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Sample records for intracochlear sound pressure

  1. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  2. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  3. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Pisano, Dominic V.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability is not fully understood. We use intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Simultaneous measurement of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) quantifies the complex differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the partition. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure are measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. At low frequencies (<600 Hz) our results show that SCD decreases the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects become more pronounced as dehiscence size is increased. For frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence can have the larger effect on the differential pressure in some ears. These effects due to SCD are reversible by patching the dehiscence.

  4. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A family of fiber-optic based pressure sensors for intracochlear measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth S.; Nakajima, Hideko H.

    2015-02-01

    Fiber-optic pressure sensors have been developed for measurements of intracochlear pressure. The present family of transducers includes an 81 μm diameter sensor employing a SLED light source and single-mode optic fiber, and LED/multi-mode sensors with 126 and 202 μm diameter. The 126 μm diameter pressure sensor also has been constructed with an electrode adhered to its side, for coincident pressure and voltage measurements. These sensors have been used for quantifying cochlear mechanical impedances, informing our understanding of conductive hearing loss and its remediation, and probing the operation of the cochlear amplifier.

  6. Intracochlear pressure measurements in scala media inform models of cochlear mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sushrut; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2015-12-01

    In the classic view of cochlear mechanics, the cochlea is comprised of two identical fluid chambers separated by the cochlear partition (CP). In this view the traveling wave pressures in the two chambers mirror each other; they are equal in magnitude and opposite in phase. A fast pressure mode adds approximately uniformly. More recent models of cochlear mechanics take into account the structural complexity of the CP and the resulting additional mechanical modes would lead to distinct (non-symmetric) patterns of pressure and motion on the two sides of the CP. However, there was little to no physiological data that explored these predictions. To this aim, we measured intracochlear fluid pressure in scala media (SM), including measurements close to the sensory tissue, using miniaturized pressure sensors (˜ 80 μm outer diameter). Measurements were made in-vivo from the basal cochlear turn in gerbils. SM pressure was measured at two longitudinal locations in different preparations. In a subset of the experiments SM and ST (scala tympani) pressures were measured at the same longitudinal location. Traveling wave pressures were observed in both SM and ST, and showed the relative phase predicted by the classical theory. In addition, SM pressure showed spatial variations that had not been observed in ST, which points to a relatively complex CP motion on the SM side. These data both underscore the first-order validity of the classic cochlear traveling wave model, and open a new view to CP mechanics.

  7. Assessment of the effects of superior canal dehiscence location and size on intracochlear sound pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, Marlien E F; Stieger, Christof; Lee, Daniel J; Merchant, Julie P; Grolman, Wilko; Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a defect in the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal. Patients with SCD present with a wide range of symptoms, including hearing loss, yet it is unknown whether hearing is affected by parameters such as the location of the SCD. Our previous human

  8. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  9. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  10. Intracochlear Schwannoma: Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve are benign tumors that usually occur in the internal auditory canal or the cerebellopontine angle cistern. Rarely, these tumors may originate from the neural elements within the vestibule, cochlea, or semicircular canals and are called intralabyrinthine schwannomas. Intracochlear schwannomas (ICSs represent a small percentage of these tumors, and their diagnosis is based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Objectives To report the clinical and radiologic features and audiometric testing results of an ICS in a 48-year-old man after a 22-month follow-up period. Resumed Report A patient with an 8-year history of persistent tinnitus in his right ear, combined with ipsilateral progressive hearing loss and aural fullness. Audiometry revealed normal hearing in the left ear and a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear, with decreased speech reception threshold and word recognition score, compared with the exam performed 5 years previously. MRI showed a small intracochlear nodular lesion in the modiolus, isointense on T1 with a high contrast enhancement on T1 postgadolinium images. During the follow-up period, there were no radiologic changes on imaging studies. Thus, a wait-and-scan policy was chosen as the lesion remained stable with no considerable growth and the patient still presents with residual hearing. Conclusions Once diagnosed, not all ICS patients require surgery. Treatment options for ICS include stereotactic radiotherapy and rescanning policy, depending on the tumor's size, evidence of the tumor's growth, degree of hearing loss, intractable vestibular symptoms, concern about the pathologic diagnosis, and the patient's other medical conditions.

  11. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  12. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  13. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  14. Semiconductor-based electret sensors for sound and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet; Sprenkels, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The theory and experimental results for integrated electret-based silicon sensors for the detection of sound and pressure are presented. A silicon electret microphone for use in hearing-aids is described. It has an experimentally determined sensitivity of 19 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 50 Hz to

  15. Tinnitus Suppression by Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation in Single Sided Deafness - A Prospective Clinical Trial: Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo A G J Arts

    Full Text Available Earlier studies show that a Cochlear Implant (CI, capable of providing intracochlear electrical stimulation independent of environmental sounds, appears to suppress tinnitus at least for minutes. The current main objective is to compare the long-term suppressive effects of looped (i.e. repeated electrical stimulation (without environmental sound perception with the standard stimulation pattern of a CI (with environmental sound perception. This could open new possibilities for the development of a "Tinnitus Implant" (TI, an intracochlear pulse generator for the suppression of tinnitus.Ten patients with single sided deafness suffering from unilateral tinnitus in the deaf ear are fitted with a CI (MED-EL Corporation, Innsbruck, Austria. Stimulation patterns are optimized for each individual patient, after which they are compared using a randomized crossover design, with a follow-up of six months, followed by a 3 month period using the modality of patient's choice.Results show that tinnitus can be suppressed with intracochlear electrical stimulation independent of environmental sounds, even long term. No significant difference in tinnitus suppression was found between the standard clinical CI and the TI.It can be concluded that coding of environmental sounds is no requirement for tinnitus suppression with intracochlear electrical stimulation. It is therefore plausible that tinnitus suppression by CI is not solely caused by an attention shift from the tinnitus to environmental sounds. Both the standard clinical CI and the experimental TI are potential treatment options for tinnitus. These findings offer perspectives for a successful clinical application of the TI, possibly even in patients with significant residual hearing.TrialRegister.nl NTR3374.

  16. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  17. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  18. Numerical Model on Sound-Solid Coupling in Human Ear and Study on Sound Pressure of Tympanic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wen-juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of three-dimensional finite-element model of the whole auditory system includes external ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The sound-solid-liquid coupling frequency response analysis of the model was carried out. The correctness of the FE model was verified by comparing the vibration modes of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate with the experimental data. According to calculation results of the model, we make use of the least squares method to fit out the distribution of sound pressure of external auditory canal and obtain the sound pressure function on the tympanic membrane which varies with frequency. Using the sound pressure function, the pressure distribution on the tympanic membrane can be directly derived from the sound pressure at the external auditory canal opening. The sound pressure function can make the boundary conditions of the middle ear structure more accurate in the mechanical research and improve the previous boundary treatment which only applied uniform pressure acting to the tympanic membrane.

  19. Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyou Sik Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA- embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.

  20. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  1. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity...... at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound...... pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons...

  2. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  3. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  4. A Loudness Function for Maintaining Spectral Balance at Changing Sound Pressure Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    Our perception of loudness is a function of frequency as well as sound pressure level as described in ISO226:2003: Normal Equal Loudness Level Contours, which describes the needed sound pressure level for pure tones to be perceived equally loud. At a music performance, this is taking care...... of by the sound engineer by listening to the individual sound sources and adjust and equalize them to the wanted spectral balance including the whole chain of audio equipment and surroundings. At a live venue the sound pressure level will normally change during a concert, and typically increase over time......B is doubling of the effect to the loudspeakers). A level depending digital loudness function has been made based on ISO226:2003, and will be demonstrated. It can maintain the spectral balance at alternating levels and is based on fractional order digital filters. Tutorial. Abstract T3.3 (30th August 16:00 - 17...

  5. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  6. Speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for propane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New speed of sound data for six propane derivatives is reported. • Temperature and pressure ranges: (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. • Data are compared with those available for other propane derivatives. • Temperature and pressure dependencies of sound speed are analyzed. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the temperature and pressure intervals (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa was measured for nitropropane, propionitrile, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, propylamine and propionic acid. An apparatus based on the acoustic wave time of flight determination, with a fully automatized temperature and pressure control, was used to this aim. The speed of sound derivatives against temperature and pressure, as well as the nonlinear acoustic coefficient was obtained from experimental values. The results are analyzed and compared with previously reported data for other propane derivatives: propane, 1-propanol, propanone, d-propanone, and several fluoropropanes. All obtained magnitudes are rationalized basing on the physicochemical properties of these fluids. Nearness to critical point and molar mass are revealed as key factors as regards the speed of sound behavior against temperature and pressure.

  7. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  8. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  9. Investigating the relationship between pressure force and acoustic waveform in footstep sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Serafin, Stefania; Götzen, Amalia De

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair o...... of sandals embedded with six pressure sensors each. Investigations of the relationships between recorded force and footstep sounds is presented, together with several possible applications of the system.......In this paper we present an inquiry into of the relationships between audio waveforms and ground reaction force in recorded footstep sounds. In an anechoic room, we recorded several footstep sounds produced while walking on creaking wood and gravel. The recordings were performed by using a pair...

  10. MP3 player listening sound pressure levels among 10 to 17 year old students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Haider, Ifaz; Marro, Leonora; Thompson, Emma; Marcoux, Andre M

    2011-11-01

    Using a manikin, equivalent free-field sound pressure level measurements were made from the portable digital audio players of 219 subjects, aged 10 to 17 years (93 males) at their typical and "worst-case" volume levels. Measurements were made in different classrooms with background sound pressure levels between 40 and 52 dBA. After correction for the transfer function of the ear, the median equivalent free field sound pressure levels and interquartile ranges (IQR) at typical and worst-case volume settings were 68 dBA (IQR = 15) and 76 dBA (IQR = 19), respectively. Self-reported mean daily use ranged from 0.014 to 12 h. When typical sound pressure levels were considered in combination with the average daily duration of use, the median noise exposure level, Lex, was 56 dBA (IQR = 18) and 3.2% of subjects were estimated to exceed the most protective occupational noise exposure level limit in Canada, i.e., 85 dBA Lex. Under worst-case listening conditions, 77.6% of the sample was estimated to listen to their device at combinations of sound pressure levels and average daily durations for which there is no known risk of permanent noise-induced hearing loss, i.e., ≤  75 dBA Lex. Sources and magnitudes of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  11. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  12. Separation and reconstruction of high pressure water-jet reflective sound signal based on ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Sun, Yuling; Li, Meng; Zhang, Dongsu; Wu, Tianfeng

    2011-12-01

    The impact of high pressure water-jet on the different materials target will produce different reflective mixed sound. In order to reconstruct the reflective sound signals distribution on the linear detecting line accurately and to separate the environment noise effectively, the mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were processed by ICA. The basic principle of ICA and algorithm of FASTICA were described in detail. The emulation experiment was designed. The environment noise signal was simulated by using band-limited white noise and the reflective sound signal was simulated by using pulse signal. The reflective sound signal attenuation produced by the different distance transmission was simulated by weighting the sound signal with different contingencies. The mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were synthesized by using the above simulated signals and were whitened and separated by ICA. The final results verified that the environment noise separation and the reconstruction of the detecting-line sound distribution can be realized effectively.

  13. An analysis of collegiate band directors' exposure to sound pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Nikole Moore

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant but unfortunate common occupational hazard. The purpose of the current study was to measure the magnitude of sound pressure levels generated within a collegiate band room and determine if those sound pressure levels are of a magnitude that exceeds the policy standards and recommendations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition, reverberation times were measured and analyzed in order to determine the appropriateness of acoustical conditions for the band rehearsal environment. Sound pressure measurements were taken from the rehearsal of seven collegiate marching bands. Single sample t test were conducted to compare the sound pressure levels of all bands to the noise exposure standards of OSHA and NIOSH. Multiple regression analysis were conducted and analyzed in order to determine the effect of the band room's conditions on the sound pressure levels and reverberation times. Time weighted averages (TWA), noise percentage doses, and peak levels were also collected. The mean Leq for all band directors was 90.5 dBA. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 77.6% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total calculated TWA for all band directors was 88.2% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 152.1% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standards, and the total calculated TWA for all band directors was 93dBA of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standard. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the room volume, the level of acoustical treatment and the mean room reverberation time predicted 80% of the variance in sound pressure levels in this study.

  14. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure tone Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels for the Interacoustics DD45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD45 transducer resembles the classical Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure...... tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. The results show that the DD45 may be a good...

  15. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  16. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  17. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  18. Tutorial and Guidelines on Measurement of Sound Pressure Level in Voice and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to…

  19. Influence of impedance phase angle on sound pressures and reverberation times in a rectangular room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Doheon; Santurette, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    , but with an absorptive ceiling are investigated. The zero phase angle, which has commonly been assumed in practice, is regarded as reference and differences in the sound pressure level and early decay time from the reference are quantified. As expected, larger differences in the room acoustic parameters are found...

  20. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  1. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  2. Variation of the Korotkoff Stethoscope Sounds During Blood Pressure Measurement: Analysis Using a Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; He, Peiyu; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Taiyong; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-11-01

    Korotkoff sounds are known to change their characteristics during blood pressure (BP) measurement, resulting in some uncertainties for systolic and diastolic pressure (SBP and DBP) determinations. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of Korotkoff sounds during BP measurement by examining all stethoscope sounds associated with each heartbeat from above systole to below diastole during linear cuff deflation. Three repeat BP measurements were taken from 140 healthy subjects (age 21 to 73 years; 62 female and 78 male) by a trained observer, giving 420 measurements. During the BP measurements, the cuff pressure and stethoscope signals were simultaneously recorded digitally to a computer for subsequent analysis. Heartbeats were identified from the oscillometric cuff pressure pulses. The presence of each beat was used to create a time window (1 s, 2000 samples) centered on the oscillometric pulse peak for extracting beat-by-beat stethoscope sounds. A time-frequency two-dimensional matrix was obtained for the stethoscope sounds associated with each beat, and all beats between the manually determined SBPs and DBPs were labeled as "Korotkoff." A convolutional neural network was then used to analyze consistency in sound patterns that were associated with Korotkoff sounds. A 10-fold cross-validation strategy was applied to the stethoscope sounds from all 140 subjects, with the data from ten groups of 14 subjects being analyzed separately, allowing consistency to be evaluated between groups. Next, within-subject variation of the Korotkoff sounds analyzed from the three repeats was quantified, separately for each stethoscope sound beat. There was consistency between folds with no significant differences between groups of 14 subjects (P = 0.09 to P = 0.62). Our results showed that 80.7% beats at SBP and 69.5% at DBP were analyzed as Korotkoff sounds, with significant differences between adjacent beats at systole (13.1%, P = 0.001) and diastole (17.4%, P < 0

  3. Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, like hypertension, is one of the top killers of human life and early detection of cardiovascular disease is of great importance. However, traditional medical devices are often bulky and expensive, and unsuitable for home healthcare. In this paper, we proposed an easy and inexpensive technique to estimate continuous blood pressure from the heart sound signals acquired by the microphone of a smartphone. A cold-pressor experiment was performed in 32 healthy subjects, with a smartphone to acquire heart sound signals and with a commercial device to measure continuous blood pressure. The Fourier spectrum of the second heart sound and the blood pressure were regressed using a support vector machine, and the accuracy of the regression was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Statistical analysis showed that the mean correlation coefficients between the predicted values from the regression model and the measured values from the commercial device were 0.707, 0.712, and 0.748 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively, and that the mean errors were less than 5 mmHg, with standard deviations less than 8 mmHg. These results suggest that this technique is of potential use for cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring and it has promising application in home healthcare services.

  4. Second sound, osmotic pressure, and Fermi-liquid parameters in 3He-4He solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corruccini, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Second-sound velocities and osmotic pressures are analyzed to obtain the first experimental values for the Landau compressibility parameter F 0 /sup s/ in 3 He- 4 He solutions. Data are presented as a function of pressure and 3 He concentration, and are compared to theoretical predictions. The square of the second-sound velocity at finite temperature is found to be accurately proportional to the internal energy of a perfect Fermi gas. Using inertial effective masses given by the Landau-Pomeranchuk theory, the square of the velocity is found to separate into two parts: a temperature-dependent part characterized completely by ideal Fermi-gas behavior and a temperature-independent part containing all the Fermi-liquid corrections. This is related to a similar separation found in the osmotic pressure

  5. Sound produced by an oscillating arc in a high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Fedor K.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    We suggest a simple theory to describe the sound generated by small periodic perturbations of a cylindrical arc in a dense gas. Theoretical analysis was done within the framework of the non-self-consistent channel arc model and supplemented with time-dependent gas dynamic equations. It is shown that an arc with power amplitude oscillations on the order of several percent is a source of sound whose intensity is comparable with external ultrasound sources used in experiments to increase the yield of nanoparticles in the high pressure arc systems for nanoparticle synthesis.

  6. What ears do for bats: a comparative study of pinna sound pressure transformation in chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, M K; Fenton, M B; Eger, J L; Schlegel, P A

    1993-07-01

    Using a moveable loudspeaker and an implanted microphone, we studied the sound pressure transformation of the external ears of 47 species of bats from 13 families. We compared pinna gain, directionality of hearing and interaural intensity differences (IID) in echolocating and non-echolocating bats, in species using different echolocation strategies and in species that depend upon prey-generated sounds to locate their targets. In the Pteropodidae, two echolocating species had slightly higher directionality than a non-echolocating species. The ears of phyllostomid and vespertilionid species showed moderate directionality. In the Mormoopidae, the ear directionality of Pteronotus parnellii clearly matched the dominant spectral component of its echolocation calls, unlike the situation in three other species. Species in the Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Rhinopomatidae and two vespertilionids that use narrow-band search-phase echolocation calls showed increasingly sharp tuning of the pinna to the main frequency of their signals. Similar tuning was most evident in Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, species specialized for flutter detection via Doppler-shifted echoes of high-duty-cycle narrow-band signals. The large pinnae of bats that use prey-generated sounds to find their targets supply high sound pressure gain at lower frequencies. Increasing domination of a narrow spectral band in echolocation is reflected in the passive acoustic properties of the external ears (sharper directionality). The importance of IIDs for lateralization and horizontal localization is discussed by comparing the behavioural directional performance of bats with their bioacoustical features.

  7. ANALYSIS OF SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL AND LAY OUT OF ENGINES IN THE FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling layout of engines in the factory is very useful to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the building in order to avoid hearing damage of employees that are caused by noise. The objective of this research is to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the factory with engine composition such as boiler, diesel, turbine, motor and gear box with dimension of building are 40 m length, 35 m width and 10 m height. With MATLAB analysis can be obtain that the highest SPL is 104.7 dB and the lowest is 93.5 dB, so, this range are dangerous for human hearing. To avoid hearing damage in this area, employees must use hearing protector.

  8. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  9. Sound velocity and equation-of-state measurements in high pressure fluid and solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A piston--cylinder apparatus was used to obtain P, V, T, and simultaneous values of longitudinal sound velocity in helium fluid throughout the ranges 75 to 300 0 K and 3 to 20 kbar. Some 670 data sets were obtained for the fluid and used in a double-process least-squares fit to an equation of state of the Benedict type. Additional measurements extended across the melting line into the solid phase at pressures up to 18 kbar. Measurements of the compressibility are compared with those obtained by Stewart along the 4 0 K isotherm up to 20 kbar. We discuss the use of helium as a pressure medium in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. Essentially no data are given

  10. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong; Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  11. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong [Agency for Defence Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  12. Reconstruction of Sound Source Pressures in an Enclosure Using the Phased Beam Tracing Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2009-01-01

    . First, surfaces of an extended source are divided into reasonably small segments. From each source segment, one beam is projected into the field and all emitted beams are traced. Radiated beams from the source reach array sensors after traveling various paths including the wall reflections. Collecting...... all the pressure histories at the field points, source-observer relations can be constructed in a matrix-vector form for each frequency. By multiplying the measured field data with the pseudo-inverse of the calculated transfer function, one obtains the distribution of source pressure. An omni......-directional sphere and a cubic source in a rectangular enclosure were taken as examples in the simulation tests. A reconstruction error was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of field point locations. When the source information was reconstructed by the present method, it was shown that the sound power...

  13. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Manson, Robert; Robbins, Carol; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Cao, Guo Zhong; Shen, I Y; Hume, Clifford R

    2015-12-01

    Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT). This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT. This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays.

  15. Do high sound pressure levels of crowing in roosters necessitate passive mechanisms for protection against self-vocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Raf; Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Aerts, Peter

    2018-02-01

    High sound pressure levels (>120dB) cause damage or death of the hair cells of the inner ear, hence causing hearing loss. Vocalization differences are present between hens and roosters. Crowing in roosters is reported to produce sound pressure levels of 100dB measured at a distance of 1m. In this study we measured the sound pressure levels that exist at the entrance of the outer ear canal. We hypothesize that roosters may benefit from a passive protective mechanism while hens do not require such a mechanism. Audio recordings at the level of the entrance of the outer ear canal of crowing roosters, made in this study, indeed show that a protective mechanism is needed as sound pressure levels can reach amplitudes of 142.3dB. Audio recordings made at varying distances from the crowing rooster show that at a distance of 0.5m sound pressure levels already drop to 102dB. Micro-CT scans of a rooster and chicken head show that in roosters the auditory canal closes when the beak is opened. In hens the diameter of the auditory canal only narrows but does not close completely. A morphological difference between the sexes in shape of a bursa-like slit which occurs in the outer ear canal causes the outer ear canal to close in roosters but not in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  17. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2 SPL rms re 2.10(-5 Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6 SPL re 2.10(-5 Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  18. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  19. Locked-in syndrome caused by the pressure exerted by the sound gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Belin Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient who wounded himself with a gun in the cranial region had a Glasgow coma scale of 3E. At posttraumatic day 7, locked-in syndrome was considered upon detection of vertical eye movements, meaningful winks, and quadriplegia. Apart from the classical view, computed tomography (CT and postmortem examination of the brain showed an infarct area in the cerebellum. However, vertebrobasilar artery system was normal. In this case report, we would like to present that unlike cases with ischemia, specific CT findings may not be evident in posttraumatic cases and ischemia may occur in the cerebellum as a result of the pressure exerted by a sound gun.

  20. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. J. L.; do Nascimento, E. O.; de Oliveira, L. N.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, 25 points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiânia, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institute, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiânia for all points.

  1. Sound pressure levels generated at risk volume steps of portable listening devices: types of smartphone and genres of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2018-05-01

    The present study estimated the sound pressure levels of various music genres at the volume steps that contemporary smartphones deliver, because these levels put the listener at potential risk for hearing loss. Using six different smartphones (Galaxy S6, Galaxy Note 3, iPhone 5S, iPhone 6, LG G2, and LG G3), the sound pressure levels for three genres of K-pop music (dance-pop, hip-hop, and pop-ballad) and a Billboard pop chart of assorted genres were measured through an earbud for the first risk volume that was at the risk sign proposed by the smartphones, as well as consecutive higher volumes using a sound level meter and artificial mastoid. The first risk volume step of the Galaxy S6 and the LG G2, among the six smartphones, had the significantly lowest (84.1 dBA) and highest output levels (92.4 dBA), respectively. As the volume step increased, so did the sound pressure levels. The iPhone 6 was loudest (113.1 dBA) at the maximum volume step. Of the music genres, dance-pop showed the highest output level (91.1 dBA) for all smartphones. Within the frequency range of 20~ 20,000 Hz, the sound pressure level peaked at 2000 Hz for all the smartphones. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of either the first volume step or the maximum volume step were not the same for the different smartphone models and genres of music, which means that the risk volume sign and its output levels should be unified across the devices for their users. In addition, the risk volume steps proposed by the latest smartphone models are high enough to cause noise-induced hearing loss if their users habitually listen to music at those levels.

  2. Surgical implications of perimodiolar cochlear implant electrode design: avoiding intracochlear damage and scala vestibuli insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R J; Tykocinski, M; Saunders, E; Hellier, W; Dahm, M; Pyman, B; Clark, G M

    2001-09-01

    To review the mechanisms and nature of intracochlear damage associated with cochlear implant electrode array insertion, in particular, the various perimodiolar electrode designs. Make recommendations regarding surgical techniques for the Nucleus Contour electrode to ensure correct position and minimal insertion trauma. The potential advantages of increased modiolar proximity of intracochlear multichannel electrode arrays are a reduction in stimulation thresholds, an increase in dynamic range and more localized neural excitation. This may improve speech perception and reduce power consumption. These advantages may be negated if increased intracochlear damage results from the method used to position the electrodes close to the modiolus. A review of the University of Melbourne Department of Otolaryngology experience with temporal bone safety studies using the Nucleus standard straight electrode array and a variety of perimodiolar electrode array designs; comparison with temporal bone insertion studies from other centres and postmortem histopathology studies reported in the literature. Review of our initial clinical experience using the Nucleus Contour electrode array. The nature of intracochlear damage resulting from electrode insertion trauma ranges from minor, localized, spiral ligament tear to diffuse organ of Corti disruption and osseous spiral lamina fracture. The type of damage depends on the mechanical characteristics of the electrode array, the stiffness, curvature and size of the electrode in relation to the scala, and the surgical technique. The narrow, flexible, straight arrays are the least traumatic. Pre-curved or stiffer arrays are associated with an incidence of basilar membrane perforation. The cochleostomy must be correctly sited in relation to the round window to ensure scala tympani insertion. A cochleostomy anterior to the round window rather than inferior may lead to scala media or scala vestibuli insertion. Proximity of electrodes to the modiolus

  3. An analysis of the correlations between the turbulent flow and the sound pressure fields of subsonic jets

    OpenAIRE

    Bogey , Christophe; Bailly , Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Noise generation is investigated in subsonic isothermal round jets at Mach numbers M =0.6 and M =0.9, with Reynolds numbers ReD =1700 and ReD 105, using causality methods on data provided by large-eddy simulations. The correlations between broadband sound pressure signals and broadband turbulence signals along the jet axis and the shear layer are calculated. The normalized correlations are found to be significant between the pressure emitted in the downstream direction...

  4. Laboratory measurement of elastic anisotropy on spherical rock samples by longitudinal and transverse sounding under confining pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Svitek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, February 2015 (2015), s. 294-302 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102; GA ČR GAP104/12/0915; GA ČR GA13-13967S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : elastic anisotropy * hydrostatic pressure * ultrasonic sounding * high pressure * longitudinal and shear waves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.954, year: 2015

  5. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  6. Assessment of Cochlear Function during Cochlear Implantation by Extra- and Intracochlear Electrocochleography

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbert, Adrian; Pfiffner, Flurin; Hoesli, Marco; Koka, Kanthaiah; Veraguth, Dorothe; Roosli, Christof; Huber, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) To investigate the correlation between electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation and postoperative hearing loss, and (2) to detect the time points that electrophysiological changes occur during cochlear implantation. Material and Methods: Extra- and intracochlear electrocochleography (ECoG) were used to detect electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation. Extracochlear ECoG recordings were conducted through a needle elec...

  7. Investigation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of earphones during music listening with the use of physical ear canal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aying, K. P.; Otadoy, R. E.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates on the sound pressure level (SPL) of insert-type earphones that are commonly used for music listening of the general populace. Measurements of SPL from earphones of different respondents were measured by plugging the earphone to a physical ear canal model. Durations of the earphone used for music listening were also gathered through short interviews. Results show that 21% of the respondents exceed the standard loudness/duration relation recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

  8. Modeling and segmentation of intra-cochlear anatomy in conventional CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack H.; Rutherford, Robert B.; Labadie, Robert F.; Majdani, Omid; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2010-03-01

    Cochlear implant surgery is a procedure performed to treat profound hearing loss. Since the cochlea is not visible in surgery, the physician uses anatomical landmarks to estimate the pose of the cochlea. Research has indicated that implanting the electrode in a particular cavity of the cochlea, the scala tympani, results in better hearing restoration. The success of the scala tympani implantation is largely dependent on the point of entry and angle of electrode insertion. Errors can occur due to the imprecise nature of landmark-based, manual navigation as well as inter-patient variations between scala tympani and the anatomical landmarks. In this work, we use point distribution models of the intra-cochlear anatomy to study the inter-patient variations between the cochlea and the typical anatomic landmarks, and we implement an active shape model technique to automatically localize intra-cochlear anatomy in conventional CT images, where intra-cochlear structures are not visible. This fully automatic segmentation could aid the surgeon to choose the point of entry and angle of approach to maximize the likelihood of scala tympani insertion, resulting in more substantial hearing restoration.

  9. Insertion forces and intracochlear trauma in temporal bone specimens implanted with a straight atraumatic electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalehi, Marjan; Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Hügl, Silke; Mohebbi, Saleh; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate insertion forces during manual insertion of a straight atraumatic electrode in human temporal bones, and post-implantation histologic evaluation of the samples to determine whether violation of intracochlear structures is related to insertion forces. In order to minimize intracochlear trauma and preserve residual hearing during cochlear implantation, knowledge of the insertion forces is necessary. Ten fresh frozen human temporal bones were prepared with canal wall down mastoidectomy. All samples were mounted on a one-axis force sensor. Insertion of a 16-mm straight atraumatic electrode was performed from different angles to induce "traumatic" insertion. Histologic evaluation was performed in order to evaluate intracochlear trauma. In 4 of 10 samples, dislocation of the electrode into scala vestibuli was observed. The mean insertion force for all 10 procedures was 0.003 ± 0.005 N. Insertion forces measured around the site of dislocation to scala vestibuli in 3 of 4 samples were significantly higher than insertion forces at the same location of the cochleae measured in samples without trauma (p straight atraumatic electrode is lower than reported by other studies using longer electrodes. Based on our study, insertion forces leading to basilar membrane trauma may be lower than the previously reported direct rupture forces.

  10. Joint reconstruction of the initial pressure and speed of sound distributions from combined photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    The initial pressure and speed of sound (SOS) distributions cannot both be stably recovered from photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) measurements alone. Adjunct ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) measurements can be employed to estimate the SOS distribution. Under the conventional image reconstruction approach for combined PACT/USCT systems, the SOS is estimated from the USCT measurements alone and the initial pressure is estimated from the PACT measurements by use of the previously estimated SOS. This approach ignores the acoustic information in the PACT measurements and may require many USCT measurements to accurately reconstruct the SOS. In this work, a joint reconstruction method where the SOS and initial pressure distributions are simultaneously estimated from combined PACT/USCT measurements is proposed. This approach allows accurate estimation of both the initial pressure distribution and the SOS distribution while requiring few USCT measurements.

  11. Exposure to classroom sound pressure level among dance teachers in Porto Alegre (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehring, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dance teachers are exposed to high sound intensities. Aim: To verify the sound intensity of music used by dance teachers during classes. Method: This was a transversal and prospective study. Dance teachers were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, and sound intensity level measurements were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of dance classes. Results: The sample comprised 35 teachers (average age, 31.8 years. The duration of their career as dance teachers was 1-37 years; they worked daily for approximately 1-10 h. Among the classes followed, there were 15 (42.85% classical ballet classes, 4 (11.42% tap dancing lessons, 5 (14.28% jazz dance classes, 2 (5.71 Arab dance lessons, 6 (17.14% street dance classes, and 3 (8.57% ballroom dancing lessons. The average values observed at the beginning, middle, and end of the classes were 80.91 dB (A, 83.22 dB (A, and 85.19 dB (A, respectively. The music played in the street dance classes exposed teachers to the highest sound intensity. Conclusion: The average level of sound intensity of the dance classes in this study was either below or equal to the limit considered harmful for hearing health. Analysis of different class types showed that the sound densities of street, ballroom, and tap dance classes were above the recommended limits.

  12. Sound pressure distribution in a long, narrow hallway: Measurements versus results from a computer model with scattering from surface roughness and diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lily M.; Rathsam, Jonathan; Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    The sound pressure level distributrion down a long, narrow hallway due to a sound source at one end does not decrease linearly along the length of the hall. This characteristic may be due to the changing behaviour of scattering that occurs down the length of the hallway, which is distance...

  13. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  14. Experimental analysis of considering the sound pressure distribution pattern at the ear canal entrance as an unrevealed head-related localization clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xin; QI Na; MENG Zihou

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between binaural recording and real listening,it was deduced that there were some unrevealed auditory localization clues,and the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of ear canal was probably a clue.It was proved through the listening test that the unrevealed auditory localization clues really exist with the reduction to absurdity.And the effective frequency bands of the unrevealed localization clues were induced and summed.The result of finite element based simulations showed that the pressure distribution at the entrance of ear canal was non-uniform,and the pattern was related to the direction of sound source.And it was proved that the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of the ear canal carried the sound source direction information and could be used as an unrevealed localization cluc.The frequency bands in which the sound pressure distribution patterns had significant differences between front and back sound source directions were roughly matched with the effective frequency bands of unrevealed localization clues obtained from the listening tests.To some extent,it supports the hypothesis that the sound pressure distribution pattern could be a kind of unrevealed auditory localization clues.

  15. Pressure evolution of the high-frequency sound velocity in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, M.; Sette, F.; D'Astuto, M.; Lorenzen, M.; Mermet, A.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.; Loubeyre, P.; Le Toullec, R.; Ruocco, G.; Cunsolo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The high-frequency sound velocity v ∞ of liquid water has been determined to densities of 1.37 g/cm 3 by inelastic x-ray scattering. In comparison to the hydrodynamic sound velocity v 0 , the increase of v ∞ with density is substantially less pronounced, indicating that, at high density, the hydrogen-bond network is decreasingly relevant to the physical properties of liquid water. Furthermore, we observe an anomaly in v ∞ at densities around 1.12 g/cm 3 , contrasting the smooth density evolution of v 0

  16. Dexamethasone levels and base to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N.; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Hartsock, Jared; Plontke, Stefan K.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations and lower base-to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window, RW) application. Background Local application of drugs to the RW results in substantial variation of intracochlear drug levels and significant base-to apex concentration gradients in ST. Methods Two μL of dexamethasone-phosphate (10 mg/mL) were injected into ST either through the RW membrane which was covered with 1% sodium hyaluronate gel or through a cochleostomy with a fluid tight seal of the micropipette. Perilymph was sequentially sampled from the apex at a single time point for each animal, at 20, 80, or 200 min after the injection ended. Results were mathematically interpreted by the means of an established computer model and compared with prior experiments performed by our group with the same experimental techniques but using intratympanic applications. Results Single intracochlear injections over 20 min resulted in approximately ten times higher peak concentrations (on average) than 2-3 hours of intratympanic application to the round window niche. Intracochlear drug levels were less variable and could be measured for at least up to 220 min. Concentration gradients along scala tympani were less pronounced. The remaining variability in intracochlear drug levels was attributable to perilymph and drug leak from the injection site. Conclusion With significantly higher, less variable drug levels and smaller base-to apex concentration gradients, intracochlear applications have advantages to intratympanic injections. For further development of this technique, it is of importance to control leaks of perilymph and drug from the injection site and to evaluate its clinical feasibility and associated risks. PMID:22588238

  17. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  18. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  19. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  20. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  1. Pressure-driven sound turbulence in a high-β plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    In a large laboratory plasma [1 m diamx2 m, n e ≤10 12 cm -3 , β 0 ≅15 G, β e =nkT e /(β 0 2 /2μ 0 )≅0.5], strong density fluctuations (δn/n≅50%) near the lower hybrid frequency (ω ce ω ci ) 1/2 are identified as cross-field sound waves (k perpendicular much-gt k parallel , ω/k perpendicular ≅c s ) driven unstable by the electron diamagnetic drift v d =∇pxB/neβ 2 , v d >c s . Wave steepening and refraction saturate the instability. Wave-enhanced transport but insignificant particle acceleration are observed

  2. A sound pressure field during the quenching of a steel specimen in different water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prezelj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of controlling the quenching process of an orange-hot steel workpiece is to ensure its required surface hardness. A sound in a cooling liquid generated by the quenching process was experimentally analyzed. It contains sufficient information about the ongoing process for its quantification, and it can be used in real time. Traditionally, the quenching and the resultant hardening can be controlled by selecting different process parameters, like, for example the characteristics of the cooling liquid, the velocity of the cooling liquid flow, its temperature, the temperature of the work-piece, and many others. The possibility of controlling the quenching process by using acoustic cavitation is considered in this article.

  3. Sound quality assessment of Diesel combustion noise using in-cylinder pressure components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Margot, X.; Monelletta, L.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion process in direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is an important source of noise, and it is thus the main reason why end-users could be reluctant to drive vehicles powered with this type of engine. This means that the great potential of Diesel engines for environment preservation—due to their lower consumption and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions—may be lost. Moreover, the advanced combustion concepts—e.g. the HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition)—developed to comply with forthcoming emissions legislation, while maintaining the efficiency of current engines, are expected to be noisier because they are characterized by a higher amount of premixed combustion. For this reason many efforts have been dedicated by car manufacturers in recent years to reduce the overall level and improve the sound quality of engine noise. Evaluation procedures are required, both for noise levels and sound quality, that may be integrated in the global engine development process in a timely and cost-effective manner. In previous published work, the authors proposed a novel method for the assessment of engine noise level. A similar procedure is applied in this paper to demonstrate the suitability of combustion indicators for the evaluation of engine noise quality. These indicators, which are representative of the peak velocity of fuel burning and the resonance in the combustion chamber, are well correlated with the combustion noise mark obtained from jury testing. Quite good accuracy in the prediction of the engine noise quality has been obtained with the definition of a two-component regression, which also permits the identification of the combustion process features related to the resulting noise quality, so that corrective actions may be proposed.

  4. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  5. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  6. Sound velocities of the 23 Å phase at high pressure and implications for seismic velocities in subducted slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, N.; Chen, T.; Qi, X.; Inoue, T.; Li, B.

    2017-12-01

    Dense hydrous phases are believed to play an important role in transporting water back into the deep interior of the Earth. Recently, a new Al-bearing hydrous Mg-silicate, named the 23 Å phase (ideal composition Mg12Al2Si4O16(OH)14), was reported (Cai et al., 2015), which could be a very important hydrous phase in subducting slabs. Here for the first time we report the measurements of the compressional and shear wave velocities of the 23 Å phase under applied pressures up to 14 GPa and room temperature, using a bulk sample with a grain size of less than 20 μm and density of 2.947 g/cm3. The acoustic measurements were conducted in a 1000-ton uniaxial split-cylinder multi-anvil apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry techniques (Li et al., 1996). The pressures were determined in situ by using an alumina buffer rod as the pressure marker (Wang et al., 2015). A dual-mode piezoelectric transducer enabled us to measure P and S wave travel times simultaneously, which in turn allowed a precise determination of the sound velocities and elastic bulk and shear moduli at high pressures. A fit to the acoustic data using finite strain analysis combined with a Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds calculation yields: Ks0 = 113.3 GPa, G0 = 42.8 GPa, and K' = 3.8, G' = 1.9 for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. The velocities (especially for S wave) of this 23 Å phase (ambient Vp = 7.53 km/s, Vs = 3.72 km/s) are lower than those of phase A, olivine, pyrope, etc., while the Vp/Vs ratio (from 2.02 to 1.94, decreasing with increasing pressure) is quite high. These results suggest that a hydrous assemblage containing 23 Å phase should be distinguishable from a dry one at high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Al-bearing subducted slabs.

  7. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  8. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules Or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael; Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  9. Tubular manipulators: a new concept for intracochlear positioning of an auditory prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rau Thomas S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of tubular manipulators as an actuator mechanism for intracochlear positioning of the electrode array (EA of a cochlear implant (CI. This is motivated by the vision of an atraumatic insertion of the EA into the inner ear (cochlea without any damage to the intracochlear structures in combination with a well-defined final position. To realize this, an actuator mechanism is required which allows consideration of the patient-specific anatomy. We propose a tubular manipulator for this task. It consists of three concentric tubes: A straight outer tube serves as a guiding sleeve to enter the inner ear (cochlea and two additional telescoping, superelastic, helically precurved tubes. By selecting helical tube parameters of both tubes prior insertion, a patient-specific curling behaviour of the tubular manipulator can be achieved. For preliminary investigation, segmentation and skeletonization of 5 human scala tympani were performed to determine their centrelines. These centrelines were considered as individual ideal insertion paths. An optimization algorithm was developed to identify suitable tube set parameters (curvature, diameter, length, torsion, stiffness as well as configuration parameters (translation and rotation of the 2 inner tubes. Different error values describing the deviation of the shape of the tubes with respect to the insertion path were used to quantify the optimization results. In all cases tube set parameters for a final position within the cochlea were found, while keeping the maximum error below 1mm. These preliminary results are promising in terms of the potential applicability of tubular manipulators for positioning auditory prosthesis inside the scala tympani of the inner ear.

  10. Astrocyte Hypertrophy and Microglia Activation in the Rat Auditory Midbrain Is Induced by Electrical Intracochlear Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskothen-Kuhl, Nicole; Hildebrandt, Heika; Birkenhäger, Ralf; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions contribute to tissue homeostasis and functional plasticity in the mammalian brain, but it remains unclear how this is achieved. The potential of central auditory brain tissue for stimulation-dependent cellular remodeling was studied in hearing-experienced and neonatally deafened rats. At adulthood, both groups received an intracochlear electrode into the left cochlea and were continuously stimulated for 1 or 7 days after waking up from anesthesia. Normal hearing and deafness were assessed by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The effectiveness of stimulation was verified by electrically evoked ABRs as well as immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization for the immediate early gene product Fos on sections through the auditory midbrain containing the inferior colliculus (IC). Whereas hearing-experienced animals showed a tonotopically restricted Fos response in the IC contralateral to electrical intracochlear stimulation, Fos-positive neurons were found almost throughout the contralateral IC in deaf animals. In deaf rats, the Fos response was accompanied by a massive increase of GFAP indicating astrocytic hypertrophy, and a local activation of microglial cells identified by IBA1. These glia responses led to a noticeable increase of neuron-glia approximations. Moreover, staining for the GABA synthetizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 rose significantly in neuronal cell bodies and presynaptic boutons in the contralateral IC of deaf rats. Activation of neurons and glial cells and tissue re-composition were in no case accompanied by cell death as would have been apparent by a Tunel reaction. These findings suggest that growth and activity of glial cells is crucial for the local adjustment of neuronal inhibition to neuronal excitation.

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  12. Evaluation of the effects of various sound pressure levels on the level of serum aldosterone concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs on the serum aldosterone level among rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three. Three groups were considered as the control groups and the rest (i.e., 12 groups as the case groups. Rats of the case groups were exposed to SPLs of 85, 95, and 105 dBA. White noise was used as the noise to which the rats were exposed. To measure the level of rats’ serum aldosterone, 3 mL of each rat’s sample blood was directly taken from the heart of anesthetized animals by using syringes. The taken blood samples were put in labeled test tubes that contained anticoagulant Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In the laboratory, the level of aldosterone was assessed through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. The collected data were analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant change in the level of rats’ serum aldosterone as a result of exposure to SPLs of 65, 85, and 95 dBA. However, the level of serum aldosterone experienced a remarkable increase after exposure to the SPL of 105 dBA (P < 0.001. Thus, the SPL had a significant impact on the serum aldosterone level (P < 0.001. In contrast, the exposure time and the level of potassium in the used water did not have any measurable influence on the level of serum aldosterone (P = 0.25 and 0.39. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that serum aldosterone can be used as a biomarker in the face of sound

  13. Bilateral Changes of Spontaneous Activity Within the Central Auditory Pathway Upon Chronic Unilateral Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Götze, Romy; Gröschel, Moritz; Jansen, Sebastian; Janke, Oliver; Tzschentke, Barbara; Boyle, Patrick; Ernst, Arne

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cochlear implants have been applied successfully for the treatment of unilateral hearing loss with quite surprising benefit. One reason for this successful treatment, including the relief from tinnitus, could be the normalization of spontaneous activity in the central auditory pathway because of the electrical stimulation. The present study, therefore, investigated at a cellular level, the effect of a unilateral chronic intracochlear stimulation on key structures of the central auditory pathway. Normal-hearing guinea pigs were mechanically single-sided deafened through a standard HiFocus1j electrode array (on a HiRes 90k cochlear implant) being inserted into the first turn of the cochlea. Four to five electrode contacts could be used for the stimulation. Six weeks after surgery, the speech processor (Auria) was fitted, based on tNRI values and mounted on the animal's back. The two experimental groups were stimulated 16 hours per day for 90 days, using a HiRes strategy based on different stimulation rates (low rate (275 pps/ch), high rate (5000 pps/ch)). The results were compared with those of unilateral deafened controls (implanted but not stimulated), as well as between the treatment groups. All animals experienced a standardized free field auditory environment. The low-rate group showed a significantly lower average spontaneous activity bilaterally in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the medial geniculate body than the controls. However, there was no difference in the inferior colliculus and the primary auditory cortex. Spontaneous activity of the high-rate group was also reduced bilaterally in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in the primary auditory cortex. No differences could be observed between the high-rate group and the controls in the contra-lateral inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body. The high-rate group showed bilaterally a higher activity in the CN and the MGB compared with the low-rate group, whereas in the IC and in the

  14. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  15. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  16. Dexamethasone levels and base-to-apex concentration gradients in the scala tympani perilymph after intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Hartsock, Jared J; Plontke, Stefan K

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations, and lower base-to-apex concentration gradients in the scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window [RW]) application. Local application of drugs to the RW results in substantial variation of intracochlear drug levels and significant base-to-apex concentration gradients in ST. Two microliters of dexamethasone-phosphate (10 mg/ml) were injected into ST either through the RW membrane, which was covered with 1% sodium hyaluronate gel or through a cochleostomy with a fluid tight seal of the micropipette. Perilymph was sequentially sampled from the apex at a single time point for each animal, at 20, 80, or 200 min after the injection ended. Results were mathematically interpreted by means of an established computer model and compared with previous experiments performed by our group with the same experimental techniques but using intratympanic applications. Single intracochlear injections of 20 minutes resulted in approximately 10 times higher peak concentrations (on average) than 2 to 3 hours of intratympanic application to the RW niche. Intracochlear drug levels were less variable and could be measured for over 220 minutes. Concentration gradients along the scala tympani were less pronounced. The remaining variability in intracochlear drug levels was attributable to perilymph and drug leak from the injection site. With significantly higher, less variable drug levels and smaller base-to-apex concentration gradients, intracochlear applications have advantages to intratympanic injections. For further development of this technique, it is of importance to control leaks of perilymph and drug from the injection site and to evaluate its clinical feasibility and associated risks.

  17. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  18. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  19. Differential effects of suppressors on hazardous sound pressure levels generated by AR-15 rifles: Considerations for recreational shooters, law enforcement, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Scott, Ryan; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    Firearm discharges produce hazardous levels of impulse noise that can lead to permanent hearing loss. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of suppression, ammunition, and barrel length on AR-15 rifles. Sound levels were measured left/right of a user's head, and 1-m left of the muzzle, per MIL-STD-1474-D, under both unsuppressed and suppressed conditions. Nine commercially available AR-15 rifles and 14 suppressors were used. Suppressors significantly decreased peak dB SPL at the 1-m location and the left ear location. However, under most rifle/ammunition conditions, levels remained above 140 dB peak SPL near a user's right ear. In a subset of conditions, subsonic ammunition produced values near or below 140 dB peak SPL. Overall suppression ranged from 7-32 dB across conditions. These data indicate that (1) suppressors reduce discharge levels to 140 dB peak SPL or below in only a subset of AR-15 conditions, (2) shorter barrel length and use of muzzle brake devices can substantially increase exposure level for the user, and (3) there are significant left/right ear sound pressure differences under suppressed conditions as a function of the AR-15 direct impingement design that must be considered during sound measurements to fully evaluate overall efficacy.

  20. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  1. Fully automatized apparatus for determining speed of sound for liquids in the temperature and pressure interval (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Troncoso, Jacobo; Romaní, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An apparatus for measuring speed of sound of liquids is described. • Pressure and temperature control is fully automatized. • Uncertainty of the measurements is estimated in 0.1%. • Comparison with literature data confirms the reliability of the methodology. - Abstract: An instrument for determining the speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for liquids is described. It was totally automatized: pressure and temperature values are controlled and time of flight of the ultrasonic wave data were acquired using a digital system which automatically made all required actions. The instrument calibration was made only at atmospheric pressure using high quality data of water and methanol. For higher pressures, the calibration parameters were predicted using a model for the high pressure cell, through finite-element calculations (FEM), in order to realistically determine the changes in the cell induced by the compression. Uncertainties in pressure and temperature were 20 mK and 0.1 MPa, respectively and in speed of sound it was estimated to be about 0.1%. The speeds of sound for water, methanol, hexane, heptane, octane, toluene, ethanol and 1-propanol were determined in the temperature and pressure ranges (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. Comparison with literature data reveals the high reliability of the experimental procedure.

  2. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  3. A pressure plate study on fore and hindlimb loading and the association with hoof contact area in sound ponies at the walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F; Back, W; Dewulf, J; Gasthuys, F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fore- and hind-hoof contact area and limb loading. Data from a previous study on forelimb loading and symmetry were compared with data on hindlimb kinetics, and the fore- and hind-hoof contact area at the walk and trot was evaluated. Five sound ponies, selected for symmetrical feet, were walked and trotted over a pressure plate embedded in a custom-made runway. The hindlimb peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were found to be significantly lower than in the forelimb, whereas their high symmetry ratios (>95%) did not show a significant difference from forelimb data. Hindlimb PVF in ponies was found to be slightly higher when compared to data reported for horses even though the ponies moved at a similar or lower relative velocity. The contact area had low intra-individual variability and was significantly smaller in the hind- than in the fore-hooves. A larger contact area was significantly associated with lower peak vertical pressure (PVP) but higher PVF and VI. No significant differences between left and right sides were found for contact area or loading variables. Pressure plate measurements demonstrated a significant association between hoof contact area and limb loading, in addition to intrinsic differences between fore and hindlimb locomotor function. The pressure plate provides the clinician with a tool to quantify simultaneously contralateral differences in hoof contact area and limb loading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  5. Pressure plate analysis of toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance at the walk and trot in sound sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Veraa, S; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Pille, F; Back, W

    2013-12-01

    Empirically, equine distal limb lameness is often linked to hoof imbalance. To objectively quantify dynamic toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force in sound sport horses, seven Royal Dutch Sport Horses were led at the walk and trot over a dynamically calibrated pressure plate. Forelimb hoof prints were divided into a toe and heel region and a medial and lateral zone. Toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force were calculated throughout the stance. Toe-heel balance was highly symmetrical between contralateral limbs at both gaits. At the walk, medio-lateral balance of both forelimbs presented higher loading in the lateral part of the hoof throughout the stance. However, at the trot, left medio-lateral balance presented higher loading of the medial part of the hoof at impact, whereas the right limb showed higher loading of the lateral part of the hoof in all horses, and both limbs presented increased lateral loading at the end of the stance. This study provides objective data for toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance in sound sport horses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression Water in the Space Launch System Mobile Launcher Using Volume of Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Vehicle consists of a Core Stage with four RS-25 engines and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). This vehicle is launched from the Launchpad using a Mobile Launcher (ML) which supports the SLS vehicle until its liftoff from the ML under its own power. The combination of the four RS-25 engines and two SRBs generate a significant Ignition Over-Pressure (IOP) and Acoustic Sound environment. One of the mitigations of these environments is the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression (IOP/SS) subsystem installed on the ML. This system consists of six water nozzles located parallel to and 24 inches downstream of each SRB nozzle exit plane as well as 16 water nozzles located parallel to and 53 inches downstream of the RS-25 nozzle exit plane. During launch of the SLS vehicle, water is ejected through each water nozzle to reduce the intensity of the transient pressure environment imposed upon the SLS vehicle. While required for the mitigation of the transient pressure environment on the SLS vehicle, the IOP/SS subsystem interacts (possibly adversely) with other systems located on the Launch Pad. One of the other systems that the IOP/SS water is anticipated to interact with is the Hydrogen Burn-Off Igniter System (HBOI). The HBOI system's purpose is to ignite the unburned hydrogen/air mixture that develops in and around the nozzle of the RS-25 engines during engine start. Due to the close proximity of the water system to the HBOI system, the presence of the IOP/SS may degrade the effectiveness of the HBOI system. Another system that the IOP/SS water may interact with adversely is the RS-25 engine nozzles and the SRB nozzles. The adverse interaction anticipated is the wetting, to a significant degree, of the RS-25 nozzles resulting in substantial weight of ice forming and water present to a significant degree upstream of the SRB nozzle exit plane inside the nozzle itself, posing significant additional blockage of the effluent that exits the nozzle

  7. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  8. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic...

  9. Thermoelastic properties of liquid Fe-C revealed by sound velocity and density measurements at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yuta; Terasaki, Hidenori; Urakawa, Satoru; Takubo, Yusaku; Kuwabara, Soma; Kishimoto, Shunpachi; Watanuki, Tetsu; Machida, Akihiko; Katayama, Yoshinori; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-11-01

    Carbon is one of the possible light elements in the cores of the terrestrial planets. The P wave velocity (VP) and density (ρ) are important factors for estimating the chemical composition and physical properties of the core. We simultaneously measured the VP and ρ of Fe-3.5 wt % C up to 3.4 GPa and 1850 K by using ultrasonic pulse-echo method and X-ray absorption methods. The VP of liquid Fe-3.5 wt % C decreased linearly with increasing temperature at constant pressure. The addition of carbon decreased the VP of liquid Fe by about 2% at 3 GPa and 1700 K and decreased the Fe density by about 2% at 2 GPa and 1700 K. The bulk modulus of liquid Fe-C and its pressure (P) and temperature (T) effects were precisely determined from directly measured ρ and VP data to be K0,1700 K = 83.9 GPa, dKT/dP = 5.9(2), and dKT/dT = -0.063 GPa/K. The addition of carbon did not affect the isothermal bulk modulus (KT) of liquid Fe, but it decreased the dK/dT of liquid Fe. In the ρ-VP relationship, VP increases linearly with ρ and can be approximated as VP (m/s) = -6786(506) + 1537(71) × ρ (g/cm3), suggesting that Birch's law is valid for liquid Fe-C at the present P-T conditions. Our results imply that at the conditions of the lunar core, the elastic properties of an Fe-C core are more affected by temperature than those of Fe-S core.

  10. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  11. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  14. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  15. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  16. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  17. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  18. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  19. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  20. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. The role of eABR with intracochlear test electrode in decision making between cochlear and brainstem implants: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Betul Cicek; Yarali, Mehmet; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, Munir Demir; Sennaroglu, Gonca; Sennaroglu, Levent

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the study was to discuss the findings of intraoperative electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (eABR) test results with a recently designed intracochlear test electrode (ITE) in terms of their relation to decisions of cochlear or auditory brainstem implantation. This clinical study was conducted in Hacettepe University, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Audiology. Subjects were selected from inner ear malformation (IEM) database. Eleven subjects with profound sensorineural hearing loss were included in the current study with age range from 1 year 3 months to 4 years 3 months for children with prelingual hearing loss. There was only one 42-year-old post-lingual subject. eABR was recorded with an ITE and intraoperatively with an original cochlear implant (CI) electrode in 11 cases with different IEMs. Findings of eABR with ITE and their relation to the decision for CI or auditory brainstem implant (ABI) are discussed. Positive eABR test results were found to be dependent on close to normal cochlear structures and auditory nerve. The probability of positive result decreases with increasing degree of malformation severity. The prediction value of eABR via ITE on decision for hearing restoration was found to be questionable in this study. The results of eABR with ITE have predictive value on what we will get with the actual CI electrode. ITE appears to stimulate the cochlea like an actual CI. If the eABR is positive, the results are reliable. However, if eABR is negative, the results should be evaluated with preoperative audiological testing and MRI findings.

  2. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  3. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  4. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  5. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  7. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  8. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  9. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  10. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  11. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  12. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  13. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  14. Speed of sound in saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) at temperature between 253.15 K and 353.15 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dávila, María J.; Gedanitz, Holger; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Speed of sound measurements were made in aliphatic alcohols and alkanediols. • Speeds of sound were measured in a wide temperature and pressure range. • A pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz was employed. • A double polynomial equation was used to fit the experimental speed of sound data. • The accurate results were compared with available literature sources. - Abstract: Speeds of sound have been measured in three saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and three alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) in the temperature range from (253.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 30 MPa by use of a pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz. The expanded overall uncertainties (k = 2) in the speed of sound measurements are estimated to be 0.013% for propan-2-ol, 0.019% for butan-2-ol, 0.01% for 2-methylpropan-1-ol, 0.009% for ethane-1,2-diol, 0.02% for propane-1,2-diol, and 0.07% for propane-1,3-diol. Experimental speeds of sound data were correlated with the temperature and pressure with an empirical double polynomial equation. Our results were also compared with the available literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

  15. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  16. Speeds of sound in {(1 - x)CH4 + xN2} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F.; Trusler, J.P.M.; Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The speed of sound in {(1 - x)CH 4 + xN 2 } has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm -3 and 5 mol . dm -3 . Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than ±0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems

  17. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  18. Corrigendum to "A semi-empirical airfoil stall noise model based on surface pressure measurements" [J. Sound Vib. 387 (2017) 127-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Madsen, Helge Aa.; Fischer, Andreas; Bak, Christian

    2018-06-01

    In the above-mentioned paper, two model formulae were tuned to fit experimental data of surface pressure spectra measured in various wind tunnels. They correspond to high and low Reynolds number flow scalings, respectively. It turns out that there exist typographical errors in both formulae numbered (9) and (10) in the original paper. There, these formulae read:

  19. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  20. Inferring the high-pressure strength of copper by measurement of longitudinal sound speed in a symmetric impact and release experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Stephen; Edwards, Rhys; Vogler, Tracy J.; Furnish, M. D.

    2012-03-01

    Velocity-time histories of free- or windowed-surfaces have been used to calculate wave speeds and hence deduce the shear moduli for materials at high pressure. This is important to high velocity impact phenomena, e.g. shaped-charge jets, long rod penetrators, and other projectile/armour interactions. Historically the shock overtake method has required several experiments with different depths of material to account for the effect of the surface on the arrival time of the release. A characteristics method, previously used for analysis of isentropic compression experiments, has been modified to account for the effect of the surface interactions, thus only one depth of material is required. This analysis has been applied to symmetric copper impacts performed at Sandia National Laboratory's Star Facility. A shear modulus of 200GPa, at a pressure of ~180GPa, has been estimated. These results are in broad agreement with previous work by Hayes et al.

  1. On the absorption of a sound in helium 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, Yu.A.

    1977-01-01

    A theory is developed which describes the propagation of high frequency sound in helium 2 at low temperatures (T 15 atm.) pressures when the phonon energy spectrum becomes stable. The absorption and sound dispersion coefficients under these conditions are calculated. The dependence of the velocity of second sound on frequency is determined. The resonance properties of the solution obtained are discussed

  2. Improving the Sound Pressure Level of Two-Dimensional Audio Actuators by Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Piezoelectric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2015-10-01

    As devices for amplifying or transforming electronic signals into audible signals through electromechanical operations, acoustic actuators in the form of loudspeakers are usually solid structures in three dimensional space. Recently there has been increasing demand for mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones, to become smaller, thinner, and lighter. In contrast to a three dimensional audio system with magnets, we have invented a new type of flexible two dimensional device by utilizing the reverse piezoelectric effect in certain piezoelectric materials. Crystalline piezoelectric materials show electromechanical interaction between the mechanical state and the electrically-charged state. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). We have adopted the plasma surface treatment in order to put coating materials on the surface of piezoelectric film. We compared two kinds of coating material, indium tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube, and found that single-walled carbon nanotube shows better performance. The results showed improvement of output power in a wider range of operating frequency; for the surface resistance of 0.5 kΩ/square, the single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.75-17.5 kHz, but ITO shows 2.5-13.4 kHz. For the surface resistance of 1 kΩ/square, single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.81-17 kHz, but ITO shows it cannot generate audible sound.

  3. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  4. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  5. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  6. Deuterium isotope differences in 2-propanone (CH3)2CO/(CD3)2CO: a high-pressure sound-speed, density, and heat capacities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, J.; Gomes de Azevedo, R.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Esperanca, J.M.S.S.; Guedes, H.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A new high-pressure, non-intrusive ultrasonic microcell [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 36 (2004) 211-222] was used to carry out sound-speed measurements in deuteriated 2-propanone (acetone-d 6 ) in broad ranges of temperature (288 6 . (p, ρ, T) data for acetone-d 6 were also determined but in a narrower T, p range (298 to 333 K; 0.1 to 60 MPa). In this interval, several thermodynamic properties were thus determined, such as: isentropic (κ s ) and isothermal (κ T ) compressibility, isobaric thermal expansivity (α p ), isobaric (c p ) and isochoric (c v ) specific heat capacity, and the thermal pressure coefficient (γ v ). Comparisons with our data for acetone-h 6 enabled us to establish the magnitude and sign of deuterium isotope effects for identical properties. These effects are a consequence of distinct vibrational mode frequencies in an isotope-invariant force constants' field. Molar heat capacities and their isotope effects were theoretically determined by employing an Einstein-like model for the vibrational frequencies of acetone-h 6 and acetone-d 6

  7. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  8. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic sound radiated from a two-dimensional airfoil

    OpenAIRE

    飯田, 明由; 大田黒, 俊夫; 加藤, 千幸; Akiyoshi, Iida; Toshio, Otaguro; Chisachi, Kato; 日立機研; 日立機研; 東大生研; Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.; Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.; University of Tokyo

    2000-01-01

    An aerodynamic sound radiated from a two-dimensional airfoil has been computed with the Lighthill-Curle's theory. The predicted sound pressure level is agreement with the measured one. Distribution of vortex sound sources is also estimated based on the correlation between the unsteady vorticity fluctuations and the aerodynamic sound. The distribution of vortex sound source reveals that separated shear layers generate aerodynamic sound. This result is help to understand noise reduction method....

  10. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  11. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  12. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  13. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  14. Characterization of the natural ambient sound environment : Measurements in open agricultural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, HF

    The audibility of manmade sound in a natural environment is affected because of masking by ambient sound. In this report results are presented of measurements of the level and spectral composition of natural ambient sound. The statistical L-95 level was determined, i.e., the sound pressure level

  15. Nonlinear development of the populations of neurons expressing c-Fos under sustained electrical intracochlear stimulation in the rat auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskothen-Kuhl, Nicole; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2010-08-06

    The immediate-early-gene c-fos is among the first genes to be expressed following sensory-invoked neuronal activity. Its gene product c-Fos forms the limiting monomer of the heterodimeric activator protein-1 transcription factor that triggers various genes involved in neuroplastic remodeling. This study investigated the pattern of c-Fos expression in anteroventral (AVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and central inferior colliculus (CIC) after 45 min, 73 min, 2 h, 3:15 h and 5 h of unilateral electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) at 50 Hz in anaesthetized rats. Following EIS, tonotopic c-Fos expression was observed for each stimulation time in ipsilateral AVCN, DCN bilaterally, and contralateral CIC. By counting c-Fos positive nuclei, we discovered temporal non-linearities in the size of the respective population of c-Fos expressing neurons. In all regions investigated, the populations significantly increased from 73 min to 2 h but decreased towards 3:15 h. In AVCN, the number rose again by 5 h of EIS. Remarkably, the same was noted for neurons with large nuclei in deep DCN. In both regions, the population of responsive neurons shifted spatially: In central AVCN, the density of c-Fos positive cells increased significantly from 2 to 5h with medial and lateral regions remaining unchanged. In DCN, the density of large c-Fos positive nuclei fell in the upper and rose in the deep layers from 45 min to 5h of EIS. In conclusion, spatiotemporally varying recruitments of neuronal subpopulations into cellular networks responding to specific patterns of sensory activity take place in the auditory brainstem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  17. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  18. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  19. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  20. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  1. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  2. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  3. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  4. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  5. Fabrication of an Implantable Micro-pressure Sensor to Measure Deviation Within the Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Perez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cochlear Implant is broadly worn by people with deep hearing damage. This device makes up an electrode array to electrically stimulate the auditory nerves. When the electrode is implanted into the inner ear by surgery, the scala tympani is ill-treated due to the strong pressure applied on the internal ear structures. To minimize this intra-cochlear trauma, it is proposed to fabricate a micro pressure-sensor and built it in the electrode array, in such a way that the pressure applied by the electrode is measured. This work selected the MEMS SU-8 Fabry-Perot interferometer-based pressure sensor. This paper describes the sensor fabrication process carried out, and explains how to integrate this sensor with the electrode array.

  6. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  7. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  8. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  9. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  10. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  12. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  13. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  14. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  15. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  16. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  17. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    ; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using ‘statistically optimised near field acoustic holography’ (SONAH...

  18. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  19. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  20. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  1. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  2. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  3. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  4. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  5. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  6. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comesana, D. Fernandez; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially...... extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring......One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has...

  7. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  8. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...... attenuation box. The ratio was found to lie between -15 dB to -7 dB, below 1 kHz, comparable with theoretical estimations. This work is part of a broader study of the occlusion effect and the results provide important input data for modelling the sound pressure change between an open and an occluded ear canal....

  9. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  10. Heart sounds analysis via esophageal stethoscope system in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Bae, Jin Ho; Kwon, Eun Jung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Shin, Ji-Yun; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Gyeong-Deuk; Kim, Myoung hwan

    2013-10-01

    Esophageal stethoscope is less invasive and easy to handling. And it gives a lot of information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of blood pressure and heart sound as measured by esophageal stethoscope. Four male beagles weighing 10 to 12 kg were selected as experimental subjects. After general anesthesia, the esophageal stethoscope was inserted. After connecting the microphone, the heart sounds were visualized and recorded through a self-developed equipment and program. The amplitudes of S1 and S2 were monitored real-time to examine changes as the blood pressure increased and decreased. The relationship between the ratios of S1 to S2 (S1/S2) and changes in blood pressure due to ephedrine was evaluated. The same experiment was performed with different concentration of isoflurane. From S1 and S2 in the inotropics experiment, a high correlation appeared with change in blood pressure in S1. The relationship between S1/S2 and change in blood pressure showed a positive correlation in each experimental subject. In the volatile anesthetics experiment, the heart sounds decreased as MAC increased. Heart sounds were analyzed successfully with the esophageal stethoscope through the self-developed program and equipment. A proportional change in heart sounds was confirmed when blood pressure was changed using inotropics or volatile anesthetics. The esophageal stethoscope can achieve the closest proximity to the heart to hear sounds in a non-invasive manner.

  11. Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad J. Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.

  12. Sound Propagation An impedance Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-01-01

    In Sound Propagation: An Impedance Based Approach , Professor Yang-Hann Kim introduces acoustics and sound fields by using the concept of impedance. Kim starts with vibrations and waves, demonstrating how vibration can be envisaged as a kind of wave, mathematically and physically. One-dimensional waves are used to convey the fundamental concepts. Readers can then understand wave propagation in terms of characteristic and driving point impedance. The essential measures for acoustic waves, such as dB scale, octave scale, acoustic pressure, energy, and intensity, are explained. These measures are

  13. Light aircraft sound transmission studies - Noise reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Heitman, Karen E.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental tests conducted on the fuselage of a single-engine Piper Cherokee light aircraft suggest that the cabin interior noise can be reduced by increasing the transmission loss of the dominant sound transmission paths and/or by increasing the cabin interior sound absorption. The validity of using a simple room equation model to predict the cabin interior sound-pressure level for different fuselage and exterior sound field conditions is also presented. The room equation model is based on the sound power flow balance for the cabin space and utilizes the measured transmitted sound intensity data. The room equation model predictions were considered good enough to be used for preliminary acoustical design studies.

  14. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  15. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  16. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  17. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  18. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  19. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  20. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  1. Plaatsafhankelijkheid van timbre bij nagalm (Place dependence of timbre in reverberant sound fields)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, R.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The sound-pressure level of a simple tone in a diffuse sound field varies from point to point with a theoretical standard deviation of 5.57 dB. This variability affects the timbre of complex tones in reverberant sound fields, Experiments have shown that the timbre dissimilarity at any two positions

  2. Effect of Sound Waves on Decarburization Rate of Fe-C Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Sergey V.; Sano, Masamichi

    2018-02-01

    Sound waves have the ability to propagate through a gas phase and, thus, to supply the acoustic energy from a sound generator to materials being processed. This offers an attractive tool, for example, for controlling the rates of interfacial reactions in steelmaking processes. This study investigates the kinetics of decarburization in molten Fe-C alloys, the surface of which was exposed to sound waves and Ar-O2 gas blown onto the melt surface. The main emphasis is placed on clarifying effects of sound frequency, sound pressure, and gas flow rate. A series of water model experiments and numerical simulations are also performed to explain the results of high-temperature experiments and to elucidate the mechanism of sound wave application. This is explained by two phenomena that occur simultaneously: (1) turbulization of Ar-O2 gas flow by sound wave above the melt surface and (2) motion and agitation of the melt surface when exposed to sound wave. It is found that sound waves can both accelerate and inhibit the decarburization rate depending on the Ar-O2 gas flow rate and the presence of oxide film on the melt surface. The effect of sound waves is clearly observed only at higher sound pressures on resonance frequencies, which are defined by geometrical features of the experimental setup. The resonance phenomenon makes it difficult to separate the effect of sound frequency from that of sound pressure under the present experimental conditions.

  3. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  4. Uso da geoestatística para avaliar a captação automática dos níveis de pressão sonora em instalações de creche para suínos Geostatistics to evaluate the automatic acquisiton of sound pressure levels in pig nursery facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Borges

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a influência da distribuição de decibelímetros na captação automática dos níveis de pressão sonora, em ambiente de produção intensiva de suínos. O experimento foi conduzido em sala do setor de creche de uma granja comercial de suínos situada no município de Monte Mor, Estado de São Paulo. A sala foi dividida em dez quadrantes idênticos, e os decibelímetros foram instalados no centro geométrico de cada quadrante. Utilizou-se a geoestatística para avaliar a dependência espacial entre os decibelímetros e para predizer os níveis de pressão sonora em locais onde estes não foram instalados. Os dados foram analisados pela correlação entre os decibelímetros e por intermédio da geoestatística, que possibilitou afirmar que não houve dependência espacial entre os pontos de registro dos níveis de pressão sonora. Por intermédio da interpolação dos pontos de captura utilizando o processo de krigagem, foi possível predizer os níveis de pressão sonora nos locais onde não havia decibelímetros no interior da instalação. Verificou-se homogeneidade de propagação dos níveis de pressão sonora no interior da instalação, concluindo que, para o ambiente avaliado, o uso de somente um equipamento para o registro automático dos níveis de pressão sonora é suficiente.The objective of this work was to study the influence of decibelimeters distribution in the automatic acquisition of sound pressure levels in pig nursery facilities. The experiment was conducted in a nursering room of a commercial swine's facility situated in the city of Monte Mor, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The room was divided in ten identical quadrants and the geometrical center of each quadrant was installed the decibelimeters. Geostatistics was used to evaluate the spatial dependence among the decibelimeters and to predict sound pressure levels in the places that they were not installed. Data were analyzed by the

  5. Particularidades de la medición de presión sonora y vibraciones en grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B // Distinctive features for sound pressure level and vibration measurements over engine generator sets type MAN 18 v48/60 b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanexi Cepero‐Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de las líneas de investigación del Centro de Estudios en Ingeniería de Mantenimiento, sedesarrolla un proyecto de investigación encaminado a establecer las pautas para la evaluación de lacondición de grupos electrógenos. El presente artículo muestra las particularidades de la mediciónde sonido y vibraciones sobre un Grupo Electrógeno MAN 18 V48/60 B. Se analiza lo indicado en elestándar ISO 3744 concluyéndose con la imposibilidad práctica de su aplicación en el entornoindustrial y para grandes máquinas como lo es el caso de los grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B.El interés de esta investigación se enfoca al generador del grupo electrógeno y por ello no obstante,se efectuaron mediciones de presión sonora orientando el micrófono hacia los cojinetes de este,sobre los cuales también se registraron sus vibraciones siguiendo lo indicado en el estándar ISO8528-9. El análisis comparativo de los registros espectrales de presión sonora y de vibracionesobligó a convertir los espectros FFT en espectros de ancho de banda proporcional constante. Comoresultado fundamental se obtiene la no correlación de las frecuencias espectrales de presión sonoracon las de vibraciones y una evaluación preliminar del generador exhibiendo una condición normal.Palabras claves: nivel de presión sonora, medición de vibraciones, ancho de banda proporcionalconstante, grupos electrógenos._________________________________________________________________AbstractA research project for condition monitoring of engine generator sets is developed as part of mainresearches at Maintenance Engineering Research Center. Sound pressure level and vibrationmeasurements over an engine generator set MAN 18 V48/60 B are made with the goal of identifythose frequencies present in both, sound pressure level and vibration spectra which could give thepossibility to use sound pressure level as a symptom parameter because of the continuous feature ofthis kind of

  6. The baffle influence on sound radiation characteristics of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic radiation characteristics of the baffle plates and unbaffle plates are calculated and compared by single-layer potential and double-layer potential. Based on the boundary integral equation, the sound pressure integral equation of the baffle and the baffle are deduced respectively. According to the boundary compatibility condition, the sound pressure and the vibration velocity of the plates are obtained. Further, the dynamic equation of the structure is substituted into the vibration equation in the form of the baffle plate and the baffle plate. The sound pressure difference and the displacement of a plate surface are in the form of the vibration mode superposition and the acoustic radiation impedance of the double integral form is obtained, which determines vibration mode coefficient and sound radiation parameters. The effect of the baffle on the acoustic radiation characteristics of the thin plate is analyzed by comparing the acoustic radiation parameters with the simple and simple rectangular plate in water.

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  8. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  9. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  10. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  11. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  12. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  13. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  14. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  15. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  16. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  17. Detection and generation of first sound in4He by vibrating superleak transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, N.; Edison, N.

    1986-07-01

    Measurement is made of the first-sound generation and detection efficiencies of vibrating superleak transducers (VSTs) operated in superfluid4He. This is accomplished by using an ordinary pressure transducer to generate first sound with a VST as the detector, and by using a pressure transducer to detect the sound generated by a VST. The results are in reasonably good agreement with the current theory of VST operation.

  18. Detection and generation of first sound in 4He by vibrating superleak transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, N.; Edison, N.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement is made of the first-sound generation and detection efficiencies of vibrating superleak transducers (VSTs) operated in superfluid 4 He. This is accomplished by using an ordinary pressure transducer to generate first sound with a VST as the detector, and by using a pressure transducer to detect the sound generated by a VST. The results are in reasonably good agreement with the current theory of VST operation

  19. Investigation of genesis of gallop sounds in dogs by quantitative phonocardiography and digital frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A E; Denys, B G; Meno, F; Reddy, P S

    1985-05-01

    Several investigators have noted external gallop sounds to be of higher amplitude than their corresponding internal sounds (S3 and S4). In this study we hoped to determine if S3 and S4 are transmitted in the same manner as S1. In 11 closed-chest dogs, external (apical) and left ventricular pressures and sounds were recorded simultaneously with transducers with identical sensitivity and frequency responses. Volume and pressure overload and positive and negative inotropic drugs were used to generate gallop sounds. Recordings were made in the control state and after the various interventions. S3 and S4 were recorded in 17 experiments each. The amplitude of the external S1 was uniformly higher than that of internal S1 and internal gallop sounds were inconspicuous. With use of Fourier transforms, the gain function was determined by comparing internal to external S1. By inverse transform, the amplitude of the internal gallop sounds was predicted from external sounds. The internal sounds of significant amplitude were predicted in many instances, but the actual recordings showed no conspicuous sounds. The absence of internal gallop sounds of expected amplitude as calculated from the external gallop sounds and the gain function derived from the comparison of internal and external S1 make it very unlikely that external gallop sounds are derived from internal sounds.

  20. Development of engine sound quality for passenger car with 6 cylinder engine; 6 kito engine joyosha no onshoku kazari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Y; Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, the interior noise has been required not only to reduce the sound pressure level, but also to improve the sound quality, especially during acceleration. This paper describes the development of engine sound quality for the new model `ARISTO (GS300)` with in-line 6 gasoline engine. We used the sound simulator in order to evaluate the engine sound quality during acceleration, and decided the target sound. To attain that sound, the light-weighed Piston and connecting rod, and the improvement of intake system are adopted. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  2. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  3. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  4. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  5. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  6. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  7. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  8. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  9. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  10. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  11. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  12. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  13. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  14. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies...... levels of sound exposures are experienced in modern society in many different situations such as attending concerts, sport events and others. This leads to an interest in measurement devices which are discreet and simple to use, in order to assess sound exposures encountered in typical daily life......, differences due to microphone positions and the presence of a person in the measurement must be taken into account. The present study presents measurements carried out to document the characteristics of the BTE device, using the same framework presented in the ISO 11904 standard series. The responses...

  15. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  16. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    not only sound pressure levels but also phase information. Such methods are, however, not always able to predict the sound field for more complicated scenarios involving terrain features, atmospheric wind and temperature gradients and turbulence. Another class of methods is based upon approximate theory......The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  17. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    not only sound pressure levels but also phase information. Such methods are, however, not always able to predict the sound field for more complicated scenarios involving terrain features, atmospheric wind and temperature gradients, and turbulence. Another class of methods is based upon approximate theory......The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as parabolic equation methods, FFP methods, and boundary element methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  18. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  19. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  20. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  3. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  4. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  5. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  6. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron V Tronstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival’s duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization’s recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.

  7. Sound Exposure During Outdoor Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, Tron V.; Gelderblom, Femke B.

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure. PMID:27569410

  8. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  9. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  10. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  11. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  12. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  13. Cell type-specific suppression of mechanosensitive genes by audible sound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Masahiro; Takahashi, Daiji; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2018-01-01

    Audible sound is a ubiquitous environmental factor in nature that transmits oscillatory compressional pressure through the substances. To investigate the property of the sound as a mechanical stimulus for cells, an experimental system was set up using 94.0 dB sound which transmits approximately 10 mPa pressure to the cultured cells. Based on research on mechanotransduction and ultrasound effects on cells, gene responses to the audible sound stimulation were analyzed by varying several sound parameters: frequency, wave form, composition, and exposure time. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed a distinct suppressive effect for several mechanosensitive and ultrasound-sensitive genes that were triggered by sounds. The effect was clearly observed in a wave form- and pressure level-specific manner, rather than the frequency, and persisted for several hours. At least two mechanisms are likely to be involved in this sound response: transcriptional control and RNA degradation. ST2 stromal cells and C2C12 myoblasts exhibited a robust response, whereas NIH3T3 cells were partially and NB2a neuroblastoma cells were completely insensitive, suggesting a cell type-specific response to sound. These findings reveal a cell-level systematic response to audible sound and uncover novel relationships between life and sound.

  14. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  15. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  16. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  17. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  18. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  19. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  20. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  1. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  2. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  3. Expansion of a nitrogen discharge by sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinyan, M.A.; Galechyan, G.A.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    When the background pressure and the discharge current in a gas discharge are raised the plasma column is tightened up into a filament. Then the discharge occupies a region of the discharge tube whose transverse dimensions are substantially less than those of the tube. This contraction phenomenon in discharges restricts the range of parameters used in various devices to the range of relatively low discharge currents and low gas pressures. This contraction interferes with creating high-power gas lasers, since it acts destructively on the lasing process. In order to suppress filamentation of discharges the working gas has been pumped through the system at high speed, with considerable success. The turbulent mixing in the stream plays an important role in creating an uncontracted discharge at high pressures. The purpose of the present work is to study the possibility of undoing the contraction of a nitrogen discharge, which is one of the main components in the operation of a CO 2 laser, by introducing an intense sound wave in the discharge tube. Discharge contraction and the effect of a sound wave propagating along the plasma column have been investigated experimentally in nitrogen by studying the current-voltage characteristics of a contracted discharge. 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    be met. The classification system is based on limit values for airborne sound insulation, impact sound pressure level, reverberation time and indoor and outdoor noise levels. The purpose of the standard is to offer a tool for specification of a standardised acoustic climate and to promote constructors......A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  5. The relationship between sound insulation and acoustic quality in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  6. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  7. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  8. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  9. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  10. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  11. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: Are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2006-01-01

    that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations......In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar...... to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations...

  12. Sound insulation of composite cylindrical shells: a comparison between a laminated and a sandwich cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chongxin; Roozen, Bert; Bergsma, Otto; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The fuselages of aircraft are modeled as a cylinder in this paper, and the sound insulations of a sandwich cylinder and a laminated cylinder are studied both experimentally and numerically. The cylinders are excited by an acoustic pressure and a mechanical force respectively. Results show that under acoustic excitation, the sandwich cylinder and the laminated one have a similar sound insulation below 3000 Hz, but the sandwich cylinder has a much larger sound insulation at higher frequencies. ...

  13. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  14. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  15. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  16. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  17. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  18. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  19. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  20. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  1. Nonlinear sound generation by high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Project DUMAND, the proposal to utilize the ocean as a giant acoustic detector of neutrinos, the applicability of a recent theory of thermoacoustic arrays [Peter J. Westervelt and Richard S. Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 121 (1973)] is studied. In the static case or at very low frequencies, about 10% of the coefficient of thermal expansion for water at 20 0 C can be attributed to Debye-like modes. Debye-like modes generate sound via the nonlinear mechanism responsible for the operation of the parametric acoustic array [Peter J. Westervelt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 535 (1963)]. The contribution of the Debye-like modes to the thermal expansion coefficient and thus to the sound pressure is essentially independent of the ambient water temperature. Hence if the Debye-like modes are not fully excited as is postulated to be the case at high frequencies, then the thermal expansion coefficient will be less than the static value by an amount that causes it to vanish at about 6 0 C instead of at 4 0 C, the temperature of maximum water density. This theory is in agreement with recent measurements of the temperature dependence of sound generated by proton deposition in water [L. Sulak, et al., Proceedings of the La Jolla Workshop on Acoustic Detection of Neutrinos, 25--29 July 1977, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, U.C.L.A., San Diego, Hugh Bradner, Ed.

  2. Erratum to: Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and Debye temperature of (B3) BBi compound under pressure. S DAOUD1,∗, N BIOUD2 and N LEBGAA2. 1Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université de Bordj Bou Arreridj, 34000, Algeria. 2Laboratoire d'Optoélectronique & Composants, Université ...

  3. The fourth sound of Korotkoff in pregnancy: a myth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, A.; Evers, I. M.; van der Pant, K. A.; van der Post, J. A.; Bruinse, H. W.; Visser, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the detection rate and the reproducibility of the first (K1), the fourth (K4) and the fifth (K5) phases of the Korotkoff sounds in pregnant women. In 77 pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a tertiary referral centre, two observers took 231 simultaneous blood pressure measurements

  4. Indoor measurements of sound at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Due to standing waves, the sound pressure level within a room may vary as much as 20-30 dB with low-frequency tonal noise, somewhat less with noise bands. For assessment of annoyance from low-frequency noise it is relevant to measure a level close to the highest level of the room, rather than a r...

  5. Cavitating Orifice: Flow regime transitions and low frequency sound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testud, P.; Moussou, P.; Hirschberg, A.; Aurégan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Detailed data are provided for the broadband noise in a cavitating pipe flow through a circular orifice in water. Experiments are performed under industrial conditions, i.e., with a pressure drop varying from 3 to 30 bars and a cavitation number in the range 0.10 = s = 0.77. The speed of sound

  6. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  7. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  8. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  9. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  10. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  11. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  12. Prediction on the Enhancement of the Impact Sound Insulation to a Floating Floor with Resilient Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianfeng; Meng, Yao; Huang, Riming

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes a theoretical method for predicting the improvement of the impact sound insulation to a floating floor with the resilient interlayer. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) model, which is skilful in calculating the floor impact sound, is set up for calculating the reduction in impact sound pressure level in downstairs room. The sound transmission paths which include direct path and flanking paths are analyzed to find the dominant one; the factors that affect impact sound reduction for a floating floor are explored. Then, the impact sound level in downstairs room is determined and comparisons between predicted and measured data are conducted. It is indicated that for the impact sound transmission across a floating floor, the flanking path impact sound level contribute tiny influence on overall sound level in downstairs room, and a floating floor with low stiffness interlayer exhibits favorable sound insulation on direct path. The SEA approach applies to the floating floors with resilient interlayers, which are experimentally verified, provides a guidance in sound insulation design.

  13. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  14. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  15. Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliya Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed.

  16. The isolation of low frequency impact sounds in hotel construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVerde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2002-11-01

    One of the design challenges in the acoustical design of hotels is reducing low frequency sounds from footfalls occurring on both carpeted and hard-surfaced floors. Research on low frequency impact noise [W. Blazier and R. DuPree, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1521-1532 (1994)] resulted in a conclusion that in wood construction low frequency impact sounds were clearly audible and that feasible control methods were not available. The results of numerous FIIC (Field Impact Insulation Class) measurements performed in accordance with ASTM E1007 indicate the lack of correlation between FIIC ratings and the reaction of occupants in the room below. The measurements presented include FIIC ratings and sound pressure level measurements below the ASTM E1007 low frequency limit of 100 Hertz, and reveal that excessive sound levels in the frequency range of 63 to 100 Hertz correlate with occupant complaints. Based upon this history, a tentative criterion for maximum impact sound level in the low frequency range is presented. The results presented of modifying existing constructions to reduce the transmission of impact sounds at low frequencies indicate that there may be practical solutions to this longstanding problem.

  17. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  18. Search for fourth sound propagation in supersolid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Y.; Kojima, H.; Lin, X.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study is carried out to search for fourth sound propagation solid 4 He samples below 500 mK down to 40 mK between 25 and 56 bar using the techniques of heat pulse generator and titanium superconducting transition edge bolometer. If solid 4 He is endowed with superfluidity below 200 mK, as indicated by recent torsional oscillator experiments, theories predict fourth sound propagation in such a supersolid state. If found, fourth sound would provide convincing evidence for superfluidity and a new tool for studying the new phase. The search for a fourth sound-like mode is based on the response of the bolometers to heat pulses traveling through cylindrical samples of solids grown with different crystal qualities. Bolometers with increasing sensitivity are constructed. The heater generator amplitude is reduced to the sensitivity limit to search for any critical velocity effects. The fourth sound velocity is expected to vary as ∞ √ Ρ s /ρ. Searches for a signature in the bolometer response with such a characteristic temperature dependence are made. The measured response signal has not so far revealed any signature of a new propagating mode within a temperature excursion of 5 μK from the background signal shape. Possible reasons for this negative result are discussed. Prior to the fourth sound search, the temperature dependence of heat pulse propagation was studied as it transformed from 'second sound' in the normal solid 4 He to transverse ballistic phonon propagation. Our work extends the studies of [V. Narayanamurti and R. C. Dynes, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1731 (1975)] to higher pressures and to lower temperatures. The measured transverse ballistic phonon propagation velocity is found to remain constant (within the 0.3% scatter of the data) below 100 mK at all pressures and reveals no indication of an onset of supersolidity. The overall dynamic thermal response of solid to heat input is found to depend strongly on the sample preparation procedure

  19. Nonlinear second- and first-sound wave equations in 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohazzab, Masoud; Mulders, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    We derive nonlinear Burgers equations for first and second sound in mixtures of 3 He- 4 He, using a reductive perturbation method and obtain expressions for the nonlinear and dissipation coefficients. We further find a diffusion equation for a coupled temperature-concentration mode. The amplitude of first (second) sound generated from second (first) sound in mixtures is also derived. Our derivation includes the dependence of thermodynamical quantities on temperature, pressure, and 3 He concentration, and is valid up to a first order in terms of the isobaric expansion coefficient. We show that close to the λ line the nonlinearity of second sound in mixtures is enhanced as compared with pure 4 He

  20. The shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Zhemin; Du, Gonghuan; Ping, Zihong

    2003-07-01

    This paper investigates the shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude by solving the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation using frequency-domain numerical method. Simulation results reveal that, besides the nonlinearity and absorption, the diffraction is another important factor that affects the shock formation of a bounded sound beam. More detailed discussions of the shock formation in a bounded sound beam, such as the waveform of sound pressure and the spatial distribution of shock formation, are also presented and compared for different parameters.

  1. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  2. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  3. Simulation of low pressure water hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.

    2010-08-01

    Numerical solution of water hammer is presented in this paper. The contribution is focused on water hammer in the area of low pressure, which is completely different than high pressure case. Little volume of air and influence of the pipe are assumed in water, which cause sound speed change due to pressure alterations. Computation is compared with experimental measurement.

  4. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  5. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  6. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  7. Cognitive Bias for Learning Speech Sounds From a Continuous Signal Space Seems Nonlinguistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine van der Ham

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When learning language, humans have a tendency to produce more extreme distributions of speech sounds than those observed most frequently: In rapid, casual speech, vowel sounds are centralized, yet cross-linguistically, peripheral vowels occur almost universally. We investigate whether adults’ generalization behavior reveals selective pressure for communication when they learn skewed distributions of speech-like sounds from a continuous signal space. The domain-specific hypothesis predicts that the emergence of sound categories is driven by a cognitive bias to make these categories maximally distinct, resulting in more skewed distributions in participants’ reproductions. However, our participants showed more centered distributions, which goes against this hypothesis, indicating that there are no strong innate linguistic biases that affect learning these speech-like sounds. The centralization behavior can be explained by a lack of communicative pressure to maintain categories.

  8. On the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanping, E-mail: hphu@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-09-11

    We review the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation and derive the formula of the sound attenuation coefficient in fluid by solving a fully thermally–mechanically coupled equation set. Problem occurring in Stokes–Kirchhoff relation, the well-known and widely used classical formula for sound attenuation coefficient, is therefore found and pointed out. The reason for its generation is analyzed and verified. An improved formula to replace Stokes–Kirchhoff relation is suggested and the typical case for the error in calculating sound pressure level (SPL) of attenuated sound wave in fluid between the two formulas is also given. - Highlights: • Problem with Stokes–Kirchhoff relation. • Generation reason of defect in Stokes–Kirchhoff relation. • An improved formula for sound attenuation coefficient in fluid. • Typical cases of the calculation error by Stokes–Kirchhoff relation.

  9. Locating and classification of structure-borne sound occurrence using wavelet transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterstein, Martin; Thurnreiter, Martina

    2011-01-01

    For the surveillance of nuclear facilities with respect to detached or loose parts within the pressure boundary structure-borne sound detector systems are used. The impact of loose parts on the wall causes energy transfer to the wall that is measured a so called singular sound event. The run-time differences of sound signals allow a rough locating of the loose part. The authors performed a finite element based simulation of structure-borne sound measurements using real geometries. New knowledge on sound wave propagation, signal analysis and processing, neuronal networks or hidden Markov models were considered. Using the wavelet transformation it is possible to improve the localization of structure-borne sound events.

  10. Sound absorption effects in a rectangular enclosure with the foamed aluminum sheet absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Eung; Chung, Jin Tai; Kim, Sang Hun; Chung, Kyung Ryul

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of finding out the optimal thickness of sound absorber and the sound absorption effects due to the selected thickness at an interested frequency range, the analytical study identifies the interior and exterior sound field characteristics of a rectangular enclosure with foamed aluminum lining and the experimental verification is performed with random noise input. By using a two-microphone impedance tube, we measure experimentally the absorption coefficient and the impedance of simple sound absorbing materials. Measured acoustical parameters of the test samples are applied to the theoretical analysis to predict sound pressure field in the cavity. The sound absorption effects from measurements are compared to predicted ones in both cases with and without foamed aluminum lining in the cavity of the rectangular enclosure

  11. Directivity of Spherical Polyhedron Sound Source Used in Near-Field HRTF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guang-Zheng; Xie Bo-Sun; Rao Dan

    2010-01-01

    The omnidirectional character is one of important requirements for the sound source used in near-field head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements. Based on the analysis on the radiation sound pressure and directivity character of various spherical polyhedron sound sources, a spherical dodecahedral sound source with radius of 0.035m is proposed and manufactured. Theoretical and measured results indicate that the sound source is approximately omnidirectional below the frequency of 8 kHz. In addition, the sound source has reasonable magnitude response from 350Hz to 20kHz and linear phase characteristics. Therefore, it is suitable for the near-field HRTF measurements. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  12. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  13. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa. We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop. The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  14. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  15. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  16. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  17. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  18. Producing of Impedance Tube for Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Some Sound Absorber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.

  19. Development of sound absorption measuring system with acoustic chamber; Kogata kyuon koka sokutei sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, M.; Noba, M. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In order to measure sound absorption performance necessary to develop sound absorption materials, development was made on a device consisting of a small sound box capable of measurement inexpensively and easily, as a measure against the reverberation chamber method. In order to obtain stabilized diffusion sound internally, the sound box has a shape of asymmetric seven-side body in which sides do not face squarely with each other. The box was so sized that a large number of resonant vibration postures can be constituted at the targeted frequency simultaneously in the box. The box has a commercially available cone speaker with good acoustic output characteristics in frequency range of higher than 500 Hz installed on an inner side of the box. The sound source uses a method to derive sound absorption rate from difference of sound pressure levels. In order to eliminate need of averaging treatment by using a multi-point measurement inside the box, a discussion was given to provide an opening on part of the box to place the sound receiving point outside the opening. A square test piece is placed on the floor 0.5 meter or more away from the speaker in the box. As a result of the experiment, it was verified that the sound absorption rate obtained by this device corresponds well with that by the reverberation chamber method. The size of the test piece was also found adequate. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Dynamic Pressure Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, E.

    In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell described his first telephone with a microphone using magnetic induction to convert the voice input into an electric output signal. The basic principle led to a variety of designs optimized for different needs, from hearing impaired users to singers or broadcast announcers. From the various sound pressure versions, only the moving coil design is still in mass production for speech and music application.

  1. Novel sound phenomena in superfluid helium in aerogel and other impure superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, Peter; Brusov, Paul; Lawes, Gavin; Lee, Chong; Matsubara, Akira; Ishikawa, Osamu; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade new techniques for producing impure superfluids with unique properties have been developed. This new class of systems includes superfluid helium confined to aerogel, HeII with different impurities (D 2 , N 2 , Ne, Kr), superfluids in Vycor glasses, and watergel. These systems exhibit very unusual properties including unexpected acoustic features. We discuss the sound properties of these systems and show that sound phenomena in impure superfluids are modified from those in pure superfluids. We calculate the coupling between temperature and pressure oscillations for impure superfluids and for superfluid He in aerogel. We show that the coupling between these two sound modes is governed either by c∂ρ/∂c or σρ a ρ s (for aerogel) rather than thermal expansion coefficient ∂ρ/∂T, which is enormously small in pure superfluids. This replacement plays a fundamental role in all sound phenomena in impure superfluids. It enhances the coupling between the two sound modes that leads to the existence of such phenomena as the slow mode and heat pulse propagation with the velocity of first sound observed in superfluids in aerogel. This means that it is possible to observe in impure superfluids such unusual sound phenomena as slow pressure (density) waves and fast temperature (entropy) waves. The enhancement of the coupling between the two sound modes decreases the threshold values for nonlinear processes as compared to pure superfluids. Sound conversion, which has been observed in pure superfluids only by shock waves should be observed at moderate sound amplitude in impure superfluids. Cerenkov emission of second sound by first sound (which never been observed in pure superfluids) could be observed in impure superfluids

  2. Direct measurement of cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlea in a congenitally deaf child with Mondini dysplasia undergoing cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J M; Ashcroft, P

    1999-03-01

    Perilymph/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) "gushers" may occur at cochleostomy during cochlear implant surgery, particularly in patients with congenital cochlear duct malformation in which CSF in the internal auditory meatus is in direct communication with the perilymphatic space in the cochlea. The object of the study was to measure the pressure and flow of a CSF gusher at cochleostomy. The design was a preoperative pressure measurement. The setting was a multidisciplinary cochlear implant program. A 4-year-old girl with bilateral Mondini deformity undergoing cochlear implantation was studied. A size 23 FG intravenous cannula was inserted into the cochlea and connected to a pediatric drip set to form an improvised manometer. Intracochlear fluid pressure was measured at 14 cm H2O, equivalent to the normal CSF pressure that would be recorded in a child of this age at lumbar puncture. An indirect measurement of the likely size of the CSF/perilymph defect was made. This technique may allow better assessment of the risk of postoperative CSF leakage and meningitis. This simple technique of measuring the pressure in a perilymph gusher can be used to assess the need for careful sealing of the cochleostomy, to measure the reduction in pressure produced by head elevation or a spinal drain, and to assess the probable size of a defect in the lamina cribrosa.

  3. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  4. Orientation Estimation and Signal Reconstruction of a Directional Sound Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco

    , one for each call emission, were compared to those calculated through a pre-existing technique based on interpolation of sound-pressure levels at microphone locations. The application of the method to the bat calls could provide knowledge on bat behaviour that may be useful for a bat-inspired sensor......Previous works in the literature about one tone or broadband sound sources mainly deal with algorithms and methods developed in order to localize the source and, occasionally, estimate the source bearing angle (with respect to a global reference frame). The problem setting assumes, in these cases......, omnidirectional receivers collecting the acoustic signal from the source: analysis of arrival times in the recordings together with microphone positions and source directivity cues allows to get information about source position and bearing. Moreover, sound sources have been included into sensor systems together...

  5. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  6. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  7. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  8. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  9. Sound from charged particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar'yan, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 10 9 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 10 15 -10 16 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 10 9 t and higher

  10. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  11. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A.; Monahan, R.; Stacey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development

  12. Sound propagation in the steam generator - A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckl, M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of acoustic tomography in the steam generator, detailed information on its acoustic transmission properties is needed. We have developed a model which allows one to calculate the sound field produced by an incident wave in the steam generator. In our model we consider the steam generator as a medium consisting of a two-dimensional array of infinitely long cylindrical tubes. They are thin-walled, made of metal and are immersed in a liquid. Inside them there is a liquid or a gas. The incident wave is plane and perpendicular to the cylindrical tubes. When a sound wave crosses the tube bundle, each individual tube is exposed to a fluctuating pressure field and scatters sound which, together with the incident wave, influences the pressure at all surrounding tubes. The motion of an individual tube is given by differential equations (Heckl 1989) and the pressure difference between inside and outside. The interaction of a tube wall with the fluid inside and outside is treated by imposing suitable boundary conditions. Since the cylinder array is periodic, it can be considered as consisting of a large number of tube rows with a constant distance between adjacent cylinders within a row and constant spacing of the rows. The sound propagates from row to row, each time getting partly transmitted and partly reflected. A single row is similar to a diffraction grating known from optics. The transmission properties of one row or grating depend on the ratio between spacing and wavelength. If the wavelength is larger than the spacing, then the wave is transmitted only in the original direction. However, for wavelengths smaller than the spacing, the transmitted wave has components travelling in several discrete directions. The response of one row to sound scattered from a neighbouring row is calculated from Kirchhoff's theorem. An iteration scheme has been developed to take the reflection and transmission at several rows into account. 7 refs, figs and

  13. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  14. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  15. Can joint sound assess soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test?: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Tanaka, Kazunori; Matsuya, Ayako; Uematsu, Kota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-05-12

    The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and -40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and -40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively.

  16. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS, 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS, and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization. From the collected heart sounds, relative power of the frequency band, energy of the sinusoid formants, and entropy were extracted. PAH subjects were differentiated by applying the linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation. The entropy of the first sinusoid formant decreased significantly in subjects with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg versus subjects with a mPAp < 25 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 88.57%, within a 10-s optimized window length for heart sounds recorded at the 2LICS. First sinusoid formant entropy reduction of heart sounds in PAH subjects suggests the existence of a vowel-like pattern. Pattern analysis revealed a unique sound signature, which could be used in non-invasive screening tools.

  17. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  18. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  19. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  20. Tipping point analysis of a large ocean ambient sound record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, Valerie N.; Harris, Peter; Brower, Albert; Wang, Lian; Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Robinson, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study a long (2003-2015) high-resolution (250Hz) sound pressure record provided by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) from the hydro-acoustic station Cape Leeuwin (Australia). We transform the hydrophone waveforms into five bands of 10-min-average sound pressure levels (including the third-octave band) and apply tipping point analysis techniques [1-3]. We report the results of the analysis of fluctuations and trends in the data and discuss the BigData challenges in processing this record, including handling data segments of large size and possible HPC solutions. References: [1] Livina et al, GRL 2007, [2] Livina et al, Climate of the Past 2010, [3] Livina et al, Chaos 2015.

  1. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  2. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  3. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  4. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  5. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  7. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  8. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected agenoise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Wall Surface and Air Modelling in Finite-Element Analysis of Sound Transmission Between Rooms in Lightweight Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance in the built environment, and to avoid undesirable transmission of sound and vibration within a building, its vibro-acoustic performance must be addressed in the design phase. For heavy structures, a reliable assessment of the sound pressure levels can be made by statistical...

  12. Measurement of the sound power incident on the walls of a reverberation room with near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    area; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using 'statistically optimised near field acoustic holography...

  13. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  14. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  15. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  16. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  17. Intercepting a sound without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals’ performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions. PMID:28481939

  18. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  19. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Characterizing Pressure Sensors using Modulated Light Beam Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Embodiments of apparatuses and methods are provided that use light sources instead of sound sources for characterizing and calibrating sensors for measuring small pressures to mitigate many of the problems with using sound sources. In one embodiment an apparatus has a light source for directing a beam of light on a sensing surface of a pressure sensor for exerting a force on the sensing surface. The pressure sensor generates an electrical signal indicative of the force exerted on the sensing surface. A modulator modulates the beam of light. A signal processor is electrically coupled to the pressure sensor for receiving the electrical signal.

  1. Advanced calibration, adjustment, and operation of a density and sound speed analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Tara J.; Laesecke, Arno; Freund, Malte; Outcalt, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detail important considerations for reference quality measurements of thermophysical property data with benchtop instruments. ► Density and speed of sound of isooctane and speed of sound of toluene at (278 K to 343 K) and atmospheric pressure. ► Experimental data compared to available literature data and equations of state. - Abstract: Benchtop measurement systems have emerged as powerful tools in the ongoing quest for thermophysical property data. We demonstrate that these instruments can yield results of high quality if operated in an informed manner. The importance of sample purity, reproducibility over repeatability, expanded calibration and adjustment protocols, and rigorous uncertainty estimates are emphasized. We report measurement results at ambient atmospheric pressure and temperatures from 343 K to 278 K, including expanded uncertainty estimates, for the density and speed of sound of isooctane and for the speed of sound of toluene. These data are useful for validating the performance of such instruments.

  2. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  3. Sound velocity of tantalum under shock compression in the 18–142 GPa range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng, E-mail: xifeng@caep.cn; Jin, Ke; Cai, Lingcang, E-mail: cai-lingcang@aliyun.com; Geng, Huayun; Tan, Ye; Li, Jun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Waves and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102 Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Dynamic compression experiments of tantalum (Ta) within a shock pressure range from 18–142 GPa were conducted driven by explosive, a two-stage light gas gun, and a powder gun, respectively. The time-resolved Ta/LiF (lithium fluoride) interface velocity profiles were recorded with a displacement interferometer system for any reflector. Sound velocities of Ta were obtained from the peak state time duration measurements with the step-sample technique and the direct-reverse impact technique. The uncertainty of measured sound velocities were analyzed carefully, which suggests that the symmetrical impact method with step-samples is more accurate for sound velocity measurement, and the most important parameter in this type experiment is the accurate sample/window particle velocity profile, especially the accurate peak state time duration. From these carefully analyzed sound velocity data, no evidence of a phase transition was found up to the shock melting pressure of Ta.

  4. Propagation of Finite Amplitude Sound in Multiple Waveguide Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doren, Thomas Walter

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the propagation of finite amplitude sound in multiple waveguide modes. Quasilinear analytical solutions of the full second order nonlinear wave equation, the Westervelt equation, and the KZK parabolic wave equation are obtained for the fundamental and second harmonic sound fields in a rectangular rigid-wall waveguide. It is shown that the Westervelt equation is an acceptable approximation of the full nonlinear wave equation for describing guided sound waves of finite amplitude. A system of first order equations based on both a modal and harmonic expansion of the Westervelt equation is developed for waveguides with locally reactive wall impedances. Fully nonlinear numerical solutions of the system of coupled equations are presented for waveguides formed by two parallel planes which are either both rigid, or one rigid and one pressure release. These numerical solutions are compared to finite -difference solutions of the KZK equation, and it is shown that solutions of the KZK equation are valid only at frequencies which are high compared to the cutoff frequencies of the most important modes of propagation (i.e., for which sound propagates at small grazing angles). Numerical solutions of both the Westervelt and KZK equations are compared to experiments performed in an air-filled, rigid-wall, rectangular waveguide. Solutions of the Westervelt equation are in good agreement with experiment for low source frequencies, at which sound propagates at large grazing angles, whereas solutions of the KZK equation are not valid for these cases. At higher frequencies, at which sound propagates at small grazing angles, agreement between numerical solutions of the Westervelt and KZK equations and experiment is only fair, because of problems in specifying the experimental source condition with sufficient accuracy.

  5. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  6. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  7. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  8. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  9. Differences in directional sound source behavior and perception between assorted computer room models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    considering reverberation time. However, for the three other parameters evaluated (sound pressure level, clarity index and lateral fraction), the changing diffusivity of the room does not diminish the importance of the directivity. The study therefore shows the importance of considering source directivity......Source directivity is an important input variable when using room acoustic computer modeling programs to generate auralizations. Previous research has shown that using a multichannel anechoic recording can produce a more natural sounding auralization, particularly as the number of channels...

  10. Effect of a sound wave on the stability of an argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Karapetyan, D.M.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a sound wave on the stability of the positive column of an argon discharge has been studied experimentally in the range of pressures from 40 to 180 torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA in a tube with an interior diameter of 9.8 cm. It is shown that, depending on the intensity of the sound wave and the discharge parameters, sound can cause the positive column either to contract or to leave the contracted state. The electric field strength has been measured as a function of the sound intensity. An analogy between the effect of sound and that of longitudinal pumping of the gas on the argon discharge parameters has been established. The radial temperature of the gas has been studied in an argon discharge as a function of the sound intensity for different gas pressures. A direct relationship has been established between the sign of the detector effect produced by a sound wave in a discharge and the processes of contraction and filamentation of a discharge. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/3V is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions. (general)

  12. Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng

    1995-01-01

    Reynolds number of 104. The far-field noise is computed using Curle's extension to the Lighthill analogy (Curle 1955). An effective method for separating the physical noise source from spurious boundary contributions is developed. This allows an accurate evaluation of the Reynolds stress volume quadrupoles, in addition to the more readily computable surface dipoles due to the unsteady lift and drag. The effect of noncompact source distribution on the far-field sound is assessed using an efficient integration scheme for the Curle integral, with full account of retarded-time variations. The numerical results confirm in quantitative terms that the far-field sound is dominated by the surface pressure dipoles at low Mach number. The techniques developed are applicable to a wide range of flows, including jets and mixing layers, where the Reynolds stress quadrupoles play a prominent or even dominant role in the overall sound generation.

  13. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  14. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  15. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly ...

  16. Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero

  17. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  18. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  19. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  20. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  1. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  2. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  3. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  4. Acoustic performance of dual-electrode electrostatic sound generators based on CVD graphene on polyimide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Jang, Sung Hwan; Jung, Inhwa

    2018-08-10

    We investigated the acoustic performance of electrostatic sound-generating devices consisting of bi-layer graphene on polyimide film. The total sound pressure level (SPL) of the sound generated from the devices was measured as a function of source frequency by sweeping, and frequency spectra were measured at 1/3 octave band frequencies. The relationship between various operation conditions and total SPL was determined. In addition, the effects of changing voltage level, adding a DC offset, and using two pairs of electrodes were evaluated. It should be noted that two pairs of electrode operations improved sound generation by about 10 dB over all frequency ranges compared with conventional operation. As for the sound-generating capability, total SPL was 70 dBA at 4 kHz when an AC voltage of 100 V pp was applied with a DC offset of 100 V. Acoustic characteristics differed from other types of graphene-based sound generators, such as graphene thermoacoustic devices and graphene polyvinylidene fluoride devices. The effects of diameter and distance between electrodes were also studied, and we found that diameter greatly influenced the frequency response. We anticipate that the design information provided in this paper, in addition to describing key parameters of electrostatic sound-generating devices, will facilitate the commercial development of electrostatic sound-generating systems.

  5. Approach to Improve Speed of Sound Calculation within PC-SAFT Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    An extensive comparison of SRK, CPA and PC-SAFT for speed of sound in normal alkanes has been performed. The results reveal that PC-SAFT captures the curvature of speed of sound better than cubic EoS but the accuracy is not satisfactory. Two approaches have been proposed to improve PC-SAFT’s accu...... keeping acceptable accuracy for the primary properties, i.e. vapor pressure (2.1%) and liquid density (1.5%). The two approaches have also been applied to methanol, and both give very good results.......An extensive comparison of SRK, CPA and PC-SAFT for speed of sound in normal alkanes has been performed. The results reveal that PC-SAFT captures the curvature of speed of sound better than cubic EoS but the accuracy is not satisfactory. Two approaches have been proposed to improve PC......-SAFT’s accuracy for speed of sound: (i) putting speed of sound data into parameter estimation; (ii) putting speed of sound data into both universal constants regression and parameter estimation. The results have shown that the second approach can significantly improve the speed of sound (3.2%) prediction while...

  6. The Sound of Being There

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    The concept “presence”—often defined as the sensation of “being there”—has received increasing attention in the last decades. Out of the many domains of application, presence is particularly relevant in relation to Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR). Despite the growing attention in the concept pres...... to illustrating how sound production and perception relate to the four constituents of the framework: immersion, illusions of place, illusions of plausibility, and virtual body ownership....

  7. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    prestigious institute. I am privileged to express my sincere thanks to JRF’s Roshin Sir, Bajish Sir, for training me both practically and theoretically about various techniques, without which my work would not have reached its completion. I am equally... wrote his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which included the first mathematical treatment of sound. The modern study of underwater acoustics can be considered to have started in early 19 th century. In 1826, on Lake Geneva, the speed...

  8. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.T.; Artiss, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author)

  9. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  10. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B K; Bradley, M T; Artiss, W G [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, NB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author) 3 refs.

  11. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  12. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  13. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  14. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  15. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  16. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  17. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm 2 and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [de

  18. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  19. Active equalisation of the sound field in an extended region of a room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo

    1997-01-01

    studied by means of an idealised frequency domain model. The analysis is based on the calculation of the complex source strengths that minimise the difference between the actual sound pressure and the desired sound pressure in the listening area. Results in relation to the position of the sources......, the frequency range, and the size and location of the listening area are presented. However, the frequency-domain approach results in non-causal impulse responses that can be realised only at the expense of a delay. Therefore, this analysis is supplemented with a study of the equalisation carried out...

  20. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  1. Sound insulation and energy harvesting based on acoustic metamaterial plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of artificially designed sub-wavelength acoustic materials, denoted acoustic metamaterials (AMM), has significantly broadened the range of materials responses found in nature. These engineered materials can indeed manipulate sound/vibration in surprising ways, which include vibration/sound insulation, focusing, cloaking, acoustic energy harvesting …. In this work, we report both on the analysis of the airborne sound transmission loss (STL) through a thin metamaterial plate and on the possibility of acoustic energy harvesting. We first provide a theoretical study of the airborne STL and confronted them to the structure-borne dispersion of a metamaterial plate. Second, we propose to investigate the acoustic energy harvesting capability of the plate-type AMM. We have developed semi-analytical and numerical methods to investigate the STL performances of a plate-type AMM with an airborne sound excitation having different incident angles. The AMM is made of silicone rubber stubs squarely arranged in a thin aluminum plate, and the STL is calculated at low-frequency range [100Hz to 3kHz] for an incoming incident sound pressure wave. The obtained analytical and numerical STL present a very good agreement confirming the reliability of developed approaches. A comparison between computed STL and the band structure of the considered AMM shows an excellent agreement and gives a physical understanding of the observed behavior. On another hand, the acoustic energy confinement in AMM with created defects with suitable geometry was investigated. The first results give a general view for assessing the acoustic energy harvesting performances making use of AMM.

  2. Third sound in mixtures of helium-3 and helium-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Third sound (surface wave) velocities have been measured at temperatures of 1.205, 1.400, and 1.601 K in thin adsorbed films of 3 He-- 4 He mixtures of four concentrations. The molar concentrations of the overall mixtures, including both the film and vapor phases, were 20.254 percent, 39.907 percent, 64.968 percent, and 84.686 percent. The results of these measurements are generally consistent with a new theory of third sound in mixtures, in which the changes in velocity from that in the case of pure 4 He are shown to result from two factors. A decrease in the superfluid density in the mixture, which is enhanced by an increase in the superfluid healing length, tends to cause a reduction in the velocity, which is sometimes dominant for very thin films. An increase in the restoring force resulting from osmotic pressure in the mixture (in addition to Van der Waals forces) causes an increase in the velocity, which is dominant for thicker films. Other characteristics of third sound in mixtures are an increase in the onset thickness and an increase in the attenuation from those observed in pure 4 He. New measurements of third sound velocities in films of pure 4 He have also been made, with emphasis on very thin films near the onset thickness. The onset of third sound was seen to occur at less than the maximum velocity, and dispersion has been observed in very thin films which is qualitatively in agreement with theory

  3. A generalized sound extrapolation method for turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Siyang; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Sound extrapolation methods are often used to compute acoustic far-field directivities using near-field flow data in aeroacoustics applications. The results may be erroneous if the volume integrals are neglected (to save computational cost), while non-acoustic fluctuations are collected on the integration surfaces. In this work, we develop a new sound extrapolation method based on an acoustic analogy using Taylor's hypothesis (Taylor 1938 Proc. R. Soc. Lon. A 164, 476-490. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1938.0032)). Typically, a convection operator is used to filter out the acoustically inefficient components in the turbulent flows, and an acoustics dominant indirect variable Dcp‧ is solved. The sound pressure p' at the far field is computed from Dcp‧ based on the asymptotic properties of the Green's function. Validations results for benchmark problems with well-defined sources match well with the exact solutions. For aeroacoustics applications: the sound predictions by the aerofoil-gust interaction are close to those by an earlier method specially developed to remove the effect of vortical fluctuations (Zhong & Zhang 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 820, 424-450. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.219)); for the case of vortex shedding noise from a cylinder, the off-body predictions by the proposed method match well with the on-body Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings result; different integration surfaces yield close predictions (of both spectra and far-field directivities) for a co-flowing jet case using an established direct numerical simulation database. The results suggest that the method may be a potential candidate for sound projection in aeroacoustics applications.

  4. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  5. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoda T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terufumi Shimoda,1 Yasushi Obase,2 Yukio Nagasaka,3 Hiroshi Nakano,1 Akiko Ishimatsu,1 Reiko Kishikawa,1 Tomoaki Iwanaga1 1Clinical Research Center, Fukuoka National Hospital, Fukuoka, 2Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 3Kyoto Respiratory Center, Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Patients and methods: Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL, expiration sound pressure level (ESPL, and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO. Results: The E/I data in the frequency range of 100–400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF] were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=–0.55 and r=–0.58; logPC20: r=–0.46 and r=–0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively. The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea and V50%pred <80%, suggesting inflammation throughout the airway. Asthmatic subjects with FeNO <70 ppb showed high or low E/I MF levels depending on the recording position, indicating uneven airway inflammation. Conclusion: E/I LF and E/I MF are more useful LSA parameters for evaluating airway inflammation in bronchial asthma; 7-point lung

  6. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  7. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  8. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  9. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  10. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    First part of this work examines the concept of musical parameter theory and discusses its methodical use. Second part is an annotated catalogue of 33 different students' compositions, presented in their totality with English translations, created between 1985 and 2006 as part of the subject...... Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  11. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...

  12. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    Sound in hospital space has traditionally been considered in negative terms as both intrusive and unwanted, and based mainly on sound levels. However, sound level is only one aspect of the soundscape. There is strong evidence that exploring the positive aspect of sound in a hospital context can evoke positive feelings in both patients and nurses. Music psychology studies have also shown that music intervention in health care can have a positive effect on patient's emotions and recuperating processes. In this way, hospital spaces have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress, and make patients feel comfortable and secure. This paper describes a review of the literature exploring sound perception and its effect on health care. This review sorted the literature and main issues into themes concerning sound in health care spaces; sound, stress and health; positive soundscape; psychological perspective of music and emotion; music as a complementary medicine for improving health care; contradicting arguments concerning the use of music in health care; and implications for clinical practice. Using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, and Google, a literature search on sound levels, sound sources and the impression of a soundscape was conducted. The review focused on the role and use of music on health care in clinical environments. In addition, other pertinent related materials in shaping the understanding of the field were retrieved, scanned and added into this review. The result indicated that not all noises give a negative impression within healthcare soundscapes. Listening to soothing music was shown to reduce stress, blood pressure and post-operative trauma when compared to silence. Much of the sound conveys meaningful information that is positive for both patients and nurses, in terms of soft wind, bird twitter, and ocean sounds. Music perception was demonstrated to bring about positive change in patient-reported outcomes such as eliciting

  13. Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun

    2016-11-01

    It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.

  14. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchin, F.; Lange, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  15. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  16. Cortical representations of communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.

  17. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  18. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  19. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  20. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  1. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  2. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung

    2009-01-01

    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  3. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  4. Sound velocity variation as function of polarization state in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essolaani, W; Farhat, N

    2012-01-01

    There are several ultrasonic techniques to measure the sound velocity, for example, the pulse-echo method. In such method, the size of transducer used to measure the sound velocity must be in the same order of the sample size. If not, the incompatibility of sizes becomes an error source of the sound velocity measurement. In this work, the Laser Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) method is used as ultrasonic method. This method has been very useful for studying the spatial distribution of charges and polarization in dielectrics. We take advantage of the fact that the method allows the sound velocity measurement, to study its variation as function of polarization state in (PZT) ceramics. In a sample with a known thickness e, the sound velocity ν is deduced from the measurement of the transit time T. The sound velocity depends on the elastic constants which in turn they depend on poling conditions. Thus, the variation of the sound velocity is related to the direction and the amplitude of the polarization.

  5. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  6. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  7. Acoustic Performance of a Real-Time Three-Dimensional Sound-Reproduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kenneth J., II; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    The Exterior Effects Room (EER) is a 39-seat auditorium at the NASA Langley Research Center and was built to support psychoacoustic studies of aircraft community noise. The EER has a real-time simulation environment which includes a three-dimensional sound-reproduction system. This system requires real-time application of equalization filters to compensate for spectral coloration of the sound reproduction due to installation and room effects. This paper describes the efforts taken to develop the equalization filters for use in the real-time sound-reproduction system and the subsequent analysis of the system s acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of the compensated and uncompensated sound-reproduction system is assessed for its crossover performance, its performance under stationary and dynamic conditions, the maximum spatialized sound pressure level it can produce from a single virtual source, and for the spatial uniformity of a generated sound field. Additionally, application examples are given to illustrate the compensated sound-reproduction system performance using recorded aircraft flyovers

  8. Reproduction of nearby sources by imposing true interaural differences on a sound field control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badajoz, Javier; Chang, Ji-ho; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    In anechoic conditions, the Interaural Level Difference (ILD) is the most significant auditory cue to judge the distance to a sound source located within 1 m of the listener's head. This is due to the unique characteristics of a point source in its near field, which result in exceptionally high...... as Pressure Matching (PM), and a binaural control technique. While PM aims at reproducing the incident sound field, the objective of the binaural control technique is to ensure a correct reproduction of interaural differences. The combination of these two approaches gives rise to the following features: (i......, distance dependent ILDs. When reproducing the sound field of sources located near the head with line or circular arrays of loudspeakers, the reproduced ILDs are generally lower than expected, due to physical limitations. This study presents an approach that combines a sound field reproduction method, known...

  9. Analytical Lie-algebraic solution of a 3D sound propagation problem in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, P.S., E-mail: petrov@poi.dvo.ru [Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43 Baltiyskaya str., Vladivostok, 690041 (Russian Federation); Prants, S.V., E-mail: prants@poi.dvo.ru [Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43 Baltiyskaya str., Vladivostok, 690041 (Russian Federation); Petrova, T.N., E-mail: petrova.tn@dvfu.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Sukhanova str., 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-21

    The problem of sound propagation in a shallow sea with variable bottom slope is considered. The sound pressure field produced by a time-harmonic point source in such inhomogeneous 3D waveguide is expressed in the form of a modal expansion. The expansion coefficients are computed using the adiabatic mode parabolic equation theory. The mode parabolic equations are solved explicitly, and the analytical expressions for the modal coefficients are obtained using a Lie-algebraic technique. - Highlights: • A group-theoretical approach is applied to a problem of sound propagation in a shallow sea with variable bottom slope. • An analytical solution of this problem is obtained in the form of modal expansion with analytical expressions of the coefficients. • Our result is the only analytical solution of the 3D sound propagation problem with no translational invariance. • This solution can be used for the validation of the numerical propagation models.

  10. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  11. Sound transmission through double cylindrical shells lined with porous material under turbulent boundary layer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shell lined with poroelastic material in the core, excited by pressure fluctuations due to the exterior turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Biot's model is used to describe the sound wave propagating in the porous material. Three types of constructions, bonded-bonded, bonded-unbonded and unbonded-unbonded, are considered in this study. The power spectral density (PSD) of the inner shell kinetic energy is predicted for two turbulent boundary layer models, different air gap depths and three types of polyimide foams, respectively. The peaks of the inner shell kinetic energy due to shell resonance, hydrodynamic coincidence and acoustic coincidence are discussed. The results show that if the frequency band over the ring frequency is of interest, an air gap, even if very thin, should exist between the two elastic shells for better sound insulation. And if small density foam has a high flow resistance, a superior sound insulation can still be maintained.

  12. Heat of combustion, sound speed and component fluctuations in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, L.; Ingman, D.

    1998-01-01

    The heat of combustion and sound speed of natural gas were studied as a function of random fluctuation of the gas fractions. A method of sound speed determination was developed and used for over 50,000 possible variants of component concentrations in four- and five- component mixtures. A test on binary (methane-ethane) and multicomponent (Gulf Coast) gas mixtures under standard pressure and moderate temperatures shows satisfactory predictability of sound speed on the basis of the binary virial coefficients, sound speeds and heat capacities of the pure components. Uncertainty in the obtained values does not exceed that of the pure component data. The results of comparison between two natural gas mixtures - with and without nonflammable components - are reported

  13. Sound Quality Evaluation and Optimization for Interior Noise of Rail Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for sound filed simulation, sound quality (SQ evaluation, and optimization of interior noise of a rail vehicle is investigated in this paper. Firstly, some interior noises are measured on site when the subway is running in tunnel at a speed of 60 km/h. The sound pressure levels (SPLs, loudness, sharpness, and roughness of the measured noise are analyzed. A finite element model for acoustical simulation of the carriage is established by using the Actran software. The accuracy and feasibility of the finite model are verified by comparing the psychoacoustical parameters from the simulations and measurements. By using orthogonal experimental design, finally, the best optimization scheme is put forward, which obtained a sound quality improvement with a 4.81 dB decrease in SPL and a 1.07 sone reduction in loudness. The proposed optimization scheme may be extended to other vehicles for improving interior acoustic environment.

  14. Second harmonic sound field after insertion of a biological tissue sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Second harmonic sound field after inserting a biological tissue sample is investigated by theory and experiment. The sample is inserted perpendicular to the sound axis, whose acoustical properties are different from those of surrounding medium (distilled water). By using the superposition of Gaussian beams and the KZK equation in quasilinear and parabolic approximations, the second harmonic field after insertion of the sample can be derived analytically and expressed as a linear combination of self- and cross-interaction of the Gaussian beams. Egg white, egg yolk, porcine liver, and porcine fat are used as the samples and inserted in the sound field radiated from a 2 MHz uniformly excited focusing source. Axial normalized sound pressure curves of the second harmonic wave before and after inserting the sample are measured and compared with the theoretical results calculated with 10 items of Gaussian beam functions.

  15. Speed of sound measurements of liquid C1–C4 alkanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dávila, María J.; Gedanitz, Holger; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Speeds of sound in alkanols were measured in a wide temperature and pressure range. • A pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor was employed. • A double polynomial equation was used to fit the experimental speed of sound data. • The accurate results were compared with available literature sources. - Abstract: Speed of sound measurements were made in methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, and butan-1-ol in the temperature range from (253.15 to 353.15) K at pressures up to 30 MPa by use of a pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor. The expanded overall uncertainty (k = 2) in speed of sound measurements are estimated to be 0.026% for methanol, 0.03% for ethanol, 0.013% for propan-1-ol and 0.01% for butan-1-ol. A double polynomial equation for the speed of sound with inputs of temperature and pressure has been fitted from the experimental results. These were compared with available literature sources and fundamental equations of state, showing good agreement among them to comparable alcohol purities and experimental uncertainties.

  16. First and second sound in He films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.G.; Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Isihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In consideration of a collision integral in the Boltzmann equation and with use of kinetic and hydrodynamical equations, the velocities of the first and second sound in liquid 4 He films are evaluated as functions of temperature, and the attenuation coefficients are obtained. The second sound is 2/sup -1/2/ times the first-sound velocity in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit

  17. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  18. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The availability and flexibility of audio services on various digital platforms have created a high demand for a large range of sound systems. The fundamental components of sound systems such as docking stations, sound bars and wireless mobile speakers consists of a power supply, amplifiers and transducers. Due to historical reasons the design of each of these components are commonly handled separately which are indeed limiting the full performance potential of such systems. To state some exa...

  19. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  20. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  1. Application of porous material to reduce aerodynamic sound from bluff bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueki, Takeshi; Takaishi, Takehisa; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Arai, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic sound derived from bluff bodies can be considerably reduced by flow control. In this paper, the authors propose a new method in which porous material covers a body surface as one of the flow control methods. From wind tunnel tests on flows around a bare cylinder and a cylinder with porous material, it has been clarified that the application of porous materials is effective in reducing aerodynamic sound. Correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation, and a surface pressure distribution of cylinders are measured to investigate a mechanism of aerodynamic sound reduction. As a result, the correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation exists in the flow around the bare cylinder and disappears in the flow around the cylinder with porous material. Moreover, the aerodynamic force fluctuation of the cylinder with porous material is less than that of the bare cylinder. The surface pressure distribution of the cylinder with porous material is quite different from that of the bare cylinder. These facts indicate that aerodynamic sound is reduced by suppressing the motion of vortices because aerodynamic sound is induced by the unstable motion of vortices. In addition, an instantaneous flow field in the wake of the cylinder is measured by application of the PIV technique. Vortices that are shed alternately from the bare cylinder disappear by application of porous material, and the region of zero velocity spreads widely behind the cylinder with porous material. Shear layers between the stationary region and the uniform flow become thin and stable. These results suggest that porous material mainly affects the flow field adjacent to bluff bodies and reduces aerodynamic sound by depriving momentum of the wake and suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices. (invited paper)

  2. Dispersive and damping properties of supersymmetric sound. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.V.; Smilga, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a supersymmetric medium at nonzero temperature possesses necessarily the massless fermionic collective excitation which we call phonino. Its appearance is due to the spontaneous SUSY breaking at T ≠ and is as general as the appearance of the sound. The phase velocity of phonino is C=P/E where P is the pressure and E is the energy density of the medium. The Wess-Zumino model is studied in detail. In the case of small temperature, T 2 , where g<<1 is the coupling constant, and small. The gauge supersymmetric theories are also discussed

  3. Sound field reconstruction using acousto-optic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    When sound propagates through a medium, it results in pressure fluctuations that change the instantaneous density of the medium. Under such circumstances, the refractive index that characterizes the propagation of light is not constant, but influenced by the acoustic field. This kind of interaction...... the acousto-optic effect in air, and demonstrates that it can be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer in the audible frequency range. The tomographic reconstruction is tested by means of computer simulations and measurements. The main features observed in the simulations are also recognized...

  4. The French balloon and sounding rocket space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutin/Faye, S.; Sadourny, I.

    1987-08-01

    Stratospheric and long duration flight balloon programs are outlined. Open stratospheric balloons up to 1 million cu m volume are used to carry astronomy, solar system, aeronomy, stratosphere, biology, space physics, and geophysics experiments. The long duration balloons can carry 50 kg payloads at 20 to 30 km altitude for 10 days to several weeks. Pressurized stratospheric balloons, and infrared hot air balloons are used. They are used to study the dynamics of stratospheric waves and atmospheric water vapor. Laboratories participating in sounding rocket programs are listed.

  5. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  6. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  7. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  8. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  9. Determination of the thermodynamic properties of water from the speed of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusler, J.P. Martin; Lemmon, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse error propagation in thermodynamic integration of fluid-phase sound speed data. • A new correlation of the speed of sound in liquid water is derived. • Thermodynamic integration is carried out for pure water. • Derived properties considered include density, isobaric expansivity and isobaric specific heat capacity. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of compressed liquids may be obtained from measurements of the speed of sound by means of thermodynamic integration subject to initial values of density and isobaric specific heat capacity along a single low-pressure isobar. In this paper, we present an analysis of the errors in the derived properties arising from perturbations in both the speed-of-sound surface and the initial values. These errors are described in first order by a pair of partial differential equations that we integrate for the example case of water with various scenarios for the errors in the sound speed and the initial values. The analysis shows that errors in either the speed of sound or the initial values of density that are rapidly oscillating functions of temperature have a disproportionately large influence on the derived properties, especially at low temperatures. In view of this, we have obtained a more accurate empirical representation of the recent experimental speed-of-sound data for water [Lin and Trusler, J. Chem. Phys. 136, (2012) 094511] and use this in a new thermodynamic integration to obtain derived properties including density, isobaric heat capacity and isobaric thermal expansivity at temperatures between (253.15 and 473.15) K at pressures up to 400 MPa. The densities obtained in this way are in very close agreement with those reported by Lin and Trusler, but the isobaric specific heat capacity and the isobaric expansivity both differ significantly in the extremes of low temperatures and high pressures.

  10. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  11. Sound Art and Spatial Practices: Situating Sound Installation Art Since 1958

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounian, Gascia

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the emergence and development ofsound installation art, an under-recognized tradition that hasdeveloped between music, architecture, and media art practicessince the late 1950s. Unlike many musical works, which are concernedwith organizing sounds in time, sound installations organize sounds inspace; they thus necessitate new theoretical and analytical modelsthat take into consideration the spatial situated-ness of sound. Existingdiscourses on “spatial sound” privile...

  12. Otolith research for Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Reisenbichler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Otoliths are hard structures located in the brain cavity of fish. These structures are formed by a buildup of calcium carbonate within a gelatinous matrix that produces light and dark bands similar to the growth rings in trees. The width of the bands corresponds to environmental factors such as temperature and food availability. As juvenile salmon encounter different environments in their migration to sea, they produce growth increments of varying widths and visible 'checks' corresponding to times of stress or change. The resulting pattern of band variations and check marks leave a record of fish growth and residence time in each habitat type. This information helps Puget Sound restoration by determining the importance of different habitats for the optimal health and management of different salmon populations. The USGS Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) provides otolith research findings directly to resource managers who put this information to work.

  13. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  14. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  15. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  16. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  17. How to generate a sound-localization map in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2015-03-01

    How sound localization is represented in the fish brain is a research field largely unbiased by theoretical analysis and computational modeling. Yet, there is experimental evidence that the axes of particle acceleration due to underwater sound are represented through a map in the midbrain of fish, e.g., in the torus semicircularis of the rainbow trout (Wubbels et al. 1997). How does such a map arise? Fish perceive pressure gradients by their three otolithic organs, each of which comprises a dense, calcareous, stone that is bathed in endolymph and attached to a sensory epithelium. In rainbow trout, the sensory epithelia of left and right utricle lie in the horizontal plane and consist of hair cells with equally distributed preferred orientations. We model the neuronal response of this system on the basis of Schuijf's vector detection hypothesis (Schuijf et al. 1975) and introduce a temporal spike code of sound direction, where optimality of hair cell orientation θj with respect to the acceleration direction θs is mapped onto spike phases via a von-Mises distribution. By learning to tune in to the earliest synchronized activity, nerve cells in the midbrain generate a map under the supervision of a locally excitatory, yet globally inhibitory visual teacher. Work done in collaboration with Daniel Begovic. Partially supported by BCCN - Munich.

  18. Acoustically sticky topographic metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunki; Jung, Myungki; Kim, Minsoo; Shin, Ryung; Kang, Shinill; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-03-01

    A class of metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption, based on a design principle that maximizes thermoviscous loss, is presented. When a sound meets a solid surface, it leaves a footprint in the form of thermoviscous boundary layers in which energy loss takes place. Considered to be a nuisance, this acoustic to vorticity/entropy mode conversion and the subsequent loss are often ignored in the existing designs of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. The metasurface created is made of a series of topographic meta-atoms, i.e., intaglios and reliefs engraved directly on the solid object to be concealed. The metasurface is acoustically sticky in that it rather facilitates the conversion of the incident sound to vorticity and entropy modes, hence the thermoviscous loss, leading to the desired anechoic property. A prototype metasurface machined on a brass object is tested for its anechoicity, and shows a multitude of absorption peaks as large as unity in the 2-5 MHz range. Computations also indicate that a topographic metasurface is robust to hydrostatic pressure variation, a quality much sought-after in underwater applications.

  19. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  20. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  4. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  5. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  7. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  8. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  9. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  10. Detecting change in stochastic sound sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Skerritt-Davis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to parse our acoustic environment relies on the brain's capacity to extract statistical regularities from surrounding sounds. Previous work in regularity extraction has predominantly focused on the brain's sensitivity to predictable patterns in sound sequences. However, natural sound environments are rarely completely predictable, often containing some level of randomness, yet the brain is able to effectively interpret its surroundings by extracting useful information from stochastic sounds. It has been previously shown that the brain is sensitive to the marginal lower-order statistics of sound sequences (i.e., mean and variance. In this work, we investigate the brain's sensitivity to higher-order statistics describing temporal dependencies between sound events through a series of change detection experiments, where listeners are asked to detect changes in randomness in the pitch of tone sequences. Behavioral data indicate listeners collect statistical estimates to process incoming sounds, and a perceptual model based on Bayesian inference shows a capacity in the brain to track higher-order statistics. Further analysis of individual subjects' behavior indicates an important role of perceptual constraints in listeners' ability to track these sensory statistics with high fidelity. In addition, the inference model facilitates analysis of neural electroencephalography (EEG responses, anchoring the analysis relative to the statistics of each stochastic stimulus. This reveals both a deviance response and a change-related disruption in phase of the stimulus-locked response that follow the higher-order statistics. These results shed light on the brain's ability to process stochastic sound sequences.

  11. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  12. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  13. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  15. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  16. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  17. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  18. All-optical pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical pressure sensor comprising a waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector. Pressure sensing can then be provided by utilizing effective index modulation of the waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of light reflected from the Bragg...... reflector. Sound sensing may also be provided thereby having an all-optical microphone. One embodiment of the invention relates to an optical pressure sensor comprising at least one outer membrane and a waveguide, the waveguide comprising at least one core for confining and guiding light,at least one...... distributed Bragg reflector located in said at least one core, and at least one inner deflecting element forming at least a part of the core,wherein the pressure sensor is configured such that the geometry and/or dimension of the at least one core is changed when the at least one outer membrane is submitted...

  19. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  20. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  1. THE SOUND OF CINEMA: TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a means of creating any product. However, in the onscreen art, it is one of the elements creating the art space of film. Considering the main stages of the development of cinematography, this article explores the influence of technology of sound recording on the creating a special artistic and physical space of film (the beginning of the use a sound in movies; the mastering the artistic means of an audiovisual work; the expansion of the spatial characteristics for the screen sound; and the sound in a modern cinema. Today, thanks to new technologies, the sound in a cinema forms a specific quasirealistic landscape, greatly enhancing the impact on the viewer of the virtual screen images.

  2. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  3. Sound synthesis and evaluation of interactive footsteps and environmental sounds rendering for virtual reality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-09-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based on physical models. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the ability of subjects to recognize the surface they were exposed to was assessed. In the second experiment, the sound synthesis engine was enhanced with environmental sounds. Results show that, in some conditions, adding a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment.

  4. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  5. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  6. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  7. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck Sound...

  8. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort... Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence event in the Santa Rosa Sound, Fort... during the Sound of Independence. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in...

  9. Estimating Subglottal Pressure from Neck-Surface Acceleration during Normal Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Amanda S.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Hillman, Robert E.; Mehta, Daryush D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for estimating subglottal air pressure using a neck-surface accelerometer and to compare the accuracy of predicting subglottal air pressure relative to predicting acoustic sound pressure level (SPL). Method: Indirect estimates of subglottal pressure (P[subscript sg]') were obtained…

  10. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  11. Sound velocities of skiagite-iron-majorite solid solution to 56 GPa probed by nuclear inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiukov, D. M.; Ismailova, L.; Kupenko, I.; Cerantola, V.; Sinmyo, R.; Glazyrin, K.; McCammon, C.; Chumakov, A. I.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2018-05-01

    High-pressure experimental data on sound velocities of garnets are used for interpretation of seismological data related to the Earth's upper mantle and the mantle transition zone. We have carried out a Nuclear Inelastic Scattering study of iron-silicate garnet with skiagite (77 mol%)-iron-majorite composition in a diamond anvil cell up to 56 GPa at room temperature. The determined sound velocities are considerably lower than sound velocities of a number of silicate garnet end-members, such as grossular, pyrope, Mg-majorite, andradite, and almandine. The obtained sound velocities have the following pressure dependencies: V p [km/s] = 7.43(9) + 0.039(4) × P [GPa] and V s [km/s] = 3.56(12) + 0.012(6) × P [GPa]. We estimated sound velocities of pure skiagite and khoharite, and conclude that the presence of the iron-majorite component in skiagite strongly decreases V s . We analysed the influence of Fe3+ on sound velocities of garnet solid solution relevant to the mantle transition zone and consider that it may reduce sound velocities up to 1% relative to compositions with only Fe2+ in the cubic site.

  12. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity application to real-time sound reproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ko, J Y

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 mu Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.

  13. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity: application to real-time sound reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kazutaka; Otsuka, Kenju; Ko, Jing-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 μPa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio

  14. Self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry with high optical sensitivity: application to real-time sound reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Kazutaka [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Otsuka, Kenju [Department of Human and Information Science, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Ko, Jing-Yuan [Department of Physics, Tunghai University, 181 Taichung-kang Road, Section 3, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2003-01-01

    Nanometre vibration measurement of an audio speaker and a highly sensitive sound reproduction experiment have been successfully demonstrated by a self-aligned optical feedback vibrometry technique using the self-mixing modulation effect in a laser-diode-pumped microchip solid-state laser. By applying nanometre vibrations to the speaker, which produced nearly inaudible music below 20 dB (200 {mu}Pa) sound pressure level, we could reproduce clear sound in real time by the use of a simple frequency modulated wave demodulation circuit with a -120 dB light-intensity feedback ratio.

  15. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  16. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  17. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  18. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity

  19. On the sound insulation of acoustic metasurface using a sub-structuring approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using an acoustic metasurface (AMS) with acoustic stop-band property to realize sound insulation with ventilation function is investigated. An efficient numerical approach is proposed to evaluate its sound insulation performance. The AMS is excited by a reverberant sound source and the standardized sound reduction index (SRI) is numerically investigated. To facilitate the modeling, the coupling between the AMS and the adjacent acoustic fields is formulated using a sub-structuring approach. A modal based formulation is applied to both the source and receiving room, enabling an efficient calculation in the frequency range from 125 Hz to 2000 Hz. The sound pressures and the velocities at the interface are matched by using a transfer function relation based on ;patches;. For illustration purposes, numerical examples are investigated using the proposed approach. The unit cell constituting the AMS is constructed in the shape of a thin acoustic chamber with tailored inner structures, whose stop-band property is numerically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The AMS is shown to provide effective sound insulation of over 30 dB in the stop-band frequencies from 600 to 1600 Hz. It is also shown that the proposed approach has the potential to be applied to a broad range of AMS studies and optimization problems.

  20. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies.