" outcomes (pregnancy, implantation, and live-birth rates) were statistically significantly higher in group A. These results confirm a correlation between sperm vacuoles and a negative IMSI outcome, suggesting that sperm vacuoles are related to the late paternal effect. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Memari, Aishe; Naji, Siamak; Mladkova, Nikol; Saeedi, Vida
There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks). The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.13; P = 0.040) but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8-208.4; P = 0.014). Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28-131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47-80.03; P = 0.020, respectively). There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines). In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.
Full Text Available Background In vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are two important subsets of the assisted reproductive techniques, used for the treatment of infertility. Predicting implantation outcome of IVF/ICSI or the chance of pregnancy is essential for infertile couples, since these treatments are complex and expensive with a low probability of conception. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of 486 patients were collected using census method. The IVF/ICSI dataset contains 29 variables along with an identifier for each patient that is either negative or positive. Mean accuracy and mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve are calculated for the classifiers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of classifiers are employed as indicators of performance. The state-of-art classifiers which are candidates for this study include support vector machines, recursive partitioning (RPART, random forest (RF, adaptive boosting, and one-nearest neighbor. Results RF and RPART outperform the other comparable methods. The results revealed the areas under the ROC curve (AUC as 84.23 and 82.05%, respectively. The importance of IVF/ICSI features was extracted from the output of RPART. Our findings demonstrate that the probability of pregnancy is low for women aged above 38. Conclusion Classifiers RF and RPART are better at predicting IVF/ICSI cases compared to other decision makers that were tested in our study. Elicited decision rules of RPART determine useful predictive features of IVF/ICSI. Out of 20 factors, the age of woman, number of developed embryos, and serum estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration are the three best features for such prediction.
İltemir Duvan Z.Candan,
Full Text Available Background Coasting can reduce the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS risk in ovulation induction cycles before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH cycles with coasting on the parameters of ICSI cycles and the outcome. Materials and Methods In a retrospective cohort study, 117 ICSI cycles were per- formed and coasting was applied due to hyperresponse, between 2006 and 2011. The ICSI outcomes after coasting were then compared between the GnRH agonist group (n=91 and the GnRH antagonist group (n=26. Results The duration of induction and the total consumption of gonadotropins were found to be similar. Estradiol (E2 levels on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG day were found higher in the agonist group. Coasting days were similar when the two groups were compared. The number of mature oocytes and the fertilization rates were similar in both groups; however, the number of grade 1 (G1 embryos and the number of transferred embryos were higher in the agonist group. Implantation rates were significantly higher in the antagonist group compared to the agonist group. Pregnancy rates/embryo transfer rates were higher in the antagonist group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (32.8% for agonist group vs. 39.1% for antagonist group, P>0.05. Conclusion The present study showed that applying GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antago- nist protocols to coasted cycles did not result in any differences in cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates.
Cui, Long; Fang, Li; Shi, Biwei; Qiu, Sunquan; Ye, Yinghui
To assess the effects of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-34b/c expression levels in human spermatozoa on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective observational study. In vitro fertilization center. A total of 162 patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles. None. The levels of miR-34b/c in spermatozoa were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fertilization, early cleavage, day-3 good-quality embryo, pregnancy, implantation, and live birth rate were assessed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to analyze the cutoff values. No correlation was found between the spermatozoa miR-34b/c levels and the 2 pronuclei early cleavage rate. A correlation was seen between an increased level of miR-34c and a higher percentage of good-quality embryos on day 3. Although miR-34b and miR-34c levels were higher in the pregnancy group, compared with the nonpregnancy group, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa were more strongly correlated with ICSI treatment outcomes, compared with miR-34b (area under the curve = 0.75). Patients in the miR-34c-positive group were more likely to exhibit higher rates of good-quality embryos, implantation, pregnancy, and live birth. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that miR-34c in spermatozoa (odds ratio: 5.699, with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.687-12.088) and woman's age (odds ratio: 0.843, with 95% CI: 0.736-0.966) were the 2 parameters that were significantly correlated with pregnancy. Our results demonstrate that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa are correlated with ICSI outcomes, suggesting that paternal miR-34c may play a role in the early phases of embryonic development. Levels of MiR-34c in human spermatozoa may be used as an indicator for ICSI outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Codreanu, Dorina; Coricovac, Anca; Mirzan, Luminita; Dracea, Laura; Marinescu, B; Boleac, I
With the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), couples with severe male factor infertility have been able to achieve fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates comparable to other in vitro fertilization patients. However, despite the utilization of microsurgical sperm injection techniques, failure of fertilization still occurs in a few patients. How such fertilization failure after ICSI might impact later ICSI treatments is less understood. We report a case of total fertilization failure after ICSI using sperm from a normozoospermic husband of a patient with unexplained infertility. Six months after the cancelled cycle, the couple conceived naturally. Unfortunately, it was an ectopic pregnancy, which required laparoscopy and surgical removal of the right fallopian tube. This case shows that a failed ICSI cycle, therefore, does not imply a hopeless prognosis for future ICSI treatment. Moreover, in cases with unexplained ICSI failure, natural conception can subsequently occur. The aim of this study is two-fold: to discuss a rare case of a spontaneous pregnancy after total fertilization failure with ICSI and to develop counseling material for patients and doctors who are faced with such a rare situation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of spontaneous pregnancy after total fertilization failure with ICSI.
van Heesch, M.M.J.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.M.; van der Hoeven, M.A.H.B.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; van Zonneveld, P.; Dirksen, C.D.
Objective To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital
Heesch, M.M. van; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.; Hoeven, M.A. van der; Beijsterveldt, C.E. van; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; Zonneveld, P. van; Dirksen, C.D.
OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital
Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.
Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off
Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.
Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off
Taka, Mikiko; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Fukui, Yutaka
For developmental competence of porcine embryos in vitro, it is important to improve the culture environment. The present study was performed to evaluate four different culture systems for in vitro matured porcine oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); drop, well and two sizes of the well of the well (WOW) systems (500 and 1,000 microm in diameter). The cleavage rate on Day 2 and the mean cell number in blastocysts on Day 6 were not significantly different among the four treatments. However, the 1,000 microm WOW (24.6%) resulted in a significantly higher (PWOW, respectively). The present study indicates that the microenvironment created by the 1,000 microm diameter WOW improves blastocyst production of in vitro matured porcine oocytes after ICSI, and that the effectiveness of the WOW system is dependent on the size (diameter) of the WOW.
Full Text Available The invention of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI has possibly been the most important development in reproductive medicine, one that has given hope to thousands of infertile couples worldwide. However, concerns remain regarding the safety of this method since it is a more invasive procedure than in vitro fertilization (IVF, since a spermatozoon is injected into the oocyte cytoplasm. Using mice derived from IVF technology as a control, we assessed the influence of invasive microinjection in the process of transferring sperm into oocyte cytoplasm in ICSI procedure on the development and physiologic function of resultant offspring. Our results demonstrated that mice produced from ICSI and IVF had no significant difference in phenotypic indices including body weight, forelimb physiology, and learning and memory ability. However, increased spermatocyte apoptosis was observed in the testis of adult ICSI mice, when compared with IVF mice. And, decreased testis weight and marked damage of spermatogenic epithelia were found in aged ICSI mice. Furthermore, proteomic analysis verified that most of the differentiated proteins in testes between adult ICSI and IVF mice were those involved in regulation of apoptosis pathways. Our results demonstrated that the microinjection manipulation used in the ICSI procedure might pose potential risks to the fertility of male offspring. The changed expression of a series of proteins relating to apoptosis or proliferation might contribute to it. Further studies are necessary to better understand all the risks of ICSI.
Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu
This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI among polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that was performed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Patients who were under 35 years old were included in the study and were divided into four groups based on their BMI. The number of retrieved oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and live births among PCOS and non-PCOS patients were compared between different BMIs. Results: IVF/ICSI pregnancies in obese PCOS women had a considerably higher risk of miscarriage and low rate of clinical pregnancy than in non-obese PCOS pregnancies. However, in non-PCOS patient, obesity significantly elevated miscarriage rate but did not affect clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion: Obesity in PCOS patients led to poor outcomes of IVF/ICSI.
Park, Y S; Lee, S H; Lim, C K; Choi, H W; An, J H; Park, C W; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Seo, J T
This study was performed to evaluate the independent influence of paternal age affecting embryo development and pregnancy using testicular sperm extraction (TESE)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in obstructive azoospermia (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Paternal patients were divided into the following groups: ≤30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years and ≥46 years. There were no differences in the rates of fertilisation or embryo quality according to paternal and maternal age. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower between those ≥46 years of paternal age compared with other age groups. Fertilisation rate was higher in the OA than the NOA, while embryo quality, pregnancy and delivery results were similar. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower for patients ≥46 years of paternal age compared with younger age groups. In conclusion, fertilisation using TESE in azoospermia was not affected by the independent influence of paternal age; however, as maternal age increased concomitantly with paternal age, rates of pregnancy and delivery differed between those with paternal age age ≥46 years old should be considered when applying TESE-ICSI in cases of azoospermia, and patients should be advised of the associated low pregnancy rates. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cavallini, Giorgio; Cristina Magli, Maria; Crippa, Andor; Resta, Silvia; Vitali, Giovanni; Pia Ferraretti, Anna; Gianaroli, Luca
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between monitors of spermatogenesis and predictors of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) undergoing testicular sperm extraction (TESE). Seventy-nine patients with NOA (mean age: 43.6±5.2 years), each of whom yielded (97 000±3040) spermatozoa with conventional TESE, were considered in our analysis. Their partners (mean age: 35.8±5.1 years) underwent a total of 184 ICSI cycles; 632 oocytes were collected, 221 oocytes were injected, 141 oocytes were fertilized, 121 embryos were obtained, 110 embryos were transferred, 14 clinical pregnancies were achieved and only one miscarriage occurred. Multivariate regression analysis indicated relationships between the percentage of fertilized oocytes, transferred embryos and clinical pregnancies with the following variable values: female partner's age, number of spermatozoa collected, testicular volume, male partner's levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes injected and number of ICSI cycles. A significant inverse relationship was found between female partner's age or male partner's FSH levels and biochemical pregnancies. A significant direct relationship emerged between the number of ICSI cycles and the percentage of oocytes fertilized, embryos transferred and biochemical pregnancies, and between the number of spermatozoa collected per testicular biopsy and biochemical pregnancies. The number of spermatozoa was positively linked to the number of clinical pregnancies, independent of the number of ICSI cycles and the number of oocytes collected/injected. The number of spermatozoa collected, FSH level and testicular volume are monitors of spermatogenesis linked to ICSI success. PMID:21240295
Sandro C. Esteves
Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility.
Esteves, Sandro C.; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok
Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility. PMID:21915501
Royster, Greene Donald; Krishnamoorthy, Kavitha; Csokmay, John M; Yauger, Belinda J; Chason, Rebecca J; DeCherney, Alan H; Wolff, Erin F; Hill, Micah J
To evaluate whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) use and E2 on the final day of assisted reproductive technology (ART) stimulation are associated with adverse obstetric complications related to placentation. Retrospective cohort study. Large private ART practice. A total of 383 women who underwent ART resulting in a singleton live birth. None. Adverse placental outcomes composed of placenta accreta, placental abruption, placenta previa, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and small for gestational age infants. Patients with adverse placental outcomes had higher peak serum E2 levels and were three times more likely to have used ICSI. Adverse placental outcomes were associated with increasing E2 (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.65) and ICSI (odds ratio 3.86, 95% confidence interval 1.61-9.27). Adverse outcomes increased when E2 was >3,000 pg/mL and continued to increase in a linear fashion until E2 was >5,000 pg/mL. The association of ICSI with adverse outcomes was independent of male factor infertility. Interaction testing suggested the adverse effect of E2 was primarily seen in ICSI cycles, but not in conventional IVF cycles. Estradiol >5,000 pg/mL was associated with adverse placental events in 36% of all ART cycles and 52% of ICSI cycles. ICSI and elevated E2 on the day of hCG trigger were associated with adverse obstetric outcomes related to placentation. The finding of a potential interaction of E2 and ICSI with adverse placental events is novel and warrants further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity, a known epidemic, is a leading cause of various reproductive disorders. Association of body mass index (BMI with pregnancy outcomes, either ovarian or endometrial, is controversial and least elucidated. Aim: This study aimed to analyze the effect of BMI on in-vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcome in women using self-oocytes, embryos prepared from donor oocytes (DE, or vitrified/frozen embryos (VE obtained from both the SE and DE groups. Materials and Methods: A 9-month retrospective study was conducted on women undergoing IVF/ICSI. The women were grouped according to the World Health Organization classification of BMI (<18.50, 18.50–24.99, 25.00–29.99, and ≥30.00 kg/m2. They were further subcategorized as SE, DE, and VE groups. Ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR was recorded as primary, whereas pregnancy rate (PR, clinical PR (CPR, implantation rate (IR, and clinical abortion rate (CAR were secondary endpoints. Age, number of mature eggs, usable embryos, and embryos transferred were also measured. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and analysis of variance. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: OPR was statistically insignificant across all the groups. Secondary outcomes were statistically insignificant in all the groups except in VE, where IR (P = 0.008 and CAR (P = 0.0002 were statically significant. Other parameters were statistically insignificant among all the groups. However, in the SE and VE groups, the mean age was statistically significant (SE, P = 0.0001; VE, P = 0.0191. Conclusion: This study showed marginal/no effect of BMI on oocyte quality/endometrial receptivity and, subsequently, on the pregnancy outcome. However, well-designed, larger prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of BMI in pregnancy outcome in women undergoing IVF/ICSI.
Nyborg, Kathinka Marie; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare
. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifty-two patients with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses after ART who underwent at least one further ART cycle with concurrent immunomodulation in 2003-2012. INTERVENTION(S): Immunomodulation with IV immunoglobulin......OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome in terms of live-birth rate after fresh or frozen IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles where immunomodulation was given to patients with recurrent pregnancy loss after prior ART treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
Intravaginal and intracervical application of seminal plasma in in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles--a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study.
von Wolff, Michael; Rösner, Sabine; Thöne, Christina; Pinheiro, Rafael Mota; Jauckus, Julia; Bruckner, Thomas; Biolchi, Vanderleyen; Alia, Amal; Strowitzki, Thomas
To evaluate whether intravaginal application of seminal plasma at the time of follicle aspiration in IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles has the potential to increase pregnancy rate. To calculate the number of patients needed to achieve significance in a multicenter trial. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot study. University department of gynecological endocrinology and reproductive medicine. One hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Cryopreserved seminal plasma from the patient's partner or sodium chloride (placebo) was injected into the cervix and the posterior fornix of the vagina just after follicle aspiration. Clinical-pregnancy rate. One hundred sixty-eight patients agreed to participate in the study. Participation was limited to one treatment cycle. Thirty-one patients (18%) were excluded from the study, mainly as a result of canceled embryo transfers. Seventy patients received placebo, and 67 received seminal plasma. The clinical-pregnancy rate was 25.7% (18/70) in the placebo group. The clinical-pregnancy rate in the seminal plasma group reached 37.3% (25/67), corresponding to a relative increase of 45%. Even though significance was not reached in this pilot study, the data suggest that seminal plasma has the potential to improve pregnancy rate. It is estimated that around 450 patients need to be recruited to reach significance in a multicenter study.
Catalá, Maria G; Izquierdo, Dolors; Rodríguez-Prado, Maria; Hammami, Sondes; Paramio, Maria-Teresa
To compare blastocyst production, after IVF and ICSI, from sheep oocytes of various quality. Sham-injected oocytes and parthenogenetic activated oocyte groups were considered as control. Prospective experimental study. University. Three- to 6-month-old sheep. Oocyte quality was assessed with the use of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain. Adenosine triphosphate content was measured. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and IVF were performed and blastocyst development and cell numbers were analyzed. Adenosine triphosphate content, embryo development and blastomere numbers. After IVF, BCB-stained (BCB+) oocytes developed up to the blastocyst stage at higher percentages and with more cells per embryo (24.1% vs 4.0% and 69.7 vs 43.9, respectively) than unstained (BCB-) oocytes. Using intracytoplasmic sperm injection, no differences were found in blastocyst production (14.3% vs 11.8%) and number of cells per embryo (71.1 vs 54.3) between BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. Adenosine triphosphate content was higher before in vitro maturation than after in both types of oocytes. Brilliant cresyl blue-stained oocytes had more adenosine triphosphate content than BCB- oocytes. Brilliant cresyl blue-stained oocytes show more adenosine triphosphate content than BCB- oocytes. Results from IVF were affected by the oocyte quality while ICSI did not produce differences in embryo development or blastomere numbers. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?
Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic
To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....
Progesterone/estradiol ratio human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in prolonged protocols for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Li, Yuan; Luo, Keli; Tang, Yi; Lin, Ge; Lu, Guangxiu; Gong, Fei
It has been suggested that a progesterone/estradiol ratio (P/E2) ≥ 1.0 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration indicates premature luteinization and might be associated with an adverse pregnancy; however, a lower limit of this ratio has not been determined. We aimed to identify a lower limit of P/E2 that correlates significantly with an increase in adverse pregnancies in patients undergoing a prolonged in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy. This retrospective analysis involved 7451 patients who received the first cycle of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy treatment at the Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of Citic-Xiangya between January 2008 and April 2012. Patients were stratified into six groups according to their P/E2 on the day of hCG administration. Primary pregnancy outcomes, rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, and live births were recorded. The association between P/E2 on the day of hCG administration and primary pregnancy outcomes was assessed using logistic regression analysis. The rates of implantation (23.85-33.44%), clinical pregnancy (47.42-67.12%), ongoing pregnancy (40.83-61.48%), and live birth (34.40-57.65%) were significantly decreased in patients with a P/E2 gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2017 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effect of the previous reproductive outcomes in subfertile women after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments on perinatal anxious and depressive symptomatology.
Agostini, Francesca; Monti, Fiorella; Paterlini, Marcella; Andrei, Federica; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista
The present study aims to investigate the effects of previous reproductive outcomes on the levels of depression, anxiety and perceived social support in subfertile women who conceived after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. A prospective cohort study was developed. Data were collected on subfertile patients who conceived after IVF/ICSI treatment. All demographic and clinical data were recorded. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support at 22 and 32 weeks of gestation and 15 days after delivery were completed. Data were analyzed comparing patients who conceived at their first IVF/ICSI cycle, after one unsuccessful ARTs cycle, and after multiple unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles. A significant increase in state anxiety and depression scores from 22 gestational weeks of gestation to 15 days after delivery was observed in patients who received multiple unsuccessful IVF/ICSI cycles compared with other groups. No significant difference in perceived social support was detected among groups. The differences in depression and anxiety scores remained consistent after controlling for perceived social support. A history of unsuccessful IVF/ICSI treatments seems to leave women more vulnerable in facing the duties of the new parental role. Such possibility underlies the importance of the availability of a psychological support for these women, even after a successful medical treatment for infertility.
Fleming, Steven D; Varughese, Elizabeth; Hua, Vi-Khiem; Robertson, Amanda; Dalzell, Fiona; Boothroyd, Clare V
To report the first live births of male infants resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using spermatozoa from a man with Eagle-Barrett syndrome (EBS). Case report. Assisted conception unit within a private hospital. An infertile couple. An infertile couple received repeated treatment with ICSI. Clinical pregnancy and a normal live birth. In 2008, after microinjection of ten oocytes, the transfer of a single expanded blastocyst led to the premature birth of a morphologically normal male infant at 18 weeks' gestation. This outcome followed preterm rupture of membranes and possible cervical incompetence. In 2009, after microinjection of six oocytes, transfer of a single 5-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy, with emergency cervical cerclage being performed at 21 weeks. A healthy male infant was born at 30 weeks, with no evidence of EBS, by lower-segment cesarean section for breech presentation and premature labor. In 2012, after elective laparoscopic placement of cervical suture, microinjection of ten oocytes and transfer of a single 4-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy with a healthy male infant, with no evidence of EBS, being born by cesarean section at 38 weeks. This report suggests that EBS is not transmitted to male offspring via ICSI. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ludwig, M; Geipel, A; Berg, C; Gembruch, U; Schwinger, E; Diedrich, K
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) provides the only sufficient treatment to overcome severe forms of male infertility. However, male infertility is linked to several genetic problems as an increased number of chromosomal aberrations, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations, Y-chromosome microdeletions, and androgen receptor mutations. Therefore, these couples are at a higher risk of transmitting genetic problems to their offspring compared to the general population. A proposed increased number of gonosomal aberrations in the offspring possibly results from the ICSI technique itself. This led in general to a worldwide agreement to counsel those couples to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis in order to exclude chromosome abnormalities, especially gonosomal aberrations. In this paper the genetic risks of these couples and the possible implications of ICSI itself are discussed. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis may be considered a procedure of choice in these cases, but substantial ethical problems arise when such a screening is sought. An alternative procedure of prenatal diagnosis in these couples seems to be 'genetic sonography', i.e. high-resolution ultrasound with measurement of nuchal translucency at the end of the first trimester, and detailed fetal evaluation at 18-22 weeks of gestation.
Belva, F; De Schepper, J; Roelants, M; Tournaye, H; Bonduelle, M; Provyn, S
Differences in body fat content during childhood and adolescence have been described in offspring conceived by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, data on body fat and its distribution as well as on adipocytokine production in young adults conceived by ICSI are nonexistent. We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI have a normal body fat patterning and adipocytokine production. Cohort study. One hundred twenty-seven young adults conceived by ICSI and 138 peers born after spontaneous conception. Anthropometric parameters (skinfold thickness, hip and waist circumferences), dual X-ray absorptiometry (whole body and regional) measurements and adipocytokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were analysed in relation to fertility markers (serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B). While at age 18 years, a normal body fat distribution and normal leptin and adiponectin production was found in both male and female ICSI offspring, young men conceived by ICSI had a higher peripheral fat deposition in comparison with spontaneously conceived peers. No correlation between AMH and inhibin B with leptin or adiponectin was observed. While men conceived by ICSI, but not women, had a higher peripheral fat deposition, body fat distribution as well as mean levels of adipocytokines were not affected by the mode of conception. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ohgi, Shirei; Hagihara, Chikako; Anakubo, Hisayo; Yanaihara, Atsushi
In order to identify the real contribution of early fertilization check (EFC) for reproductive outcome, we compared the developmental potential of embryos derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after EFS with those from conventional insemination in sibling oocytes. Between April 2009 and April 2012, a total of 3249 oocytes in 386 patients were recruited following conventional insemination. Oocytes showing a second polar body (2ndPB) after an EFC were considered to be fertilized oocytes (IVF group), but, oocytes not showing a 2ndPB after EFC were placed into the ICSI group. The incidence of morphologically good embryos (MGE) on day 3, the blastocyst formation (BL), and the development of full blastocysts (full-BL) on day 5 were compared between the two groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was compared between the cycles with only conventional insemination or ICSI after EFC of the embryos being transferred. The fertilization rates in both the IVF and the ICSI groups were 48.1 and 73.9 %, respectively. The percentage of MGE in the ICSI group (40.8 %) was significantly lower than that in the IVF group (56.1 %, p fertilization earlier than the usual period contributed to an avoidance of lower fertilization. Moreover, the embryos derived from ICSI after EFC possessed a normal developmental potential.
Vitek, Wendy S; Galárraga, Omar; Klatsky, Peter C; Robins, Jared C; Carson, Sandra A; Blazar, Andrew S
To determine the cost-effectiveness of split IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of couples with unexplained infertility. Adaptive decision model. Academic infertility clinic. A total of 154 couples undergoing a split IVF-ICSI cycle and a computer-simulated cohort of women infertility undergoing IVF. Modeling insemination method in the first IVF cycle as all IVF, split IVF-ICSI, or all ICSI, and adapting treatment based on fertilization outcomes. Live birth rate, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In a single cycle, all IVF is preferred as the ICER of split IVF-ICSI or all ICSI ($58,766) does not justify the increased live birth rate (3%). If two cycles are needed, split IVF/ICSI is preferred as the increased cumulative live birth rate (3.3%) is gained at an ICER of $29,666. In a single cycle, all IVF was preferred as the increased live birth rate with split IVF-ICSI and all ICSI was not justified by the increased cost per live birth. If two IVF cycles are needed, however, split IVF/ICSI becomes the preferred approach, as a result of the higher cumulative live birth rate compared with all IVF and the lesser cost per live birth compared with all ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hindryckx, An; Peeraer, Karen; Debrock, Sophie; Legius, Eric; de Zegher, Francis; Francois, Inge; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Demyttenaere, Koen; Rijkers, Anna; D'Hooghe, Thomas
Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now accepted as the treatment of choice for severe male infertility, concerns about its safety and the potential risks for the offspring remain. We reviewed the literature with respect to the prevalence of major congenital malformations after the ICSI technique and supplemented these data with the results of a prospective follow-up study performed in our center. From January 1994 till June 2000, 776 ICSI cycles were carried out at the Leuven University Fertility Center. The resulting pregnancies (n = 172) were followed for biochemical and obstetrical parameters, prenatal diagnosis and congenital abnormalities. A total of 134/172 (78%) ongoing pregnancies resulted in 132 deliveries of 166 live born children. Two terminations of pregnancy were carried out due to the presence of major congenital anomalies, diagnosed at prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 55 fetuses. Two de novo chromosomal aberrations were found. Major congenital abnormalities were observed at birth in 9/150 (6.0%) children. The total malformation rate was 6.5%. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in children born after ICSI in our center (6.5%) was comparable to the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after ICSI reported in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lissens, W.; Liu, J.; Van Broeckhoven, C. [University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common X-linked recessive diseases. In order to be able to perform a DMD-specific preimplantation diagnosis (PID) in a female carrier of a deletion of exons 3 to 18 in the dystrophin gene, we have developed a PCR assay to detect the deletion based on sequences of exon 17. The efficiency of this PCR was evaluated on 50 single blastomeres from 12 normal control embryos and on 41 blastomeres for 9 male and 3 female embryos from the female DMD carrier, obtained after a first preimplantation diagnosis by sexing. The exon 17 region was amplified with 100% efficiency, except in all 21 blastomeres from 6 male embryos from the carrier where no PCR signals were observed. The negative results in these blastomeres were interpreted as being found only in male embryos carrying the deletion. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was carried out on the carrier`s metaphase II oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation. Embryos were analyzed for the presence of exon 17 and 2 male embryos were found to be deleted, while 4 embryos showed normal amplification signals. Three of the latter embryos were replaced, resulting in a singleton pregnancy. Amniotic cell analysis showed a normal female karyotype and DNA analysis indicated a non-carrier.
Eller Daniel P
Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a case of monochorionic-triamniotic pregnancy that developed after embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and transvaginal retrieval of 22 metaphase II oocytes, fertilization was accomplished with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Assisted embryo hatching was performed, and two embryos were transferred in utero. One non-transferred blastocyst was cryopreserved. Results Fourteen days post-transfer, serum hCG level was 423 mIU/ml and subsequent transvaginal ultrasound revealed a single intrauterine gestational sac with three separate amnion compartments. Three distinct foci of cardiac motion were detected and the diagnosis was revised to monochorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancy. Antenatal management included cerclage placement at 19 weeks gestation and hospital admission at 28 weeks gestation due to mild preeclampsia. Three viable female infants were delivered via cesarean at 30 5/7 weeks gestation. Conclusions The incidence of triplet delivery in humans is approximately 1:6400, and such pregnancies are classified as high-risk for reasons described in this report. We also outline an obstetric management strategy designed to optimize outcomes. The roles of IVF, ICSI, assisted embryo hatching and associated laboratory culture conditions on the subsequent development of monozygotic/monochorionic pregnancy remain controversial. As demonstrated here, even when two-embryo transfer is employed after IVF the statistical probability of monozygotic multiple gestation cannot be reduced to zero. We encourage discussion of this possibility during informed consent for the advanced reproductive technologies.
Meddeb, L; Pauly, V; Boyer, P; Montjean, D; Devictor, B; Curel, L; Seng, P; Sambuc, R; Gervoise Boyer, M
The literature presents conflicting results on the epigenetic effect of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the short-term and mid-term growth of children. These contradictory results may be related to the use of heterogeneous methodologies and non-longitudinal data. The goal of this study was to compare the body mass index (BMI) of children conceived via IVF and spontaneous conception (SC) children, using longitudinal data from birth to 5 years. This study compared 118 singleton children born after in vitro fertilization, with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), selected from a pre-existing single-center cohort to 320 SC children from the same geographic area. BMI and its evolution were analyzed using the mixed-effect model during three periods: before standing acquisition (from birth to 1 year of age), during standing acquisition, and the following period from 2 to 5 years of age. BMI means were not significantly different between groups regardless of the period, when adjusting for confounding factors related to parents, pregnancy, and children's characteristics and lifestyle. Nevertheless, during the standing acquisition period, children born after IVF-ICSI presented a less significant decrease in BMI (P<0.05). In addition, for each period we identified influencing factors (maternal BMI, level of wealth indicator) associated with BMI. In the study population, the suspected epigenetic influence of IVF reported in the literature was not observed for BMI from birth to 5 years of age. Further investigations need to be conducted to determine if the suspected influence of IVF on adiposity could be expressed through other parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang
To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole, a selective aromatase inhibitor, reduces the total dose of gonadotrophin required for inducing follicular maturation. We evaluated if incorporation of letrozole could be an effective alternative for low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol particularly in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles where male factor infertility is the sole indication for IVF. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized controlled single-blind trial. 94 women with history of severe male factor infertility were selected. 42 women (study group received letrozole, 5 mg daily from day 3-7 and recombinant FSH (rFSH 75IU/day from day 5 continuously till hCG injection. 52 women (control group underwent continuous stimulation by rFSH (150-225IU/day from day 2. GnRH-antagonist (Inj. Orgalutran 0.25 ml sub-cutaneous was started at maximum follicle size of 14 in both groups. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000IU of hCG followed by IVF-ET. Main outcome measures were total dose of rFSH (IU/cycle, terminal E2 (pg/ml, number of mature follicles, number of oocyte retrieved, transferable embryo, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate and mean expenditure. Statistical analysis is done by using SPSS11. Results :0 As compared to control group (1756 ± 75IU, the study group i.e., Let-rFSH received (625 ± 98IU significantly lower (P = 0.0001 total dose of rFSH. Terminal E2 was significantly lower (P = 0.0001 in study group than control (830 ± 36 vs. 1076 ± 41 pg/ml with significant increment in endometrial thickness (P = 0.0008 in study group, (9.1 ± 0.32 vs. 8.7 ± 0.69 which maintained an improved pregnancy rate though nonsignificant. The risk of hyperstimulation had significantly (P = 0.01 reduced in study group than control (0 vs. 7.Treatment outcome in all other aspects including pregnancy rate were statistically comparable. Per cycle mean expenditure was reduced by 34% in study group than control. Conclusion: Adjunctive use of letrozole may be an
Conclusion: ICSI outcomes, pregnancy outcome, neonatal outcome, and congenital malformation rate appear not to be affected by the duration of the period of cryostorage. An earlier start of the ICSI cycle following the testicular sperm cryopreservation is preferable because longer preservation is associated with more advanced maternal age.
Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung
Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.
Tiago José Santos de Matos Ferraz
Full Text Available A dichorionic twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare and challenging situation, whose pathogenesis has not been yet fully understood. We present a case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection with two embryos transfer. The 12-week gestation ultrasound examination revealed normal fetus and placenta with features of hydatidiform mole, leading to pregnancy termination. Autopsy and histological examinations diagnosed a complete mole coexisting with a normal fetus, and the genetic analysis showed a diploid fetus with biparental genome and molar tissue with paternal diploidy. This case highlighted that complete molar pregnancies may still occur even though pregnancy is achieved after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A review of the literature was performed by collecting data from the few similar reported cases and by commenting on the pathogenesis of this rare condition.Uma gravidez bicoriônica com mola hidatiforme completa e feto normal é uma situação rara e desafiadora, cuja patogênese não foi ainda totalmente compreendida. Apresenta-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos submetida à injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides com transferência de dois embriões. Na ecografia pré-natal realizada na 12ª semana de gestação, foi identificado um embrião morfologicamente normal e uma placenta com características molares. Esta situação resultou na terminação eletiva da gravidez. A autópsia e o estudo histológico permitiram o diagnóstico definitivo de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com feto normal. A análise genética mostrou feto diploide com genoma biparental e tecido molar com diploidia paterna. Este caso ressaltou que as gestações com mola hidatiforme completa poderão ainda ocorrer, mesmo que a gravidez seja realizada após uma injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides. Foram realizadas uma revisão dos raros casos descritos na literatura
Which factors are most predictive for live birth after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatments? Analysis of 100 prospectively recorded variables in 8,400 IVF/ICSI single-embryo transfers.
Vaegter, Katarina Kebbon; Lakic, Tatevik Ghukasyan; Olovsson, Matts; Berglund, Lars; Brodin, Thomas; Holte, Jan
To construct a prediction model for live birth after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and single-embryo transfer (SET) after 2 days of embryo culture. Prospective observational cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility center. SET in 8,451 IVF/ICSI treatments in 5,699 unselected consecutive couples during 1999-2014. A total of 100 basal patient characteristics and treatment data were analyzed for associations with live birth after IVF/ICSI (adjusted for repeated treatments) and subsequently combined for prediction model construction. Live birth rate (LBR) and performance of live birth prediction model. Embryo score, treatment history, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI; number of oocytes/total dose of FSH administered), female age, infertility cause, endometrial thickness, and female height were all independent predictors of live birth. A prediction model (training data set; n = 5,722) based on these variables showed moderate discrimination, but predicted LBR with high accuracy in subgroups of patients, with LBR estimates ranging from 40%. Outcomes were similar in an internal validation data set (n = 2,460). Based on 100 variables prospectively recorded during a 15-year period, a model for live birth prediction after strict SET was constructed and showed excellent calibration in internal validation. For the first time, female height qualified as a predictor of live birth after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toshimitsu, Masatake; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Takaaki; Iwasawa-Kawai, Yuki; Komatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki
To clarify the association between preconception fertility status and obstetric outcomes in women aged 40 years and older. Retrospective study by reviewing medical records. Tertiary perinatal center in a university hospital. 330 women aged 40 years and older who delivered a singleton from 2006 to 2010, and 450 women aged 30 to 34 years who delivered at the same facility as controls. None. Incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, low birth weight, and mode of delivery assessed based on the mode of conception; spontaneous conception (SC) and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection conception (IVF-ICSI). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than the SC group. This gap was commonly observed in both the women aged 40 years and older and those in the 30 to 34 age group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, or low birth weight. As a characteristic of nulliparous women of advanced age, the rate of operative delivery, which includes emergency cesarean section and instrumental delivery, was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than in the SC group. Detailed investigation into the medical indications for operative delivery revealed that the difference was attributable to the elevated incidence of labor protraction and arrest. Preconception fertility status can be a predicting factor of the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and labor outcome, especially for women aged 40 years and older. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Vesali, Samira; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Esmailzadeh, Arezoo; Omani-Samani, Reza
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent condition in reproductive age women with a prevalence rate of 5-10%. This study intends to determine the relationship between PCOS and the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study, we included 996 infertile women who referred to Royan Institute (Tehran, Iran) between January 2012 and December 2013. PCOS, as the main variable, and other potential confounder variables were gathered. Modified Poisson Regression was used for data analysis. Stata software, version 13 was used for all statistical analyses. Unadjusted analysis showed a significantly lower risk for failure in PCOS cases compared to cases without PCOS [risk ratio (RR): 0.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.66-0.95, P=0.014]. After adjusting for the confounder variables, there was no difference between risk of non-pregnancy in women with and without PCOS (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1.05, P=0.15). Significant predictors of the ART outcome included the treatment protocol type, numbers of embryos transferred (grades A and AB), numbers of injected ampules, and age. The results obtained from this model showed no difference between patients with and without PCOS according to the risk for non-pregnancy. Therefore, other factors might affect conception in PCOS patients. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Staffan; Waldenström, Urban; Engström, Ann-Britt; Hellberg, Dan
Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.
Steenvoorden, Marjan M. C.; Cornelissen, Marion; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Schuurman, Nancy M.; Egberink, Herman F.; Berkhout, Ben; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd
Objective: To determine if human oocytes can be infected with HIV-1 via intracytoplasmic injection and to determine the infection threshold. Design: Twenty-eight donated immature and unfertilized human oocytes from HIV-negative women were injected with 4 x 10(4) HIV-1 virions and 13 oocytes were
Berkkanoglu, Murat; Bulut, Hasan; Coetzee, Kevin; Ozgur, Kemal
Objective: In this study, we reviewed the reproductive outcomes following ICSI in 5 couples where the male partners had undergone renal transplantations. Chronic renal failure and dialysis may adversely affect male reproductive function resulting in severely depressed semen parameters or even azoospermia, which maybe further adversely affected by the immunosuppression taken from after transplantation. Study design: Case report. Setting: A private fertility clinic. Patients: The study...
Conclusions: In this study, we showed that pregnancy and normal live birth were possible following ICSI treatment for male factor infertility, where male partners had had renal transplants and were under immunosuppressive therapy.
Sandro C. Esteves
Full Text Available We compared pregnancy outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection for the treatment of male infertility according to the type of azoospermia. First, we analyzed our data from 370 couples who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm from men with obstructive azoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia, and the outcomes were compared to a group of 465 non-azoospermic infertile males. Then, we performed a systematic review of the published data on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of children born after sperm injection using sperm from men with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. Live birth rates were significantly lower in the nonobstructive azoospermia group (21.4% compared with the obstructive azoospermia (37.5% and ejaculated sperm (32.3% groups. A total of 326 live births resulted in 427 babies born. Differences were not observed between the groups in gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight and low birth weight, although we noted a tendency towards poorer neonatal outcomes in the azoospermia categories. The overall perinatal death and malformation rates were 2.8% and 1.6%, respectively, and the results did not differ between the groups. We identified 20 published studies that directly compared pregnancy outcomes between obstructive azoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. Most of these studies were not designed to detect differences in live birth rates and had lower power to detect differences in less frequent outcomes, and the reporting of neonatal outcomes was unusual. The included studies reported either a decrease or no difference in pregnancy outcomes with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in cases of nonobstructive azoospermia and obstructive azoospermia. In general, no major differences were noted in short-term neonatal outcomes and congenital malformation rates between children from fathers with nonobstructive azoospermia and obstructive azoospermia.
Esteves, Sandro C; Varghese, Alex C
Spermatozoa from azoospermic males can be retrieved from either the epididymis or the testis, depending on the type of azoospermia, using different surgical methods such as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro- TESE). After collecting the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue, laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, noxious microorganisms, and red blood cells. Processed spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection or eventually be cryopreserved. However, spermatozoa collected from either the epididymis or the testis are often compromised and more fragile than ejaculated ones. Therefore, sperm processing techniques should be used with great caution to avoid jeopardizing the sperm fertilizing potential in treatment cycles. In this review, we describe the current methods for processing surgically-retrieved specimens, either fresh or frozen- thawed, and provide the tips and pitfalls for facilitating the handling of such specimens. In addition, we present the available laboratory tools to aid in the identification of viable immotile spermatozoa to be used in conjunction with assisted reproductive techniques. Review of the literature was carried out using PubMed and Science Direct search engines.
Sandro C Esteves
Full Text Available Spermatozoa from azoospermic males can be retrieved from either the epididymis or the testis, depending on the type of azoospermia, using different surgical methods such as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA, testicular sperm aspiration (TESA, testicular sperm extraction (TESE, and microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro- TESE. After collecting the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue, laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, noxious microorganisms, and red blood cells. Processed spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection or eventually be cryopreserved. However, spermatozoa collected from either the epididymis or the testis are often compromised and more fragile than ejaculated ones. Therefore, sperm processing techniques should be used with great caution to avoid jeopardizing the sperm fertilizing potential in treatment cycles. In this review, we describe the current methods for processing surgically-retrieved specimens, either fresh or frozen- thawed, and provide the tips and pitfalls for facilitating the handling of such specimens. In addition, we present the available laboratory tools to aid in the identification of viable immotile spermatozoa to be used in conjunction with assisted reproductive techniques. Review of the literature was carried out using PubMed and Science Direct search engines.
de Wagenaar, B.; Berendsen, Johanna Theodora Wilhelmina; Berendsen, J.T.W.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene
Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful
Abdollahi, Mahbubeh; Omani Samani, Reza; Hemat, Mandana; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Shabani, Fatemeh; Eskandari, Farzad; Salehi, Masoud
Multiple pregnancies are an important complication of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The present study aims to indentify the risk factors for multiple pregnancies independent of the number of transferred embryos. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in Royan Institute between October 2011 and January 2012. We entered 12 factors that affected the number of gestational sacs into the poisson regression (PR) model. Factors were obtained from two study populations-cycles with double embryo transfer (DET) and cycles that transferred three embryos (TET). We sought to determine the factors that influenced the number of gestational sacs. These factors were entered into multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to identify risk factors for multiple pregnancies. A total of 1000 patients referred to Royan Institute for ART during the study period. We included 606 eligible patients in this study. PR analysis demonstrated that the quality of transferred embryos and woman's age had a significant effect on the number of observed sacs in patients who underwent ICSI with DET. There was no significant predictive variable for multiple pregnancies according to MLR analysis. Our findings demonstrated that both regression models (PR and MLR) had the same outputs. A significant relation existed between age and fertilization rate with multiple pregnancies in patients who underwent ICSI with TET. Single embryo transfer (SET) should be considered with the remaining embryos cryopreserved to prevent multiple pregnancies in women younger than 35 years of age who undergo ICSI cycles with high fertilization rates and good or excellent quality embryos. However, further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate whether SET in women with these risk factors can significantly decrease multiple pregnancies and improve cycle outcomes. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.
G.R. Dohle (Gert); L. Ramos; M.H. Pieters; D.D.M. Braat (Didi); R.F.A. Weber (Robert)
textabstractMale genital tract obstructions may result from infections, previous inguinal and scrotal surgery (vasectomy) and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Microsurgery can sometimes be successful in treating the obstruction. In other cases
Full Text Available Background : One of the important problems in fertilization in vitro (IVF is failure of implantation. This could be the result of estrogen and progesterone effects in endometrial acceptance during ovulation stimulation. Although progesterone has a vital role in primary phase of pregnancy, but the estradiol role in luteal phase is unknown. The aim of this study is assessment of the ratio of estradiol to progesterone in embryo transfer day on Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes. Methods : This is a cohort study. The subjects were 311 infertile women referred to Urmia Kosar infertility clinic & Urmia reproductive health research center who treated with ICSI method between August-Jan 2011 . Five cc blood was drawn for determine of estradiol and progesterone in transfer day. Transfer occurred after a variable in vitro culture period ranging from 48 to 72 hours after ovulation induction. Chemiluminescent ELICA the level of mention hormones was used to determine the ratio of the progesterone level to the estradiol serum level and was compared based on treatment outcomes. Results : A total of 311 patients, 115 (37% were pregnant and happened abortion were 18 (5.8% . The mean ratio of estradiol to progesterone in transfer day in two groups of miscarriage/ non miscarriage and pregnant/ non pregnant was 32.26±23.86 , 28.17±26.5 and 28.58±2.4 , 36.09±4.39 respectively. There is no significant difference between two groups in regard of estradiol on progesterone ratio (P=0.5, P= 0.2 . Conclusion: The results of this prospective cohort study show that there is no effect of estradiol to progesterone ratio on day of embryo transfer, successful pregnancy in ICSI cycles and abortion rate following of ICSI .
Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer
Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.
Objective. To determine the correlation between sperm morphology groups (strict criteria) and testicular spermatozoa, and day 2 and 3 embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cases. Methods. A retrospective study was done of 2 402 IVF and ICSI-fertilised embryos classified as ...
Injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóide para tratamento de casais inférteis - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2242 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure for infertility treatment in couples - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2242
Suzana de Fatima Paccola Mesquita
Full Text Available A injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóide (ICSI foi o procedimento aplicado em 68 pacientes com idade média de 34,7 anos. Foram realizadas as seguintes etapas: indução da ovulação; aspiração folicular; seleção dos oócitos e coleta de sêmen; injeção de espermatozóides e transferência dos embriões ao útero. Os resultados mostraram que 56% dos problemas de infertilidade relacionam-se a fatores femininos. A maior freqüência de fatores masculinos e femininos que causaram infertilidade foram astenozoospermia (63% e fatores tubários (32,7%, respectivamente. De um total de 695 oócitos aspirados, 453 (67,1% resultaram em zigotos com 2 pró-núcleos (2PN; 4 (0,55%, 32 (4,42% e 2 (0,27% resultaram em zigotos 1PN, 3PN e 4PN, respectivamente. As taxas de gestação por ciclo e por transferência foram 25% e 28,9%, respectivamente. Nossos dados sugerem que a ICSI tem sido o método de escolha no tratamento da infertilidade devido a diversas etiologias, e os resultados mostraram que o sucesso nas taxas de fertilização tem aumentado as chances de gravidez.The ICSI procedure was used in a group of 68 patients (mean age 34,7 years. Ovarian stimulation, preparation of spermatozoa, preparation of the oocytes, direct injection of a single spermatozoon into the ooplasm and embryos replaced in uterus were done. The results of the present work demonstrate that 56% of diagnostic infertility categories were due to female factors. The highest frequency of male and female factors which caused infertility were asthenozoospermia (63% and tubal factors (32,7%, respectively. From a total of 695 oocyte aspirated, 453 (67,1% normal zygotes with two pronuclei (2 PN zygotes were produced; 4 (0,55%, 32 (4,42% and 2 (0,27% resulted in 1 PN, 3PN and 4 PN zygotes respectively. The pregnancy rates by cycle and by transference were 25% and 28,9% respectively. Our data suggest that the ICSI procedure has been the method of choice in the treatment of
García-Ferreyra, Javier; Hilario, Roly; Dueñas, Julio
Ovarian ectopic pregnancy is a rare event in both natural and assisted human reproduction settings. There are few reports of this event after in vitro fertilization. Diagnosis can be challenging, since it requires specific medical expertise. Patients with this condition call for careful management during treatment so as to not affect their fertility potential. This paper describes the case of a woman submitted to ICSI and embryo transfer who subsequently had an ovarian ectopic pregnancy and underwent a laparoscopic partial right oophorectomy.
Anke Luyten; K. van Lierde; H. Gysels; B. Heindrynckx; Y. Thienpont; H. Roeyers; A. Oostra; K. Bettens; P. de Sutter; G. de Witte; E. D'haeseleer; F. Vanden Meerschaut
BACKGROUND: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. AIMS: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old
Smeenk, J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Stolwijk, A.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.
OBJECTIVE: To gain more insight into psychological aspects of dropping out from IVF-ICSI. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University hospital-based tertiary care fertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Women entering their first treatment cycle of IVF or ICSI. INTERVENTION(S): Standardized
Serebrovska, Z A; Serebrovskaya, T V; Pyle, R L; Di Pietro, M L
The fact that genetic aetiology is responsible for approximately one third of all kinds of male sterility has led to concerns regarding the application of artificial reproductive technologies in the cases of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Congenital sterility could be caused by gene mutation, quantitative or structural abnormality of sexual chromosomes or autosomes. The possibility of inherited transmission of male sterility within the context of applying artificial reproductive technologies is analysed in the article. Klinefelter's syndrome, mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which causes cystic fibrosis, and mutation of azoospermia factor zone (AZF) of Y-chromosome are among the most frequent genetic causes of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia. The probability of a mutation of the CFTR gene being transmitted to the next generation is 50%. The probability of inherit transmission of Klinefelter's syndrome of mosaic karyotype could reach 70%. The probability of transmission of AZF mutation to children of male sex, generated with ICSI, is 100%. The percent of men with AZF mutation among users of ICSI centers, ranges from 3.2% to 14%. It means that at least 3.2 % of all boys conceived with ICSI will be sterile because of mutation in the AZF zone of Y-chromosome. It should be noted that genetic analysis and counselling do not always occur before the beginning of artificial fertilization cycles. Parents-to-be do not always have an opportunity to learn about the genetic risks of their unborn child and make any subsequent and responsible decisions. Among the decisions is a choice of not resorting to ART, but to live with the infertility and explore other opportunities for parenthood. Responsibility for high risk of conceiving a child with genetic anomalies rests not only with the parents, but also with all of society, including those responsible for research, technology, and legislation, in the health care profession.
We assessed the frequency of CFTR mutations in groups with varying degrees of sub-fertility and compared these groups to a fertile male group with proven paternity. Screening for CFTR mutations should be routine for all azoospermic males, irrespective of obstructive or non-obstructive etiology, prior to proposing ICSI treatment. CFTR testing has no value in the investigation of non-azoospermic infertile males.
We assessed the frequency of CFTR mutations in groups with varying degrees of sub-fertility and compared these groups to a fertile male group with proven paternity. Screening for CFTR mutations should be routine for all azoospermic males, irrespective of obstructive or non-obstructive etiology, prior to proposing ICSI treatment. CFTR testing has no value in the investigation of non-azoospermic infertile males.
Tejal Poddar; Purnima Nadkarni; Aditi Nadkarni
Congenital uterine anomalies result from an abnormal formation, fusion or reabsorption of Mullerian ducts during fetal life. A 26 year-old healthy woman with history of 5 years of primary infertility. Her physical exam was completely normal, while a transvaginal ultrasound revealed a left unicornuate uterus and normal left ovary and fallopian tube, but the right ovary and tube could not be visualized and right sided ectopic kidney at the level of umbilicus was noted. Left kidney was in normal...
Mau Kai, Claudia; Main, Katharina M; Andersen, Anders Nyboe
Concern has been raised for the health of the offspring conceived by assisted reproduction technologies. Basal reproductive hormones around 3 months of age reflect the pituitary-testicular axis, which is transiently active at this age....
Full Text Available There is an increased risk of thromboembolism, anticoagulant-related hemorrhage, fetal-wastage and congestive cardiac failure in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. In order to have a good outcome, the care of such patients must necessarily be multidisciplinary and in a well- equipped centre with adequate support services .One such patient who had mechanical mitral and aortic valves replacement in 2000 receiving warfarin anticoagulant therapy, presented with a first trimester pregnancy by ICSI method in 2006. She remained in stable homodynamic state and went through pregnancy without event. Delivery was done by caesarian section at 37 weeks gestation age.With considering use of warfarin during pregnancy, use of stimulation protocol during ICSI and delivering normal neonate ultimately, this interesting case is presented herein.
Peperstraten, A.M. van; Proctor, M.L.; Johnson, N.P.; Philipson, G.
BACKGROUND: Azoospermia, the absence of sperm in ejaculated semen, is the most severe form of male factor infertility and is present in approximately 5% of all investigated infertile couples. The advent of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), however, has transformed treatment of this type of
Sandro C. Esteves
Full Text Available The use of non-ejaculated sperm coupled with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become a globally established procedure for couples with azoospermic male partners who wish to have biological offspring. Surgical methods have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from the epididymides and the testes of such patients. This article reviews the methods currently available for sperm acquisition in azoospermia, with a particular focus on the perioperative, anesthetic and technical aspects of these procedures. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sperm retrieval methods is provided, including the authors' methods of choice and anesthesia preferences.
Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Ferraretti, Anna P; Baccetti, Baccio
To investigate the characteristics of birefringence in human sperm heads and apply polarization microscopy for sperm selection at intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Prospective randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Società Italiana Studi Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy. A total of 112 male patients had birefringent sperm selected for ICSI (study group). The clinical outcome was compared with that obtained in 119 couples who underwent a conventional ICSI cycle (control group). The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was evaluated before and after treatment in relation to the sperm sample quality. Embryo development and clinical outcome in the study group were compared with those in the controls. Proportion of birefringent sperm heads, rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was significantly higher in normospermic samples when compared with oligoasthenoteratospermic samples with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction samples. Although fertilization and cleavage rates did not differ between the study and control groups, in the most severe male factor condition (oligoasthenoteratospermic with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction), the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation were significantly higher in the study group versus the controls. The analysis of birefringence in the sperm head could represent both a diagnostic tool and a novel method for sperm selection.
Sandro C Esteves
Full Text Available We assessed the rates of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, including the neonatal profile of infants conceived, in men with testicular failure. Three-hundred and sixty-five men with testicular failure who underwent micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction were included in this study. We compared their outcomes with 40 men with testicular failure who used donor sperm for injections due to failed retrieval, and 146 men with obstructive azoospermia who underwent percutaneous sperm retrieval. The retrieval rate in testicular failure was 41.4%, and the results were lower than the obstructed azoospermia (100%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.033; 95% CI: 0.007-0.164; P< 0.001. Live birth rates after sperm injections were lower in men with testicular failure (19.9% compared with donor sperm (37.5%; adjusted OR: 0.377 (95% CI: 0.233-0.609, P< 0.001 and obstructive azoospermia (34.2%; adjusted OR: 0.403 (95% CI: 0.241-0.676, P= 0.001. Newborn parameters of infants conceived were not significantly different among the groups. We concluded that the chances of obtaining sperm on retrieval and achieving a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are reduced in men with testicular failure. The profile of infants conceived after sperm injection does not seem to be negatively affected by testicular failure.
Hoshi, K; Katayose, H; Yanagida, K; Kimura, Y; Sato, A
To determine whether the outcome of IVF can be predicted by acridine orange (AO) nuclear fluorescence of sperm. Based on the fact that AO nuclear fluorescence color after acid treatment reflects maturity (green fluorescence) or immaturity (yellow to red fluorescence) of spermatozoa, the relationships between sperm maturity and the outcome of IVF, subzonal insemination, or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. The IVF program at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fukushima Medical College. Sixty-eight patients undergoing 68 IVF treatment cycles. Acridine orange fluorescence of sperm nuclei and successful oocyte fertilization. conventional semen parameters (sperm concentration and percentages of motile or morphologically normal spermatozoa in semen) did not correlate with the incidence of spermatozoa with green AO fluorescent (mature) nuclei. When > or = 50% of spermatozoa in semen samples exhibited green AO nuclear fluorescence, IVF was always successful. When green AO nuclear fluorescence was green AO fluorescent spermatozoa were able to bind efficiently human zona pellucida. When the incidence of green AO fluorescent spermatozoa was fertilized by ICSI. The spermatozoa which fertilized oocytes in vivo and in IVF were limited to those whose nuclei exhibited green AO fluorescence. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be the method of choice when the incidence of green AO nuclear fluorescence is low regardless of the results of semen analysis.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The important role in determining the productivity of shrimp was the quality and quantity of shrimp sperm. The decreasing of hatching rate was predicted as the effect of the decreasing quality of sperm. It then could influence the number and quality of naupli produced. Hormonal induction of maturation is one of alternative solution that can improve shrimp sperm quality. This study was conducted to examine the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and antidopamine (AD injection on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei sperm quality. This research consisted of six treatments which were treatment without eyestalk ablation, eyestalk ablation, and premix PMSG hormone, and AD at the dose of 0.1 mL/kg, 0.25 mL/kg, 0.5 mL/kg, and 1 mL/kg. The observed parameters were sperm count and percentage of normal and abnormal sperm. The results showed that PMSG hormone and AD injection could improve sperm quality of L. vannamei shrimp. Hormone at the dose of 0.25 mL/kg and 0.5 mL/kg were the optimal doses to increase sperm count and the percentage of normal sperm, also to lower the percentage of abnormal sperm. Keyword: PMSG, AD, sperm quality, Litopenaeus vannamei ABSTRAK Kuantitas dan kualitas sperma udang jantan sangat berperan penting dalam menentukan produktivitas udang. Terjadinya penurunan daya tetas telur udang diduga karena terjadinya penurunan kualitas sperma. Hal ini berpengaruh terhadap jumlah dan kualitas nauplius yang diproduksi. Induksi maturasi secara hormonal merupakan salah satu alternatif yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas sperma udang. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penyuntikan pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan antidopamin (AD terhadap kualitas sperma udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian terdiri atas enam perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan tanpa ablasi mata, ablasi mata, dan injeksi dengan premix hormon PMSG dan AD dosis 0,1 mL/kg, 0,25 mL/kg, 0,5 mL/kg, dan 1 mL/kg. Parameter yang diamati
Jacobs, M.; Stolwijk, A.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pre-incubation time between oocyte retrieval and insemination or injection had any effect on the success rate of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Based on previously published data, many laboratories retain a time interval
Montjean, Debbie; Belloc, Stephanie; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Dalleac, Alain; Ménézo, Yves
Is the presence of nuclear vacuoles really a negative parameter? As sperm vacuoles are associated with acrosomal and capacitation status, they appear to be a reflection of normal sperm physiology. The selection of sperm under a high magnification has been proposed as a strategy to increase the success rates of ICSI, through a better selection of sperm for injection. The presence of vacuoles on the sperm head is said to be a negative parameter. We incubated processed sperm for 90 min with two strong inducers of acrosome reaction (AR), i.e. hyaluronic acid (HA) and follicular fluid (FF) and studied the evolution of nuclear vacuoles, sperm morphology and chromatin compaction. We tested the effect of incubating sperm samples with HA and FF for 90 min at 37°C on nuclear vacuoles. Both HA and FF strongly induce AR after 90 min, without significantly modifying sperm nuclear condensation and morphology (Bartoov's criteria). We simultaneously observed a highly significant decrease in the presence of vacuoles. This is a descriptive study based on in vitro manipulations. Although intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection may be of benefit for couples with specific treatment indications, the results of this study make it difficult to justify its large-scale application. Funding was granted by Laboratoire d'Eylau, Unilabs.
Perdrix, Anne; Rives, Nathalie
BACKGROUND Approximately 10 years after the first publication introducing the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), many questions remained about sperm vacuoles: frequency, size, localization, mode of occurrence, biological significance and impact on male fertility potential. Many studies have tried to characterize sperm vacuoles, to determine the sperm abnormalities possibly associated with vacuoles, to test the diagnostic value of MSOME for male infertility or to question the benefits of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI. RESULTS A bibliographic analysis revealed consensus for the following findings: (i) sperm vacuoles appeared frequently, often multiple and preferentially anterior; (ii) sperm vacuoles and sperm chromatin immaturity have been associated, particularly in the case of large vacuoles; (iii) teratozoospermia was a preferred indication of MSOME and IMSI. CONCLUSION The high-magnification system appears to be a powerful method to improve our understanding of human spermatozoa. However, its clinical use remains unclear in the fields of male infertility diagnosis and assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that azoospermic patients suffering from non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome can father their own genetic offspring when the TESE procedure is combined with ICSI and embryo transfer techniques.
Clinical outcomes and development of children born to couples with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia undergoing testicular sperm extraction-intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A comparative study
Conclusion: In our study, there were no differences in the fertility rate and clinic pregnancy rate between the OA and NOA groups using TESE-ICSI. Also, the clinical outcomes and development of children were similar between the OA and the NOA groups using TESE-ICSI.
McDowell, Simon; Kroon, Ben; Ford, Emily; Hook, Ysanne; Glujovsky, Demián; Yazdani, Anusch
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) bring together gametes outside of the body to enhance the probability of fertilisation and pregnancy. Advanced sperm selection techniques are increasingly being employed in ART, most commonly in cycles utilising ICSI. Advanced sperm selection techniques are thought to improve the chance that structurally intact and mature sperm with high DNA integrity are selected for fertilisation. Advanced sperm selection strategies include selection according to surface charge; sperm apoptosis; sperm birefringence; ability to bind to hyaluronic acid; and sperm morphology under ultra-high magnification. These techniques theoretically improve ART outcomes. To evaluate the impact of advanced sperm selection techniques on ART outcomes. Systematic search of electronic databases (Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS)), trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), conference abstracts (Web of Knowledge) and grey literature (OpenGrey) for relevant randomised controlled trials. We handsearched the reference lists of included studies and similar reviews. The search was conducted in May 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an advanced sperm selection technique versus standard IVF or ICSI or versus another advanced sperm selection technique. We excluded studies of sperm selection using ultra-high magnification (intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection, or IMSI), as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane review. Quasi-randomised and pseudo-randomised trials were
Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi
To clarify whether human sperm vacuoles affected intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) success rates. Retrospective study. A private infertility clinic. Spermatozoa and spermatids were obtained from 11 normozoospermic, 10 oligozoospermic or asthenozoospermic, 4 obstructive azoospermic, and 3 nonobstructive azoospermic men. Differential interference contrast observation and intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected sperm. Incidence, size, and position of vacuoles of sperm cells were recorded. Ability of fertilization and blastocyst development were compared between cells with and without vacuoles. More than 97.4% of ejaculated, 87.5% of epididymal, 87.5% of testicular spermatozoa, and more than 90.0% of Sc-Sd2 spermatids had vacuoles of various sizes. The incidence of vacuoles on ejaculated cells was significantly higher than that on the other types of cells, but there was no difference between sperm from normozoospermic men and those from the other donors. Removal of plasma membrane and/or acrosome did not affect the incidence of vacuoles. Although more than 60% of spermatozoa had small vacuoles in the acrosomal regions, 52.6% of Sb1-2 spermatids had large vacuoles. After injection of a motile spermatozoon with large and small vacuoles, 60.9% and 85.7% of metaphase II oocytes could be normally fertilized, respectively, and almost half of the zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage. When using sperm without vacuoles, the fertilization rate was 80.0%, but only 25% of them developed to the blastocyst stage. Human sperm head vacuoles did not affect ICSI outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We analyzed 93 couples undergoing male screening with the Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, to determine the accuracy of SPA for subsequent embryonic development, incidence of pregnancy and miscarriage rates (SAB. ICSI patients with the lowest SPA scores had significantly higher incidences of Sthan did patients in the other SPA groups. Sperm quality is higher with better SPA scores. Poor sperm quality has increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and is associated with early fetal loss. Couples with negative SPA are candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, to reduce the incidence of SAB.
Full Text Available Since the discovery of cryopreservation method for bull semen, cryopreservation become an alternative method for maintaining gamet resources of certain animal which is threatened or near extinction. This technology was then applied to the preservation of embryo, oocyte, ovary and testis. The application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for which sperm motility is unnecessary had supported the effort to create simplified method such as freeze-drying for sperm preservation. Due to the benefit of ICSI over the conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF the spermatozoon could be mechanically driven to pass through the zona pellucida and entering the cytoplasm of oocytes prior to fertilization. The freeze-drying method is an alternative method in sperm preservation which ignored the motility of sperm. The sperm resulted from this technique is in drying state, therefore, it might be stored in room temperature or in refrigerator. Many reports have claimed that freeze-dried sperm which is not motile but has an intact DNA was able to fertilize oocytes, even produced offspring in mouse.
Arias, María Elena; Sánchez-Villalba, Esther; Delgado, Andrea; Felmer, Ricardo
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the capacity of sperm to bind exogenous DNA and transfer it into the oocyte during fertilization. In bovines, the progress of this technology has been slow due to the poor reproducibility and efficiency of the production of transgenic embryos. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different sperm transfection systems on the quality and functional parameters of sperm. Additionally, the ability of sperm to bind and incorporate exogenous DNA was assessed. These analyses were carried out by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and motility parameters were also evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Transfection was carried out using complexes of plasmid DNA with Lipofectamine, SuperFect and TurboFect for 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 h. The results showed that all of the transfection treatments promoted sperm binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA, similar to sperm incorporation of DNA alone, without affecting the viability. Nevertheless, the treatments and incubation times significantly affected the motility parameters, although no effect on the integrity of DNA or the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed. Additionally, we observed that transfection using SuperFect and TurboFect negatively affected the acrosome integrity, and TurboFect affected the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. In conclusion, we demonstrated binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA by sperm after transfection and confirmed the capacity of sperm to spontaneously incorporate exogenous DNA. These findings will allow the establishment of the most appropriate method [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF)] of generating transgenic embryos via SMGT based on the fertilization capacity of transfected sperm.
Full Text Available Introduction - Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case - The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI (TESA-ICSI in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany was used. Conclusion - The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done.
Lechniak, D; Kedzierski, A; Stanislawski, D
The functional and structural integrity of sperm membrane are crucial for the viability of spermatozoa. The commonly used staining test (eosin + nigrosin) for assessing sperm membrane measures only its structural integrity. The hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS) originally developed for human sperm (Jeyendran et al. 1984) has been also applied to several species of domestic animals (bull, pig, horse, dog). The test enables to evaluate the functional status of the sperm membrane. The principle of HOS is based on water transport across the sperm tail membrane under hypoosmotic conditions. It has previously been used to assess the semen quality (Revell and Mrode 1994), to analyse fertilizing capacity (Rota et al. 2000; Perez-Llano et al. 2001) and also to detect viable, immotile cells for ICSI (Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection) in human (Zeyneloglu et al. 2000). There are two procedures commonly used for sperm capacitation in the pig-sperm washing and incubation before insemination (Nagai 1994). Capacitation involves several changes like removing molecules coating the sperm head membrane, changes in membrane fluidity and intracellular ion concentration (Green and Watson 2001). Thus the membrane integrity as well as functionality may be affected as shown by Harrison (1996). The aim of the present study was to analyse changes in sperm membrane integrity after in vitro capacitation by use of the HOS test.
Karabulut, Seda; Aksünger, Özlem; Ata, Can; Sağıroglu, Yusuf; Keskin, İlknur
Fertilization problems are the major problems that may be faced in 30-55% of the patients during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. A successful oocyte activation depends on factors related to both sperm and oocyte, and one of the important factors that mediates the process is Ca 2+ concentration within the oocyte. Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is a method used for fertilization problems that commonly involve the usage of Ca 2+ ionophores and is usually used in problems such as total fertilization failure (TFF) and globozoospermia. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible effects of AOA for different groups of patients with fertilization failure. Four groups of patients (previous TFF, low oocyte number, severe sperm quality, and frozen sperm (FS) group) that underwent ICSI with AOA were included in the study. All groups had similar control groups with same indications except TFF, where AOA was not performed. Fertilization rates were significantly higher in the TFF group than those observed in other AOA groups. Fertilization rates and quality of embryos observed in the remaining AOA groups were higher than those of the controls, which were statistically insignificant. Prgenancy rates were higher in all AOA groups compared to the controls, although the differences were significant in FS group only. Quality of embryos and pregnancy rates were lower in the TFF group compared to the remaining AOA groups indicating possible concomitant problems. Fertilization rates, quality of embryos and pregnancy rates seemed to be increased in all indication groups suggesting that not only TFF patients but also a wide variety of patients with different indications may benefit from AOA. ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; ARTs: Assisted reproductive techniques; Ca: Calcium; AOA: Artificial oocyte activation; TFF: Total fertilization failures; OAT: Oligoasthenoteratozoospemia; IVF: In vitro fertilization; SOAT: Severe OAT; LON: Low ooctye number
Gatimel, Nicolas; Leandri, Roger; Parinaud, Jean
Since the development of the motile sperm organellar morphology examination (MSOME) in 2001 for observing the cephalic vacuoles at high magnification, no study as yet assessed the effect of cryopreservation on these vacuoles, although sperm freezing-thawing procedures are known to affect sperm quality. Examination of the vacuoles before and after freezing-thawing would indicate whether the same normality criteria can be applied for frozen as for fresh spermatozoa when performing intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection. In 27 sperm samples from fertile men, analysis of conventional sperm parameters (motility, vitality, percentage of normal forms) and a morphological analysis at high magnification (×6000) using image analysis software was performed before freezing and after thawing. Whereas there were expected decreases in motility (Pvacuole area, total vacuole area, vacuole area in the anterior, median and basal parts of the head, percentage of spermatozoa with a vacuole area ≤6.5% and percentage of spermatozoa with a vacuole area >13%). Freezing-thawing procedures have no effect on human sperm vacuoles. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alrabeeah, K; Wachter, A; Phillips, S; Cohen, B; Al-Hathal, N; Zini, A
Several studies support of the use of testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in couples with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia, although this approach remains controversial. We sought to evaluate sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia. We conducted a retrospective study of 24 consecutive micro-TESEs in men with cryptozoospermia. We also evaluated the outcomes of seven consecutive TESAs (testicular sperm aspiration) in cryptozoospermic men during the same time period (January 2007 and September 2014). Micro-TESE and TESA were performed on the day prior to ICSI. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of ICSI) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a unilateral or bilateral micro-TESE was guided by the intra-operative evaluation of sperm recovery from the first testicle. A unilateral procedure was performed in 87.5% (21/24) and 57% (4/7) of the micro-TESE and TESA cohorts, respectively. Sperm recovery was successful in 96% (23/24) of the men who underwent micro-TESE and 43% (3/7) of the men who underwent TESA (p TESE and TESA groups were comparable [33% (6/18) and 50% (1/2), respectively]. The data indicate that micro-TESE is a highly successful sperm retrieval technique for men with cryptozoospermia and few of these men will require a bilateral procedure. Moreover, sperm retrieval rates are higher with micro-TESE than TESA in this group of men. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Evenson, Donald P; Wixon, Regina
Over the past 25 years, various methods have been developed to measure sperm DNA strand breaks in situ. Currently, there are four major tests of sperm DNA fragmentation, including the Comet, Tunel, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the acridine orange test (AOT). The Comet assay is a light microscope technique where the sperm cells are mixed with melted agarose and then placed on a glass slide. The cells are lysed and then subjected to horizontal electrophoresis. The Tunel assay, another light microscope technique, transfers labeled nucleotide to the 3'OH group of a broken DNA strand with the use of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. The fluorescence intensity of each scored sperm is determined as a "yes" or "no" for sperm on a light microscope slide or by channels of fluorescent intensity in a flow cytometer. The light microscope-based AOT, uses the metachromatic properties of acridine orange to stain sperm cells. The SCSA treats sperm with low pH to denature DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining of green for native DNA and red for denatured DNA as measured by flow cytometry (FCM) as well as % sperm with high DNA stainability (HDS: immature sperm with intact DNA related to decreased fertilization rates). The SCSA method has defined a 27-30% DNA fragmentation index (DFI) as the point in which a man is placed into a statistical category of taking a longer time to in vivo pregnancy, intra uterine insemination (IUI) and more routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles or no pregnancy. Current data suggest that intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may help overcome the diminished pregnancy prognosis with high DFI over the other ART or natural methods.
Woldringh, G.H.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Ramos, L.; Schoot, D.K.E. van der; Braat, D.D.M.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) with surgically retrieved epididymal semen. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive. METHODS: Patients with an obstructive azoospermia confirmed by cytological examination of a testis biopsy, and conforming to the regular
Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Skibsted, L.; Søgaard, Kirsten
and zygocity determination were performed on amniotic fluid and showed the twins to be dizygotic with normal female and male karyotypes. There were clinical and sonographic signs of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), and Cesarean delivery was performed at 32 weeks' gestation. At birth the twins were...... phenotypically a normal male and a normal female. Histology of the placenta showed it to be monochorionic diamniotic. Blood chimerism was found postnatally as both infants had the karyotypes 46,XX/46,XY. Chimerism was not found in cells from a buccal swab at 6 months of age. This is one of only a few...
Iaconelli, Carla Andrade Rebello; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson; Aoki, Tsutomu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose hCG supplementation on ICSI outcomes and controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cost. Three hundred and thirty patients undergoing ICSI were split into groups according to the COS protocol: (i) control group (n = 178), including patients undergoing conventional COS treatment; and (ii) low-dose hCG group (n = 152), including patients undergoing COS with low-dose hCG supplementation. Lower mean total doses of FSH administered and higher mean oestradiol level and mature oocyte rates were observed in the low-dose hCG group. A significantly higher fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate and blastocyst formation rate were observed in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group. The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the control group compared to the low-dose hCG group. A significantly lower incidence of OHSS was observed in the low-dose hCG group. There was also a significantly lower gonadotropin cost in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group ($1235.0 ± 239.0×$1763.0 ± 405.3, p hCG and FSH results in a lower abortion rate and increased number of mature oocytes retrieved, as well as improved oocyte quality, embryo quality and blastocyst formation and reduced FSH requirements.
A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær
. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... was assessed using questionnaires to be filled in 14 days after embryo transfer, before pregnancy test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Ongoing intrauterine pregnancy rates were 299/991 (30.2%) (95% CI 27.3-33.0%) in the progesterone gel group and 324/992 (32.7%) (29.7-35.6%) in the micronized...... of embryos transferred. GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS: The results can be generalized to other women ≥ 18 and ≤ 40 years of age undergoing IVF/ICSI who have regular menstrual cycles (25-35 days), both ovaries present and no more than two previous failed IVF attempts. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST...
Karlidere, Tunay; Bozkurt, Ali; Ozmenler, Kamil Nahit; Ozsahin, Aytekin; Kucuk, Tansu; Yetkin, Sinan
To determine whether the emotional distress of infertile Turkish women is related to social support and influences the outcome of their IVF and/or ICSI treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Support scales were administered to 104 primary infertile Turkish women before the date of their embryo transfer. Comparisons were made between the women who became pregnant and those who did not following the embryo transfer. Compared to the pregnant women, the non-pregnant women had a greater number of emotional symptoms despite similar levels of social support. Also, the increased severity of depressive symptoms and higher levels of anxiety were predictive of low pregnancy rates. The pregnancy rate of infertile Turkish women was associated with emotional distress and low levels of social support were associated with increased emotional distress. Further research is needed to determine the factors and mechanisms that contribute to emotional distress in the treatment of infertility.
Kahyaoğlu, İnci; Demir, Berfu; Ertürk Aksakal, Sezin; Kaplanoğlu, İskender; Mollamahmutoğlu, Leyla
Several markers were studied previously in order to predict the pregnancy outcome of assisted reproductive techniques; however, serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin was found to be the most predictive marker. To evaluate the value of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels in discriminating biochemical and clinical pregnancies 12 days after embryo transfer, while determining the factors predicting ongoing pregnancy was established as the secondary aim. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 445 pregnant cycles were retrospectively analysed in 2359 embryo transfer cycles. Patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome of pregnancy: biochemical and clinical. The cut-off value of beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels on day 12 in predicting clinical pregnancies was 86.8 IU/mL with 65.1% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity [CI: 0.76 (0.71-0.81). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed different cut-off values for embryo transfer days (57 mIU/mL for day 3 embryo transfer CI: 0.59-0.79 and 87 mIU/mL for day 5 embryo transfer, CI: 0.74-0.86). Subgroup analysis of clinical pregnancies revealed a significant difference between ongoing pregnancies and early fetal losses regarding duration of infertility (81.3±54.4 vs. 100.2±62.2 months), serum oestradiol on hCG day (2667.4±1276.4 vs. 2094.6±1260.5 pg/mL), number of transferred embryos (1.9±0.8 vs. 1.5±0.7) and the prevalence of diminished ovarian reserve as an indication (2.3% vs 12.2%). Beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels on day 12 following embryo transfer provide an important parameter for the prediction of clinical pregnancy; however, other stimulation parameters are indicated in the prediction of ongoing pregnancies.
Conclusion: The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates of ET on the 3rd day following ICSI were similar to the rates obtained with TET 2 days after ICSI. Therefore, ET performed 3 days after ICSI should be the first choice for couples with male factor infertility, while day 2 TET remains a good alternative, especially for women with normal tubal function and known difficulties of transcervical ET.
Tso, Leopoldo O; Costello, Michael F; Albuquerque, Luiz Eduardo T; Andriolo, Régis B; Marjoribanks, Jane; Macedo, Cristiane R
In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin treatment before or during assisted reproductive technology cycles increases clinical pregnancy rates and decreases the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, there is no conclusive evidence of a benefit in live birth rates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives Evaluation of the presence of spermatozoa in vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA in vasectomized men. When found, the spermatozoa were evaluated including concentration and motility, in order to verify the patency of the epididymal tubules. Materials and Methods Four patients, numbered in a progressive order, from one to four, with 38, 40, 48 and 51 years old and vasectomy interval of 10, 10, 25 and 11 years, respectively, whose wives did not get pregnant using intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by unilateral PESA and decided to try only natural conception, were submitted to intrasurgical sperm analysis of the vas deferens fluid (ISAVDF during microsurgery for reconstruction of the seminal tract. Results Time interval between PESA and ISAVDF was 13.75 ± 11.12 months (x ± s varying from 3 to 29 months. Homolateral ISAVDF and PESA showed the presence of spermatozoa. Patients 1, 2 and 4 had a high concentration of 10 x 106, 64 x 106 and 45 x 106 spermatozoa/ mL; the first two had motile sperms and patient 3 had no sperms. Conclusions Three of four patients showed spermatozoa in the vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral PESA with high concentration, including motile forms. These findings support the concept that PESA may not result in late epipidymal tubule obstruction in vasectomized patients.
Bouamama, N; Briot, P; Testart, J
In case of severe oligozoospermia or following testicular biopsy in case of azoospermia, fertilization remains possible by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, if there are only a few spermatozoa available to be preserved for a delayed ICSI, these gametes must be cryopreserved according to a specific method. We have found that, using the straw classical technique, less than 2 sperm were recovered at thawing when 20 sperm were frozen and no sperm were available following freezing-thawing of only 1 to 10 sperm per straw. Then, the feasibility of programmed ICSI is always uncertain in these cases and unnecessary medical acts (ovarian stimulation and egg collection) as well as patient disappointment are frequent. We have tested a new technique by introducing (with an ICSI pipette) 1 to 100 sperm in a microdrop (0.5 microl) of freezing medium setting in a culture dish under paraffin oil. Following freezing-thawing the dish, all (100%) of the frozen spermatozoa were recovered. Since only motile sperm were frozen, the sperm which are non motile after thawing (more than 50%) are nevertheless considered usable for ICSI.
Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate
Full Text Available Background: The intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique selects sperm according to morphology and motility. However, these parameters cannot predict the chromatin integrity of sperm. Considering the detrimental effects of DNA-damaged sperm on reproductive outcomes, novel sperm selection procedures have been proposed to circumvent the possibility of inseminating DNA-damaged sperm. It has been shown that different potential hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST patterns possess the potential to differentiate between sperm that have intact or damaged chromatin. Therefore, for the first time, this preliminary study evaluates the role of HOST as a sperm selection procedure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary prospective clinical trial study, we divided infertile couples diagnosed with male infertility into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39, half of the oocytes were inseminated by sperm selected following density gradient centrifugation (DGC group. The remaining oocytes from the treatment group were inseminated by sperm chosen according to HOST pattern (c, d or e following DGC processing (HOST group. In the control group (n=63, all oocytes were inseminated by sperm chosen after DGC. Results: There was a significantly higher percentage of embryos that had good quality, implantation, and chemical pregnancy rates in the HOST group compared to the DGC group (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study has shown that selecting sperm according to membrane functionality (HOST pattern rather morphology and viability may open a new window in our approach for determining the appropriate sperm for ICSI, particularly in individuals with severe male infertility (Registration Number: IRCT201307087223N2.
Watanabe, Seiji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fujii, Shunsaku; Mizunuma, Hideki; Fukui, Atsushi; Fukuhara, Rie; Nakamura, Rika; Yamada, Kenichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Awata, Shoichiro; Nagayoshi, Motoi
The aims of this study were to establish whether individual differences exist in the frequency and size of vacuoles found in human sperm and to ascertain whether such vacuoles are involved in causing DNA damage. Morphologically normal sperm were obtained from 15 IVF and 2 ICSI patients and 3 fertile donors. (i) Sperm heads were analyzed for the presence of vacuoles under a 1000× differential interference contrast microscope. (ii) In three patients and two donor samples, structural chromosomal damage was evaluated in normal sperm containing large vacuoles and selected at 1000× magnification for injection into mouse oocytes. (iii) In 10 patients and two donor samples, confocal laser microscopy detected DNA damage in sperm-exhibiting large vacuoles and stained with an in situ cell death detection kit. (i) Vacuoles were observed in almost all normal sperm from patient and donor ejaculates and were mainly located at the tip or middle area of the sperm heads. However, average incidence of normal sperm exhibiting large vacuoles was 4.6 and 4.2% in the patient and donor groups, respectively. (ii) Sperm chromosome assays did not reveal any differences in the incidence of structural chromosome aberrations between sperm exhibiting large vacuoles and those without them (9.1 versus 4.1%). (iii) No significant difference in frequency of TUNEL-positive cells was found between normal sperm with large vacuoles and those without them in the samples examined. Among 227 sperm exhibiting large vacuoles, only 7 cells were TUNEL positive. The results showed that large vacuoles were not responsible for DNA damage, suggesting that intra-cytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected sperm may not be required for patients who produce high-quality semen.
Full Text Available Single-cell pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (SCPFGE with dual electrode pairs was developed to detect the early stage of DNA fragmentation in human sperm. The motile sperm were purified by the commonly used density-gradient centrifugation technique and subsequent swim-up. The sperm were embedded in a thin film of agarose containing bovine trypsin (20 µg/mL and were then lysed. Prior to SCPFGE, proteolysis of DNA-binding components, such as protamine and the nuclear matrix was essential to separate the long chain fibers from the fibrous and granular fragments derived from a single nucleus. The overall electrophoretic profiles elucidated the course of DNA fragmentation. A few large fibrous fragments were observed at the beginning of the process, however, as the fragmentation advanced, the long chain fibers decreased and shortened, and, conversely, the granular fragments increased until finally almost all the DNA was shredded. Although the ejaculate contained sperm with heterogeneous stages, the purified motile sperm exhibited several dozens of uniformly elongated fibers arising from the tangled DNA at the origin, whereas a part of these fibers gave rise to fibrous fragments beyond the tip of the elongated fibers, and their numbers and sizes varied among the sperm. Conventional intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI usually depends on intra-operative light microscopic observation to select a sperm for injection. The present results revealed that sperm motility could not give full assurance of DNA integrity. SCPFGE is likely to serve an important role in the preoperative differential diagnosis to determine the competence of the sperm population provided for injection.
Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS in the reproductive tract is now a real entity and concern due to the potential harmful effects of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on sperm number, motility, quality, and function including damage to sperm nuclear DNA. Evaluation of OS related damage to non-functional sperm is highly relevant as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, an effective therapy for severe male factor infertility, bypasses the majority of reproductive tract deficiencies. Despite the controversial findings in the existing literature, there is now enough evidence to show that sperm DNA damage is detrimental to reproductive outcomes. In addition, spermatozoa of infertile men are suggested to carry more DNA damage than do the spermatozoa from fertile men. Besides impairment of fertility such damage is likely to increase the transmission of genetic diseases during the assisted reproductive procedures. Standardization of protocols to assess reactive oxygen species and DNA damage is very important in introducing these tests in such clinical practice. Thus evaluation of seminal ROS levels and extent of sperm DNA damage especially in an infertile male may help develop new therapeutic strategies and improve success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.
Gatimel, N; Léandri, R D; Marino, L; Esquerre-Lamare, C; Parinaud, J
Can the assessment of sperm vacuoles at high magnification contribute to the explanation of idiopathic infertility? The characteristics of sperm head vacuoles (number, area, position) are no different between fertile controls and patients with unexplained infertility. Until now, the assessment of sperm head vacuoles has been focused on a therapeutic goal in the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) procedure, but it could be pertinent as a new diagnostic tool for the evaluation of male fertility. This diagnostic test study with blind assessment included a population of 50 fertile men and 51 men with idiopathic infertility. They were selected from September 2011 to May 2013. Fertile men were within couples who had a spontaneous pregnancy in the last 2 years. Infertile men were within couples who had unexplained infertility and were consulting in our centre. After analysis of conventional sperm parameters, we investigated the number, position and area of sperm head vacuoles at high magnification (×6000) with interference contrast using an image analysis software. We also carried out a nuclear status analysis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay (TUNEL), sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and aniline blue staining. Concerning the vacuoles data, we did not find any significant difference between the two populations. We found no significant correlation between the vacuolar parameters (mean number of vacuoles, relative vacuole area and percentage of spermatozoa with large vacuoles) and either conventional semen parameters, male age or the data from the aniline blue staining, SCSA assay and TUNEL assay. Despite the fact all of the vacuole parameters values were identical in fertile and infertile men, we cannot totally exclude that a very small cause of unexplained infertilities could be related to an excess of sperm vacuoles. In line with its widely debated use as a therapeutic tool, sperm vacuole
Chung, Jacqueline P W; Haines, Christopher J; Kong, Grace W S
To review sperm cryopreservation usage rates, corresponding reproductive outcomes, and the current situation in our locality. Retrospective case series. Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prince of Wales Hospital and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. There were 130 Chinese male patients who underwent sperm cryopreservation before proceeding to gonadotoxic treatment from January 1995 to January 2012. Demographic data, type of cancers and treatments, semen analysis, and reproductive outcomes. The median patient age was 27 (range, 15-43) years. Most (85%) were single at the time of referral. Over half of the patients (51%) had testicular cancer. Five patients declined sperm cryopreservation after counselling. Among the remaining 125 men, 122 men were able to produce sperm by masturbation but 12 were found to have azoospermia, leaving a total of 110 who proceeded to semen cryopreservation. There were no significant differences in semen parameters between different cancer types. After gonadotoxic treatment, in up to 32% (n=11/34) of the patients, semen analysis yielded deterioration; four patients had azoospermia. Four patients (4%, n=4/110) came back to use their thawed semen for in-vitro fertilisation (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), which resulted in three successful singleton pregnancies. Sperm cryopreservation is a simple and effective way of preserving the fertility potential of male patients undergoing gonadotoxic treatment. This procedure is underutilised and deserves increased awareness by all possible means.
Alrabeeah, K; Witmer, J; Ruiz, S; AlMalki, A; Phillips, S; Zini, A
Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was developed to minimize the testicular injury associated with multiple open TESEs. We sought to evaluate a mini-incision micro-TESE in men with cryptozoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We conducted a retrospective study of 26 consecutive men with NOA and cryptozoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2015 and August 2015. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a mini-incision micro-TESE (with limited unilateral micro-dissection) or standard/extensive (with unilateral or bilateral micro-dissection) was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 spermatozoa) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 77% (20/26) of the men. In 37% of the men (8/26), the mini-incision micro-TESE was successful (positive sperm recovery). The remaining 18 men required a standard (extensive) microdissection: 61% (11/18) underwent a unilateral and 39% (7/18) a bilateral micro-TESE. We found that 90% (9/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 63% (10/16) of the men with NOA underwent a unilateral (mini or standard micro-TESE). The mini-incision micro-TESE allowed for successful sperm recovery in 60% (6/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 13% (2/16) of the men with NOA. The data demonstrate that a mini-incision micro-TESE together with rapid intra-operative assessment and identification of spermatozoa recovery can be useful in men undergoing microTESE, particularly, men with cryptozoospermia. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Irez, T; Sahmay, S; Ocal, P; Goymen, A; Senol, H; Erol, N; Kaleli, S; Guralp, O
The main purpose of this prospective study is to examine possible influences of abnormalities of sperm nuclear condensation and chromatin decondensation with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-EDTA on outcomes of intrauterine insemination (IUI) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Semen samples from 122 IUI and 236 ICSI cycles were evaluated. Before semen preparation for IUI or ICSI, basic semen analysis was performed and a small portion from each sample was spared for fixation. The condensation of sperm nuclear chromatin was evaluated with acidic aniline blue, followed by sperm chromatin decondensation by SDS-EDTA and evaluation under light microscope. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 24% and 26.2% in the IUI and ICSI groups respectively. The chromatin condensation rate was significantly higher in the ongoing pregnancy-positive group compared to the negative group, both in IUI (P = 0.042) and ICSI groups (P = 0.027), and it was positively correlated with ongoing pregnancy rate in both IUI and ICSI groups (P = 0.015, r = 0.214 and P = 0.014, r = 0.312 respectively). Chromatin decondensation rates were not significantly different in neither of the groups. These results indicate that IUI and ICSI outcome is influenced by the rate of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin condensation. Sperm chromatin condensation with aniline blue is useful for selecting assisted reproduction techniques (ART) patients. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
A. V. Zobova
Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.
Sepúlveda, B; Arias, M E; Aguila, L; Zambrano, F; Sánchez, R; Felmer, R
In assisted reproductive techniques, it is essential to perform a sperm selection to obtain spermatozoa with high motility and membrane integrity for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and high-DNA integrity for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this study, we evaluated whether Isolate ® was a suitable substitute for Percoll ® for assisted reproductive techniques. Commercial cryopreserved bovine semen was used after selection in both gradients, and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, DNA integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were assessed by flow cytometry. Motility parameters were also evaluated by CASA system. A similar percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane, acrosome integrity and high ΔΨm was observed in both sperm selection methods, but only Percoll ® showed higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma and acrosome membrane compared to the post-thawing group. No differences were observed in the motility, ROS, DNA fragmentation and on the in vitro embryo production in all experimental groups. In conclusion, the selection of bovine spermatozoa with Isolate ® generates spermatozoa with similar quality parameters and embryonic development compared to Percoll ® providing a suitable alternative sperm selection method for assisted reproductive techniques in this species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
A. De Angelis
Full Text Available The diagnosis of male infertility is vastly complex. To date, morphology, motility, and concentration have been used as key parameters to establish the sperm normality and achieve pregnancy both in natural and in assisted fecundation. However, spermatozoa from infertile men could present a variety of alterations, such as DNA fragmentation, alterations of chromatin structure, and aneuploidy, which have been demonstrated to decrease reproductive capacity of men. Therefore, the ability to see detailed relationships between morphology and physiology in selected spermatozoa with submicrometric resolution in a nondestructive and noninvasive way and within a functional correlated context could be extremely important for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. In this review, we describe label-free optical spectroscopy and imaging techniques, based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy/imaging with holographic imaging, which are able to noninvasively measure the (biochemistry and morphology of sperm cells. We discuss the benefits and limitation of the proposed photonic techniques, with particular emphasis on applications in detection/characterization of sperm cell morphological defects and photodamage, and the identification/sorting of X- and Y-bearing bovine spermatozoa.
Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.
Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Nikiforaki, D.; De Roo, C.
was significantly lower at weeks 2, 3 and 4 when compared with female pups originating from WT embryos. However, the latter difference was not observed at later time points, nor in the other artificial activating groups. All offspring mated successfully with fertile controls. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION......STUDY QUESTION Does the application of three different artificial activating stimuli lead to a difference in pre- and post-implantation embryo development in the wobbler mouse, a mouse model with oocyte activation deficient round-headed sperm cells similar to human globozoospermia? SUMMARY ANSWER...... No gross differences were found between strontium chloride, electrical pulses or ionomycin with respect to the pre- and post-implantation development in the wobbler mouse. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertilization failure following intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) occurs in 1–3% of the ICSI cycles...
Full Text Available With the fast advancement in the genetics and bio-medical fields, the vast number of valuable transgenic and rare genetic mouse models need to be preserved. Preservation of mouse sperm by convective drying and subsequent storing at above freezing temperatures could dramatically reduce the cost and facilitate shipping. Mouse sperm were convectively dried under nitrogen gas in the Na-EGTA solution containing 100 mmol/L 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and stored in LiCl sorption jars (Relative Humidity, RH, 12% at 4°C and 22°C for up to one year. The functionality of these sperm samples after storage was tested by intracytoplasmic injection into mouse oocytes. The percentages of blastocysts produced from sperm stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months were 62.6%, 53.4%, 39.6%, 33.3%, and 30.4%, respectively, while those stored at 22°C for 1, 2, and 3 months were 28.8%, 26.6%, and 12.2%, respectively. Transfer of 38 two- to four-cell embryos from sperm stored at 4°C for 1 year produced two live pups while 59 two- to four-cell embryos from sperm stored at 22°C for 3 months also produced two live pups. Although all the pups looked healthy at 3 weeks of age, normality of offspring produced using convectively dried sperm needs further investigation. The percentages of blastocyst from sperm stored in the higher relative humidity conditions of NaBr and MgCl(2 jars and driest condition of P(2O(5 jars at 4°C and 22°C were all lower. A simple method of mouse sperm preservation is demonstrated. Three-O-methyl-D-glucose, a metabolically inactive derivative of glucose, offers significant protection for dried mouse sperm at above freezing temperatures without the need for poration of cell membrane.
Full Text Available Spermatids are the earliest male germ cells with haploid set of chromosomes. Spermatid injection was introduced in human assisted reproduction for the treatment of men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Spermatozoa can be recovered in half of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. The use of spermatids for intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI has been proposed for cases in which no spermatozoa can be retrieved. However, there are low pregnancy rates following ICSI using round spermatids from men with no elongated spermatids or spermatozoa in their testes. The in vitroculture of immature germ cells has been proposed as a means to improve this poor outcome. Oocyte activation rarely occurs when injected with a spermatid. Therefore, spermatid injection requires use of calcium ionophores for oocyte activation which is otherwise carried out by PLC zeta from mature sperms. This is the only option available for the nonobstructive azoospermic patients to have their own biological child.
Tang, Li; Liu, Zichao; Zhang, Ruopeng; Su, Cunmei; Yang, Wenjuan; Yao, Youlin; Zhao, Shuhua
An increase in imprinting disorders in children conceived though assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been the subject of several reports. The transmission of imprinting errors from the sperm of infertile fathers is believed to be a possible reason for the increased occurrence of these disorders. However, whether the imprinting alterations in sperm affect ART outcomes and the imprinting of offspring is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the methylation of H19, SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1 by pyrosequencing sperm samples from 97 infertile patients and 31 proven fertile males as well as cord blood samples from 13 infantswho were conceived by infertile parents through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 30 healthy newborns who were conceived naturally. After four cases were excluded owing to the lack of a sequencing signal, the infertile patients were subgrouped into normal (69 cases) and abnormal (24 cases) imprinting groups according to the reference range set by the control group. Between the groups, there were no significant differences in ART outcomes. Significantly different levels of methylation were detected in H19, but none of the imprinted genes were determined to be outside of the methylation reference range set by the values derived from the naturally conceived controls. Three CpG loci were found to be significantly hypomethylated in the maternally imprinted gene KCNQ1OT1 in two patients from the abnormal imprinting group, none of which were caused by sperm imprinting errors. In addition, the paternal H19 gene exhibited discrepant methylation patterns between the sperm controls and the cord blood controls. Our data suggest that increased imprinting errors in the sperm of infertile patients do not have an obvious influence on ART outcomes or the imprinting of offspring.
Ashraf, Mohamed C; Singh, Sankalp; Raj, Dharma; Ramakrishnan, Sujatha; Esteves, Sandro C
CONTEXT: Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is an unfavorable prognostic condition for male infertility since spermatogenesis is disrupted. Sperm retrieval (SR) coupled with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the only option for men with NOA who seek fertility. Among the SR techniques, microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) has been applied with encouraging results. AIMS: We describe how we implemented the micro-TESE procedure and present initial micro-TESE experience in a group of men with NOA and poor prognosis for SR. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Case series of men with NOA treated in a tertiary healthcare center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) facility was setup to perform SR using microsurgery. Fourteen men with NOA and previous failed retrievals or unfavorable histologic results underwent micro-TESE while their female partners received ovarian stimulation for oocyte pickup (OCP). Micro-TESE was performed the day prior to OCP and testicular sperm were used for sperm injections. We assessed retrieval rates and ICSI outcomes. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Outcomes of SR and ICSI were analyzed descriptively. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact test were used to compare characteristics of men with successful and failed SR. RESULTS: The success of micro-TESE was 50.0% with no major complications. A clear microscopic distinction between enlarged and collapsed seminiferous tubules was seen in 35.7% of the cases, and sperm were retrieved in all but one of these cases. Patients with successful and failed retrieval did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics, use of medical therapy, presence of varicocele, and testicular histology. Sperm injections resulted in normal fertilization and embryo cleavage of 64% and 75%, respectively. A total of five transfers with an average of 1.5 embryos resulted in a cumulative clinical pregnancy rate per ICSI cycle of 28.6%, with an implantation rate of 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: We were
Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5% men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9% men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133 of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133. Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87. Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Pastuszek, E; Kiewisz, J; Skowronska, P; Liss, J; Lukaszuk, M; Bruszczynska, A; Jakiel, G; Lukaszuk, K
Presence of vacuoles and degree of sperm DNA damage are considered to be the basic factors used for the assessment of sperm fertilization capacity. We aimed to investigate the link between these two parameters. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where the Comet assay was used to assess the degree of DNA fragmentation of sperm categorized by Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination (MSOME) Grades. Semen samples from 10 patients were assessed. Spermatozoa were graded into four MSOME groups according to the Vanderzwalmen's criteria. A total of 3930 motile spermatozoa were selected one-by-one using an inverted microscope and transferred onto two different slides. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed by alkaline and neutral Comet assay. Results of the neutral Comet assay showed that Grade I spermatozoa (absence of vacuoles) presented significantly lower dsDNA fragmentation level (mean: 3.13 ± 1.17%) than Grade II (maximum of two small vacuoles; mean: 10.34 ± 2.65%), Grade III (more than two small vacuoles or at least one large vacuole; mean: 23.88 ± 8.37%), and Grade IV (large vacuoles associated with abnormal head shapes or other abnormalities; mean: 36.94 ± 7.78%; p 0.05). Probably, the vacuoles may be responsible for double strand DNA breaks rather than single strand DNA breaks (only 2.39% spermatozoa in MSOME Grade II, 1.76% in III, and 3.16% in IV has single strand breaks). The results demonstrate that lower MSOME grading correlates with lower sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the observation of sperm nuclear vacuoles using real-time optical microscopy without precise DNA fragmentation examination is not sufficient for optimal sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Conclusion: In case of prenatally detected omphalocele associated with an obstetric history of assisted reproductive technology, a differential diagnosis of BWS should be considered. Methylation assays such as MS-MLPA and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction using uncultured amniocytes are useful for rapid diagnosis of BWS under such circumstances.
Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sermondade, Nathalie; Massin, Nathalie; Boitrelle, Florence; Pfeffer, Jérôme; Eustache, Florence; Sifer, Christophe; Czernichow, Sébastien; Lévy, Rachel
Recent studies have underlined the impact of obesity on sperm parameters, but very few data are available on the effect of weight loss on male fertility. This article reports the case series of three male patients who underwent rapid and major weight loss following bariatric surgery and the consequences of this surgery on semen parameters and fertility. A severe worsening of semen parameters was observed during the months after bariatric surgery, including extreme oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, but azoospermia was not observed. This effect may hypothetically be the result of two opposite mechanisms: (i) the suppression of the deleterious effects of obesity; and (ii) the negative impact of both nutritional deficiencies and the release of toxic substances. Information about potential reproductive consequences of bariatric surgery should be given to patients and sperm cryopreservation before surgery proposed. However, for one case, the alterations of spermatogenesis were reversible 2 years after the surgical procedure. Finally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh spermatozoa after male bariatric surgery can be successful, as demonstrated here, where clinical pregnancies were obtained for two out of the three couples. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Jatine; Faunce, Thomas
Re Edwards (2011) 4 ASTLR 392;  NSWSC 478 adds to the small line of cases to have considered whether a woman can not only require medical staff to remove sperm from her dead male partner, but whether she is justified in terms of law and international human rights to use it to create children. In this case a Justice of the New South Wales Supreme Court framed the issue as "what right does a woman have to take sperm from the body of her deceased partner so that she may conceive a child?" He did so, despite the manifest ambiguity and difficulty in characterising the legislative rights in this case, without referring to substantive human rights obligations under international Conventions to which Australia is a ratifying party (particularly Art 10 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Art 23 of the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Technological advances such as those creating the possibility of capturing a dead person's sperm by electro-ejaculation and creating children by subjecting it to intracytoplasmic sperm injection in connection with in vitro fertilisation have altered the balance of individual and social interests in deciding who should be regarded as owning a dead man's sperm and how that relates to basic common law rights of bodily inviolability without free consent. It is to be regretted that in jurisdictions lacking relevant constitutional human rights, or legislation requiring coherence with international human rights, judges do not avail themselves in cases of statutory ambiguity of interpretative insights to be gained from legally binding human rights treaties to which Australia is a party.
Ye, Hong; Hu, Jing; He, Wencong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Caihong
A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) intrauterine injection before embryo transfer on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Searches of PubMed®, EMBASE®, EBSCO, Web of Science®, SCOPUS® and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted to retrieve relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were extracted and analysed. The meta-analysis included five RCTs (hCG group n = 680; control group n = 707). Intrauterine hCG injection significantly increased rates of biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy compared with controls. There were no between-group differences in implantation or miscarriage rates. Women undergoing IVF/ICSI may benefit from intrauterine hCG injection before embryo transfer. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gilbert, Kirven; Nangia, Ajay K; Dupree, James M; Smith, James F; Mehta, Akanksha
Many patients do not cryopreserve sperm before undergoing cancer treatment because of high perceived costs of cryopreservation. We sought to investigate the cost-effectiveness of fertility preservation compared to posttherapeutic fertility treatment in testicular cancer patients. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed database for the following: risk of azoospermia 12 months after surveillance, chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and radiation therapy (RT); rates of natural conception, and rates of conception with the use of intrauterine insemination or assisted reproductive technology, with or without microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). A decision tree was constructed using the TreePlan add-in for Microsoft Excel (TreePlan Software, San Francisco, California). Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the overall cost of a given management branch, divided by likelihood of pregnancy. Calculations accounted for variable number of years of cryopreservation, and variable costs of microTESE. 1,113 articles were identified; 44 were included in the final analysis. Overall probability of pregnancy was higher among couples who cryopreserved sperm, versus those who did not. In patients undergoing active surveillance or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, cryopreservation was more cost-effective if storage time was short (cost was high (>7,000). Cryopreservation prior to chemotherapy was more cost-effective unless microTESE cost was low (cost-effective in almost all scenarios. Sperm cryopreservation prior to undergoing chemotherapy or RT remains the most cost-effective strategy for fertility preservation, across a range of possible costs associated with surgical sperm retrieval and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghuman, N K; Mair, E; Pearce, K; Choudhary, M
Does age of the sperm donor have an effect on reproductive outcomes (live birth rate and miscarriage occurrence) of donor insemination or in vitro fertilization treatment using donated sperm? Live birth and miscarriage occurrence in assisted reproduction treatment using donor sperms was not found to be affected by the age of sperm donors up to 45 years old. Literature on the effect of sperm donor age on outcome of medically assisted reproduction is scarce. Most researchers agree that semen parameters deteriorate with increasing paternal age. However, there is no substantial evidence to suggest that this deterioration adversely affects the reproductive outcomes in couples undergoing medically assisted reproduction. This retrospective cohort study analysed 46 078 first donor insemination treatments and fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using donated sperm from 1991 to 2012. The first fresh donor insemination and IVF/ICSI treatment cycles (46 078 treatment cycles) using donated sperm from the long-term anonymized data registry from 1991 to 2012 of the HFEA, the UK regulator, were analysed by the binary logistic modelling technique for association between sperm donor age and reproductive outcomes (live birth occurrence and miscarriage occurrence). The statistical package SPSS (version 21) was used for analysis and results were considered to be statistically significant if the P-value was 0.05). The miscarriage occurrence (i.e. number of miscarriages per 100 women commencing treatment) was 1.3% in 18-34 year old women, 1.9% in 35-37 year old women and 1.9% in 38-50 year old women undergoing donor insemination treatment. In the sperm donation IVF/ICSI treatment group, these figures were 5.7, 8.4 and 6.8% respectively. The results were not suggestive of any unfavourable effect of advancing sperm donor age on the odds of miscarriage occurrence (P > 0.05). As sperm donors are a select population based on good semen indices
Full Text Available Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues is essential for increasing the possibilities of offspring generation by testicular xenografting for agricultural or medical purposes. However, successful production of offspring from the sperm involved has never been reported previously. In the present study, therefore, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, we examined whether xenogeneic sperm obtained from immature pig testicular tissue after cryopreservation would have the capacity to produce live piglets. Testicular fragments from 9- to 11-day-old piglets were vitrified after 10- or 20-min immersion in vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol (EG, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and trehalose as cryoprotectants, and then stored in liquid nitrogen for more than 140 days. Thirty nude mice were assigned to each immersion-time group. Testicular fragments were transplanted under the back skin of castrated mice immediately after warming and removal of the cryoprotectants. Blood and testicular grafts were then recovered from the recipient mice on days 60, 120, 180 and 230-350 (day 0 = grafting. Histological assessment of the testicular grafts and analyses of inhibin and testosterone production revealed no significant differences between the two immersion-time groups, indicating equal growth activity of the cryopreserved tissues. A single sperm obtained from a mouse in each group on day 230-350 was injected into an in vitro-matured porcine oocyte, and then the ICSI oocytes were transferred to the oviducts of estrus-synchronized recipient gilts. One out of 4 gilts that had received oocytes fertilized using sperm from the 10-min immersion group delivered 2 live piglets, and one of another 4 gilts from the 20-min group delivered 4 live piglets. Thus, we have successfully generated porcine offspring utilizing sperm from immature testicular tissues after cryopreservation and transplantation into nude mice. The present model using pigs will
[The consultation with the candidate couple for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). The experience of the MATRIS (Medici Associati per la Terapia e la Ricerca dell'Infertilità e Sterilità) center of Milan].
Magro, B; Magro, S
The authors examine the relationship between doctor and patient during the consultation for the therapeutic decision for those couples who have to undergo a medical procreation, especially the ICSI by MESA and TESA. The couple's psycho-emotional involvement and the medical terminology hinder the real possibility of communication between doctor and patient. The data relating to a study of 80 couples done by the authors are presented. They show the need to improve the quality of communication between doctor and patient during the consultation. For this purpose, on the basis of the research conducted, modification of the language used and the support of audio-visual media are suggested during the consultation in order to reduce the percentage of the couple's doubts and uncertainties.
van Wely, Madelon; Barbey, Natalie; Meissner, Andreas; Repping, Sjoerd; Silber, Sherman J.
How do live birth rates compare after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for men with obstructive azoospermia when using sperm derived from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) versus microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)? Our study suggests that proximal epididymal sperm (from MESA)
Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ayazi Rozbahani, Maryam; Tabibnejad, Nasim
Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) failure. It has been reported that endometrial injury using a biopsy catheter resulted in a higher pregnancy rate in following cycle of treatment. The local endometrial trauma increases the implantation rate through the release of chemical mediators such as histamine and growth factor. To evaluate the influence of endometrial biopsy on increasing implantation rate in patients with recurrent implantation failures. In a randomised control trial study, 115 women each with at least two implantation failures were randomly assigned to two groups. In the case group, endometrial biopsy was obtained from patients in the luteal phase of previous cycle, and implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with those of patients in the control group. The implantation rate was determined as 10.9% in the biopsy group compared to 3.38% in the controls. The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the case group than in controls (27.1% and 8.9% respectively). The results suggest that pregnancy outcome increases through IVF or ICSI after endometrial biopsy.
Beck-Fruchter, Ronit; Shalev, Eliezer; Weiss, Amir
The human oocyte is surrounded by hyaluronic acid, which acts as a natural selector of spermatozoa. Human sperm that express hyaluronic acid receptors and bind to hyaluronic acid have normal shape, minimal DNA fragmentation and low frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. Use of hyaluronic acid binding assays in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles to improve clinical outcomes has been studied, although none of these studies had sufficient statistical power. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, electronic databases were searched up to June 2015 to identify studies of ICSI cycles in which spermatozoa able to bind hyaluronic acid was selected. The main outcomes were fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included cleavage rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, spontaneous abortion and live birth rate. Seven studies and 1437 cycles were included. Use of hyaluronic acid binding sperm selection technique yielded no improvement in fertilization and pregnancy rates. A meta-analysis of all available studies showed an improvement in embryo quality and implantation rate; an analysis of prospective studies only showed an improvement in embryo quality. Evidence does not support routine use of hyaluronic acid binding assays in all ICSI cycles. Identification of patients that might benefit from this technique needs further study. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Yao, Kang-Shou; Xu, Peng; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng
Sperm banking can preserve male fertility effectively, but the current conditions of sperm cryopreservation in China have not been investigated. This retrospective investigation was based on data collected at multiple centres in China from January 2003 to December 2008. The collected data included urogenital history, indication for cryopreservation, semen parameters, use rate, type of assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcome. The study population included 1 548 males who had banked their semen during the study period at one of the clinics indicated above. Approximately 1.9% (30/1 548) of the cryopreserved semen samples were collected from cancer patients; about 88.8% (1 374/1 548) of the patients had banked their semen for ART and 8.6% (134/1 548) had a male infertility disease (such as anejaculation, severe oligozoospermia and obstructive azoospermia). The total use rate of cryopreserved semen was 22.7% (352/1 548), with 119 live births. The cancer group use rate was 6.7% (2/30), with one live birth by intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI). The ART group use rate was 23.2% (319/1 374), with 106 live births. The reproductive disease group use rate was 23.1% (31/134), with 12 live births. The semen parameters in each category varied; the cancer patient and infertility disease groups had poor semen quality. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI were the most common ART treatments for cryopreserved sperm. Semen cryopreservation as a salvage method is effective, but in many conditions it is underutilized, especially in cancer patients. Lack of awareness, urgency of cancer treatment and financial constraints are the main causes of the low access rate. The concept of fertility preservation should be popularized to make better use of this medical service in China. PMID:20348941
Frapsauce, C; Cornuau, M; Splingart, C; Barthelemy, C; Royere, D; Guerif, F
The introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) provided an effective treatment for infertile couples whose infertility was attributed to male factors. However, some of them face poor results after ICSI and subsequently use artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID). Only a few studies have reported on the clinical outcome of AID cycles after previous failed ICSI cycles, with contrasting results. The results reported here involve a cohort of 47 couples undertaking 175 AID cycles after 120 failed ICSI cycles for various reasons. Couples were allocated to two groups according to the availability of top quality embryos (TQE) in ICSI cycles. In our series, AID was successful for couples with and without TQE previously transferred in ICSI cycles, the live birth rate (LBR) per cycle being 20.0% and 13.3%, respectively. However, couples with TQE tended to succeed more rapidly than couples with poor quality embryos, with a higher cumulative LBR (68.0% versus 54.5%, respectively). These findings demonstrate that even couples with a history of unsuccessful ICSI cycles because of poor embryo quality are able to achieve high LBR after AID cycles. However, such couples have a lower cumulative LBR and are required to be more patient to achieve parenthood. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Fauque, Patricia; Albert, Martine; Serres, Catherine; Viallon, Vivian; Davy, Céline; Epelboin, Sylvie; Chalas, Céline; Jouannet, Pierre; Patrat, Catherine
The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a population of patients displaying impaired sperm motility due to ultrastructural flagellar defects and to analyse the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results and neonatal outcomes in this population. The fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, birth rate and perinatal health of babies were determined. Patients (n = 20) were divided into seven categories according to ultrastructural flagellar abnormalities. The type of flagellar abnormality significantly affected the fertilization rate (P <0.025). Two types of flagellar abnormalities showed slower early embryo cleavage kinetics (P <0.001) when axonemal central structures and periaxonemmal columns were abnormal or absent. Of 53 ICSI attempts, 14 resulted in clinical pregnancies (26.4% per cycle) after fresh and frozen embryo transfer. Three (21.4%) of these pregnancies ended in miscarriages and, in the remaining, 12 infants were born (7.2% of transferred embryos). The outcomes differed according to the ultrastructural defect. This study demonstrates that a high proportion of patients could father a child (45.0%). However, flagellar abnormalities appear to influence ICSI results and fetal development.
L. Y. Pylyp
Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases
Komori, K; Tsujimura, A; Miura, H; Shin, M; Takada, T; Honda, M; Matsumiya, K; Fujioka, H
Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is becoming a first-line treatment even for non-obstructive azoospermia. The current focus of TESE is the identification of seminiferous tubules that contain spermatozoa and minimization of testicular damage. Although microdissection TESE has been introduced as a preferred procedure for sperm retrieval, no serial follow-up studies of testicular damage have been reported. In the present study, we assayed serum testosterone concentrations and for the presence of antisperm antibodies (ASA) for 1 year after conventional multiple TESE or microdissection TESE and compared postoperative testicular damage between procedures. Thirteen patients who underwent conventional multiple TESE and 12 patients who underwent microdissection TESE were included in this study. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations were evaluated before operation and 1, 6 and 12 months after TESE. Serum ASA was also evaluated before and 12 months after TESE. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations in all patients in both groups showed no significant postoperative decrease. A comparison between the two groups of serum total and free testosterone concentrations showed no significant difference (total testosterone, p = 0.2477; free testosterone, p = 0.3098). No incidence of new ASA formation was identified in the present study. In conclusion, TESE procedures cause neither a decrease of serum testosterone nor formation of ASA. Serum testosterone concentration are similar between patients in the conventional multiple TESE and microdissection groups. Therefore, microdissection TESE is safe with respect to testicular damage, particularly for patients with hypogonadism.
Laura Gómez Montoto
Full Text Available Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass, showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic
Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...
Maria de Fátima Oliveira dos Santos
Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a técnica da fertilização in vitro por meio de injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóide (ICSI, abordando seus aspectos técnicos, bem como, questões éticas e legais que permeiam tal prática. Essa técnica se diferencia das demais por corresponder à injeção de um único espermatozóide vivo no citoplasma do ovócito, sendo uma das principais alternativas atuais para a infertilidade masculina, principalmente nos casais em que o homem tem uma diminuição significativa na quantidade ou na motilidade dos espermatozóides. Vale ressaltar, que as técnicas de reprodução assistida vêm se desenvolvendo rapidamente, dando ensejo a questões polêmicas, como as relativas ao início da vida embrionária e à manipulação genética, o que implica que se deve refletir sobre este assunto, levando-se em consideração os limites éticos. Nesse sentido, é preciso, urgentemente regulamentar o tema, mesmo com os progressos alcançados pelo novo Código Civil e pela Lei de Biossegurança.This article focuses on the in vitro fertilization technique that uses intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and addresses both the technical and ethical and legal aspects of this. This technique differs from others as it involves the injection of a single live sperm into the cytoplasm of the oocyte and is one of the principal alternative treatments for male infertility, mainly for couples where the man has a significantly reduced sperm-count or sperm-mobility. It is worth pointing out that rapid advances are being made in assisted reproduction and this has given rise to controversial issues relating to the beginning of embryonic life and genetic manipulation. It is thus important to reflect on this subject and consider where ethical boundaries lie. There is therefore urgent need for regulation in this area, despite the advances already achieved by the new Civil Code and Biosafety Law.
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niftrik, L.A. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.
Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single
Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.
Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single
Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen
Noorhasan, Dorette J.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cho, Michael; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Ahmad, Khaliq; McCulloh, David H.
Objective. To test if serum hCG levels the morning after the ovulatory hCG injection correlate with (1) retrieval efficiency, (2) oocyte maturity, (3) embryo quality, (4) pregnancy, and/or (5) time to implantation in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Design. Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting. University-based IVF clinic. Patient(s). All IVF/ICSI cycles from April 2005 to February 2008 whose hCG administration was confirmed (n = 472 patients). Intervention(s). Serum hCG was measured the morning following the ovulatory injection, on the 16th day following retrieval, and repeated on day 18 for those with positive results. Main Outcome Measure(s). Number of follicles on the day of hCG injection, number of oocytes retrieved, maturity of oocytes, embryo quality, pregnancy outcome, and time to implantation. Result(s). hCG levels did not correlate with retrieval efficiency, oocyte maturity, embryo quality, or pregnancy. Postinjection hCG levels were inversely associated with patient weight and time to implantation. Conclusion(s). No correlation was found between hCG level and any parameter of embryo quality. Patient weight affected hCG levels following hCG injection and during the early period of pregnancy following implantation. No association between postinjection hCG level and time of implantation (adjusted for patient weight) was apparent. PMID:26587025
van Niftrik, Laura A; Fuerst, John A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Kuenen, J Gijs; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc
Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single ladderane lipid-containing membrane. The anammox bacteria, first found in a wastewater treatment plant in The Netherlands, have the potential to remove ammonium from wastewater without the addition of organic carbon. Very recently anammox bacteria were also discovered in the Black Sea where they are responsible for 30-50% of the nitrogen consumption. This review will introduce different forms of intracytoplasmic membrane systems found in prokaryotes and discuss the compartmentalization in anammox bacteria and its possible functional relation to catabolism and energy transduction.
Abu Hassan Abu, D; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R
Sperm morphology has been associated with in vitro as well as in vivo fertilisation. The study aimed to evaluate the possible relation between the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology and the following sperm functional assays: (i) zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR); (ii) DNA integrity; (iii) chromatin condensation; (iv) sperm apoptosis; and (v) fertilisation rates. Regression analysis was employed to calculate the association between morphology and different functional tests. Normal sperm morphology correlated significantly with the percentages of live acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in the ZIAR (r = 0.518; P sperm apoptosis (r = -0.395; P = 0.0206; n = 34) and necrosis (r = -0.545; P = 0.0009; n = 34). Negative correlations existed between for the acrosome reaction, and DNA integrity, while negative associations were recorded with the percentages of CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa, apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa. Sperm morphology is related to sperm dysfunction such as poor chromatin condensation, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity. Negative and significant correlations existed between normal sperm morphology and chromatin condensation, the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA and spermatozoa with apoptotic activity. The authors do not regard sperm morphology as the only test for the diagnosis of male fertility, but sperm morphology can serve as a valuable indicator of underlying dysfunction. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Brewis, I.A.; Gadella, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115389873
This contribution will focus exclusively on the total (global) protein composition (the proteome) of the sperm surface. Immune responses directed towards sperm surface proteins may cause infertility since functionally intact sperm are under immune attack. The immune attack can be achieved directly
Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra
instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....
Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...
Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E
Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951
Full Text Available ... pulposus (slipped disk) Hypertension - overview Immune response Intracytoplasmic sperm injection Kidney stones Liposuction Lymph nodes Lymphatics and ... production Retina Seeing Shoulder joint dislocation Smelling Snoring Sperm release pathway Stomach ulcer Stroke Stroke - secondary to ...
Sperm storage potential and daily sperm production of brown male Japanese quails for three different physiological age groups. ... positively correlated (r=0.91 P<0.01). This study revealed that the brown male Japanese quail has its peak reproduction potential at puberty. Keywords: Quail sperm storage, sperm production ...
van der Horst, Gerhard; Maree, Liana
Sperm competition is a post-copulatory, sexual selection force that, together with phylogeny and fertilization mode, has been regarded as one of the main factors explaining the diversity in sperm size across species. This universal sperm selection mechanism favors traits that enhance a male's fertilizing ability and paternity success. Surprisingly, however, sperm characteristics and semen quality in monogamous species, with low risk of sperm competition, have barely received any attention. In this review, we consider sperm competition and monogamy as two ends of the selective spectrum, and discuss its effect on sperm structure and function. We address the issue of a lack of sperm competition by comparing sperm traits of essentially monogamous species--their largely degenerative sperm features and high degree of polymorphisms could be norms for monogamous species. Further, the level of sperm competition in humans is discussed by comparing its mating strategy, relative testis size, and sperm traits to other primate species. In terms of sperm concentration, sperm swimming speed, and sperm morphology, humans seem to be closer aligned to the low-risk sperm competition situation in gorillas than to promiscuous chimpanzees. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rohayem, J; Fricke, R; Czeloth, K; Mallidis, C; Wistuba, J; Krallmann, C; Zitzmann, M; Kliesch, S
Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) represents a chance for azoospermic men with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) to father children. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for the success of mTESE from adolescents and adults with KS. The clinical data of 50 late pubertal adolescents (13-19 years) and 85 adult patients (20-61 years) with non-mosaic KS, who underwent mTESE, were analysed with respect to factors, potentially predictive of active spermatogenesis; specifically a history of cryptorchidism, age, testicular volumes, serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T) and estradiol at the time of surgery. Inhibin B, AMH and INSL3 were additionally analysed in the adolescents. A younger age and a near-compensated Leydig cell function were associated with higher success of sperm retrieval via mTESE: In adolescents ≥15-19 years, spermatozoa were retrieved in 45%, compared to 31% in adults; in adolescents aged 13-14 years, spermatozoa were collected in only 10%. Adolescents with an LH ≤17.5 U/L, along with a T level ≥7.5 nmol/L had the best success rate (54%), which fell to 44% with higher LH, whereas those with low T (sperm retrieval. In adults with T levels above and LH below these thresholds, the success rate was 51%, falling to 19%, if LH was higher. When T was lower than threshold, the rate was 17%. No association between testicular volumes, serum levels of FSH, Inhibin B, AMH, estradiol and mTESE success was found. A history of cryptorchidism was associated with lower retrieval rates. A window of opportunity for an approximate 50% chance to retrieve spermatozoa via mTESE exists for young, late pubertal KS patients between age 15 and young adulthood, when Leydig cell function is at its best. In these cases, referral to a centre of expertise should be considered. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
... problem such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins or a condition that blocks ... Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function. Although studies are limited and are inconclusive, frequent use of ...
Jesuthasan, Suresh; Subburaju, Sivan
A technique for fertilizing zebrafish eggs by injection of sperm nuclei is described. Eggs that cleave normally can develop into swimming larvae and give rise to fertile adults. If sperm nuclei are preincubated for 20 min with DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein, transgene expression can be detected in all cells of the embryo. The use of condensed sperm nuclei allows injection with a small bore pipette, which is critical for successful injection of the relatively small zebrafish egg. This technique enables the generation of ubiquitously expressing transgenic zebrafish directly by microinjection. Hence, experiments involving transgenic fish can be completed in days, without the need for growing and breeding founders. This technique may also be used to generate transgenic lines, as transgene expression was visible in the offspring of transgenic founders. The method described here is likely to be applicable to other teleosts, such as medaka and salmon.
Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald
Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long......-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...... hypnorum, a species with multiple-mating queens, have longer sperm than males of B. terrestris and B. lucorum whose queens are single mated. Although the sample size on the species level was too small to perform a phylogenetic analysis, this finding supports the hypothesis that, all other things being...
Willum Adrian, Stine
During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time...
Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... of retrieving and storing sperm before treatment. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...
Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.
. A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any....... This implicates sonar as a possible function of the clicks. Thus, previously published properties of sperm whale clicks underestimate the capabilities of the sound generator and therefore cannot falsify the Norris and Harvey theory.......In sperm whales ~Physeter catodon L. 1758! the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey @in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 ~1972!, pp. 397–417# ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex...
Willum Adrian, Stine
During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time...... as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires...... into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travellers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation in practice, and thus been part of developing a Danish industry of sperm banking. The presentation is based on a multi...
Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.
Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho
Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4°C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of “freeze-drying zoo” to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172
Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho
Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.
Langerová, Hana; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, M.
Roč. 248, Oct (2017), s. 19-25 ISSN 0166-0934 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : intracytoplasmic particles (ICAPs) * retrovirus * assembly * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2016
Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.
BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles, which is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections.
Derijck Alwin AHA
Full Text Available Abstract Background about 15% to 30% of the DNA in human sperm is packed in nucleosomes and transmission of this fraction to the embryo potentially serves as a mechanism to facilitate paternal epigenetic programs during embryonic development. However, hitherto it has not been established whether these nucleosomes are removed like the protamines or indeed contribute to paternal zygotic chromatin, thereby potentially contributing to the epigenome of the embryo. Results to clarify the fate of sperm-derived nucleosomes we have used the deposition characteristics of histone H3 variants from which follows that H3 replication variants present in zygotic paternal chromatin prior to S-phase originate from sperm. We have performed heterologous ICSI by injecting human sperm into mouse oocytes. Probing these zygotes with an antibody highly specific for the H3.1/H3.2 replication variants showed a clear signal in the decondensed human sperm chromatin prior to S-phase. In addition, staining of human multipronuclear zygotes also showed the H3.1/H3.2 replication variants in paternal chromatin prior to DNA replication. Conclusion these findings reveal that sperm-derived nucleosomal chromatin contributes to paternal zygotic chromatin, potentially serving as a template for replication, when epigenetic information can be copied. Hence, the execution of epigenetic programs originating from transmitted paternal chromatin during subsequent embryonic development is a logical consequence of this observation.
Kleven, Oddmund; Fossøy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T
Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed.
Oliva, Rafael; de Mateo, Sara; Estanyol, Josep Maria
The spermatozoon is an accessible cell which can be easily purified and therefore it is particularly well suited for proteomic analysis. It is also an extremely differentiated cell with very marked genetic, cellular, functional and chromatin changes as compared to other cells, and has profound implications for fertility, embryo development and heredity. The recent developments in MS have boosted the potential for identification and study of the sperm proteins. Catalogues of hundreds to thousands of spermatozoan proteins in human and in model species are becoming available setting up the basis for subsequent research, diagnostic applications and the development of specific treatments. The present article reviews the available scientific publications dealing with the composition and function of the sperm cell using an MS proteomic approach.
Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.
Movahed, Elham; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Nejati, Vahid; Zamani, Zahra
Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived from guanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat. In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group). One group served as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drug treatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Eighteen days after the last injection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymides were removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis, sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity were analyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined. The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased sperm motility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increased at 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damage at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/ kg doses. The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicity by adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in male rats.
Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse; Takahashi, Tohru
Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma......Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma...
Gage, Matthew J G; Freckleton, Robert P
Understanding why there is extensive variation in sperm form and function across taxa has been a challenge because sperm are specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. This comparative study collates published data to determine whether the evolution of sperm morphometry (sperm total length and separate component dimensions) is associated with sperm competition (when different males' sperm mix and compete for a female's ova) across 83 mammalian species. We use...
Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.
Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples
Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.
Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu
The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luño, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I
Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
significantly (P<0.05) higher in rabbits fed prebiotic and symbiotic diets than those fed diet 3 and the control. The daily sperm production and sperm ... The amount of good quality live spermatozoa produced by the testis and the ... production and reproductive performance of rabbits. Effects of nutrition on reproduction.
Varea-Sánchez, María; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R S
Rodents have spermatozoa with features not seen in other species. Sperm heads in many rodent species bear one or more apical extensions known as "hooks." The process by which hooks have evolved, together with their adaptive significance, are still controversial issues. In order to improve our understanding of the biological meaning of these sperm head adaptations, we analyzed hook curvature angles, hook length, and overall hook shape in muroid rodents by using geometric morphometrics. We also searched for relationships between hook design and measurements of intermale competition to assess whether postcopulatory sexual selection was an important selective force driving changes in this sperm structure. Finally, we sought possible links between aspects of sperm hook design and sperm velocity as a measure of sperm performance. Results showed that one hook curvature angle is under strong selective pressure. Similarly, hook length appears to be strongly selected by sexual selection, with this selective force also exhibiting a stabilizing role reducing intermale variation in this trait. The adaptive significance of changes in hook structure was supported by the finding that there are strong and significant covariations between hook dimensions and shape and between hook design and sperm swimming velocity. Overall, this study strongly suggests that postcopulatory sexual selection has an important effect on the design of the sperm head that, in turn, is important for enhancing sperm velocity, a function crucial to reaching the vicinity of the female gamete and winning fertilizations under competitive situations. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A
Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that
Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L
Sperm vitality is a reflection of the proportion of live, membrane-intact spermatozoa determined by either dye exclusion or osmoregulatory capacity under hypo-osmotic conditions. In this chapter we address the two most common methods of sperm vitality assessment: eosin-nigrosin staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, both utilized in clinical Andrology laboratories.
This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...
Sakhnini, Lama; Dairi, Maheen
In this study we report on magnetic orientation of sea urchin and human sperms. The sea urchin and human sperms became oriented parallel to the magnetic field (1 T maximum). The human sperms were totally oriented with magnetic field at about 600 mT. However, the sea urchin sperms show different behavior due to morphological differences between them and the human sperms.
Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the ovine embryo ability in DNA uptake as an alternate pathway for sperm-mediated transgenesis. EGFP carrying plasmid was intra-uterus injected through laparoscopy either five days following natural insemination or mixed with sperm cells at the time of fertilization. Excluding trivial false-positive PCR results, following stringent negative control confirmation, PCR analysis of various tissues from 7 generated lambs did not reveal the transgene transfer. Therefore, non-viral vector incubation with sperm or embryo was inefficient for ewe transgenesis.
Briskie, James V; Montgomerie, Robert; Birkhead, Tim R
Sperm size varies enormously among species, but the reasons for this variation remain obscure. Since it has been suggested that swimming velocity increases with sperm length, earlier studies proposed longer (and therefore faster) sperm are advantageous under conditions of intense sperm competition. Nonetheless, previous work has been equivocal, perhaps because the intensity of sperm competition was measured indirectly. DNA profiling now provides a more direct measure of the number of offspring sired by extrapair males, and thus a more direct method of assessing the potential for sperm competition. Using a sample of 21 species of passerine birds for which DNA profiling data were available, we found a positive relation between sperm length and the degree of extrapair paternity. A path analysis, however, revealed that this relationship arises only indirectly through the positive relationship between the rate of extrapair paternity and length of sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the female. As sperm length is correlated positively with SST length, an increase in the intensity of sperm competition leads to an increase in sperm length only through its effect on SST length. Why females vary SST length with the intensity of sperm competition is not clear, but one possibility is that it increases female control over how sperm are used in fertilization. Males, in turn, may respond on an evolutionary time scale to changes in SST size by increasing sperm length to prevent displacement from rival sperm. Previous theoretical analyses predicting that sperm size should decrease as sperm competition becomes more intense were not supported by our findings. We suggest that future models of sperm-size evolution consider not only the role of sperm competition, but also how female control and manipulation of ejaculates after insemination selects for different sperm morphologies. © 1997 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela
OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...
Twisk, Moniek; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Hoek, Annemieke; Heineman, Maas-Jan; van der Veen, Fulco; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Repping, Sjoerd; Korevaar, Johanna C.
Human preimplantation embryos generated through in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments show a variable rate of numerical chromosome abnormalities or aneuploidies. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been designed to screen for aneuploidies in high
Kamal, A.; Fahmy, I.; Mansour, R.; Serour, G.; Aboulghar, M.; Ramos, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for men with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis, according to the use of epididymal or testicular spermatozoa and the cause of obstruction. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Private infertility center.
to the elongate cells. Most females contain one to three "sperm trees", structures consisting of a short stem and numerous branches. They are firmly implanted in the abfrontal part of the gill filament and protrude into the posterior part of the suprabranchial (brooding) chamber. Implantation of the trees causes...... the receptacle and thereupon fuse. A similar process is known in the allied P. tsurumaru, but the resulting structure ("sperm-carrying body") is not attached to the gills....
Condorelli, Rosita A; La Vignera, Sandro; Bellanca, Salvatore; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E
To evaluate whether an improvement in mitochondrial membrane potential was associated with sperm motility amelioration and greater sperm recovery after the swim-up procedure. A second purpose was to evaluate the effects of myoinositol (MYO) on sperm apoptosis, quality of chromatin compaction, and DNA integrity. Spermatozoa from 20 normozoospermic men and 20 patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia were incubated in vitro with 2 mg/mL of MYO or phosphate-buffered saline as a control for 2 hours. After this incubation period, sperm motility was evaluated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation. We also evaluated the total number of motile spermatozoa recovered after swim-up after incubation with MYO or phosphate-buffered saline. MYO significantly increased the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility in both normozoospermic men and patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia. Motility improvement in the latter group was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential. MYO had no effects on mitochondrial function in spermatozoa from normozoospermic men. Sperm phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation were unaffected by MYO in both groups. After incubation with MYO, the total number of spermatozoa recovered after swim-up had improved significantly in both groups. These data show that MYO increases sperm motility and the number of spermatozoa retrieved after swim-up in both normozoospermic men and patients with abnormal sperm parameters. In patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, the improvement in these parameters was associated with improved sperm mitochondrial function. These findings support the use of MYO in both in vivo- and in vitro-assisted reproductive techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L
In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm.
Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.
Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.
Sieme, Harald; Oldenhof, Harriëtte
Fertility rates with artificial insemination are highest with good-quality sperm samples. Therefore, nonviable sperm, cellular debris, and seminal plasma are preferably removed from semen samples prior to use or for preservation. Such compounds are sources where reactive oxygen species are generated during storage or upon cryopreservation, impairing sperm function. In this chapter we describe methods to remove seminal plasma and cellular debris from sperm samples, and for selecting morphologically normal motile sperm. The methods that are described here include: ordinary centrifugation, sperm swim-up, glass wool and Sephadex filtration/adherence, and single-layer as well as discontinuous two-layer iodixanol density gradient centrifugation.
Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Anderson, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.
Blengini, Cecilia S; Sergio, Naretto; Gabriela, Cardozo; Giojalas, Laura C; Margarita, Chiaraviglio
In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and v...
Sever, David M; Hamlett, William C
Internal fertilization and oviparity most likely are symplesiomorphies for modern reptiles, and viviparity has evolved independently numerous times in Sauria and Serpentes. Oviducal sperm storage is known in females of all taxa except Amphisbaenia. However, in Rhynchocephalia and Crocodilia, sperm storage is poorly studied, and specialized sperm storage tubules (Ssts) are unknown. We use the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis [(Chelonia+Archosauria) (Squamata)] to trace evolution of sperm storage characters. Ssts arose independently in Chelonia and Squamata. Turtles possess albumen-secreting glands in the anterior half of the oviduct (the tuba or isthmus), and the most distal of these glands also serve as Ssts; in addition, some turtles possess Ssts in the adjacent segment of the oviduct, the uterus. Squamates lack albumen-secreting glands, and the ancestral state is possession of Ssts in the posterior infundibulum (uterine tube). Secondarily, iguanids have evolved vaginal Ssts. In this paper, we present the first ultrastructural observations on vaginal Ssts in lizards, using Anolis sagrei (Polychrotidae). Proximally, the neck of these simple tubular glands continues the alternation of ciliated and secretory cells lining the lumen of the vagina. However, the epithelial cells of the distal sperm storage area are neither secretory nor ciliated. The Ssts of Anolis are more similar to those of birds more than to infundibular receptacles in snakes and lizards. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Visser, M.; Mochtar, M.H.; de Melker, A.A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.
STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial
Visser, M. [=Marja; Mochtar, M. H.; de Melker, A. A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.
What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that
Omotoriogun, T. C.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bowie, R. C. K.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Ottosson, U.; Lifjeld, J. T.
Roč. 158, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-166 ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : comparative analysis * Nectariniidae * phylogenetic signal * sperm competition * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2016
Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.
Willum Adrian, Stine
During the past two decades, Denmark has developed into an important destination for fertility travelers in need of donor sperm. A variety of different clinics providing sperm with different modes of clinical care have developed, and an increasing number of their customers come from abroad. One...... of the reasons why Danish fertility clinics have enabled women from Denmark and abroad to turn to sperm donation is, that two of the largest sperm banks in Europe are Danish. In contrast to many other countries where sperm is in demand, the Danish sperm banks are able to provide enough sperm for the national...... market as well as clinics worldwide. Furthermore, one of the sperm banks market sperm for self-insemination and deliver it to private customers by UPS. Although sperm donation is an old and low technology compared to other reproductive technologies, this development has taken place at the same time...
Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo
After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.
Marta F Riesco
Full Text Available Cryopreservation of Senegalese sole sperm can represent an alternative to overcome some reproductive problems of this species. However, it is important to guarantee the safe use of cryopreserved sperm by selecting an appropriate protocol according to a high demand quality need to be ensured. It has been demonstrated that traditional assays such as motility and viability do not provide enough information to identify specific damage caused by cryopreservation process (freezing and thawing. Specific tests, including lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, should be performed. In the present study, motility and lipid peroxidation were performed as specific tests allowing us to discard cryopreservation conditions such as methanol as internal cryoprotectant and bovine serum albumin as external cryoprotectant. In addition, a caspase 3/7 detection by flow cytometry was performed to analyze apoptosis activity in the best selected conditions. Moreover, new highly sensitive tests based on transcript number detection have recently been described in fish sperm cryopreservation. For this reason, a transcript level detection assay was performed on certain oxidative and chaperone genes related to fertilization ability and embryo development (hsp70, hsp90BB, hsp90AA, gpx to select the best cryopreservation conditions. DMSO+ egg yolk proved to be the best cryoprotectant combination in terms of transcript level. This study describes an optimized cryopreservation protocol for Solea senegalensis sperm demonstrating for the first time that transcript degradation is the most sensitive predictor of cell status in this species after cryopreservation.
Evans, Jonathan P.
Sperm competition theory predicts that males should tailor their investment in ejaculates according to the number of rival males competing to fertilize a female’s eggs. Research spanning several taxa supports this prediction by showing that males are often sensitive to the level of sperm competition and adjust their investment in sperm numbers accordingly. More recent work has revealed that males may also tailor the quality of sperm according to the number of males competing for fertilization. Here I test for both effects in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in an experiment that simultaneously evaluates the risk and intensity models of sperm competition. The experiment determined whether male guppies adjust the number (stripped ejaculate size) and quality (sperm velocity and viability) of sperm that are primed over a 3-day period according to experimental changes in the perceived level of sperm competition. A total of 136 focal males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm and assayed for these sperm traits before being allocated at random to one of four treatments simulating different levels of sperm competition risk and intensity. During the 3-day treatment phase, focal males had visual and olfactory access to a sexually receptive (initially virgin) female maintained with different numbers of stimulus males to simulate variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Following this, males were assayed again for the sperm traits. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant change in any of the measured variables among treatments, although qualitatively the patterns for sperm velocity and viability did conform to expectation. The lack of any trend for the number of sperm primed was unequivocal and future work examining the effects of sperm competition on sperm production should focus on whether males differentially allocate sperm numbers among matings that differ in the level of sperm competition.
Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions
Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji
Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.
Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas
Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.
D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Kremer, J.A.
OBJECTIVE: To define the additional value of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: Descriptive clinical study. SETTING: Male patients with bladder exstrophy in an academic setting. PATIENT(S): Three male patients in a stable relationship, desirous to have their own children. They were
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm.
... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...
Laurentino, Sandra; Borgmann, Jennifer; Gromoll, Jörg
The influence of epigenetic modifications on reproduction and on the function of male germ cells has been thoroughly demonstrated. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation levels in sperm have been associated with abnormal sperm parameters, lower fertilization rates and impaired embryo development. Recent reports have indicated that human sperm might be epigenetically heterogeneous and that abnormal DNA methylation levels found in the sperm of infertile men could be due to the presence of sperm populations with different epigenetic quality. However, the origin and the contribution of different germ cell types to this suspected heterogeneity remain unclear. In this review, we focus on sperm epigenetics at the DNA methylation level and its importance in reproduction. We take into account the latest developments and hypotheses concerning the functional significance of epigenetic heterogeneity coming from the field of stem cell and cancer biology and discuss the potential importance and consequences of sperm epigenetic heterogeneity for reproduction, male (in)fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Based on the current information, we propose a model in which spermatogonial stem cell variability, either intrinsic or due to external factors (such as endocrine action and environmental stimuli), can lead to epigenetic sperm heterogeneity, sperm epimutations and male infertility. The elucidation of the precise causes for epimutations, the conception of adequate therapeutic options and the development of sperm selection technologies based on epigenetic quality should be regarded as crucial to the improvement of ART outcome in the near future. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Giojalas, Laura C; Chiaraviglio, Margarita
The role of sperm competition in increasing sperm length is a controversial issue, because findings from different taxa seem contradictory. We present a comparative study of 25 species of snakes with different levels of sperm competition to test whether it influences the size and structure of different sperm components. We show that, as levels of sperm competition increase, so does sperm length, and that this elongation is largely explained by increases in midpiece length. In snakes, the midpiece is comparatively large and it contains structures, which in other taxa are present in the rest of the flagellum, suggesting that it may integrate some of its functions. Thus, increases in sperm midpiece size would result in more energy as well as greater propulsion force. Sperm competition also increases the area occupied by the fibrous sheath and outer dense fibers within the sperm midpiece, revealing for the first time an effect upon structural elements within the sperm. Finally, differences in male-male encounter rates between oviparous and viviparous species seem to lead to differences in levels of sperm competition. We conclude that the influence of sperm competition upon different sperm components varies between taxa, because their structure and function is different.
Tourmente, M; Delbarco Trillo, J; Roldan, E R S
Post-copulatory sexual selection, in the form sperm competition, has influenced the evolution of several male reproductive traits. However, theory predicts that sperm competition would lead to trade-offs between numbers and size of spermatozoa because increased costs per cell would result in a reduction of sperm number if both traits share the same energetic budget. Theoretical models have proposed that, in large animals, increased sperm size would have minimal fitness advantage compared with increased sperm numbers. Thus, sperm numbers would evolve more rapidly than sperm size under sperm competition pressure. We tested in mammals whether sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers and size, and whether there is a trade-off between these traits. Our results showed that sperm competition maximizes sperm numbers in eutherian and metatherian mammals. There was no evidence of a trade-off between sperm numbers and sperm size in any of the two mammalian clades as we did not observe any significant relationship between sperm numbers and sperm size once the effect of sperm competition was taken into account. Maximization of both numbers and size in mammals may occur because each trait is crucial at different stages in sperm's life; for example size-determined sperm velocity is a key determinant of fertilization success. In addition, numbers and size may also be influenced by diverse energetic budgets required at different stages of sperm formation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson
, method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre......-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. OUTCOMES: SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P ...BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...
Bench, G.S.; Balhorn, R.; Friz, A.M.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.
Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.
Sperm transit in the female tract is a critical event for the success of fertilization. From their deposition in the vagina to final migration in the oviduct, sperm pass through the different compartments of the genital tract in which they encounter different environments. The cervix and the uterotubal junction (UTJ) are two barriers with different relative importance according to the species. The protein composition, the degree of glycosylation and the hydration of the cervical mucus change during the oestrous cycle. Several sperm surface proteins are associated with their migration through the cervical mucus and the UTJ. Data regarding the interaction of sperm with secretions of the epithelial tissue lining the different compartments of the female genital tract during the sperm transit are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the migration of sperm through the cervix. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ekerhovd, Erling; Faurskov, Anders; Werner, Charlotte
Swedish legislation requires that sperm donors are identifiable to offspring. In Denmark sperm donors remain anonymous. The aim of this study was to examine sperm donation in Sweden by identifying socio-demographic backgrounds, motivations and attitudes among donors and to describe options and plans of sperm recipients. Furthermore, the willingness of Swedish health care providers to assist in treatment abroad, where sperm from an anonymous donor were to be used, was assessed. The extent of travelling to Denmark for reproductive purposes was also examined. Thirty Swedish sperm donors completed a questionnaire and were interviewed about their backgrounds, motivations and attitudes. Thirty couples where the infertility workup had shown azoospermia were interviewed about their options for achieving parenthood. The willingness to assist in fertility treatment abroad and the extent of reproductive cross border travelling were assessed by interviewing health care providers and by contacting Danish clinics. Almost all donors were Caucasian. The main motivation for sperm donors was to help others. Owing to shortage of sperm donors many Caucasian recipients intended to have treatment abroad. For most non-Caucasian recipients sperm from a donor of appropriate ethnicity were not available in Sweden. Whether the sperm donor was anonymous or identifiable was not of major importance to most sperm recipients. Health care providers expressed unanimous willingness to assist in treatment with sperm from an anonymous donor. Our inquiry indicated that more than 250 Swedish sperm recipients travel to Denmark annually. Identifiable sperm donors are driven by altruistic motives, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. Recruitment strategies to increase the number of sperm donors in Sweden are therefore warranted.
Li, Honggang; Hung, Pei-Hsuan; Suarez, Susan S
The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo.
Thijssen, A.; Dhont, N.; Vandormael, E.; Cox, A.; Klerkx, E.; Creemers, E.; Ombelet, W.
Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre’s website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728
Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Fossøy, Frode; Robertson, Raleigh J; Lifjeld, Jan T
Spermatozoa are among the most diversified cells in the animal kingdom, but the underlying evolutionary forces affecting intraspecific variation in sperm morphology are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that sperm competition is a potent selection pressure on sperm variation within species. Here, we examine intraspecific variation in total sperm length of 22 wild passerine bird species (21 genera, 11 families) in relation to the risk of sperm competition, as expressed by the frequency of extrapair paternity and relative testis size. We demonstrate, by using phylogenetic comparative methods, that between-male variation in sperm length within species is closely and negatively linked to the risk of sperm competition. This relationship was even stronger when only considering species in which data on sperm length and extrapair paternity originated from the same populations. Intramale variation in sperm length within species was also negatively, although nonsignificantly, related to sperm competition risk. Our findings suggest that postcopulatory sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force reducing the intraspecific phenotypic variation in sperm-size traits, potentially driving the diversification of sperm morphology across populations and species.
Cryopreservation is the most efficient method for long-term preservation of mammalian sperm. However, freeze-thawing procedures may strongly impair the sperm function and survival and thus decrease the reproductive performance. In addition, the sperm resilience to withstand cryopreservation, also known as freezability, presents a high individual variability. The present work summarizes the principles of cryoinjury and the relevance of permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotective agents. Descriptions about sperm cryodamage are mainly focused on boar sperm, but reference to other mammalian species is also made when relevant. Main cryoinjuries not only regard to sperm motility and membrane integrity, but also to the degradation effect exerted by freeze-thawing on other important components for sperm fertilizing ability, such as mRNAs. After delving into the main differences between good and poor freezability boar ejaculates, those protein markers predicting the sperm ability to sustain cryopreservation are also mentioned. Moreover, factors that may influence sperm freezability, such as season, diet, breed, or ejaculate fractions are discussed, together with the effects of different additives, like seminal plasma and antioxidants. After briefly referring to the effects of long-term sperm preservation in frozen state and the reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar sperm, this work speculates with new research horizons on the preservation of boar sperm, such as vitrification and freeze-drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferramosca, Alessandra; Albani, Denise; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo
To evaluate the effect of varicocele on oxidative stress, sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm morphology, and semen parameters. A total of 20 patients with varicocele and 20 normozoospermic subjects without varicocele (control group) were recruited from a medical center for reproductive biology. The levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and seminal lipid peroxides were assessed for both control and varicocele subjects. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. In this study, varicocele patients were compared with men without varicoceles. Oxidative stress was observed in the serum and seminal fluid of varicocele patients. These patients showed an increase of 59% (P <.05) in serum reactive oxygen metabolites and a 3-fold increase in the level of sperm lipid peroxides. A parallel and significant increase (a 2-fold increase; P <.05) in the degree of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was also observed. Varicocele patients showed a 27% decrease (P <.05) in mitochondrial respiratory activity in comparison to the control group. A 32% increase (P <.05) in sperm midpiece defects and a 41% decrease (P <.05) in sperm concentration and motility were also observed. Men with varicocele have increased markers of oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial respiratory activity. These results correlated with abnormalities in semen parameters. For morphology, these correlated with midpiece defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.
Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152
Lüpold S; Linz GM; Rivers JW; Westneat DF; Birkhead TR
Sperm morphology varies considerably across taxa and postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to be one of the main forces responsible for this diversity. Several studies have investigated the effects of the variation in sperm design on sperm function but the consequences of variation in sperm design on testis morphology have been overlooked. Testes size or architecture may determine the size of the sperm they produce and selection for longer sperm may require concomitant adaptations in the...
Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M. Rocío; Soler, Ana J.; Garde, José Julián
The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cr...
Full Text Available The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment.
Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Olga; Ramón, Manuel; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Santos, M Rocío; Soler, A Josefa; Garde, José Julián
The spermatozoon is the most diverse cell type known and this diversity is considered to reflect differences in sperm function. How the diversity in sperm morphology arose during speciation and what role the different specializations play in sperm function, however, remain incompletely characterized. This work reviews the hypotheses proposed to explain sperm morphological evolution, with a focus on some aspects of sperm morphometric evaluation; the ability of morphometrics to predict sperm cryoresistance and male fertility is also discussed. For this, the evaluation of patterns of change of sperm head morphometry throughout a process, instead of the study of the morphometric characteristics of the sperm head at different stages, allows a better identification of the males with different sperm cryoconservation ability. These new approaches, together with more studies employing a greater number of individuals, are needed to obtain novel results concerning the role of sperm morphometry on sperm function. Future studies should aim at understanding the causes of sperm design diversity and the mechanisms that generate them, giving increased attention to other sperm structures besides the sperm head. The implementation of scientific and technological advances could benefit the simultaneous examination of sperm phenotype and sperm function, demonstrating that sperm morphometry could be a useful tool for sperm assessment.
Park, Yong-Seog; Park, Sol; Ko, Duck Sung; Park, Dong Wook; Seo, Ju Tae; Yang, Kwang Moon
The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). It is difficult to accurately distinguish morphologically abnormal sperm with vacuoles under a light microscope. This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles. Sperm morphology with vacuoles was evaluated using Papanicolaou staining and observed under a light microscope (400×) in 980 men. The normal morphology was divided into three categories (group A, 14% of normal morphology). The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and 46-50 years. The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology (group A vs. groups B, C) (p<0.05). In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed across any of the age groups. A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Therefore, we should consider the probability of the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but with abnormal sperm morphology. A further study is required to clarify the effect of the sperm-head vacuoles on ART outcomes.
Beata I. Cejko
Full Text Available In this study the effect of six activating buffers on the movement parameters of sperm was determined and short-term storage of semen in TLP buffer was attempted (0.292g NaCl; 0.012g KCl; 0.011g CaCl2; 0.004g MgCl2; 0.105g NaHCO3; 0.002g NaH2PO4; 50ml; pH 8.6. Sperm was collected from five orfe individual, and spermiation was stimulated by means of an intraperitoneal Ovopel injection. The basic parameters of spermatozoa motility were measured after the semen was diluted with six different activating solutions, previously used successfully in other fish species. The motility analysis was conducted on a Crismas apparatus. Additionally, short-term storage of semen in TLP buffer was attempted. Subsequently, motility parameters were verified after 0 (Control, 24 and 120 h of storage at 4°C. It has been found that Lahnsteiner’s buffer (100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris, 0.5% albumin, 199 mOsmkg-1 was found to be the most effective in sperm activation. In this paper, the spermatozoa motility of colourful ide is indicated for the first time. Finally, there was a successful attempt at short-term sperm storage for five days. For artificial insemination, it is very important to select the most effective solution to stimulate sperm motility. Data regarding sperm manipulation of orfe are scarce, so the aim of the study was to determine the basic sperm quality parameters of the colour ide form, i.e. Leuciscus idus aberr orfus.
Ferramosca, Alessandra; Provenzano, Sara Pinto; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo
To correlate sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency with variations in sperm motility and with sperm morphologic anomalies. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically-treated sperm cells. A possible relationship among sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, sperm motility, and morphologic anomalies was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. Moreover, midpiece defects impaired mitochondrial functionality. Our data indicate that an increase in sperm motility requires a parallel increase in mitochondrial respiratory capacity, thereby supporting the fundamental role played by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in sperm motility of normozoospermic subjects. These results are of physiopathological relevance because they suggest that disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and of energy production could be responsible for asthenozoospermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J
We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.
Mizrahi, Rashel; Breitbart, Haim
Mitochondria are the major source of ATP to power sperm motility. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has been proposed as a major regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted analyzer, protein detection by western blotting, membrane potential by tetramethylrhodamine, cellular ATP by luciferase assay and localization of PKA by immuno-electron microscopy. Bicarbonate is essential for the creation of mitochondrial electro-chemical gradient, ATP synthesis and sperm motility. Bicarbonate stimulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of two 60kDa proteins identified as Tektin and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by respiration inhibition and phosphorylation could be restored by glucose in the presence of bicarbonate. However, this effect of glucose cannot be seen when the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger was inhibited indicating that glycolytic-produced ATP is transported into the mitochondria and allows PKA-dependent protein phosphorylation inside the mitochondria. Bicarbonate activates mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) which catalyzes cAMP production leading to the activation of mitochondrial PKA. Glucose can overcome the lack of ATP in the absence of bicarbonate but it cannot affect the mitochondrial sAC/PKA system, therefore the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the 60kDa proteins does not occur in the absence of bicarbonate. Production of CO2 in Krebs cycle, which is converted to bicarbonate is essential for sAC/PKA activation leading to mitochondrial membrane potential creation and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matshidiso MB. Masenya
Jan 4, 2017 ... Abstract. Sperm quality plays an important role in determining fertility. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between sperm plasma membrane integrity and morphology, and fertility following artificial insemination (AI). A total of 16 ejaculates were collected from three Large White boars using ...
Sperm quality plays an important role in determining fertility. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between sperm plasma membrane integrity and morphology, and fertility following artificial insemination (AI). A total of 16 ejaculates were collected from three Large White boars using the gloved hand ...
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Full Text Available Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rates needed to produce large sperm. This constraint is expected to be particularly pronounced among mammals, given that this group contains some of the largest species on Earth. We tested these hypotheses among marsupials, a group in which mass-specific metabolic rates are roughly 30% lower than those of eutherian mammals of similar size, leading to the expectation that metabolic rate should be a major constraint. Our findings support both hypotheses because levels of sperm competition are associated with increases in sperm size, but low mass-specific metabolic rate constrains sperm size among large species. We also found that the relationship between sperm size and mass-specific metabolic rate is steeper among marsupials and shallower among eutherian mammals. This finding has two implications: marsupials respond to changes in mass-specific metabolic rate by modifying sperm length to a greater extent, suggesting that they are more constrained by metabolic rate. In addition, for any given mass-specific metabolic rate, marsupials produce longer sperm. We suggest that this is the consequence of marsupials diverting resources away from sperm numbers and into sperm size, due to their efficient sperm transport along the female tract and the existence of mechanisms to protect sperm.
Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S
Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rates needed to produce large sperm. This constraint is expected to be particularly pronounced among mammals, given that this group contains some of the largest species on Earth. We tested these hypotheses among marsupials, a group in which mass-specific metabolic rates are roughly 30% lower than those of eutherian mammals of similar size, leading to the expectation that metabolic rate should be a major constraint. Our findings support both hypotheses because levels of sperm competition are associated with increases in sperm size, but low mass-specific metabolic rate constrains sperm size among large species. We also found that the relationship between sperm size and mass-specific metabolic rate is steeper among marsupials and shallower among eutherian mammals. This finding has two implications: marsupials respond to changes in mass-specific metabolic rate by modifying sperm length to a greater extent, suggesting that they are more constrained by metabolic rate. In addition, for any given mass-specific metabolic rate, marsupials produce longer sperm. We suggest that this is the consequence of marsupials diverting resources away from sperm numbers and into sperm size, due to their efficient sperm transport along the female tract and the existence of mechanisms to protect sperm.
Chersi, Alberto; Galati, Rossella; Ogino, Takeshi; Butler, Richard H; Tanigaki, Nobuyuki
Rabbit antibodies were raised against both long and short peptides derived from exon 7 sequences of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alpha chains; anti-A/B against a 13-mer shared by most HLA-A alpha and HLA-B alpha chains, anti-C against a 15-mer characteristic of HLA-C alpha chains, anti-ACT against a 6-mer specific to HLA-A alpha chains, and anti-CCT against a 5-mer specific to HLA-C alpha chains. Binding activity of the antibodies was determined with peptides by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and with HLA class I transfectants and the parental cells by FACS analysis. Anti-A/B and anti-C were to a greater or lesser extent crossreactive with the long and short peptides, whereas anti-ACT and anti-CCT were specific to the corresponding short peptides. No binding was seen for anti-ACT and anti-CCT with HLA class I transfectants, C1R-A2, C1R-B7, and 221-Cw1 and the parental cells, C1R (Cw4, E) and 721.221 (E, F). Anti-A/B and anti-C were substantially protein-reactive and the binding order was C1R-B7 > C1R-A2, 721.221 > C1R, 221-Cw1 for anti-A/B, and C1R-B7 > 721.221 > C1R, 221-Cw1, C1R-A2 for anti-C. Thus, anti-A/B and anti-C bound better to HLA-B and HLA-E rather than to HLA-A and HLA-C. Computer modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic domains demonstrated that this may be due to structural differences despite the sequence similarities.
Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.
Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....
Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L
BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...
Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is a crucial treatment for infertile couples and is frequently common. ART entails manipulation of oocyte and sperm in a laboratory: in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The key objective of ART is to yield superior quality embryos that are competent for ...
Fedder, Jens; Erb, Karin; Humaidan, Peter
Evidently, children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are at an increased risk of having sex chromosomal abnormalities. Here we evaluate the change in methods used for prenatal diagnostics in patients having ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm from the introduction...
Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min
Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.
Flores, R B; Angrimani, Dsr; Rui, B R; Brito, M M; Abreu, R A; Vannucchi, C I
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has a high incidence in older intact dogs. Due to the increased prostatic oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance of BPH, sperm damage can arise, such as sperm morphological alterations and DNA fragmentation. This study aimed to compare the reproductive potential of healthy dogs and those affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Ten dogs were assigned to two experimental groups: dogs without BPH (control; n = 5) and dogs diagnosed with BPH (n = 5), based on clinical signs and ultrasonographic findings. Three semen collections were performed from each dog within one month and analysed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and functional tests. Control group showed higher percentage of sperm DNA integrity (95 ± 1.8%) compared to the BPH group (79.2 ± 6.4%). On the other hand, the percentage of minor sperm defects, amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement of the spermatozoa and medium sperm mitochondrial activity were higher in the BPH group. In conclusion, BPH decreases sperm DNA integrity, increases mitochondrial activity, as well as modifies sperm movement pattern. Therefore, a careful sperm analysis of aged dogs with BPH is required before a reproductive programme can be established for such patients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Methods: Semen samples from 51 sperm donors were used. Following swim-up separation, the sperm concentration of the retrieved motile fraction was counted, as well as progressive motile sperm using a standardised wet preparation. The number of sperm in a 10 μL droplet covered with a 22 × 22 mm coverslip was ...
Full Text Available Capacitation is a series of morphological and metabolic changes necessary for the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability. One of the earlier happenings during mammalian sperm capacitation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS that will trigger and regulate a series of events including protein phosphorylation, in a time-dependent fashion. The identity of the sperm oxidase responsible for the production of ROS involved in capacitation is still elusive, and several candidates are discussed in this review. Interestingly, ROS-induced ROS formation has been described during human sperm capacitation. Redox signaling during capacitation is associated with changes in thiol groups of proteins located on the plasma membrane and subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Both, oxidation of thiols forming disulfide bridges and the increase on thiol content are necessary to regulate different sperm proteins associated with capacitation. Reducing equivalents such as NADH and NADPH are necessary to support capacitation in many species including humans. Lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phospohate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase are responsible in supplying NAD (P H for sperm capacitation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs are newly described enzymes with antioxidant properties that can protect mammalian spermatozoa; however, they are also candidates for assuring the regulation of redox signaling required for sperm capacitation. The dysregulation of PRDXs and of enzymes needed for their reactivation such as thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system and glutathione-S-transferases impairs sperm motility, capacitation, and promotes DNA damage in spermatozoa leading to male infertility.
Capacitation is a series of morphological and metabolic changes necessary for the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability. One of the earlier happenings during mammalian sperm capacitation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that will trigger and regulate a series of events including protein phosphorylation, in a time-dependent fashion. The identity of the sperm oxidase responsible for the production of ROS involved in capacitation is still elusive, and several candidates are discussed in this review. Interestingly, ROS-induced ROS formation has been described during human sperm capacitation. Redox signaling during capacitation is associated with changes in thiol groups of proteins located on the plasma membrane and subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Both, oxidation of thiols forming disulfide bridges and the increase on thiol content are necessary to regulate different sperm proteins associated with capacitation. Reducing equivalents such as NADH and NADPH are necessary to support capacitation in many species including humans. Lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phospohate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase are responsible in supplying NAD (P) H for sperm capacitation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are newly described enzymes with antioxidant properties that can protect mammalian spermatozoa; however, they are also candidates for assuring the regulation of redox signaling required for sperm capacitation. The dysregulation of PRDXs and of enzymes needed for their reactivation such as thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system and glutathione-S-transferases impairs sperm motility, capacitation, and promotes DNA damage in spermatozoa leading to male infertility. PMID:25926608
Friedrich, B M; Juelicher, F [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.
Friedrich, B. M.; Jülicher, F.
Biological systems such as single cells must function in the presence of fluctuations. It has been shown in a two-dimensional experimental setup that sea urchin sperm cells move toward a source of chemoattractant along planar trochoidal swimming paths, i.e. drifting circles. In these experiments, a pronounced variability of the swimming paths is observed. We present a theoretical description of sperm chemotaxis in two dimensions which takes fluctuations into account. We derive a coarse-grained theory of stochastic sperm swimming paths in a concentration field of chemoattractant. Fluctuations enter as multiplicative noise in the equations for the sperm swimming path. We discuss the stochastic properties of sperm swimming and predict a concentration-dependence of the effective diffusion constant of sperm swimming which could be tested in experiments.
Franken, D R
Sperm morphology has been consistently correlated with fertilisation success or failure. The clinical relevance of the percentage normal spermatozoa has been a widely discussed topic amongst infertility specialists and scientists. This study aimed to evaluate the role of sperm morphology as an indicator of additional sperm functions among 114 andrology referrals. The sperm functions that were investigated included chromatin packaging quality (CMA3 test (n = 109), zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR test; n = 36), hemizona assay (HZI; n = 36) and progressive motility (n = 47). Chromatin packaging quality had a negative and significant (P = 0.0001, r = -0.74) correlation with the percentage normal spermatozoa, while progressive motility had a significant and positive correlation (P = 0.0001, 0.59). Accurate sperm morphology scoring as described by the WHO 2010 manual can therefore be used as an indicator of specific sperm functions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A
Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.
Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L
sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate...... Ca(2+) levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization....
Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E
Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.
Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.
Francisco A García-Vázquez
Full Text Available After natural or artificial insemination, the spermatozoon starts a journey from the site of deposition to the place of fertilization. However, only a small subset of the spermatozoa deposited achieves their goal: to reach and fertilize the egg. Factors involved in controlling sperm transport and fertilization include the female reproductive tract environment, cell-cell interactions, gene expression, and phenotypic sperm traits. Some of the significant determinants of fertilization are known (i.e., motility or DNA status, but many sperm traits are still indecipherable. One example is the influence of sperm dimensions and shape upon transport within the female genital tract towards the oocyte. Biophysical associations between sperm size and motility may influence the progression of spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract, but uncertainties remain concerning how sperm morphology influences the fertilization process, and whether only the sperm dimensions per se are involved. Moreover, such explanations do not allow the possibility that the female tract is capable of distinguishing fertile spermatozoa on the basis of their morphology, as seems to be the case with biochemical, molecular, and genetic properties. This review focuses on the influence of sperm size and shape in evolution and their putative role in sperm transport and selection within the uterus and the ability to fertilize the oocyte.
Kathryn B. McNamara; Emile van Lieshout; Leigh W. Simmons
The sexy-sperm hypothesis proposes that polyandrous females will have a selective advantage over monandrous females as their sons will be sired by males with competitively superior sperm and will inherit this trait. Although the good-sperm hypothesis also predicts that offspring will be sired by males with competitively superior sperm, it additionally assumes a positive correlation between offspring sperm quality and the general viability of both sons and daughters. We examined the potential ...
Nayak, G; Vadinkar, A; Nair, S; Kalthur, S G; D'Souza, A S; Shetty, P K; Mutalik, S; Shetty, M M; Kalthur, G; Adiga, S K
Moringa oleifera L. is a medicinal plant with potential antioxidant property. This study was aimed at investigating the chemoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOE) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity. Two-week-old male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered saline, 50 mg kg(-1) of CP and 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE. In combination treatment, mice were injected with 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE 24 h prior to CP injection, 24 h prior and post-CP injection and 24 h post-CP injection for 5 consecutive days (10 mg kg(-1) ). Six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to assess epididymal sperm parameters. MOE alone did not have any significant effect on sperm parameters. However, acute injection of CP resulted in significant decline in motility (P < 0.001), increase in head abnormality (P < 0.01) and DNA damage (P < 0.05). Combining MOE with CP increased the sperm density, motility and reduced head defect and DNA damage, irrespective of the schedule and dosage of MOE. Administration of MOE prior to CP significantly elevated the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. In conclusion, MOE may have potential benefit in reducing the loss of male gonadal function following chemotherapy. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L; Darszon, Alberto
Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca(2+) channel; Slo3, a K(+) channel; the sperm-specific Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaman, Jeffrey A; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, W Steven
Mammalian spermatozoa contain some of the most highly compact chromatin. This is due to the DNA binding proteins, the protamines, which replace most of the histones during spermiogenesis. This chromatin, however, shares some features with somatic cell chromatin. One of these is the organization of DNA into loop domains attached at their bases to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix. Several groups have shown that the sites at which DNA associates with the sperm nuclear matrix contain chromatin structures that are linked with specific functions. Recent data also suggest that the sperm nuclear matrix plays essential roles in the paternal pronucleus of the newly fertilized oocyte, suggesting that the sperm cell provides more information to the new embryo than solely the genetic material it delivers. Here, we will review these data which together give insight into the functional significance and requirements of sperm nuclear structure.
Kroløkke, Charlotte; Willum Adrian, Stine
A tragic workplace accident led in 2010 to the death of Mark Edwards. Subsequently, his wife Joycelyn Edwards requested for the New South Wales Superior Court´s permission to extract sperm posthumous from her husband. She got the permission and one year later, the Court decided to grant her access...... Danish legal and bioethical discussions on the use of dead men’s sperm, and similar debates in New South Wales that led to the Edwards court ruling....... to the sperm her husband had deposited. Following a vivid media debate has taken place while the legislation was processed in the Parliament changing the legislation by legalizing the use of sperm from a dead man. Freezing technologies and extraction techniques has with the development of new reproductive...
Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...
Halder, Tanmoy; Datta, Uttam; Basu, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Prasenjit
A wider biological role of ultratrace element lithium in the mammalian reproduction has been reported, however, presence of lithium in the epididymal luminal fluid (ELF) and its influence on sperm during maturation events in the epididymal regions are still unknown. A pilot study was carried out in Jamunapari buck which revealed that levels of lithium in the ELF diminished gradually and significantly (Psperm were observed, except spermatozoan motility that was found absent in the caput epididymis. Therefore, we hypothesize that levels of lithium in the epididymal regions is one of the motility initiation and/or regulatory factor for epididymal sperm maturation essential for acquiring fertilizing competence of sperm cells, hence, lithium could also be considered as one of the biomarker of sperm maturation in any species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DXR is used as an antitumor agent for the treatment of human neoplasm. The use of DXR has adverse effect on reproductive system including testicular toxicity and alteration in semen quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Urtica dioica against Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters. 24 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. Control group received normal saline solution throughout the course of the study. Urtica dioica (UD control group, received UD (100 mg/kg body weight thrice in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week injected intraperitoneally in Doxorubicin (DXR control group and Urtica dioica- Doxorubicin (UD-DXR group, received Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg body weight three times in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week through the route for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, all animal were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, their epididymes were removed and sperm analysis were done. In mice with DXR administration, epididymal sperm motility, progressive motility, sperm count and viability significantly decrease while sperm cells with abnormal morphology significantly increase when compared with control groups. Co-treatment with UD attenuate toxicity effect of DXR and improve sperm parameters. Results of our study showed that UD diminished DXR-induced testicular toxicity and improve semen parameters, thus suggesting its co-administration as a protective agent during doxorubicin treatment. Further studies should be aimed to determine protective effect of UD against chemotherapeutic agents such as DXR.
Gannon, John R; Emery, Benjamin R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T
Recent advances, including the human genome project and numerous studies of cancer and other diseases, have shown that the genetic code is not simply limited to the sequence of the four bases of DNA but also includes epigenetic programming, heritable changes that affect gene expression [Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (2007) Introduction. In: Riggs A, Martinssen R, Russo V (eds) Epigenetics mechanisms of gene regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York]. The science of epigenetics is important in understanding many diseases and biological processes, including in identifying the causes of disease and better understanding the mechanisms by which the environment can affect gene expression [Carrell Fertil Steril 97 (2):267-274, 2012]. This chapter will focus on the epigenome of sperm and particularly highlight the potential role of the sperm epigenome in embryogenesis.The sperm epigenome is unique and highly specialized because of the unique nature and function of sperm and because of the diverse requirements for successful fertilization. Due to the need for motility, sperm chromatin must be compacted and highly organized. During spermiogenesis the chromatin is packaged tightly into the sperm head by the replacement of most histones with protamines. This allows for protection of the DNA from the hostile environment in the female reproductive tract. Remaining histones can have chemical modifications to the tails of the protein that either facilitate or repress gene transcription. Sperm, like embryonic stem cells, have a unique pattern of histone modifications that includes both activating and silencing marks in the promoters of genes associated with development. These bivalent marks, along with DNA hypomethylation, comprise a unique state in which the key genes are "poised" for possible activation in embryogenesis. Sperm epigenetic abnormalities have been linked with multiple diseases including male factor infertility and poor embryogenesis.
Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.
Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)
Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.
Full Text Available Laboratories around the world have produced tens of thousands of mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines. As with mice, maintaining all of these valuable zebrafish genotypes is expensive, risky, and beyond the capacity of even the largest stock centers. Because reducing oxidative stress has become an important aspect of reducing the variability in mouse sperm cryopreservation, we examined whether antioxidants might improve cryopreservation of zebrafish sperm. Four experiments were conducted in this study. First, we used the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO system to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS. The X-XO system was capable of producing a stress reaction in zebrafish sperm reducing its sperm motility in a concentration dependent manner (P0.05, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD and vitamin E did not (P0.05, producing a mean 2.0 to 2.9-fold increase in post-thaw motility. Fourth, we examined the effect of additional cryoprotectants and CAT on fresh sperm motility. Cryoprotectants, 8% methanol and 10% dimethylacetamide (DMA, reduced the motility over the control value (P0.05. Zebrafish sperm protocols should be modified to improve the reliability of the cryopreservation process, perhaps using a different cryoprotectant. Regardless, the simple addition of CAT to present-day procedures will significantly improve this process, assuring increased and less variable fertilization success and allowing resource managers to dependably plan how many straws are needed to safely cryopreserve a genetic line.
Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming
From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.
Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo
To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vermeulen, Andreas; Engels, Sierk; Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter
We examined effects of seasonality, larval food availability and larval rearing density on sperm length, sperm transfer rates and body size in the bivoltine scorpionfly Panorpa vulgaris. Males of the first annual generation were larger and had larger sperm. Comparing individuals of two summer
Fitzpatrick, John L; Lüpold, Stefan
Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success--fertilization--is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.
Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013
de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene
This manuscript reports upon the development of a microfluidic setup to detect and sort sperm cells from polystyrene beads label-free and non-invasively. Detection is performed by impedance analysis. When sperm cells passed the microelectrodes, the recorded impedance (19.6 ± 5.7 Ω) was higher
Smith, C.; Pateman-Jones, C.; Zieba, G.; Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin
Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1227-1233 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * European bitterling * mating system * sexual conflict * sexual selection * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009
Willum Adrian, Stine
During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic informat......During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...
Holman, Luke; Freckleton, Robert P; Snook, Rhonda R
Sperm size and number are important determinants of male reproductive success. The genus Drosophila exhibits a remarkable diversity of sperm production strategies, including the production of multiple sperm morphs by individual males, a phenomenon called sperm heteromorphism. Sperm......-heteromorphic Drosophila species in the obscura group produce large numbers of infertile "parasperm" in addition to fertile eusperm. Parasperm have been hypothesized to perform a number of roles in place of fertilization, predominantly focused on their potential function in postcopulatory sexual selection. However......, the evolutionary significance of parasperm remains unknown. Here we measured several male and female morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits in 13 obscura group species to test competing hypotheses of parasperm function using comparative methods. We found that parasperm size was unrelated to female...
... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ...
... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the action of a ... infection breath that smells fruity slowed, fast or irregular heartbeat Atezolizumab injection may cause other side effects. ...
Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...
... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...
... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...
... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...
... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...
... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...
... in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people ... or nurse will watch you closely during the first 30 minutes of your treatment and then will ...
... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...
... neck, armpits, or groin; diarrhea; bloody stools; stomach pain; or any new, unexplained symptom affecting any part of your body.Because of the risks with this medication, daclizumab injection is available only through a special ...
... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...
... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...
... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...
... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...
... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...
... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...
... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...
... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ ...
Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth
Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.
Full Text Available N-acylethanolamides (NAEs are naturally occurring signaling lipids consisting of amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Usually they are present in a very small amounts in many mammalian tissues and cells, including human reproductive tracts and fluids. Recently, the presence of N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA, the most characterised member of endocannabinoids, and its congeners palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and oleylethanolamide (OEA in seminal plasma, oviductal fluid, and follicular fluids was demonstrated. AEA has been shown to bind not only type-1 (CB1 and type-2 (CB2 cannabinoid receptors, but also type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1, while PEA and OEA are inactive with respect to classical cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 but activate TRPV1 or peroxisome proliferator activate receptors (PPARs. This review concerns the most recent experimental data on PEA and OEA, endocannabinoid-like molecules which appear to exert their action exclusively on sperm cells with altered features, such as membrane characteristics and kinematic parameters. Their beneficial effects on these cells could suggest a possible pharmacological use of PEA and OEA on patients affected by some forms of idiopathic infertility.
Simmons Leigh W
Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.
Meng-Ting Huang; Robert Kuo-Kuang Lee; Chung-Hao Lu; Ying-Jie Chen; Sheng-Hsiang Li; Yuh-Ming Hwu
Objective: To evaluate if hyaluronic acid (HA)-bound spermatozoa surpassed conventional microscopy-selected spermatozoa in the status of sperm DNA integrity by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence staining. Materials and methods: Spermatozoa obtained from couples with indication for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure due to male infertility (n = 34) and control males with normal sperm parameters (n = 12) were analyzed using AO fluorescence staining after density-gradient ce...
Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B
Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Visser, M; Mochtar, M H; de Melker, A A; van der Veen, F; Repping, S; Gerrits, T
What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that donor-offspring actually sought contact. Most studies on sperm donors are on anonymous donors and focus on recruitment, financial compensation, anonymity and motivations. There is limited knowledge on the value that identifiable sperm donors place on psychosocial counselling and what their needs are in this respect. We performed a qualitative study from March until June 2014 with 25 identifiable sperm donors, who were or had been a donor at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam any time between 1989 and 2014. We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with identifiable sperm donors with an average age of 44 years. The interviews were fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Twelve out of 15 donors (former donors ITALIC! n = 8, active donors ITALIC! n = 7) who had received a counselling session during their intake procedure found it important that they had been able to talk about issues such as the emotional consequences of donation, disclosure to their own children, family and friends, future contact with donor-offspring and rules and regulations. Of the 10 former donors who had received no counselling session, 8 had regretted the lack of intensive counselling. In the years following their donation, most donors simply wanted to know how many offspring had been born using their sperm and had no need for further counselling. Nevertheless, they frequently mentioned that they were concerned about the well-being of 'their' offspring. In addition, they would value the availability of psychosocial counselling in the event that donor-offspring actually sought contact. A limitation of our study is its
Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.
Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.
Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus......-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...
LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based ...
The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...... a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... may itself kill sperm, which is likely to confound many common experimental designs in addition to producing artificially low estimates of sperm viability. I further suggest that sperm number should be routinely measured in sperm viability studies, as it may be an important but overlooked source...
Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine
In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps......), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm...... cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens...
Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben
inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous....... Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...
Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie
was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....
Reproduction is an essential feature of all animals and a fundamental step to produce new generations. Study of sperm proteins is crucial for understanding of the sperm-egg recognition. We searched out sperm surface proteins involving in the zona pellucida (ZP) binding and studied whether these proteins are preserved throughout mammalian species. Indirect immunofluorescent technique was used to test a panel of monoclonal antibodies prepared against boar sperm surface proteins on spermatozoa o...
Before the sperm cell can reach the oocyte it needs to be activated and to undergo a series of preparative steps. The sperm surface dynamics was studied in relation to this activation process and the modifications and removal of sperm surface components havebeen investigated. Bicarbonate-induced
Beukeboom, L.W.; Vrijenhoek, R.C.
Sperm-dependent (or pseudogamous) forms of parthenogenetic reproduction occur in a wide variety of animals. Inheritance is typically clonal and matroclinous (of female descent), but sperm are needed to initiate normal development. As opposed to true parthenogenesis (i.e., sperm-independent
4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a compound that causes endocrine disruption and affects sperm quality of mammals and fish. However, the effects of NP on the sperm and fertilization rate of amphibians remain unknown. This study investigates the in vivo and in vitro effects of NP on the sperm dynamic parameters and fertilization ...
, the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...
LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...
Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.
Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea
The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.
Willum Adrian, Stine
questions may an analytical starting point in eggs, sperm and embryos, enable me to ask, and what diffractive stories of creation can I tell? These questions not only intrigue me, because I am deeply fascinated about new creation stories that may be told when assisted reproductive technologies are at use...... stories are told about egg, sperm and embryos (Adrian 2006), my current work has moved to look at negotiations of ethical borders and boundaries in relation to globalization of Danish donor sperm. This move in research questions is not only empirically based. It is also a shift indebted to my...
Full Text Available Background: Gundelia tournefortii was used as a food and medicinal in human life from past time. The present study has been investigated the effects of Gundelia tournefortii on number and motility of sperms and testosterone serum concentration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male mice were divided into control and 4 experimental groups (Gundelia tournefortii extract at doses of 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally for 14 days. One week after the last injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Also weight of testes, motility rate and number of sperms were assessed. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test.Results: Studies showed the number of sperms increased significantly at dose of 400 mg/kg (2.88±0.4580 (p=0.001.The percentage of sperm motility (p=0.001 and the testicular weight (p=0.012 significantly increased at doses of 200 (36.83± 1.2506 and 400 mg/kg (57.51±2.1113 (p=0.001. Testosterone serum level significantly increased at doses of 100 (p=0.05, 200 (p=0.05 and 400 mg/kg (p=0.001 as compared to control group.Conclusion: Gundelia tournefortii extract increases the number, motility of sperm and testosterone level because of antioxidant components for example Quercetin presumably.
Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.
BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART) such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles; this is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections. Current
Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.
Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Afanzar, Oshri; Brandis, Alexander; Nevo, Reinat; Kiss, Vladimir; Eisenbach, Michael
A unique characteristic of mammalian sperm thermotaxis is extreme temperature sensitivity, manifested by the capacity of spermatozoa to respond to temperature changes of functional approaches that opsins are present in human and mouse spermatozoa at specific sites, which depend on the species and the opsin type, and that they are involved in sperm thermotaxis via two signalling pathways—the phospholipase C and the cyclic-nucleotide pathways. Our results suggest that, depending on the context and the tissue, mammalian opsins act not only as photosensors but also as thermosensors. PMID:26537127
Sutovsky, P; Navara, C S; Schatten, G
Sperm incorporation and the conversion of the sperm-derived components into zygotic structures during in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes was explored by combining ultrastructural studies with observations of the fertilizing sperm tagged with a mitochondrion-specific vital dye MitoTracker green FM. The zygotes fertilized by the MitoTracker-labeled sperm were fixed at various times after fertilization and then processed for immunocytochemistry to examine the distribution of DNA, microtubules, and sperm tail components, including the fibrous sheath and axonemal microtubules. We show here that the complete incorporation of the sperm, but not sperm-oocyte binding and oocyte activation, depends upon the integrity of oocyte microfilaments and is inhibited by the microfilament disrupter cytochalasin B. After sperm incorporation, the mitochondria are displaced from the sperm's connecting piece, and the sperm centriole is exposed to the egg cytoplasm. This event is followed by the formation of the microtubule-based sperm aster, which is responsible for the union of male and female pronuclei. Concomitantly, the major structure of the sperm principal piece, the fibrous sheath, disappears. After the first mitosis, the compact mitochondrial sheath can be seen in one of the blastomeres. An aggregate of the sperm mitochondria is observed at the entry of the second mitosis, although they remain in the vicinity of the nucleus and can later be seen at one pole of the metaphase spindle. The mitochondrial cluster is occasionally found in one of the blastomeres in the early-stage four-cell embryos, but it is no longer detected by the beginning of the third mitotic cycle. These data suggest that the disassembly of the sperm tail during bovine fertilization occurs as a series of precisely orchestrated events involving the destruction (fibrous sheath and mitochondrial sheath) and transformation (DNA, sperm centriole) of particular sperm structures into zygotic and embryonic
Arce, Joan-Carles; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrat......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH...
... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and ... killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...
... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...
... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...
... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given dulaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use dulaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...
... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given medications similar to albiglutide developed ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use albiglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...
... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given semaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use semaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...
... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given liraglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use liraglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...
... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given exenatide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use exenatide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...
... used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection ... type of lung cancer (small cell lung cancer; SCLC). Etoposide is in ...
... infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. Cefepime injection is in a class ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...
... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...
Johnson, Darren W; Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J
Why are sperm so variable despite having a singular, critical function and an intimate relationship with fitness? A key to understanding the evolution of sperm morphology is identifying which traits enable sperm to be successful fertilizers. Several sperm traits (e.g., tail length, overall size) are implicated in sperm performance, but the benefits of these traits are likely to be highly context dependent. Here, we examined phenotypic selection on sperm morphology of a broadcast spawning tube worm (Galeolaria gemineoa). We conducted laboratory experiments to measure the relationship between average sperm morphology and relative fertilization success across a range of sperm environments that were designed to approximate the range of sperm concentrations and ages encountered by eggs in nature. We found that the strength and form of multivariate selection varied substantially across our environmental gradients. Sperm with long tails and small heads were favored in high-concentration environments, whereas sperm with long heads were favored at low concentrations and old ages. We suggest variation in the local fertilization environment and resulting differences in selection can preserve variability in sperm morphology both within and among males. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Oikawa, Toshinori; Ishiguro, Hirotoshi; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro
Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions.
Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A. [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology
Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be
Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A.; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano; Handler, Ernst A.
Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be
Full Text Available Background: Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic in human and animal medicine, is also a recreational drug used by young adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ketamine on membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in humans. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 40 males with normal semen samples over one month (August 2012. Subjects were randomly allocated to four groups (Control and case I, II and III whose semen samples were adjusted to different concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 5 μL for one hour. Sperm analysis was performed for routine parameters, motility and morphology. Evaluation of membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation was done by eosin-Y staining and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total sperm motility in all case groups were significantly lower compared with the control group. In case group III, progressive motility showed significant difference with case group II. After addition of ketamine, sperm had evidence of coiled tails in all case groups compared to the control group however this observation was not significant. Evaluation of membrane integrity showed the rate of necrospermia increased in all case groups. However, ketamine only significantly affected membrane integrity in case group III. SCD staining showed that in the control group nucleoids with medium halos (63.44 ± 1.2 were significantly different compared to the case groups I (15.44 ± 0.45, II (9.05±1.16 and III (10.55 ± 1.14, respectively. Between case groups, nucleoids with large and medium halos showed significant differences in case groups II and III compared with case group I. Nucleoids with medium halos were significantly different between case groups II and III. Conclusion: Ketamine, through its effect on membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation, decreased
Shawn W Zimmerman
Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL, a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and
Anel-Lopez, L; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Álvarez, M; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C; Peña, F J; Morrell, J; Anel, L; de Paz, P
Sperm selection methods such as Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) have been demonstrated to be a useful tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to increase the efficiency of other artificial reproductive techniques in several species. This procedure could help to improve the quality of genetic resource banks, which is essential for endangered species. In contrast, these sperm selection methods are optimized and focused on farm animals, where the recovery task is not as important as in endangered species because of their higher sperm availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate two centrifugation methods (300 x g/20 min and 600 x g/10 min) and three concentrations of SLC media (Androcoll-Bear -80, 65 and 50%) to optimise the procedure in order to recover as many sperm with the highest quality as possible. Sperm morphology could be important in the hydrodynamic relationship between the cell and centrifugation medium and thus the effect of sperm head morphometry on sperm yield and its hydrodynamic relationship were studied. The samples selected with Androcoll-Bear 65% showed a very good yield (53.1 ± 2.9) although the yield from Androcoll-Bear 80% was lower (19.3 ± 3.3). The latter showed higher values of motility than the control immediately after post-thawing selection. However, both concentrations of colloid (65 and 80%) showed higher values of viable sperm and viable sperm with intact acrosome than the control. After an incubation of 2 h at 37 °C, the samples from Androcoll-Bear 80% had higher kinematics and proportion of viable sperm with intact acrosome. In the morphometric analysis, the sperm selected by the Androcoll-Bear 80% showed a head with a bigger area which was more elongated than the sperm from other treatments. We conclude that sperm selection with Androcoll-Bear at either 65% or 80% is a suitable technique that allows a sperm population with better quality than the initial sample to be obtained. We recommend the
Surekha Devadasa Shetty
Full Text Available The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1 st , 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , and 10 th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment.
Full Text Available Introduction: Tamoxifen is steroidal drug, which mainly treats breast cancer and also used to stimulate ovulation. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of sperm parameters and fertility of mice whose mothers had received tamoxifen during pregnancy. Methods: In this study, 30 female and 15 male mice of NMRI were selected for mating. After mating female mice were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (control and second group (experimental. All of which contained 15 mice. From the day 13th day of pregnancy, experimental group has received tamoxifen with the dosage of 5 mg/kg for 7 days. After childbirth of the mated mice, male infants were selected. After reaching the age of puberty (6-8Weeks, adult mice were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. After take sperm, sperm parameters (count, normality and motility, and sperm fertility was performed. In this study SPSS software and statistical t-test was used (p <0.001. Results: Studies showed that sperm parameters and sperm fertilization were significantly different. The number of sperm in the control group was 83.50±28.20 million, and in the experimental group was 60±14.14 million. There was a decrease in average sperm count in the experimental group compared with the control group (p <0.001. Our findings from in vitro fertilization culture media showed that embryos formation and oocyte disruption between control and experimental groups significantly different (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that tamoxifen exposure during development can cause histological changes in the seminiferous tubules, which can lead to infertility.
B.M. van den Berg
Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.
Colley, A; Buhr, M; Golovan, S P
Sex-sorted bovine semen has become a valuable tool in animal production for sex preselection. Development of novel sperm sexing technologies, or evaluation of the quality of existing methods, often requires a single-sperm, sex-typing method that is reliable and easy to perform. In the present study, we report the development, validation, and application of a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for single-sperm sex typing using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the amelogenin gene. Several hundred single sperm were isolated using a simple manual technique, or a high-speed flow-sorter, and were successfully sex-typed using the amelogenin nested PCR. Based on the pooled results of individual sperm, there was no significant difference in the semen sex ratio of unsorted (44.6% X-sperm and 55.4% Y-sperm) or X/Y-sorted semen (91.4% X-sperm and 94.0% Y-sperm), as compared to the expected ratio in unsorted semen or the post-sorting reanalysis data, respectively. The amelogenin single-sperm sexing method was an adaptable, accurate, and reliable tool for single-sperm sex typing.
LaMunyon, C W; Ward, S
Male offspring, which cannot reproduce independently, represent a cost of sexual reproduction. This cost is eliminated by the production of hermaphroditic offspring in the self-fertilizing nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae. However, these hermaphrodites can outcross by mating with males. Half the sperm received from males contain no sex chromosome and therefore give rise to male progeny. Mating with males should thus impose the cost of making male offspring. We found that male sperm took immediate precedence over hermaphrodite sperm, resulting in maximized outcrossing, but the appearance of male progeny was delayed after mating. This delay is caused by the male X-bearing sperm outcompeting their nullo-X counterparts. The competitive advantage of X-bearing sperm over nullo-X sperm is limited to sperm from males; it did not occur in a mutant hermaphrodite that produces both types of sperm. The chromosomal effect on sperm competitiveness in C. briggsae, which has not been observed in other species, suggests that the X chromosome has evolved a form of meiotic drive, selfishly increasing the competitiveness of sperm that bear it over those that do not. Thus, the multiple levels of sperm competitiveness found in C. briggsae maximize outcrossing after mating while delaying the cost of making male offspring.
Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 3. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae): Ultrastructural characteristics and their relevance to interspecific taxonomic relationships. O Aguiar-Jr A A Giaretta S M Recco-Pimentel. Articles Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 379-388 ...
Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and morphology of adult Wistar rats fed either low or normal protein-energy diets and orally dosed with ... of adult Wistar rats orally dosed aqueous extracts of C. australis seed (LPSE and NPSE) and stem (LPST and NPST), 300mg of extract/kg body weight of rat/day, ...
Håkonsen, L B; Spano, M; Bonde, J P
Prenatal lifestyle exposures are linked to alterations in conventional semen characteristics. Sperm DNA integrity is another marker of semen quality shown to be altered in mice prenatally exposed to chemicals. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, sons were selected for a follow...
Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and morphology of adult Wistar rats fed either low or normal protein-energy diets and orally dosed with aqueous Cuscuta australis extracts. 1. Omirinde, J.O., *. 1. Ozegbe, P.C. and. 2. Oyeyemi, M.O.. Departments of 1Veterinary Anatomy and 2Veterinary Surgery and ...
For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance
EDUARDO G. SANCHES
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2 , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10% and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min−1 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05 was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2 with DMSO ( 10% and cooling rate of -60°C.min−1 ( P < 0.05 . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.
Sperm Quality and Fertility Following Prolonged Immobilization Stress in Wistar Rats. ... All the females that were mated with the control males became pregnant and produced litters. On the ... These results therefore, confirm and expand existing literatures reporting impaired fertility following long-term exposure to stress.
Boersma, Auke; Olszanska, Olga; Walter, Ingrid; Rülicke, Thomas
Spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization of mouse oocytes and other methods of assisted reproduction typically are collected from the cauda epididymis of euthanized male mice. As an alternative to this terminal protocol, we developed and examined 2 methods for collecting sperm from anesthetized male mice without decreasing subsequent fertility: microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and, as a refinement, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration. Collected sperm was evaluated in terms of motility, concentration and in vitro fertilization ability. After recovery, both treated and untreated control male mice underwent in vivo fertility testing and subsequent histologic analysis of the treated male reproductive tract (epididymis and testis). In vitro fertilization using sperm recovered by the 2 collection methods was successfully achieved in all cases. The in vivo fertility test and the histologic analysis revealed no impairment of fertility and no permanent histologic alteration in the treated mice. Therefore, we recommend both techniques as simple and effective methods for recovering high-quality epididymal mouse sperm without having to euthanize fertile male mice.
Alipour, Hiva; Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Dissing, Marianne Charlotte
Semen preparation medium have an important role in assisted reproduction techniques and their composition influences sperm binding and motility. Some studies have assessed the influence of pH on sperm kinetics. However, no study to date has assessed the effect of environmental pH on subtle...... differences in the details of the sperm movement (kinematics) of human sperm provided by computerized sperm analysis systems. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different media pH levels on kinematic parameters of the human sperm. Samples were prepared using the 40%/80% Pureception (Sage, USA....... Linearity and Wobble showed significant difference after 24 hours. This study demonstrated a difference in the sperm motion pattern and velocity in different environmental pH levels. Based on these findings, further investigations are required to elucidate knowledge about possible effect of marginal p...
Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.
Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio
Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.
Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V; Chantler, Eric; Uggerhøj, Erik
BACKGROUND: We investigated the osmotic response of midpiece vesicles (MPV) on human sperm. METHODS: Light microscopy, transmission X-ray microscopy and computer-aided semen analysis was used to investigate sperm in normozoospermic semen from healthy donors, separated from semen and suspended...... in hyper- or hypo-osmotic solutions. RESULTS: The mean incidence of MPV-bearing sperm in semen was 31% (range 8-71; n = 47). MPV were morphologically different from cytoplasmic droplets. The incidence of MPV-bearing sperm in separated populations increased reversibly after washing in Sperm Preparation...... Medium but not after washing in seminal plasma. There was an inverse relationship between medium osmolality and both MPV-bearing sperm incidence and MPV diameter. However, initial osmolality in semen from different donors did not correlate with incidence of MPV-bearing sperm. Furthermore, a direct...
Baer, Boris; Armitage, Sophie A O; Boomsma, Jacobus J
Ant queens are among the most long-lived insects known. They mate early in adult life and maintain millions of viable sperm in their sperm storage organ until they die many years later. Because they never re-mate, the reproductive success of queens is ultimately sperm-limited, but it is not known...... what selective forces determine the upper limit to sperm storage. Here we show that sperm storage carries a significant cost of reduced immunity during colony founding. Newly mated queens of the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica upregulate their immune response shortly after completing their nest burrow......, probably as an adaptive response to a greater exposure to pathogens in the absence of grooming workers. However, the immune response nine days after colony founding is negatively correlated with the amount of sperm in the sperm storage organ, indicating that short-term survival is traded off against long...
Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M
Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm.
José Luis Ros-Santaella
Full Text Available The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF or bad freezers (BF at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006. The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001. Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.
Mettler, L; Scheidel, P; Shirwani, D
A review of the immunological implications in reproductive physiology is presented. Although attempts have been made to ascribe the antigenicity of semen to individual components, it has not been possible to isolate the human semen antigen responsible for infertility. In monkeys total ejaculates and seminal plasma have shown higher antigenicity than washed spermatozoa. In bulls some evidence of such antigens have been found in the seminal plasma. They are iron-binding proteins resembling lactoferrin. Most investigators have found no evidence for any participation of the ABO blood group antigens in cases of sterility. On the surface of human spermatozoa histo-incompatibility antigens have been detected. Transplantation antigens may be related to sterility. However, an immulogic tolerance of the maternal organism exists against the genetically foreign fetal tissue. Autoimmune spermagglutinating antibodies have been detected in the sera and in the seminal plasma of males with sterility. An obstruction of the seminal pathways may facilitate the production of such antibodies against retained sperm. Isoimmunity in females against seminal components has been shown in cases of sterility; however, fertile women have also been shown to have such conditions. In a group of infertile women spermagglutination activity was detected in 7.5% of cases. In another series of 46 cases with primary unexplained infertility agglutinating antibodies were found in 17.4%. Other investigators have also reported higher rates than the authors. The sperm immobilization test seems to be more sensitive than the agglutination test. No sera were found positive with both tests. With immunofluorescent techniques humoral sperm antibodies have been found to be the IgM and IgG fractions. Each acts on a different part of the spermatozoa. The only promising therapy against humoral sperm antibodies is avoidance of sperm contact over a long period of time. Reported results have been conflicting. Cortisone
Froman, D P; Feltmann, A J
To date, attempts to preserve chicken sperm have been based on a trial-and-error experimental approach. The present work outlines the development of an alternative approach based on empiricism and bioenergetic theory. In previous work, we found fowl sperm motility to be dependent on mitochondrial calcium cycling, phospholipase A(2), and long-chain fatty acids as an endogenous energy source. It is noteworthy that fowl sperm reside within the sperm storage tubules (SST) of the oviduct over an interval of days to weeks after insemination. In this regard, a model for in vivo sperm storage was developed and tested in additional previous research. Sperm penetration of the SST, sperm residence within the SST, and sperm egress from the SST can be explained in terms mitochondrial function. Understanding sperm function and longevity in terms of bioenergetics presented the possibility that sperm could be inactivated by disrupting mitochondrial calcium cycling and could thereby be preserved. However, this possibility also posed a problem: maintenance of the inner membrane potential of the mitochondrion within inactivated sperm. This report describes a series of experiments in which fowl sperm were inactivated by treatment with the calcium chelator tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and then reactivated by treatment with calcium ions. The effect of tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid on mitochondrial calcium cycling was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. When treated sperm were cooled to 10 degrees C, inactivated sperm could be reactivated throughout a 5-h storage interval. When stored sperm were held for 3 h before reactivation and insemination, fertility was 88% of the control. Storage did not affect hatchability. In summary, short-term storage was realized by manipulating mitochondrial function. We propose that 1) complex V consumes ATP within inactivated sperm and, by doing so, maintains
Gürler, H; Malama, E; Heppelmann, M; Calisici, O; Leiding, C; Kastelic, J P; Bollwein, H
The objective was to examine if there are relationships between alterations in sperm viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis, and DNA integrity induced by cryopreservation of bovine sperm. Four ejaculates were collected from each of six bulls. Each ejaculate was diluted and divided into two aliquots; one was incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C, and the other frozen, thawed, and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Analyses of quality of sperm were performed after 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours of incubation. Progressive motile sperm was determined with computer assisted sperm analysis. Percentages of plasma membrane- and acrosome-intact sperm, sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm showing a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI), and their reactive oxygen species content were assessed with dichlorofluorescein-diacetate, dihydrorhodamine, diaminofluorescein diacetate, and mitochondrial superoxide indicator using flow cytometry. Although all other sperm parameters showed alterations (P 0.05, 0.91 ± 0.23) in nonfrozen sperm. Cryopreservation induced changes of all sperm parameters (P reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Serres-Dalmau, C; Gutiérrez de las Rozas, A L; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J
Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) is an important parameter to assessing sperm quality. Information about sperm quality is not available for donkeys, especially in some breeds at risk of extinction. The objectives of this research were to test the four commercial variants of sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD; sperm Halomax test), originally developed to assess sDF in boars, bulls, rams and stallions, in order to scrutinize their applicability in the study of sDF in a donkey breed at risk of extinction (Zamorano-Leonesa), for which there is no specific test available to analyze sperm at present. Only the SCD test, originally developed for stallions, produced stable and consistent results, and was deemed suitable to assess DNA fragmentation in sperm samples from donkeys. Image analysis was used to compare differences between the SCD methodology applied to stallion and donkey semen samples processed under the same experimental conditions. The extent of SCD in the SCD test was approximately 20% lower in donkey sperm than in stallion sperm. Yet, the ratio of chromatin sperm dispersion achieved in fragmented and unfragmented nuclei did not differ significantly between species. These data suggest that a similar protein depletion treatment can cause differences in protein removal in equivalent cells from different species and that sperm chromatin may be organized differently in stallions and donkeys.
Yorita, Kenji; Ishihara, Akira; Tokumitsu, Takako; Minematsu, Eiko; Ohno, Akinobu; Ikejiri, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Hiroaki
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors of soft parts are extremely rare low-grade mesenchymal lesions that frequently occur subcutaneously, especially in the lower extremity. The tumor is histologically characterized by sheets of plump, spindled or rounded cells, and clusters of ectatic blood vessels. It also has a number of previously characterized cytological features such as pleomorphic cells, intranuclear pseudoinclusion, and intracytoplasmic hemosiderin pigments. However, intracytoplasmic hemosiderin has not been carefully evaluated in cytology specimens. Here, we report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with an encapsulated pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts that included fine and coarse hemosiderin-laden tumor cells. The tumor was clinically followed up as a hematoma, but malignant tumors, including malignant melanoma, were suspected because aspiration cytology specimens contained pleomorphic cells with intracytoplasmic brown pigments. The tumor was closely associated with an intratumoral hematoma and a few microscopic satellite lesions. Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts should be included in the differential cytological diagnosis of soft tissue tumors if the three cytological features described earlier are present. Enucleation therapy could facilitate local recurrence, as the tumor may have the potential to infiltrate surrounding soft tissue or form satellite lesions. © 2014 The Authors. Diagnostic Cytopathology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baruffi Ricardo LR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME was developed only as a selection criterion, its application as a method for classifying sperm morphology may represent an improvement in evaluation of semen quality, with potential clinical repercussions. The present study aimed to evaluate individual variations in the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME analysis after a time interval. Methods Two semen samples were obtained from 240 men from an unselected group of couples undergoing infertility investigation and treatment. Mean time interval between the two semen evaluations was 119 +/- 102 days. No clinical or surgical treatment was realized between the two observations. Spermatozoa were analyzed at greater than or equal to 8400× magnification by inverted microscope equipped with DIC/Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. At least 200 motile spermatozoa per semen sample were evaluated and percentages of normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV/one or more vacuoles occupying >50% of the sperm nuclear area were determined. A spermatozoon was classified as morphologically normal when it exhibited a normal nucleus (smooth, symmetric and oval nucleus, width 3.28 +/- 0.20 μm, length 4.75 +/- 0.20 μm/absence of vacuoles occupying >4% of nuclear area as well as acrosome, post-acrosomal lamina, neck and tail, besides not presenting cytoplasm around the head. One examiner, blinded to subject identity, performed the entire study. Results Mean percentages of morphologically normal and LNV spermatozoa were identical in the two MSOME analyses (1.6 +/- 2.2% vs. 1.6 +/- 2.1% P = 0.83 and 25.2 +/- 19.2% vs. 26.1 +/- 19.0% P = 0.31, respectively. Regression analysis between the two samples revealed significant positive correlation for morphologically normal and for LNV spermatozoa (r = 0.57 95% CI:0.47-0.65 P P Conclusions The significant positive correlation and
Full Text Available Semen from 5210 sperm bank donors was analyzed and trends in semen quality were evaluated at Shandong Human Sperm Bank between 2008 and 2014. After 2-7 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count were performed. There were significant declining trends in semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm forward motility, and total sperm count. Our results indicate that the quality of semen in this cohort of sperm donors had decreased during the study period.
Sperm cells are the most variable animal cells, and a tremendous variation in sperm phenotypes exists among species, from minute amoeboid sperm to giant sperm in some species of fruit flies. Much effort has been devoted to the study of sperm evolution. Sperm competition, when sperm from two or more males compete over fertilization of a set of ova, is thought to be the major force driving the evolution of sperm. There are several ways in which sperm competition can effect the evolution of sper...
Full Text Available Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality.
Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing
As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.
Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia
Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dadoune, J.P.; Alfonsi, M.F. (Faculte de Medecine Broussais-Hotel-Dieu, U.E.R. Biomedicale des Saints-Peres, 75 - Paris (France))
The transit of spermatozoa in the genital tract of the male mouse was investigated by quantitative light microscopic autoradiography after intraperitoneal injection of tritiated thymidine. Transit duration in the caput and the corpus of the epididymis was shown to be 3 days; the total duration of transit in the genital tract was 5 days. These findings indicate that the time required for the transit of spermatozoa in the epididymal caput and corpus was comparable to that calculated in other mammals studied. However, the duration of sperm storage in the epididymal cauda appeared to be shorter than that previously reported for rodents.
Cebi Sen, C; Yumusak, N; Atilgan, H I; Sadic, M; Koca, G; Korkmaz, M
This study was designed to investigate the potential radioprotective impact of melatonin on the testicular tissue and sperm quality in rat given radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups as untreated control (Group 1); oral radioiodine group (RAI, 111 MBq, administrated rats); and RAI+melatonin group (oral radioiodine and intraperitoneal 12 mg/kg/day melatonin, starting 2 days before and continuing for 1 week after oral RAI administration). Twenty-four hours after the injection of the last melatonin dose, blood samples were taken for hormone analyses and the determination of the total antioxidant capacity. Sperm samples taken from the cauda epididymis were examined for spermatological parameters. Tissue samples taken from the rat testes were stained by TUNEL assay and with haematoxylin-eosin to detect apoptosis and histological alterations. It was demonstrated a significant decrease in epididymal spermatozoa viability and motility in all of the treatment groups, in comparison with the control group (p < .001). A significant decrease was also detected in sperm DNA fragmentation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level and the index of apoptotic germ cells in the RAI+melatonin group when compared to the radioiodine group. It was concluded that melatonin prevents the adverse affects of RAI on apoptosis and spermatozoa quality. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Momeni, Hamid Reza; Eskandari, Najmeh
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg), curcumin (100 mg/kg) and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. Pcurcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice. PMID:27441059
Full Text Available Albumin supplementation of culture media induces sperm capacitation in assisted reproduction technique cycles. Synthetic serum supplementation is clinically used to replace albumin for preventing transmission of infectious agents. However, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation have rarely been investigated. Spermatozoa from 30 men with normal basic semen analysis results were collected, divided into five aliquots, and cultured in capacitating conditions in four combinations of two synthetic serum supplements, serum substitute supplement (SSS and serum protein substitute (SPS, and two fertilization media, Quinns Advantage™ Fertilization (QF and human tubular fluid (HTF media. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in spermatozoa were measured through chemiluminescence. Furthermore, acrosome reaction and western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation were used to evaluate sperm capacitation. HTF+SSS had significantly higher ROS levels than QF+SPS did (11,725 ± 1,172 versus 6,278 ± 864 relative light units. In addition, the spermatozoa cultured in QF+SPS had lower motility, acrosome reaction rates, and tyrosine phosphorylation levels compared with those cultured in HTF+SSS. In conclusion, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation varied according to the combination of media. These differences may lead to variations in spermatozoon ROS levels, thus affecting sperm function test results.
Full Text Available In an earlier work done in our laboratory, we have been able to isolate a sperm agglutinating strain of Escherichia coli from the semen sample of a male attending infertility clinic. Further, factor responsible for sperm agglutination (SAF was isolated and purified, and, using SAF as a tool, corresponding SAF binding receptor from human spermatozoa has been purified. Characterization of SAF and SAF binding receptor using MALDI-TOF showed homology to glutamate decarboxylase and MHC class I molecule, respectively. Coincubation of SAF with spermatozoa not only resulted in spermagglutination but could also compromise other sperm parameters, namely, Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity and apoptosis. Intravaginal administration of SAF could lead to infertility in Balb/c mice. SAF induced impairment of sperm parameters, and infertility was observed to be due to interaction of SAF with sperm surface receptor component as, when purified receptor was introduced, receptor completely inhibited all the detrimental effects induced by SAF. From these results, it could be concluded that interaction of SAF with spermatozoa is receptor mediated.
Thais Rose dos Santos Hamilton
Full Text Available Higher temperatures lead to an increase of testicular metabolism that results in spermatic damage. Oxidative stress is the main factor responsible for testicular damage caused by heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate lasting effects of heat stress on ejaculated sperm and immediate or long-term effects of heat stress on epididymal sperm. We observed decrease in motility and mass motility of ejaculated sperm, as well as an increase in the percentages of sperm showing major and minor defects, damaged plasma and acrosome membranes, and a decrease in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated group until one spermatic cycle. An increased enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of stressed cells were observed in ejaculated sperm of the treated group. A decrease in the percentage of epididymal sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in the treated group. However, when comparing immediate and long-term effects, we observed an increase in the percentage of sperm with low mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, testicular heat stress induced oxidative stress that led to rescuable alterations after one spermatic cycle in ejaculated sperm and also after 30 days in epididymal sperm.
Full Text Available Background: Matrine is a bioactive alkaloid that has a variety of pharmacological effects and is widely used in Chinese medicine. However, its effects on male reproduction are not well known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro toxicity of matrine on mature mouse sperm. Methods: Mouse cauda epididymal sperm were exposed to matrine (10-200 µM in vitro. The viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and fertilization ability of the mouse sperm were examined. Furthermore, the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i, calcium (Catsper and potassium (Ksper currents, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2 of the sperm were analyzed. Results: After exposure to 100 µM or more of matrine, mouse cauda epididymal sperm exhibited a significant reduction in total motility, progressive motility, linear velocity and acrosome reaction rate induced by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. As a result, the fertilization ability of mouse sperm was remarkably decreased by matrine. Our data further demonstrated that matrine significantly reduced sperm [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]i-related p-ERK1/2; however, both the CatSper and KSper currents, which are thought to interactively regulate Ca2+ influx in sperm, were not affected by matrine. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that matrine inhibits mouse sperm function by reducing sperm [Ca2+]i and suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2.
Javier A Urra
Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.
Saadi, H.A.S.; Riemsdijk, van E.L.C.; Dance, A.L.; Rajamanickam, G.D.; Kastelic, J.P.; Thundathil, J.C.
The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n = 3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in
Cooper, Trevor G; Hellenkemper, Barbara
Comparison of methods that estimate viability of human spermatozoa by monitoring head membrane permeability revealed that wet preparations (whether using positive or negative phase-contrast microscopy) generated significantly higher percentages of nonviable cells than did air-dried eosin-nigrosin smears. Only with the latter method did the sum of motile (presumed live) and stained (presumed dead) preparations never exceed 100%, making this the method of choice for sperm viability estimates.
Full Text Available Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide. The efficiency of the methods was examined by in vitro tests (subjective motility scoring, sperm concentration, morphological and live/dead sperm analysis with eosin-aniline staining. Thereafter, the two most promising methods were tested by artificial insemination of frozen-thawed semen (3 times a week for 3 weeks using 300 million spermatozoa/hen, followed by candling of incubated eggs, assessment of fertilization, embryonic death, and hatching rate. The survival rate of live, intact spermatozoa was greatest (p≤0.05 in pellet method and the slow programmable protocol (with 10% ethylene glycol (28.6 and 23.5%. The two best protocols (based on in vitro assessment of post-thaw semen quality were subsequently tested in vivo with artificial insemination. The pellet method yielded a 64% fertility rate compared to slow protocol with only 30% fertility. Regardless, both freezing protocols significantly increased embryonic deaths compared to the control group (16,7; 9,1 and 8,3%, respectively. During the 3-week in vivo trial, fertility increased and early embryonic death decreased over time. According to the results the guinea fowl sperm could tolerate the fast freezing in pellet better than the slower freezing rates and resulted acceptable fertility rate.
Full Text Available Spermiogelnesis has been studied in a large number of Angiosperm species characterizing different levels of phylogenetic system. The formation and development of male gamets can be described as formation of sperm cells that undergo ontogenesis which stimulates changes up to full maturity of the pollen grain. The process of ontogenesis is aimed at creating a suitable delivery system by the pollen tube to a female gamete.
Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin
Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an `off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes.
Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A; Rudolfsen, Geir
Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.
Xin, Miaomiao; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Dzyuba, Borys; Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Shaliutina-Kolešová, Anna; Linhart, Otomar
To survive low temperature is required for a long-term storage (cryopreservation), cells should be vitrified to a state in which intracellular water is solidified without ice crystal formation. Two different approaches are described for fish sperm cryopreservation: 1) sperm conventional cryopreservation, in which extracellular water is partially crystallized and 2) sperm vitrification, in which both intra- and extra-cellular liquids are vitrified. Sperm vitrification has been applied to some fish species with limited success. Traditional vitrification requires rapid cooling/warming rates, small sample carriers, and using high permeable cryoprotectant concentrations. The latter cause cytotoxic effects which must be well managed and will require continuous effort to match an appropriate cryoprotectant with suitable apparatus and warming methods. Novel cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification approach has been applied to several fishes. This review summarizes development of basic procedures and discusses advantages and disadvantages of vitrification when applied it to fish sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye
, especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...... experiments (sterile-male technique) including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm...... transfer, but the amount of sperm (2 droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets...
Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf
Sex hormones play an important role in pain in many chronic pain conditions. Relationship between chronic pain and sperm quality has not been investigated thoroughly and may provide an insight to better understanding, management and treatment of cases where chronic pain and male sub-fertility co......-exist. Neat (fresh semen) and processed sperm from 15 males with orthopedic chronic pain (CP) were assessed and compared with 15 healthy age matched controls. Sperm analysis was performed using the SCA computer-aided sperm analyzer. There was no significant difference in any parameters of the neat semen...... significantly higher in the processed sample of the CP group. This study demonstrated that chronic pain does not affect the sperm morphology, total concentration and motility based on conventional analysis but has significant influence at the level of sperm motion kinetics which could prove to be clinically...
Willum Adrian, Stine
During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term......-sited ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish private fertility clinic, and a Danish sperm bank. The presentation will mainly draw on interviews with fertility travellers going through treatment with donor sperm in Denmark....
Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles
The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species.
Treating boar sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins or cyclodextrins prior to cryopreservation: effects on post-thaw in vitro sperm quality of sperm cryopreserved in different freezing extenders.
BLANCH TORRES, EVA
[EN] Cryopreserved boar sperm is not used extensively for artificial insemination due to poor fertility rates of the sperm after freezing and thawing. The sperm membrane is damaged when cooled from body temperature to 5 ºC (cold shock), as well as during the freeze-thaw process. Increasing the cholesterol content of boar sperm membranes could increase their post-thaw survival, similarly to other species that are cold shock sensitive. Cholesterol can be easily added to sperm membranes using ch...
Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza
To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Jacob C; Phadnis, Nitin
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence. Here, we use a comprehensive phylogenomic approach to investigate the selective pressures on these sperm hyper-activation channels. First, we find that the entire CatSper complex evolves rapidly under recurrent positive selection in primates. Second, we find that pkd2 has parallel patterns of adaptive evolution in Drosophila. Third, we show that this adaptive evolution of pkd2 is driven by its role in sperm hyper-activation. These patterns of selection suggest that the evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery is driven by sexual conflict with antagonistic ligands that modulate channel activity. Together, our results add sperm hyper-activation channels to the class of fast evolving reproductive proteins and provide insights into the mechanisms used by the sexes to manipulate sperm behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Good Quality is an assemblage ethnography of how sperm banking came to be routinized in China. Based on 8 years of episodic fieldwork at China’s oldest and largest sperm bank in Changsha, Hunan province, the book meticulously chronicles how, beginning in the early 1980s, a unique style of sperm...... banking would emerge in China, shaped by the cultural, juridical, economic and social configurations that make up China’s restrictive reproductive complex....
Holman, Luke; Snook, Rhonda R
Spermicide (i.e., female-mediated sperm death) is an understudied but potentially widespread phenomenon that has important ramifications for the study of sexual conflict, postcopulatory sexual selection, and fertility [1, 2]. Males are predicted to evolve adaptations against spermicide, but few...... antispermicidal mechanisms have been definitively identified. One such adaptation may be the enigmatic infertile sperm morphs or "parasperm" produced by many species, which have been hypothesized to protect their fertile brother "eusperm" from spermicide [2, 3]. Here, we show that female Drosophila pseudoobscura...... reproductive tracts are spermicidal and that the survival of eusperm after exposure to the female tract is highest when males produce many parasperm. This study clarifies the adaptive significance of infertile sperm castes, which has remained elusive in Drosophila and other taxa despite much recent interest [2...
Torvald Blikra Egeland
Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.
Momeni Hamid Reza
Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg, curcumin (100 mg/kg and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Mice exposed to sodium arsenite showed a significant decrease in the num- ber, motility, viability, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity of spermato- zoa compared to the control group. In the curcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice.
Sørensen, Sune Riis; Gallego, V.; Pérez, L.
, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry (FCM), using Neubauer Improved haemocytometer as benchmark. Initially, relationships between spermatocrit, haemocytometer counts and sperm motility were analysed, as well as the effect of sperm dilution on haemocytometer counts. Furthermore...
Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination and inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms in Chlamys nobilis showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs, gave maximum rate of fertilization...
Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Adib, Maryam; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali
Our aim was to evaluate the effect of neat semen vitrification on human sperm vital parameters and DNA integrity in men with normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Semen samples were 17 normozoospermic samples and 17 specimens with abnormal sperm parameters. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Then, the smear was provided from each sample and fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Vitrification of neat semen was done by plunging cryoloops directly into liquid nitrogen and preserved for 7 days. The samples were warmed and re-evaluated for sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity. Besides, the correlation between sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation was assessed pre- and post vitrification. Cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significant decrease in sperm motility, viability and normal morphology after thawing in both normal and abnormal semen. Also, the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after vitrification compared to fresh samples in normal (24.76 ± 5.03 and 16.41 ± 4.53, P = .002) and abnormal (34.29 ± 10.02 and 23.5 ± 8.31, P neat ejaculates has negative impact on sperm parameters as well as DNA integrity, particularly among abnormal semen subjects. It is, therefore, recommend to process semen samples and vitrify the sperm pellets.
Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K
STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...
Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E
The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.
Birdsall, Mary A; Peek, John; Valiapan, Sumithra
To investigate whether the decline in sperm concentration in New Zealand sperm donors observed from 1987 to 2007 continued in the period 2008-2014. A retrospective study from 2008 to 2014. The first semen sample of 285 men presenting as sperm donors in Auckland and Wellington was analysed for sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume and the percentage of motile sperm. These results were compared to results from 1987 to 2007 from the same clinics. The decline in semen volume and sperm concentration observed between 1987 and 2007 did not continue in 2008-2014. Sperm concentration decreased from 1987 until some time between 1997 and 2001, and has remained stable at an average of 62x106/ml between 2001 and 2014. Sperm motility declined significantly (8%) in the period 2008-2014, but there was no significant change over the total period studied, between 1987 and 2014. After a decline between 1987 and sometime during 1997-2001, the sperm concentration in men presenting as donors remained unchanged between 2002 and 2014, suggesting semen quality has not changed in New Zealand men over the last decade.
Full Text Available Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number. We detected Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 25-HC production, in human spermatozoa at the level of the neck and the post acrosomal area. Upon incubation with spermatozoa, 25-HC induced calcium and cholesterol transients in connection with the acrosomal reaction. Our results support a role for 25-HC in sperm function.
Zerbinati, Chiara; Caponecchia, Luisa; Puca, Rosa; Ciacciarelli, Marco; Salacone, Pietro; Sebastianelli, Annalisa; Pastore, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Porta, Natale; Rago, Rocco; Carbone, Antonio; Iuliano, Luigi
Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number. We detected Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 25-HC production, in human spermatozoa at the level of the neck and the post acrosomal area. Upon incubation with spermatozoa, 25-HC induced calcium and cholesterol transients in connection with the acrosomal reaction. Our results support a role for 25-HC in sperm function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed
The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756
P Kerishchi Khiabani
Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.
Yi, Young-Joo; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Eui-Sook; Song, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon; Sutovsky, Peter
Extracellular ATP has been implicated in a number of cellular events, including mammalian sperm function. The complement of ATP-dependent sperm proteins includes six subunits of the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate-proteins. Proteolysis of ubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis (AE) and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The 26S proteasome is uniquely present on the sperm acrosomal surface during mammalian, ascidian, and invertebrate fertilization. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protease complex of approximately 2 MDa composed of the 19S regulatory complex and a 20S proteolytic core. Integrity of the 19S complex is maintained by six 19S ATPase subunits (PSMC1 through PSMC6). Consequently, we hypothesized that fertilization will be blocked by the depletion of sperm-surface associated ATP (ssATP). Depletion of ssATP by the Solanum tuberosum apyrase, a 49 kDa, non-cell permeant enzyme, significantly reduced the ATP content measured by an adapted luminescence-ATP assay from which all permeabilizing agents were excluded. Addition of active apyrase to porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium caused a concentration dependent reduction in the overall fertilization rate. No such outcomes were observed in control groups using heat-inactivated apyrase. Apyrase treatment altered the band pattern of 19S ATPase subunits PSMC1 (Rpt2) and PSMC4 (Rpt3) in Western blotting, suggesting that it had an effect on the integrity of the sperm proteasomal 19S complex. Apyrase only altered the proteasomal core activities slightly, since these activities are not directly dependent on external ATP. In contrast, sperm treatment with MG132, a specific inhibitor of the proteasomal core chymotrypsin-like activity, inhibited the target proteolytic activity, but also induced a compensatory elevation in proteasomal peptidyl
Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris
on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...... hardly overlap, which suggests that males and females use different proteins to enhance sperm viability during, respectively, ejaculation and final sperm storage....
Naud, Marie-José; Shaw, Paul W; Hanlon, Roger T; Havenhand, Jon N
In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm stores in the female's buccal area, use microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the genetic d...
Bernasconi, G.; Hellriegel, B.; Heyland, A.; Ward, P. I.
While sperm competition risk favours males transferring many sperm to secure fertilizations, females of a variety of species actively reduce sperm numbers reaching their reproductive tract, e.g. by extrusion or killing. Potential benefits of spermicide to females include nutritional gains, influence over sperm storage and paternity, and the elimination of sperm bearing somatic mutations that would lower zygote fitness.We investigated changes in sperm viability after in vivo and in vitro expos...
Sahara, Ken; Takemura, Yoko
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has a dimorphic sperm system. The eupyrene sperm is the sperm to fertilize eggs and the apyrene sperm plays a crucial role for assisting fertilization. Heat-treated (331C for 96h) Daizo (DH) males, one of the strains in the silkworm, produce only eupyrene sperm, while in triploid males only apyrene sperm are functional. Though both types of males are found to be sterile, double copulation of the two males with a single female greatly increases fertili...
Giaretta, Elisa; Munerato, Mauro; Yeste, Marc; Galeati, Giovanna; Spinaci, Marcella; Tamanini, Carlo; Mari, Gaetano; Bucci, Diego
Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm. Along with determining the sperm progressive motility and other kinetic parameters (such as amplitude of lateral head displacement), the "results" window was adjusted to simplify subsequent statistical analyses. The path window was enriched with colored sperm trajectories on the basis of the subpopulation they belong to and a number that allowed the sperm track to be associated to the sperm motility data shown in the "results" window. Data obtained from the novel plugin (named as CASA_bgm) were compared with those of the commercial CASA Hamilton-Thorn IVOS Vers.12, through Bland Altman's plots. While the percentage of total and progressive motile sperm, VCL, VAP, VSL, LIN and STR and ALH were in agreement with those obtained with the commercial system, BCF significantly differed between the two systems probably due to their settings. Interestingly, a positive and significant correlation between the percentages of total motile sperm evaluated through CASA_bgm and those showing high mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by JC-1 staining was found. In conclusion, CASA_bgm ImageJ plugin could be useful and reliable for stallion sperm motility analysis and it is our aim to apply this system to other mammalian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.
and sperm concentration were examined over two reproductive seasons. Activation time, spermatocrit, and sperm concentration were significantly higher in 2003 than in 2004. Spermatocrit and sperm concentration showed a significant positive relationship (r2=0.79). During the 2004 reproductive season......, a significant variation was observed for spermatocrit and sperm concentration between the initial period (February 15th to March 14th) and the middle and final periods (March 15th to April 14th and April 15th to May 14th, respectively). Neither the ion concentrations nor the glucose and cholesterol...
Vanthournout, Bram; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H
that other factors influence sex ratio variation. In this paper, we investigate whether this additional variation can be explained by the unequal production of male- and female-determining sperm cells during sperm production. Using flow cytometry, we show that males produce equal amounts of male- and female......-determining sperm cells; thus bias in sperm production does not contribute to the sex ratio bias observed in this species. This demonstrates that other factors such as parental genes suppressing endosymbiont effects and cryptic female choice might play a role in sex allocation in this species....
Nynca, J; Dietrich, G J; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Ciereszko, A
The aim of this study was to test the influence of postthaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of brook trout (n = 9). Furthermore, we examined the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of postthaw, cryopreserved, brook trout sperm. The application of a cryopreservation procedure produced very high postthaw sperm motility (56.8 ± 4.0%). The cryopreserved sperm of brook trout could be stored up to 60 minutes without loss of the percentage of sperm motility (52.0 ± 9.0%). The fertilization capacity of brook trout postthaw sperm was comparable with the fertilization rate of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1 (42.4 ± 14.0% and 36.5 ± 11.0% for eyed and hatched stages, respectively). The possibility of postthaw semen storage for the prolonged time and the obtainment of high fertilization rate at low sperm-to-egg ratio can lead to the significant improvement of brook trout semen cryopreservation procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, A; Le, T; Palacios, M; Bookbinder, L H; Wassarman, P M; Suzuki, F; Bleil, J D
Recognition between mammalian gametes occurs when the plasma membrane of the sperm head binds to the zona pellucida (ZP), an extracellular coat surrounding eggs. ZP3, one of three glycoproteins in the ZP, is the egg protein recognized by sperm. A mouse sperm surface protein, sp56 (M(r) = 56,000), has been identified on the basis of its specific affinity for ZP3 (Bleil, J. D., and P. M. Wassarman. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:5563-5567). Studies presented here were designed to characterize mouse sperm sp56 and to further test whether or not this protein specifically recognizes ZP3. sp56 was purified by both ZP3 affinity chromatography and by ion exchange chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. The purified native protein eluted from size-exclusion columns as a homomultimer (M(r) approximately 110,000). Each monomer of the protein contains intramolecular disulfide bonds, consistent with its extracellular location. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies, using monoclonal antibodies, demonstrated that sp56 is a peripheral membrane protein located on the outer surface of the sperm head plasma membrane, precisely where sperm bind ZP3. Results of crosslinking experiments demonstrated that the ZP3 oligosaccharide recognized by sperm has specific affinity for sp56. Collectively, these results suggest that sp56 may be the sperm protein responsible for sperm-egg recognition in the mouse.
Conclusion: Clinical presentations or phenotypes can be used as predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval during mTESE in patients with NOA. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and cases with UDT history have a higher chance of sperm retrieval. Initial testicular needle biopsy, if available, can provide valuable information about chances of sperm retrieval. Hypospermatogenesis predicts high sperm yield rate, and LMA can have best upgrade results of sperm yield after mTESE.
Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin
Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram.
Swegen, Aleona; Lambourne, Sarah Renay; Aitken, R John; Gibb, Zamira
Media used for equine sperm storage often contain relatively high concentrations of glucose, even though stallion spermatozoa preferentially utilize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) over glycolysis to generate ATP and support motility. Rosiglitazone is an antidiabetic compound that enhances metabolic flexibility and glucose utilization in various cell types, but its effects on sperm metabolism are unknown. This study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on stallion sperm function in vitro, along with the possible role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating these effects. Spermatozoa were incubated with or without rosiglitazone, GW9662 (an antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-gamma), and compound C (CC; an AMPK inhibitor). Sperm motility, viability, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP), ATP content, and glucose uptake capacity were measured. Samples incubated with rosiglitazone displayed significantly higher motility, percentage of cells with normal mMP, ATP content, and glucose uptake capacity, while sperm viability was unaffected. The percentage of spermatozoa positive for mitochondrial ROS was also significantly lower in rosiglitazone-treated samples. AMPK localized to the sperm midpiece, and its phosphorylation, was increased in rosiglitazone-treated spermatozoa. CC decreased sperm AMPK phosphorylation and reduced sperm motility, and successfully inhibited the effects of rosiglitazone. Inclusion of rosiglitazone in a room temperature sperm storage medium maintained sperm motility above 60% for 6 days, attaining significantly higher motility than sperm stored in control media. The ability of rosiglitazone to substantially alleviate the time-dependent deterioration of stallion spermatozoa by diverting metabolism away from OXPHOS and toward glycolysis has novel implications for the long-term, functional preservation of these cells. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction
Guasti, P N; Monteiro, G A; Maziero, R R D; Carmo, M T; Dell'Aqua, J A; Crespilho, A M; Rifai, E A; Papa, F O
The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the PTX-treatment of stallion epididymal sperm prior to freezing improves the fertility response of mares to a reduced number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Fifty epididymis were flushed with a skim milk based extender with or without PTX. The pre-treatment with PTX enhanced the sperm motility after being harvested (Psperm kinematics between control and treated samples (P>0.05). Plasma membrane integrity did not differ between control and PTX group after recovery and after thawing (P>0.05), as observed in tyrosine phosphorylation, which the PTX treatment did not alter the percentage of tail-associated immunofluorescence of cryopreserved epididymal sperm (P>0.05). For the fertility trial, different insemination groups were tested: 800×10 6 epididymal sperm (C800); 100×10 6 epididymal sperm (C100); 100×10 6 epididymal sperm recovered in an extender containing PTX (PTX100). The conception rates for C800; C100 and PTX100 were 68.7% (11/16); 31.5% (5/16) and 50% (8/16), respectively. The conception rate did not differ among groups (P>0.05), however, a low number of animals was used in this study. A trend toward significance (P=0.07) was observed between C800 and C100 groups. In conclusion, PTX has no deleterious effect on sperm motility, viability and capacitation of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. The conventional artificial insemination with 100×10 6 sperm recovered with PTX ensures acceptable conception rates and maximize the limited number of doses of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
De Cecco, Marco; Spinaci, Marcella; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura
Flow cytometric separation of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa has been demonstrated to be effective in pigs, allowing the use of boar sexed semen in in vitro trials. Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer (SMGT) is a widely used and efficient technique for the creation of transgenic animals. The present research intended to prove that it is possible to associate sperm sexing with the SMGT technique in order to speed up the assessment of homozygous lines of transgenic pigs. In the first experiment, the sorting protocol was modified in order to obtain the highest DNA uptake by sorted spermatozoa. In the second experiment, spermatozoa that had undergone only sperm sorting, only SMGT, or both procedures (Sorted-SMGT) were used for in in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes. In the third experiment, transformed blastocysts of the desired gender (male) were obtained with Sorted-SMGT in an in vitro fertilization trial. The method we developed here allowed us to produce transgenic swine blastocysts of pre-determined gender, giving a positive answer at the aim to couple SMGT and sperm sorting in swine, obtaining fertile spermatozoa able to produce transgenic embryos of pre-determined gender. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene
The use of high quality semen for artificial insemination in the livestock industry is essential for successful outcome. Insemination using semen with a high number of sperm cells containing morphological defects has a negative impact on fertilization outcome. Therefore, semen with a high number of
Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajšhans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin
Roč. 51, č. 3 (2005), s. 250-261 ISSN 0011-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fish * sperm * aquaculture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2005
Angrimani, D S R; Lucio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Silva, L C G; Regazzi, F M; Nichi, M; Vannucchi, C I
Spermatozoa become more susceptible to the attack of reactive oxygen species during maturation. To avoid oxidative damage, the epididymis must provide the necessary antioxidant protection. The aim of this study was to compare the canine sperm profile and the enzymatic antioxidant status of the ejaculated fractions and samples collected from the different segments of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda). Five adult dogs were used, and after 1-3 weeks, subsequently to bilateral orchiectomy and epididymal storage, sperm samples were collected from the different segments of the epididymis. Samples were evaluated for conventional microscopy and computer-assisted motility analysis: sperm plasma membrane permeability and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Samples collected from the caput and corpus showed lower values for most of the motility variables evaluated, indicating different levels of immaturity. Catalase activity was observed only in ejaculated samples. Conversely, GPx activity was higher in the cauda epididymidis. Correlations were found between SOD and GPx and SOD and sperm motility in the epididymal cauda and corpus, highlighting the importance of the enzymes for the protection of spermatozoa during the transit along the epididymis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
van Heesch, Mirjam M. J.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.; van der Hoeven, Mark A. H. B. M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Dykgraaf, Ramon H. M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Nelen, Willianne L. D. M.; Steiner, Katerina; Tamminga, Pieter; Tonch, Nino; van Zonneveld, Piet; Dirksen, Carmen D.
To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital malformation.
Cissen, Maartje; Bensdorp, Alexandra; Cohlen, Ben J.; Repping, Sjoerd; de Bruin, Jan Peter; van Wely, Madelon
Intra-uterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. The use of these treatments has been subject of discussion. Knowledge on the effectiveness of fertility treatments
Background: A low risk of HCV vertical transmission has been reported especially in those born to women with viraemia. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) being an assisted reproduction technique includes procedures that may increase risk of transmission. Objective: To determine the rate of vertical transmission of ...
Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid M
Recurrent implantation failure is today the major reason for women completing several IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts without having achieved a child, and is probably also the explanation for many cases of unexplained infertility. Most causes of recurrent miscarriage are still poorl...
In the Netherlands, yearly 7000 couples rely on IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment as a tool to enhance their chances for a live birth. Despite the numerous advances in the field of IVF/ICSI, there still exists a maximum implantation rate per embryo transferred of about 30%.
Pettersson, Göran; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Broberg, Per
infertility, tubal factor, mild male factor or other reason for infertility. All women (n=731) had undergone an IVF cycle (no intracytoplasmic sperm injection) after stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin or follicle-stimulating hormone following the long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist...
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been employed to achieve fertilization in some cases of male subfertility e.g. severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive techniques to aid conception in cases of retrograde ejaculation have been described extensively elsewhere but there is paucity of knowledge ...
Middelburg, Karin J.; van der Heide, Maaike; Houtzager, Bregje; Pereboom, Marjolein; Fidler, Vaclav; Bos, Arend F.; Kok, Joke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Objective: To evaluate the effect of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Design: Prospective, assessor-blinded, follow-up study of children born to women randomly assigned to in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) with or
Alleyne, C; Sánchez, F
The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has represented an important advance in human reproduction technology, improving the results in those couples with a very low probability of achieving pregnancy. Our aim is present the results of our first experience with ICSI and MESA in Panama, Central America and the Caribe.
8. Faber K. IVF in the US: Multiple gestations, economic competition, and the necessity of excess. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:1614-6. 9. Tanbo T, Bakketeig LS, Jacobsen G, Orstavik KH, Lie RT,. Lyngstadaas A. Children born from intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Oslo: The Norwegian centre for health technology assessment.
Background: One of the recognized treatment options for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Fears are however sometimes raised concerning the likely outcome of treatment in such patients compared with their counterparts with tubal factor ...
impact on the clinicians' counseling for HCV positive females seeking ICSI. Key words: intracytoplasmic sperm injection, hepatitis C virus. African Health Sciences 2012; 12(1): 58 - 62. *Correspondence author: Fathi Nesrine. Faculty of Medicine. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Khartoum square Azarita Alexandria ...
Zhu, Jin Liang; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Basso, Olga
Children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported to have a higher risk of cerebral palsy (CP), perhaps due to the higher frequency of preterm birth, multiple births or vanishing embryo in the pregnancies. However, it has been suggested...
Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, Jorien; Hadders-Algra, M.
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and
Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, J.; Hadders-Algra, M.
Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and the combination of both, were
van de Riet, J. E.; Oelke, M.; van der Veen, F.; Visser, H.
A 35-year-old man and his partner were referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment (ICSI) because of secondary infertility due to severe oligoasthenoteratospermia. Three years earlier he had presented elsewhere with left unilateral gynaecomastia. A hypertrophic mammary gland had been
Sussman, Ernest M; Chudnovsky, Aleksander; Niederberger, Craig S
An endocrinologic evaluation of patients who have male-factor infertility has clearly evolved and leads to specific diagnoses and treatment strategies in a large population of infertile men. A well-considered endocrine evaluation is especially essential with the ever-growing popularity of assisted reproductive techniques and continued refinements with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Prevalence of Du Phenotype amongst Rhesus Negative Females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. CA Nwauche, OA Ejele, AOU Okpani ... Live Births after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in the Management of Oligospermia and Azoospermia in Nigeria. RA Ajayi, JH Parsons, VN Bolton ...
Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle
Application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is more common in the horse breeding industries, but there is still room for improvement. Embryo recovery rate after embryo flushing, embryo production rate after ovum pick-up (OPU) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation
Kop, P A L Femke; Janssens, Pim M W; Mochtar, Monique H
In recent years much has changed in care for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID). Since new laws and regulations were implemented, a large number of sperm banks have closed and the total number of sperm donors and their availability have decreased. Long waiting times and the use of sperm donors recruited by foreign commercial sperm banks can indicate a shortage of sperm donors. The fact that the internet offers women the possibility of ordering donor sperm and starting treatment without the intervention of a sperm bank means that future donor-conceived children may be prevented from obtaining the identity of their sperm donor as stipulated in the Dutch law on donor information in the context of artificial insemination. In order to comply with this law, an active recruitment policy is needed for Dutch sperm donors, to prevent waiting lists and treatments outside Dutch sperm banks. Only then can current AID care be guaranteed in the Netherlands in the future.
Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.
An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For
This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based extenders after single ...
Gadella, Bart M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115389873
The sperm cell has a unique, polarized and segregated surface that is modified extensively by the changing environments in both the male and the female reproductive tracts. The sperm cannot refresh its surface, as protein translation and membrane recycling by intracellular vesicular transport have
Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina
the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...
The effect of a well known herb, Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm characteristics in male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the age-long claim by the locales in the rural communities in the southern states of Nigeria where this plant is consumed religiously that it affects sperm quality, hence sexual potency ...
Jun 8, 2015 ... Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells. B.M. van den Berg*. Barex Biochemical Products, Seb. Centenweg 45, 1602ML Enkhuizen, The Netherlands. Abstract. The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric.